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METRO & Marmaray:

Light-Rail Expansion in Houston and Istanbul Mitchell Massey & Kaylee Yocum April 26, 2013

- Houston METRORail, METROail website

Map of the Marmaray Bosphorus Crossing, Avrasya T端neli

Created for Global Urban Lab Rice University: School of Social Sciences & Kinder Institute for Urban Research


Acknowledgements We would like to thank the Rice School of Social Sciences & the Kinder Institute for providing us the opportunity for us to go on this incredible trip. We would also like to thank all of the people who gave us presentations while in Istanbul, especially the Marmaray Project group. Finally, we would like to thank Ipek Martinez, Dr. Michael Emerson, Chris Keller, and Abbey Godley for proving us with guidance throughout this process and facilitating this trip. TeĹ&#x;ekkĂźr ederim! (Thank You!)

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Table of Contents Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................................... 2 Executive Summary....................................................................................................................................... 3 Report ........................................................................................................................................................... 4 I. THE ISSUE ............................................................................................................................................... 4 II. METHODS .............................................................................................................................................. 5 III. THE RESEARCH ..................................................................................................................................... 6 Houston, Texas ...................................................................................................................................... 6 Istanbul, Turkey..................................................................................................................................... 7 IV. THE FINDINGS ...................................................................................................................................... 8 Houston - METRORail Challenges ......................................................................................................... 8 Houston Recommendations ................................................................................................................. 9 Istanbul - Challenges Faced By Marmaray ............................................................................................ 9 Istanbul Recommendations ................................................................................................................ 10 V. CONCLUSIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 11 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................ 13

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Executive Summary Houston, TX and Istanbul, Turkey are large, globally influential cities utilizing light rail as a partial solution to their public transportation needs. Houston is a particularly spread out city, which makes efficiently moving people a challenge. Houstonians also have a deep affection for their cars and the oil industry, causing public opinion to run counter to public transportation ideals. Istanbul has five times as many people as Houston within roughly the same area, and as it develops, more people are acquiring cars, presenting congestion issues. In this report, we compare and contrast these global cities, striving to understand the challenges, benefits, and histories behind their public transportation infrastructures. We also explore how modern high-speed rail transportation proves to be the most efficient way to move people in highly populated and quickly expanding cities. It is environmentally considerate, alleviates car traffic, and increases a city’s international esteem. With this in mind, we analyzed the Marmaray Project in Istanbul and Houston’s Metro to evaluate further rail expansion. Our policy recommendations are highly relevant given these cities’ bids for future high-traffic events such as the 2020 Olympics in Istanbul and the 2017 Super Bowl in Houston. Our findings showed some troublesome practices and contextual clues that should be considered a pro-rail stance.

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Report I. THE ISSUE Although Houston, Texas and Istanbul, Turkey may not be the first cities to come to mind when thinking about public transportation, they are two cities dedicated to improving their networks and reaching as many people as possible and ease the traffic congestion plaguing both cities. Houston expanded with the interstate and highway system, and is famous for being the “capital” of oil refining and production. Cars are embedded into the history of the city, and convincing citizens to change their views on public transportation was difficult, until two Super Bowls showed the necessity of an expanded public transportation network. In contrast to Houston, Istanbul is a very old city with many different transportation networks. As the city has developed, car ownership has increased dramatically, raising congestion levels to unsustainable levels. Istanbul is currently bidding to be the host of the 2020 Summer Olympic Games, and whether the city actually gets the games, their transportation system will be fundamentally altered. Both cities have their own unique challenges to developing an effective public transportation network. Houston is a very low density city, with people spread out over a large area (the Houston metropolitan area is larger than the state of New Jersey). This makes determining the best routes for a transportation system challenging, since the goal would be to run through the areas of the highest density, of which there are few. Debates over where to build, who to service, and size of the network have been many, and Houston’s METRO has had to revise its plans many times. Istanbul has a very specific geographic challenge: it is located on two continents and is separated by the Bosphorus Strait, a 17-mile long waterway that connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara. Connecting transportation network on both sides of the city has been an ongoing challenge. While both cities are rapidly expanding their transportation systems, particularly their rail systems, there is more that can be done in order to connect people with vital parts of the city. For example, neither of the proposed expansions connect airports to the main parts of the city, nor do they cover all parts of the municipality. However, lessons can be learned from both cities about working with public transportation in cities not designed with rail transportation in mind, and how public transportation can be a starting point for growth and development in other parts of the city. Public transportation in cities has existed at least since the late 19th century, but in recent years it has undergone a revival around the world. Cars, once a symbol of luxury and western values, are now seen as mechanisms for pollution and city congestion. In the United States, governments at all levels have poured funding into the development of public transportation to reduce the number of cars on the road. The specific focus of this report is on cities and their adaptation of public transportation networks. The two case studies discussed in this report are Houston, Texas and Istanbul, Turkey, two large and extensive cities with global influence. Public transportation can be defined in many ways, but for the purpose of this report, public transportation is a way of moving people around a municipality paid for by a government entity. Public transportation in many cities is run by a “government corporation” which means that the government funds transportation projects and maintenance costs, but it is run like a corporation, with a CEO and a board of directors that are not elected by the government entity. In Houston, this body is known as Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Houston, Texas (METRO). METRO is in charge of the light rail system, bus system, and high occupancy 4|Page


toll lanes (HOT lanes) in the Houston metropolitan area. In Istanbul, the Istanbul Electricity, Tram, and Tunnel (IETT) operate all intra-city transportation. Istanbul has a unique geography, and as a result has a varied transportation network comprised of trams, funiculars, underground rail, ferries, and buses. Public transportation is important not only due to its ability to reduce traffic congestion and pollution, but its capability to increase neighborhood development and economic growth. For many years, social scientists primarily analyzed the nation state when looking at global influence. However, cities are increasingly becoming global powerhouses, sometimes surpassing their home countries. Indices have been created to measure the “sway” global cities have over global culture, finance, and innovation. One of these is the 2010 Global Cities Index, published by Foreign Policy, A.T. Kearney, and The Chicago Council on Global Affairs, to look at how cities compare against each other. The index looks at areas like human capital, political engagement, business activity, information exchange, and cultural activities. Houston ranks 38th on the list, and Istanbul ranks 37th (Kearney, Global Cities) meaning that these two cities are comparable in terms of the influence they project on the world. Cities are measured along 5 categories (business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, political engagement), and then the results are aggregated to produce one number, which ranks the cities. Improving public transportation would result in gains for most, if not all of these areas. In addition, although Istanbul has surpassed Houston in the index, it is listed as likely to wane due to pollution problems (Kearney, Global Cities). More public transportation would decrease cars, thus decreasing pollution, improving Istanbul’s image. Connecting a city through public transit, like a light rail system, would entice more people to move into the reach of the transit network, increasing commercial development, which in turn would improve financial markets and business activity, attracting more visitors leading to cultural development and more global visibility (Smart Growth America). This report compares the light rail systems of Houston and Istanbul. Istanbul is in the process of bidding to be the host of the 2020 Summer Olympic Games, which means that they must prove their ability to transport the millions of people who would arrive to the city for the games. To facilitate their bid, Istanbul is working on the Marmaray Tunnel, which will for the first time connect both sides of the city via underground rail tunnel. It will greatly reduce travel time and ease congestion on the bridges. Houston is in the process of expanding the light rail network that connects popular destinations such as the Texas Medical Center, Reliant Park, and University of Houston. They are not the only cities to encourage light rail development, as it is an affordable way for municipalities to provide transportation. It is in the interest of the world’s major cities to provide quality public transportation not only to compete on a global scale, but to improve their citizens’ quality of life, reduce environmental impact, and promote economic development (Smart Growth America).

II. METHODS In order to study the light rail systems of Houston and Istanbul, we first looked at existing research. Many of the articles concerning Turkey were in Turkish, which was a slight setback for us. However, we had the opportunity to travel to Istanbul for 10 days, where we met municipal officials who gave us information about the city and general transportation issues, such as congestion, particularly along the bridges that cross the Bosphorus. We also had the opportunity to hear a presentation on the Marmaray tunnel project, which provided us with invaluable 5|Page


information on all aspects of the tunnel. We were provided a tour of the Marmaray construction site itself, giving us a first glimpse at the tunnel project. Additionally, the online 2020 Olympic bid book is a powerful resource for understanding both the limitations and potential of the city with respect to public rail transit. As for the Houston research, we are both residents of the city, and experience the light rail first hand, as well as the traffic. Literature on Houston was more abundant, so our research for that city also relies on documents and news articles.

III. THE RESEARCH Houston, Texas

Houston’s public transportation system began in 1868, with the introduction of mule drawn carriages (Nichols). The first line ran 15 blocks down San Jacinto Avenue, but closed in only a few months (Karikabi). However, Houston became one of the first cities west of the Mississippi River to have a streetcar system, second only to Galveston, Texas. In the 1870’s, mule drawn streetcars became popular, with the first permanent line established in 1874 on Fannin and Travis Streets. In the same year, the Houston City Street Railway became the first transit organization in Houston, and was responsible for the running of the mule drawn carriages. Electric streetcars did not debut until 1890, spurred by a real estate developer named Oscar M. Carter, who wanted to create a planned community called the Houston Heights. Carter created a separate streetcar company in order to connect Houston Heights with downtown. Thus, Houston Heights became the first “Streetcar suburb,” allowing people in to live and work in two different places. Other suburbs that started as a result of streetcars include Montrose, Harrisburg, and Bellaire, which had the longest track at over 8 miles. Electric streetcars were a big improvement over the mule drawn carts, and much better organized. In addition to streetcar routes within the city, there was an interurban route between Houston and Galveston (Snyder, 2008). Streetcars were the centerpiece of Early Houston Streetcar, McCurdy "Pecan Park Eagle" Houston’s transportation system until 1940, when the streetcars ran for the last time on June 9th (Karikabi, 1997). Buses were the new form of public transportation, and the emergence of interstates meant that automobiles were the new driving force in Houston’s transportation network. Transportation in Houston changed dramatically when the legislature authorized the creation of regional rapid transit agencies in 1973. The Houston METRO became operational in 1979 (Nichols, 2001). The goal was to ease traffic congestion and reduce travel times. Since Houston did not have a light rail system at that time, METRO only worked with the bus system. However, while the bus system fared well, light rail took much longer to implement. METRO first proposed building a heavy rail system in 1983, similar to the ones Washington D.C. and San Francisco had built at the time, with underground tunnels and stations (Nichols, 1987). However, voters overwhelmingly rejected this proposal 2 to 1. In 1987, METRO tried again, this time proposing streetcars, also known as light rail, and voters approved this measure in 1988. Unfortunately for METRO, the incoming mayor, Bob Lanier, decided to use the funds allocated for light rail to provide more funds for police (Nichols, 1987). Funding was a continuing battle 6|Page


for METRO on all levels. Political opposition, specifically by US Rep. Tom DeLay, who was a strong opponent of METRORail, blocked federal transit funds from reaching Houston, which led to their diversion towards Dallas (Limited Options, 2005). After an appeals court decision allowed for METRORail construction, ground was finally broken in 2001, and construction was completed in 2004, just in time for the Super Bowl on February 1st. Istanbul, Turkey

Interestingly, public transit in both Houston and Istanbul began with animal-drawn carriages within the same four-year period. Istanbul’s contract for horse-driven tramlines was signed in 1869, and four lines were implemented by 1871 ("Nostalgic Tramvay"). While this increased connectivity proved useful, navigating around the Bosphorus Strait was still an obvious detriment to freight time. A direct infrastructural link between the European and Asian sides of the city would eventually become crucial to businesses. Unfortunately, two world wars repeatedly militarized the area, halting the city’s aspirations for construction. It was not until 1957 that the government made the decision to build a bridge over the Bosphorus Strait; in October 1973, the A Historic Taksim Tram - Winter in Istanbul Bosphorus Bridge was finally opened. A second bridge, the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, was later opened in 1988. Though these bridges were critical infrastructural additions, more was needed. Ferries were also implemented as a means of transport. These now can carry thousands of people across different stops along the water. These ferries do take some time to cross the strait, but are usually much faster than going across the bridges; unfortunately, the bridge traffic is legendary among commuters for being slow and congested. The new Marmaray Project will overcome these issues by providing a way for residents to commute to work by rail. The main feature of the construction is a submerged tunnel that will connect the European and Anatolian sides of Istanbul across the Bosphorus, spanning eastward from Sirkeçi Station to Üsküdar Station. The crossing is only 1.4 km of tunnel, but the total submerged tunnel amounts to 13.5 km (“Marmaray Project.”). Separately, 63 km of above ground rail tracks will be laid. These will connect Halkali to Kazlicesme (19.6 km) on the Thracian, or European, side of the strait and Ayrilikcesme to Gebze (43.4 km) on the Anatolian, or Asian, side. The entire Marmaray Project will complete a total track length of 76.5 km to connect the southern base of the city with 44 train sets (“Marmaray Project.”). The design of the submerged tunnel is nothing short of an “engineering marvel,” as Dr. Emerson of the Kinder Institute of Urban Research described it to us. Indeed, the construction site was an impressive site to behold. At the Marmaray site in Istanbul, we were presented some incredible specifications: The project utilizes the New Austrian Tunnel Method in order to, “create natural stability in a very short time,” to bore tunnels underwater, at a world record breaking depth of 55m at its deepest point. (“Marmaray Project.”) The rail will be able to transport 75,000 passengers per hour in a single direction, at an operational speed of 45 kilometers per hour. The Marmaray Project will have several heavy benefits, as laid out in the Marmaray site’s presentation to our lab group, which is referred to many times in this report. The project is 7|Page


intended to reduce car traffic in the Historic Peninsula, reduce congestion on the Bosphorus Bridges, and decrease pollution and CO 2 emissions (“Marmaray Project.”). It is estimated that it will significantly decrease travel time for, “more than 1 million people every day”. However, the idea of submerging a train tunnel in the Strait’s waters is nothing new. In fact, the first drawings for the underground Bosphorus rail tunnel were constructed in 1860 (Lykke, and Belkaya), with a very similar alignment and structure. (“Marmaray Project.”) Unfortunately, the implementation of these plans was not realized for more than 150 years, as the technologies and resources were simply not ready or available for this formidable undertaking. Eventually, the project was reevaluated. The first feasibility studies were carried out with a new design in the 1980s. The construction of the Marmaray Project finally began in 2004, and will be completed fall 2013. (“Marmaray Project.”)

IV. THE FINDINGS Houston - METRORail Challenges

Currently, Houston’s METRORail is looking to expand the network of rail systems. The Main Street track, which was completed in 2004, is 7.5 miles long and connects the Texas Medical Center, Reliant Park, Rice University, downtown, and the downtown campus of the University of Houston (METRO About). It is level with the street in order to create more street level culture, and integrate the streetcar with the traffic flow. This rail line is the first time since the 1950’s that Houston invested money in a transportation project that did not include roads, and it has turned into a success. Houston has the highest rider per mile rate out of any light rail system in the country, and some of lowest fees (Freemark). In 2003, before the first train even ran, voters chose to give METRO money to expand the network. The proposed plans would include expanding the initial red line, and building lines further east of the city center and these lines will open in 2014. Two other lines will serve the Galleria area and parts of the West University neighborhood. These two lines have been cancelled for now, due to a rather complicated recent city-wide vote. The City of Houston has had to overcome many hurdles to be able to build the METRO, but there are more challenges ahead. Contrary to common belief, public opinion has not always been in favor of the light rail. When METRO started running, there were many traffic accidents as a result of cars not being used to sharing the road with streetcars. In addition, many neighborhoods have raised concerns over changes that will result from the introduction of rail lines. Southeast Houston in particular has been vocal about possible gentrification and rising property values, especially since they are a poorer black community who cannot afford to have dramatic revitalization efforts that will raise the cost of living. Building transit networks into neighborhoods Map of Houston Metro & Expansion, Freemark is double-edged sword: people would like mobility, "Transport Politic" but not developers coming in and building up around a station (Freemark, “Rallying against Rail”). 8|Page


Despite some setbacks, Houston’s METRORail is one of the most efficient light rails (based on rail ridership per a mile) in the country, and will be a case study for future transportation projects (Freemark, “Houston Readies”). “The city’s light rail system plan differs from that of most other cities, because though it focuses some lines on the city’s downtown, it also has connections between corridors at other regional centers, reflecting the metro area’s polycentric form, which has significant job and housing areas outside of what is typically considered the central business district. Houston’s decision to build a network as such will be a first-in-the-nation experiment, demonstrating whether or not rapid transit systems have to be centered on a downtown to be effective.” -Yonah Freemark, The Transport Politic If Houston’s rail expansions are as successful as the original line, it will provide a blueprint for other spread out cities with low density and many smaller urban centers, known as Edge Cities. This is a recent concept, which refers to the dense, mixed use, urban developments that occur outside the traditional commercial business districts within a city. Houston Recommendations

Despite branching out, Houston’s METRO network still misses some key opportunities. Currently, none of the proposed expansions reach either of the airports. Hobby Airport is the one most likely to be connected by light rail since it is relatively close to downtown, and IAH is too far to be serviced by traditional light rail. Instead, it would be more practical to invest in commuter rail, which could service not only the airport, but also the other “Edge Cities” that surround Houston. The original plan for rail transportation in Houston had included the communities outside of Houston, but it proved to be too expensive and voters did not approve. Bringing in commuter rail into the mix would drastically ease traffic congestion on major roadways, since less people would rely on interstates and highways to get into the city. Reinstating an interurban line between Houston and Galveston would also reduce traffic for long distance commuters and vacationers. Although Houston has come far in its adoption of public transportation, there is still far to go. Houston may be a sprawling city with few defining boundaries and low density, but it is still able to accommodate an effective rail network that combines the best elements of light rail and commuter rail to effectively move people in and between major population centers. Houston has the potential to be a leader among sunbelt cities in public transportation, since light rail has become the most popular transportation choice for municipalities looking to build up their transportation networks and reduce congestion on roads. If Houston is able to demonstrate a successful program, it will prove to the rest of the country that an automobile dependent city, home to the US’s oil industry can support a light rail system that is efficient and expansive. Istanbul - Challenges Faced By Marmaray

There have been significant hurdles faced by the Marmaray Project construction team. During the presentation at Marmaray office, the team stressed the importance of the longevity of the project:

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“Istanbul is located some 20 kilometres away from the North Anatolian Fault Zone, which runs from east to west south of the Princees Islands in the Marmaray Sea. The project area is therefore in a location where the risk of a severe earthquake must be taken into account…The tunnels on this project will accordingly be designed to resist an earthquake of the maximum intensity that may be expected in the area.” ("Tunnels and Earthquakes") The submerged tunnel will be able to withstand an Earthquake moment magnitude up to 7.5 and an earthquake acceleration of .45g (“Marmaray Project”). The last earthquake along the main Marmaray fault line took place in 2011. With a magnitude of 7.2, it was the highest recorded earthquake in Istanbul in its decade (Comert). Fortunately, the construction of the submerged tunnel is prepared for well above the expected extremes in natural disasters. Additionally, progress has been slowed by the many of the dig zones have uncovered historic monuments, including a chapel and tumulus at Üsküdar, a Roman bath at Sirkeçi, and a shipwreck at Yenikapi. (“Marmaray Project”) The construction crew has made sure to preserve whatever artifacts it finds, often having to reroute and optimize the path of the rail. Recording and conserving archaeological context is crucial to archaeology scientists, so the sites have often held emergency excavations. These observations note an interesting policy behavior. In rail expansion, there seems to be a struggle to attain balanced resourcefulness. Construction is limited by time and cost restraints, but sometimes sustainability and historical sensitivity present a similarly large obstacle. Istanbul Recommendations

Istanbul is embracing several opportunities in the 21st century. In 2011, the city accepted candidacy for the 2020 Olympics bid. The bid committee spent several years preparing a bid book, which was published for the National Olympic Committee of Turkey and the International Olympic Committee. It outlines all infrastructural and financial plans related to the successful execution of the games. With regards to Istanbul’s rail network, the book offered some encouraging insight: “By 2018, Istanbul’s rail network will extend over 264 km and will serve all competition venues with at least one line. All investments have guaranteed funding, are aligned with the Games Master Plan and will enhance the mobility of citizens.” ("Istanbul 2020 - Volume 3") One major improvement that will be made to the city of Istanbul in the next few years is the addition of a new airport, which is simply being called the İstanbul New Airport. This will redistribute and alleviate much of the air traffic problems facing Ataturk Airport and Sabiha Gokcen International airports during the games. It will also assist Turkish Airlines in continuing their commercial expansion, while welcoming an increasing incorporation of vital international carriers to the airports. There is a regrettable disconnect between the İstanbul New Airport construction plans and the expansion plans of the Marmaray Project, however. There are no plans to build a rail station that will be accessible to incoming visitors from abroad. This means that car rentals and shuttle bus and taxi services will be of supreme importance. While this is excellent news for those sectors of the economy, it circumvents the infrastructural development that Istanbul has heavily 10 | P a g e


invested in. It is easy to imagine the amount of additional road traffic this will cause. It is uncertain if there is a specific purpose behind this decision or if it is coincidental. One advantage of separating the airport from the rail network could be that it will alleviate the rail traffic substantially. Nevertheless, it is in the best interest of tourism and business to enhance the network’s value by connecting business districts to such a central transportation hub. Other transportation projects are under development. For instance, the Eurasia road tunnel is a, “USD1.2 billion investment connecting Kazlıccesme and Goztepe, including 9.2 km of road upgrades and a 5.4 km twin-deck undersea road tunnel.” (Istanbul, 2012) This tunnel will allow for exclusive freight travel at night and supplement commuter traffic. Quite controversially, a third suspension bridge has begun construction, and is intended to cross the Bosphorus Strait by 2015. According to Constanze Letsch from The Guardian: “...environmentalists, urban planners and many Istanbul residents are furious at the plan, arguing that it will create more traffic, increase the number of vehicles in Istanbul and spell an end to the few remaining green areas and urgently needed drinking water reservoirs that have so far resisted the urban sprawl.” (Letsch) In fact, the secretary of the Istanbul chamber of urban planners, Akif Burak Atlar, argued that the money be reallocated to a modern metro network. Given the aforementioned concerns about pollution and its effect on Istanbul’s global standing, it is highly detrimental that, “some 80% of the Northern Marmara highway project will cut through forest areas.”(Letsch) Though construction is already well underway, this scenario portrays the challenge faced by sprawling and highly populated cities like Istanbul. As they expand, they may find it desirable to alleviate the heavy traffic with more highways, bridges, etc... However, in this context, these infrastructures increase pollution by encouraging further use of carbon-emitting vehicles. In this scenario, the construction will increase the value of the surrounding property, but it will bring serious traffic to the area. Rail is a more eco-friendly and efficient means of travel, and should be further utilized in these water crossing scenarios in the future. These opportunities, innovations, and methods would place Istanbul at a more The Sprawling City, Istanbul, Turkey. advantageous state, not only for the 2020 Olympic bid, but also for commerce, sustainability, an improved standard of living, and international esteem.

V. CONCLUSIONS Though Houston and Istanbul are distinct in their histories, infrastructures, and policies, they are united across several areas. On a broad scope, they are hubs for business, international diversity, religion, education, medicine, and sports. Interestingly, the two cities’ municipal governments are formally linked as sister cities because of their common interests in such areas

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as oncology research, a collaboration that has resulted in a training and relationship between Houston’s MD Anderson and Istanbul’s American Hospital. More succinct and important is their shared infrastructural concerns. As these cities’ populations continue to increase, their cities congest. As is to be expected, there is a flux of people moving to the downtown areas for higher business opportunity, while those seeking more affordable living will move further out, to the rim of the city limits. While both of these spheres expand, the need for affordable, efficient, and highly connected public transportation becomes amplified. The prices of gas, insurance, and parking, combined with congestion make the investment into rail transportation very desirable. Houston is seriously limited in its current state of rail infrastructure and has many communities still to connect. Its proposed additions to the network, such as the lines connecting the Galleria to other “polycenters,” would have enormous utility for the city’s districts. Istanbul’s network is more extensive, and, if awarded, will serve the city well during the 2020 Olympic games. However, it has room to expand in ways that will provide for a larger population, and it should consider joining the area north of the Golden Horn through the two adjacent north-south rails. Further attention should be paid with regards to airports, also. Neither Houston’s Bush International or William Hobby Airport, nor Istanbul’s Ataturk or Sabiha Gokcen Airports are connected to their cities’ rail network. As this report established in the previous section, this failure is a detriment to visitors on business and to road traffic. It is recommended that both cities reevaluate their purpose in excluding these connections. Istanbul will need every advantage to win the Olympics bid. These global cities, united by bright potential and solid reputations, have the resources, the people, and the motivation to create more opportunities and to provide serious infrastructural innovations for their populaces. Efficient rail transportation, if embedded, will only increase the productivity and wellbeing of its businesses, its goods, and its citizens. Buses are cheaper, but are not a long term answer, as they have to share roads with other vehicles and are not as efficient as rail lines. In the final analysis, investing in well-design rail systems serves cities immensely well—allowing for increased productivity, mobility, and quality of life.

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Metro & marmaray