MARKETING BASES GLOSSARY.
DENISSE JINETH CASTELLANOS MONROY
1. Public administration: is concerned with the implementation of government policy, and is an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal... is to advance management and policies so that government can function." 2. Warehouse: A warehouse is a commercial building for storage of goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, importers, exporters, wholesalers, transport businesses, customs, etc. They are usually large plain buildings in industrial areas of cities, towns and villages. They usually have loading docks to load and unload goods from trucks. Sometimes warehouses are designed for the loading and unloading of goods directly from railways, airports, or seaports. They often have cranes and forklifts for moving goods, which are usually placed on ISO standard pallets loaded into pallet racks. Stored goods can include any raw materials, packing materials, spare parts, components, or finished goods associated with agriculture, manufacturing and production. 3. Analysis: is the process of observing and breaking down a complex topic or substance into smaller parts to gain a better understanding of it./ Cost-Benefit Analysis The formal or informal process of comparing the expected costs of a project against its expected revenue. When a company conducts a cost-benefit analysis, it assigns dollar amounts to costs and benefits in order to determine whether a particular project is likely to be profitable. Cost-benefit analysis is important when making investment decisions. 4. Autonomy: is the capacity of a rational individual to make an informed, uncoerced decision; or, in politics, self-government. Learner autonomy, awareness of one's potentials and strategies to take advantage of one's learning context. Responsible autonomy, a component of triarchy in organizational theory. Autonomous area, an area of a country that has a degree of autonomy. Autonomous category, in mathematics, and in particular in category theory, a special kind of category in which every object has a dual. Autonomous robot, a cybenetic machine that can operate separate from human control. 5 .Self-sufficient: Able to provide for oneself without the help of others; independent. *Having undue confidence; smug 6. Advertising campaign: An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC). Advertising campaigns appear in different media across a specific time frame.
The critical part of making an advertising campaign is determining a campaign theme as it sets the tone for the individual advertisements and other forms of marketing communications that will be used. The campaign theme is the central message that will be communicated in the promotional activities. The campaign themes are usually developed with the intention of being used for a substantial period but many of them are short lived due to factors such as being ineffective or market conditions and/or competition in the marketplace and marketing mix.
7. Buying Power: The money an investor has available to buy securities. In a margin account, the buying power is the total cash held in the brokerage account plus maximum margin available. Also referred to as "excess equity." For example, if you have $1,000 cash in a margin account and the maximum margin rate is 50%, then your total buying power is $2,000. For a non-margin account, the buying power is equal to the amount of cash in the account. 8. Customer: A customer (sometimes known as a client, buyer, or purchaser) is the recipient of a good, service, product, or idea, obtained from a seller, vendor, or supplier for a monetary or other valuable consideration 9. Trade: also called goods exchange economy is the transfer the ownership of goods from one person or entity to another by getting something in exchange from the buyer. Trade is sometimes loosely called commerce or financial transaction or barter. A network that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and services. Later one side of the barter were the metals, precious metals (poles[clarification needed], coins), bill, paper money. Modern traders instead generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade between more than two traders is called multilateral trade. Trade exists for man due to specialization and division of labor, in which most people concentrate on a small aspect of production, trading for other products. Trade exists between regions because different regions have a comparative advantage in the production of some tradable commodity, or because different regions size allows for the benefits of mass production. As such, trade at market prices between locations benefits both locations. Retail trade consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a very fixed location, such as a department store, boutique or kiosk, or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Wholesale trade is
defined as the sale of goods that are sold merchandise to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users, or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services. Trading is a value added function of the economic process of a product finding its market, where specific risks are to be borne by the trader, affecting the assets being traded which will be mitigated by performing specific functions. Trading can also refer to the action performed by traders and other market agents in the financial markets. 10. Competition: - noun The act of competing; rivalry for supremacy, a prize, etc.: The competition between the two teams was bitter./ a contest for some prize, honor, or advantage: Both girls entered the competition./ the rivalry offered by a competitor: The small merchant gets powerful competition from the chain stores./ a competitor or competitors: What is your competition offering?/ Sociology . rivalry between two or more persons or groups for an object desired in common, usually resulting in a victor and a loser but not necessarily involving the destruction of the latter. 11. Perfect competition: In economic theory, perfect competition (sometimes called pure competition) describes markets such that no participants are large enough to have the market power to set the price of a homogeneous product. Because the conditions for perfect competition are strict, there are few if any perfectly competitive markets. Still, buyers and sellers in some auction-type markets, say for commodities or some financial assets, may approximate the concept. As a Pareto efficient allocation of economic resources, perfect competition serves as a natural benchmark against which to contrast other market structures. 12. Smuggling: is the illegal transportation of goods or persons, such as out of a building, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations. There are various motivations to smuggle. These include the participation in illegal trade, such as in the drug trade, in illegal immigration or illegal emigration, tax evasion, providing contraband to a prison inmate, or the theft of the items being smuggled. Examples of non-financial motivations include bringing banned items past a security checkpoint (such as airline security) or the removal of classified documents from a government or corporate office. Smuggling is a common theme in literature, from Bizet's Carmen to the James Bond books (and later films) Diamonds are Forever and Goldfinger.
13. Creation:-noun * The act of creating. *The fact or state of having been created. *The act of investing with a new office or title. *The world and all things in it. *All creatures or a class of creatures. *Creation The divine act by which, according to various religious and philosophical traditions, the world was brought into existence. *An original product of human invention or artistic imagination: the latest creation in the field of computer design. 14. Demand: In economics, demand is an economic principle that describes a consumer's desire, willingness and ability to pay a price for a specific good or service. Demand refers to how much (quantity) of a product or service is desired by buyers. The quantity demanded is the amount of a product people are willing to buy at a certain price; the relationship between price and quantity demanded is known as the demand relationship.(see also supply and demand). The term demand signifies the ability or the willingness to buy a particular commodity at a given point of time. 15. Wishes: The idea can be examined from many perspectives. In secular societies want might be considered similar to the emotion desire, which can be studied scientifically through the disciplines of psychology or sociology. Want might also be examined in economics as a necessary ingredient in sustaining and perpetuating capitalist societies that are organised around principles like consumerism. Alternatively want can be studied in a non-secular, spiritual, moralistic or religious way, particularly by Buddhism but also Christianity, Islam and Judaism. In economics, a wish is something that is desired. It is said that every person has unlimited wants, but limited resources. Thus, people cannot have everything they want and must look for the most affordable alternatives. Wishes are often distinguished from needs. A need is something that is necessary for survival (such as food and shelter), whereas a want is simply something that a person would like to have. Some economists have rejected this distinction and maintain that all of these are simply wishes, with varying levels of importance. By this viewpoint, wants and needs can be understood as examples of the overall concept of demand. 16. Dinamizar: [conjugation =>] VT to invigorate, put new energy into... 17. Distribution (business): Product distribution (or place) is one of the four
elements of the marketing mix. Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by a consumer or business user, using direct means, or using indirect means with intermediaries. The other three parts of the marketing mix are product, pricing, and promotion. 18. Privately held company: A privately held company or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately. More ambiguous terms for a privately held company are unquoted company and unlisted company. Though less visible than their publicly traded counterparts, private companies have major importance in the world's economy. In 2008, the 441 largest private companies in the United States accounted for $1.8 trillion in revenues and employed 6.2 million people, according to Forbes. In 2005, using a substantially smaller pool size (22.7%) for comparison, the 339 companies on Forbes' survey of closely held U.S. businesses sold a trillion dollars' worth of goods and services (44%) and employed 4 million people. In 2004, the Forbes' count of privately held U.S. businesses with at least $1 billion in revenue was 305. Koch Industries, Bechtel, Cargill, Publix, Pilot Corp., Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu (one of the members of the Big Four accounting firms), Hearst Corporation, S. C. Johnson, and Mars are among the largest privately held companies in the United States. KPMG, the UK accounting firms Ernst & Young and PricewaterhouseCoopers, IKEA, Trafigura, J C Bamford Excavators (JCB), Lidl, Aldi, LEGO, Bosch, Rolex and Victorinox are some examples of Europe's largest privately held companies. 19. Financial Institutions: Private institutions are legally authorized to conduct financial transactions, mortgage, capitalization and savings, in any sector of the economy maintenance. 20. Establishment: Place which makes a trade, business or otherwise. 21. Counterfeit: means to imitate something. Counterfeit products are fake replicas of the real product. Counterfeit products are often produced with the intent to take advantage of the superior value of the imitated product. The word counterfeit frequently describes both the forgeries of currency and documents, as well as the imitations of clothing, handbags, shoes, pharmaceuticals, aviation and automobile parts, watches, electronics, software, works of art, toys. Counterfeit products tend to have fake company logos and brands. In the case of goods, it results in patent infringement or trademark infringement.
Counterfeit consumer products have a reputation for being lower quality (sometimes not working at all) and may even include toxic elements. This has resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people, due to automobile and aviation accidents, poisoning, ceasing to take essential compounds. 22. Funding: is the act of providing resources, usually in form of money (financing), or other values such as effort or time (sweat equity), for a project, a person, a business, or any other private or public institutions. The process of soliciting and gathering fund is known as fundraising. Sources of funding include credit, venture capital, donations, grants, savings, subsidies, and taxes. Fundings such as donations, subsidies, and grants that have no direct requirement for return of investment are described as "soft funding" or "crowdfunding". Funding that facilitates the exchange of equity ownership in a company for capital investment via an online funding portal as per the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (alternately, the "JOBS Act of 2012") (U.S.) is known as equity crowdfunding. Funds can be allocated for either short-term or long-term purposes. 23. Household: is "the basic residential unit in which economic production, consumption, inheritance, child rearing, and shelter are organized and carried out"; [the household] "may or may not be synonymous with family". The household is the basic unit of analysis in many social, microeconomic and government models. The term refers to all individuals who live in the same dwelling. In economics, a household is a person or a group of people living in the same residence. Most economic models do not address whether the members of a household are a family in the traditional sense. Government and policy discussions often treat the terms household and family as synonymous, especially in western societies where the nuclear family has become the most common family structure. [dubious â€“ discuss] In reality, there is not always a one-to-one relationship between households and families. 24. Terms of trade (TOT): refers to the relative price of exports in terms of imports and is defined as the ratio of export prices to import prices. It can be interpreted as the amount of import goods an economy can purchase per unit of export goods. An improvement of a nation's terms of trade benefits that country in the sense that it can buy more imports for any given level of exports. The terms of trade
may be influenced by the exchange rate because a rise in the value of a country's currency lowers the domestic prices of its imports but may not directly affect the prices of the commodities it exports.
25. Marketing: is the process of communicating the value of a product or service to customers, for the purpose of selling the product or service. It is a critical business function for attracting customers. From a societal point of view, marketing is the link between a societyâ€™s material requirements and its economic patterns of response. Marketing satisfies these needs and wants through exchange processes and building long term relationships. It is the process of communicating the value of a product or service through positioning to customers. Marketing can be looked at as an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, delivering and communicating value to customers, and managing customer relationships in ways that also benefit the organization and its shareholders. Marketing is the science of choosing target markets through market analysis and market segmentation, as well as understanding consumer buying behavior and providing superior customer value. 26. Coins: pieces of hard material used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities in order to facilitate trade. They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually metal or alloy metal, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. They are usually disc shaped. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. 27. Monopoly: exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity (this contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, and with oligopoly which consists of a few entities dominating an industry). Monopolies are thus characterized by a lack of economic competition to produce the good or service and a lack of viable substitute goods. The verb "monopolize" refers to the process by which a company gains the ability to raise prices or exclude competitors. In economics, a monopoly is a single seller. In law, a monopoly is a business entity that has significant market power, that is, the power to charge high prices. Although monopolies may be big businesses, size is not a characteristic of a monopoly. A small business may still have the power to raise prices in a small industry (or market). 28. Monopsony: is a market form in which only one buyer faces many sellers. In the microeconomic theory of imperfect competition, the monopsonist is assumed to be able to dictate terms to its suppliers, as the only purchaser of a
good or service, much in the same manner that a monopolist is said to control the market for its buyers in a monopoly, in which only one seller faces many buyers. In addition to its use in microeconomic theory, monopsony and monopsonist are descriptive terms often used to describe a market where a single buyer substantially controls the market as the major purchaser of goods and services. Examples include the military industry and the space industry. 29 Need: is something that is necessary for organisms to live a healthy life. Needs are distinguished from wants because a deficiency would cause a clear negative outcome, such as dysfunction or death. Needs can be objective and physical, such as food, or they can be subjective and psychological, such as the need for self-esteem. On a social level, needs are sometimes controversial. Understanding needs and wants is an issue in the fields of politics, social science, and philosophy. 30. Supply: is the amount of some product producers are willing and able to sell at a given price all other factors being held constant. Usually, supply is plotted as a supply curve showing the relationship of price to the amount of product businesses are willing to sell. 31. Oligopoly: is a market form in which a market or industry is dominated by a small number of sellers (oligopolists). Oligopolies can result from various forms of collusion which reduce competition and lead to higher costs for consumers. With few sellers, each oligopolist is likely to be aware of the actions of the others. The decisions of one firm therefore influence and are influenced by the decisions of other firms. Strategic planning by oligopolists needs to take into account the likely responses of the other market participants. 32. Oligopsony: is a market form in which the number of buyers is small while the number of sellers in theory could be large. This typically happens in a market for inputs where numerous suppliers are competing to sell their product to a small number of (often large and powerful) buyers. It contrasts with an oligopoly, where there are many buyers but few sellers. An oligopsony is a form of imperfect competition. The terms monopoly (one seller), monopsony (one buyer), and bilateral monopoly have a similar relationship. 33. Thought: can refer to the ideas or arrangements of ideas that result from thinking, the act of producing thoughts, or the process of producing thoughts. In spite of the fact that thought is a fundamental human activity familiar to everyone, there is no generally accepted agreement as to what thought is or how it is created.
34. Town square: is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. Other names for town square are civic center, city square, urban square, market square, public square, piazza, plaza, and town green. Most town squares are hardscapes suitable for open markets, music concerts, political rallies, and other events that require firm ground. Being centrally located, town squares are usually surrounded by small shops such as bakeries, meat markets, cheese stores, and clothing stores. At their center is often a fountain, well, monument, or statue. Many of those with fountains are actually named Fountain Square. 35. Positioning: Although there are different definitions of brand positioning, probably the most common is: identifying and attempting to occupy a market niche for a brand, product or service utilizing traditional marketing placement strategies (i.e. price, promotion, distribution, packaging, and competition). 36. Price: In modern economies, prices are generally expressed in units of some form of currency. (For commodities, they are expressed as currency per unit weight of the commodity, e.g. euros per kilogram.) Although prices could be quoted as quantities of other goods or services this sort of barter exchange is rarely seen. Prices are sometimes quoted in terms of vouchers such as trading stamps and air miles. In some circumstances, cigarettes have been used as currency, for example in prisons, in times of hyperinflation, and in some places during World War 2. In a black market economy, barter is also relatively common. 37. Sale price: is the money to be paid by the consumer to buy a product. 38. Reputation: for being high quality, good standing within public opinion; good reputation, favorable regard 39. Product: is anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need. In retailing, products are called merchandise. In manufacturing, products are bought as raw materials and sold as finished goods. Commodities are usually raw materials such as metals and agricultural products, but a commodity can also be anything widely available in the open market. In project management, products are the formal definition of the project deliverables that make up or contribute to delivering the objectives of the project. In insurance, the policies are considered products offered for sale by the insurance company that created the contract. In economics and commerce, products belong to a broader category of goods. The economic meaning of product was first used by political economist Adam Smith.
A related concept is subproduct, a secondary but useful result of a production process. Dangerous products, particularly physical ones, that cause injuries to consumers or bystanders may be subject to product liability. 40. Promotion: is one of the market mix elements, and a term used frequently in marketing. The specification of five promotional mix or promotional plan. These elements are personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, and publicity. A promotional mix specifies how much attention to pay to each of the five subcategories, and how much money to budget for each. A promotional plan can have a wide range of objectives, including: sales increases, new product acceptance, creation of brand equity, positioning, competitive retaliations, or creation of a corporate image. Fundamentally, however there are three basic objectives of promotion. These are: To present information to consumers as well as others. To increase demand. To differentiate a product. There are different ways to promote a product in different areas of media. Promoters use internet advertisement, special events, endorsements, and newspapers to advertise their product. Many times with the purchase of a product there is an incentive like discounts, free items, or a contest. This is to increase the sales of a given product. The term "promotion" is usually an "in" expression used internally by the marketing company, but not normally to the public or the market - phrases like "special offer" are more common. An example of a fully integrated, long-term, large-scale promotion are My Coke Rewards and Pepsi Stuff. The UK version of My Coke Rewards is Coke Zone. 41. Yield: is the amount the holder (the one who owns) is paid each year for leaving his or her money invested in that instrument. Unlike a corporate dividend, a yield is fairly certain, unless there is a bankruptcy. Yields vary with inflation. However, they tend to fit in a fixed order: the least risky instruments, such as Treasury bonds, yield the least, then safe and "guaranteed" instruments like long-term deposits, then overnight deposits, and so on to the various municipal bond and corporate bonds. Extremely risky instruments with high yield are usually called junk bonds. Economics is very concerned with yields and related money supply questions. A key issue is the contrast with ecological yield: some people advocate a monetary reform to ensure that the requirement to repay global debt does not reduce the Earth's carrying capacity or carbon sink capacity. If the payments of
economic yield to holders of global debt exceed that which can be borne by the natural renewal of the Earth, (for instance, its current solar income) that is an energy subsidy. These subsidies typically come from fossil fuel and other nonrenewable resources. Full cost accounting for these versus renewable resources may limit the yield that can be guaranteed to holders of debt instruments. In practice, this is an issue with money supply and monetary policy and does not affect each individual holder of a bond or other debt, except insofar as it may lead from time to time to odious debt writeoffs or a major credit crisis. These are surprisingly common in a business cycle anyway. Also, there are so many restrictions on who can issue debt instruments in a bond market, that the most egregious horrors (issuing junk bonds with a promise to tear down a rainforest to pay them back) do not happen in a developed nation. They are, however, still quite common in Brazil and other emerging markets. 42. Rest of the world: It is that private trader / public, foreign nature, with economic, social, cultural and political oriented national exchange with their counterparts, establishing links and links towards the development of diverse activities. 43. Service: is an intangible commodity. That is, services are an example of intangible economic goods. Service provision is often an economic activity where the buyer does not generally, except by exclusive contract, obtain exclusive ownership of the thing purchased. The benefits of such a service, if priced, are held to be self-evident in the buyer's willingness to pay for it. Public services are those that society (nation state, fiscal union, regional) as a whole pays for, through taxes and other means. By composing and orchestrating the appropriate level of resources, skill, ingenuity, and experience for effecting specific benefits for service consumers, service providers participate in an economy without the restrictions of carrying inventory (stock) or the need to concern themselves with bulky raw materials. On the other hand, their investment in expertise does require consistent service marketing and upgrading in the face of competition. 44. Rate: Determination of the value or price of something. Maximum or minimum price at which, by order of authority, may sell a commodity. Tax or tax charged for certain services: flow rate. Measurement, relationship between two quantities: mortality. Measure, moderation: eat without rate does not benefit your stomach. combine pricing tr. Determine the value or price of something: the bank rated it their jewels in less than two million. Officially set the price of a commodity. Put extent or limitations on something: he taxed the salt intake to regulate the
45. Trend: is absolutely essential to the technical approach to market analysis. All tools used by technical analyst have only one purpose: to detectand measure price trends for establishing and managing operations of sale within a given market. 46. Transport or transportation: is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport is important since it enables trade between people, which in turn establishes civilizations. 47. Barter: is a system of exchange by which goods or services are directly exchanged for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money. It is distinguishable from gift economies in that the reciprocal exchange is immediate and not delayed in time. It is usually bilateral, but may be multilateral (i.e., mediated through barter organizations) and usually exists parallel to monetary systems in most developed countries, though to a very limited extent. Barter usually replaces money as the method of exchange in times of monetary crisis, such as when the currency may be either unstable (e.g., hyperinflation or deflationary spiral) or simply unavailable for conducting commerce.
48. Potential User: Person which by its nature or position has a relatively high probability of purchasing a product or service. 49. Real Customer: Whoever customer which have already generated an order and, therefore, is discharged in Management. 50. Sale: is one of the most sought by companies, organizations or individuals that offer something (products, services, or other) in your target market, because their success depends directly on the number of times you perform this activity, how well they do and how do find it profitable.
Wikipedia, the free dictionary. www.wordreference.com