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FROM GLOBAL CHALLENGES TO TRUSTED SOLUTIONS QinetiQ is a leading science and engineering company operating primarily in the defence, security and aerospace markets. We work in partnership with our customers to solve real world problems through innovative solutions, delivering operational and competitive advantage.

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2121 RAF Magazine Advert QinetiQ_placed.indd 1 AW.indd 1 27/06/2016 15:23:04 27/06/2016 18:26


AIR POWER INSPIRATION AND INNOVATION Editor Simon Michell Editorial Director Barry Davies Assistant Editor Emily Eastman Art Director J-P Stanway Designer Kylie Alder Managing Director Andrew Howard

Printed by Pensord Front cover image: Jamie Hunter /Aviacom

Published by

Chantry House, Suite 10a High Street, Billericay, Essex CM12 9BQ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 1277 655100

On behalf of the Royal Air Force Ministry of Defence Main Building, Whitehall, London SW1A 2HB, UK

Š 2016. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. The views and opinions expressed by independent authors and contributors in this publication are provided in the writers’ personal capacities and are their sole responsibility. Their publication does not imply that they represent the views or opinions of the Royal Air Force or Global Media Partners and must neither be regarded as constituting advice on any matter whatsoever, nor be interpreted as such. The reproduction of advertisements in this publication does not in any way imply endorsement by the Royal Air Force or Global Media Partners of products or services referred to therein.


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24/06/2016 12:46

A UK MOD project to transform military terminal Air Traffic Management Delivered by Aquila, a joint venture between NATS and Thales Modernises ATM at over 100 MOD locations, including over 60 airfields and ranges, and provides a deployable capability for out-of-area operations Transformed services provided with a single service centre and regional support model drives increased efficiency and higher availability Optimised system design delivers modern ATM equipment that ensures compliance with current regulatory requirements Operational model introduces clustered approach services enabling operator efficiencies Over the 22-year contract period, Marshall will save UK Ministry of Defence over ÂŁ1bn

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24/06/2016 13:11






15 18 23 25

Rt Hon Michael Fallon MP Secretary of State for Defence Air Chief Marshal Sir Andrew Pulford GCB CBE ADC Chief of the Air Staff


Philip Dunne MP Minister of State for Defence Procurement


SDSR: accommodating change The 2015 Strategic Defence and Security Review presents both opportunities and challenges, as the RAF prepares to expand for the first time in a generation

Paul Everitt Chief Executive, ADS Group

INNOVATION  FUTURE EQUIPMENT Simon Michell Editor, RAF Air Power 2016




Inspiration and innovation: reverting to type? A reflection on the RAF’s tradition of innovation and inspiration, dating back almost 100 years, and its relevance in addressing future challenges

Plan Jericho: the Royal Australian Air Force’s blueprint for a networked and integrated air force Air Marshal Leo Davies AO CSC Chief of the Royal Australian Air Force Preparing for the F-35A General Yoshiyuki Sugiyama, Chief of Staff of the Japanese Air Self-Defence Force

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Future fighter Examining the enhanced capabilities that the fifth-generation F-35B Lightning II stealth strike-fighter will bring to the RAF Introducing the P-8A Poseidon This multi-mission aircraft will enter into service by 2020, delivering much-needed interoperability Synthesising the future Typhoon remains one of the world’s most capable multi-role fighters, with incremental upgrades keeping it at the forefront of technology INSPIRATION AND INNOVATION AIR POWER 2016

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24/06/2016 10:28



Lifting the world The RAF’s fleet of Atlas, C-17 and Voyager aircraft is one of the most modern in the world



Meteoric rise How the Meteor missile is changing the face of Sweden’s air defence capabilities


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Upgrading the helicopter fleet Technology upgrades are providing the RAF’s helicopter fleet with a new lease of life Knowledge is power A unique strength of the RAF is its ability to gain vital information about an adversary’s movements and intentions from air and space


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RAF Air Cadets: 75 years and counting This world-leading youth organisation looks to the future as it marks its 75th anniversary


Going supersonic The BLOODHOUND SuperSonic Car World Land Speed Record attempt is inspiring a new generation of science and technology students


The value of reservists Military effect is being delivered across the entire service through the RAF’s Whole Force approach


Training in progress There is a profound transformation happening in the way the RAF employs and trains its personnel, as it prepares for a more unpredictable future


A special relationship Will changing global realities affect the longstanding bond between the UK and the US? The future of air command and control Military forces must now conduct warfare in the information age, and command and control is evolving as a result NATO airborne early warning The NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control Force is responding to modern requirements





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UK space operations How the RAF plays a crucial role in securing the UK’s space-based capabilities Combating Daesh In Syria and Iraq, the RAF and the US-led coalition are maintaining vital pressure against the Daesh terrorist group

Index of advertisers


23/06/2016 17:40

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n 1916, the world witnessed a revolution. For the first time, air power was used in earnest to support our soldiers on the battlefields of the Somme. One hundred years later, thanks to our Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR), the Royal Air Force (RAF) is to meet the demands of a more challenging age. First, in a world of complex, concurrent threats, the RAF is becoming ever more active. Today, our aircraft are striking hard at Daesh – in Syria, as well as in Iraq – and defending Baltic airspace from Russian aggression for a third year in a row. Our airmen and women are delivering far more than just ‘kinetic effect’. Their surveillance and reconnaissance skills are in constant demand. Their expertise as trainers is highly sought after. And their ability to lever the RAF’s global reputation to forge new friendships is invaluable at a time when we need international solutions to fix global problems. Last year, the RAF deployed to more than 60 countries. Secondly, the RAF is becoming ever more capable. With an increase to the RAF’s capital investment programme of more than £6 billion, we are now able to invest in an Expeditionary Air Group that packs a more powerful punch. Our F-35B Lightning will spearhead a revitalised carrier strike force and its state-of-theart capabilities will be showcased at RIAT and Farnborough this summer. Besides this, we are adding two more multi-role Typhoon squadrons to our combat fleet; increasing the

number of our Voyager air-to-air refuelling craft; purchasing new maritime patrol aircraft to protect our nuclear deterrent; upgrading our helicopter fleets; and more than doubling our Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems. Our future air fleet will be among the most mobile, capable and adaptable in the world. Thirdly, our RAF is becoming, as the title of this year’s Chief of the Air Staff’s Air Power Conference underlines, ever more innovative. Seventy-five years ago, Frank Whittle tested the first jet engine. Today, British engineering genius is helping us build wings for half the world. But to stay ahead of the curve, we’re investing in the brains behind air power, both in the Royal Air Force and across industry. Our new ‘aerospace hub’ and Supply Chain Champions – embedded in all front-line commands – will help tap the talents of creative businesses large and small. Meanwhile, alongside our international friends, we will develop the weapons necessary to deter and defeat all comers. So the SDSR was great news for the RAF. It opened up huge opportunities. Now the RAF must deliver. Not just in responding when the call comes, protecting our people and advancing our prosperity, but inspiring a new generation to enter the RAF’s ranks. For very nearly a century, a strong RAF has been a sign of a successful Britain. And by combining today’s renaissance in air power with an injection of tomorrow’s talent, we will ensure Britain continues flying high for many years to come.


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27/06/2016 19:16




ince the last edition of Air Power, the RAF has continued to deliver remarkable results across the full spectrum of air power roles. Operationally, we have expanded our span of operations in Syria, where Daesh’s foundations are being rocked by our precision strike, enabled by our world-class intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance force. We have continued to play a vital role in policing our own airspace against Russian sabre-rattling and potential terrorist threats, while simultaneously helping guard our Baltic allies against menacing Russian activity on NATO’s eastern flank. These have been the highest-profile activities in which the RAF has been engaged, and they reflect the remarkable speed of change in the global strategic environment. As others state elsewhere in this journal, the future is notoriously difficult to predict; indeed, few would have predicted a year ago that Russia would deploy a large air wing to mainland Syria or mount bombing raids on the same country from strategic distances. But perhaps a forecast of unpredictability is the most salient prediction of all. Each air force in every democratic state faces the prospect of having to deal with challenges that will emerge unexpectedly in the future, and it is therefore incumbent on the Royal Air Force (RAF), as the custodians of UK air power, to do all it can to hedge against the most likely and dangerous possibilities, with sufficient adaptability to meet wholly unexpected challenges. Much of what we need to do will reside in the conceptual as well as in the moral and physical domains. In short, we need to think more deeply, broadly and

innovatively if we are to succeed in our future endeavours: that is the basis of our Thinking to Win programme, of which you can read more elsewhere in this journal. One certainty that has emerged in the past 12 months is the commitment pledged through the Strategic Defence and Security Review to increase our overall force size and operational effectiveness through the commitment, among other programmes, to the P-8A Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft programme and the F-35B Lightning. I am delighted that the capabilities that will fulfil the UK’s Joint Force 2025 structure have been given a solid financial basis, but much more importantly, that our capabilities and structures will be based on a firm strategic foundation. This is very encouraging indeed for the RAF and for our country. I am delighted, too, that so many of our international partners have agreed to contribute to this journal – we are routinely privileged to hear our partners speak at the Air Power Conference, but their contribution here properly reflects the fact that the global challenges we jointly face require international solutions. Air power will remain a vital instrument in dealing with the uncertain future, and the debate we have in this journal – as well as at the Air Power Conference – will inform and equip us better to deal with it. For us to continue our tradition of success as an air force, the RAF will need to inspire our young airmen and women to exploit their human potential to the full, while relentlessly innovating to address the threats and grasp the opportunities that the unpredictable future will reveal. This is the core theme of this publication, and I would encourage all air power professionals to contribute to the discussion.


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27/06/2016 19:15


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CAE is a global leader in the delivery of training for customers in defence, civil aviation and healthcare. Specifically for the CAE is a global leader in the delivery of training for customers in defence, civil aviation and healthcare. Specifically for the defence market, we focus on helping prepare our customers to develop and maintain the highest levels of mission readiness. defence market, we focus on helping prepare our customers to develop and maintain the highest levels of mission readiness. We are a world-class training systems integrator offering a comprehensive portfolio of training centres, training services We are a world-class training systems integrator offering a comprehensive portfolio of training centres, training services and simulation products across the air, land, and naval market segments. We serve our global defence and security and simulation products across the air, land, and naval market segments. We serve our global defence and security customers through regional operations in Europe/Middle East/Africa; Canada; the United States/Latin America; and customers through regional operations in Europe/Middle East/Africa; Canada; the United States/Latin America; and Asia/Pacific, all all of which leverage the and solutions. solutions. Asia/Pacific, of which leverage thefullfullbreadth breadthofofCAE’s CAE’scapabilities, capabilities, technologies technologies and TheThe United Kingdom is is home and delivering delivering world-class world-classtraining trainingand andsimulation simulation United Kingdom hometotomore morethan than500 500CAE CAEemployees employees developing developing and systems to the Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, and British Army. In the UK, CAE owns and operates some of the leading flight systems to the Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, and British Army. In the UK, CAE owns and operates some of the leading flight training facilities, such as the flagship Medium Support Helicopter Aircrew Training Facility at RAF Benson, the CAE Oxford Aviation training facilities, such as the flagship Medium Support Helicopter Aircrew Training Facility at RAF Benson, the CAE Oxford Aviation Academy, andand thethe training centre involved in in providing providingaarange rangeofoftraining trainingsystems systems Academy, training centreatatour ourBurgess BurgessHill Hillheadquarters. headquarters. We We are are involved to to support thethe UKUK Military Flying Training systemsand andservices servicesfor forplatforms platformssuch such support Military Flying TrainingSystem System(MFTS) (MFTS)programme programmeas as well well as training systems asas thethe C-130J, Lynx Mk8, and others. experience providing providingtraining trainingsolutions solutionsforforfuture future C-130J, Lynx Mk8, and others.And Andnonocompany companyhas hasmore morerelevant relevant or or recent recent experience UKUK platforms such as as thethe P-8 maritime platforms such P-8 maritimepatrol patrolaircraft aircraftand andMQ-9 MQ-9remotely remotely piloted piloted aircraft. aircraft. expert training systemsintegrator integratorwith withthe theability abilityto to define, define, develop develop and air,air, WeWe areare an an expert training systems and operate operate integrated integratedtraining trainingfacilities facilitiesforforthethe land, and naval domains as well as joint and staff training. No company is more capable at providing full-spectrum solutions across land, and naval domains as well as joint and staff training. No company is capable at providing full-spectrum solutions across training enterprise – from individualsand andcrews crewsallallthe theway waythrough through to to collective, collective, networked, thethe training enterprise – from individuals networked,distributed distributedjoint jointmission missiontraining. training. CAE is focused being UK’s trainingpartner partnerofofchoice choiceto tohelp helpthe the Royal Royal Air Air Force, safety, CAE is focused onon being thethe UK’s training Force, Royal RoyalNavy Navyand andBritish BritishArmy Armyenhance enhance safety, efficiency readiness. efficiency andand readiness. CAE UK plc CAE UK plc Innovation Drive, Burgess Hill West Sussex RH15 9TW England Innovation Drive, Burgess Hill West Sussex RH15 9TW England Tel +44 (0) 1444-247535 I Fax +44 (0) 1444-244895 I Tel +44 (0) 1444-247535 I Fax +44 (0) 1444-244895 I

2016-06-13 11:03:54 AM

2016-06-13 11:03:54 AM


PHILIP DUNNE MP Minister of State for Defence Procurement Adopting a Team UK approach


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international market to put it in the best position to remain a world leader. And the DGP’s Defence Solution Centre in Farnborough is now showing what we can do. International customers come to us with their intractable problems and we deploy the best British minds from business, academia and government to find solutions. Next we’re looking to tap into the talents of our small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) – the engines of innovation. We’re going to find the next generation of RJ Mitchells – Spitfire’s legendary creator. We’ve launched competitions encouraging



ighty years ago, the first prototype Spitfire took off from Eastleigh Aerodrome in Southampton. The flight was such a revelation that upon landing the test pilot, Captain J “Mutt” Summers, was purported to have told the engineers: “Don’t touch a thing.” With its combination of efficient aerodynamics, monocoque construction and high power, the Spitfire would go on to claim a decisive advantage over the Luftwaffe during the Battle of Britain and other key air campaigns of the Second World War. It was progressively enhanced throughout the war to ensure its pre-eminence over enemy fighters. And, thanks to its evolutionary potential, the Spitfire went on to serve until the mid fifties, well beyond the lifespan of its WW2 contemporaries. Today, the Spitfire lives on. It stands as a potent, internationally recognised symbol of British defence innovation – designed, developed and built in Britain to protect our shores from clear and present danger. But, as the security challenges of tomorrow evolve, as defence budgets are squeezed and as the democratisation of technology steadily erodes the West’s innovation advantage, we need to find the Spitfires of tomorrow. We’re already investing in fifth-generation F-35 Lightning and upgrading our multi-role Typhoons. Yet if we’re to achieve air dominance in future we’ll need much more than superfast attack aircraft. We’ll require the disruptive capabilities, the innovation and the skills that give us that cutting edge. How can we do that? First through collaboration. Four years ago, the Government launched the mould-breaking Defence Growth Partnership. It adopts a Team UK approach, embracing the entire value chain while aligning the UK with the needs of the

Designed by RJ Mitchell, the legendary Spitfire lives on as an internationally recognised symbol of British defence innovation


27/06/2016 18:33

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Maintaining the tradition of the Spitfire in today’s Royal Air Force, the Typhoon is being upgraded with new weapon systems and avionics

companies large and small to assist us in devising ‘persistent surveillance from the air’ and ‘agile immersive training’, while also improving our approach to ‘Autonomy and big data’. I was gratified to see the wide range of organisations among the winners of both rounds. They include: the University of Birmingham – creating a radar to detect slowmoving targets in dense foliage; and Amethyst Research Ltd – an SME devising new infrared sensing capabilities. Critically, some of our larger players, including Airbus, are putting their own resources behind these challenges. I am determined that co-investment between MOD and industry will become a growing trend as we develop capability for multiple markets. We look forward to similar successes as the competitions progress and, ultimately, to seeing some of these nascent technologies hitting the international market. But this


FW3 Dunne.indd 20

is just the start – we have much further to travel if we are to realise the full potential of the UK Defence Sector. That’s why BIS and UKTI have established an “Aerospace hub” enhancing our support for companies throughout the supply chain. Finally, we need to do more to tell the story of British aerospace. Over the past century this industry created the Spitfire, the Harrier jump jet and the Comet – the world’s first jet airliner. In recent times, we even landed a probe on the back of a speeding comet! It is currently creating an aerospace vehicle with the capacity to enter space at orbital velocity. We must publicise these achievements if we’re to electrify the next generation of engineers and inspire them to write the next chapter in this story. Eighty years ago, Britain built arguably one of the most famous and best-loved British brands. Today we’re getting the full might of Team UK – backed by the second largest defence budget in NATO – behind us. I am confident that, notwithstanding the recent decision to leave the EU, the UK has a bright future as a leader in Defence, in Europe and around the world.


27/06/2016 18:31

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PAUL EVERITT Chief Executive, ADS Group, the UK trade association for the Aerospace, Defence, Security and Space industries The UK aerospace sector: contributing to peace and prosperity


he history of the UK aerospace and defence industries is closely tied to our national security and the need to sustain dominance in the air. The 2015 Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) reaffirmed the importance of military air capability and set the context for the coming years. The commitment by the UK Government to meet the 2% NATO target, to increase Ministry of Defence expenditure by 1% per annum in real terms, and to ensure all efficiency gains are available to reinvest into defence equipment and support provides welcome stability and certainty through until 2020. The SDSR committed to a range of air capabilities, including an additional F-35B Lightning II squadron and two additional Typhoon squadrons, alongside investment in ground attack capabilities and a new active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar to ensure Typhoon can continue to operate until at least 2040. The SDSR also committed to continued investment in new precision weapons, remotely piloted aircraft and the Boeing P-8A maritime patrol aircraft. The military aerospace sector has been a particular UK success story. It has generated 70% of the UK’s defence exports, ensuring that the UK maintains an operational advantage over others, and the freedom to act where and when the national interest has required. It has also made a major contribution to the UK’s place at the forefront of technological and engineering developments in aerospace, sustaining highly skilled, well-paid jobs. The Typhoon programme, for example, sustains some 16,000 jobs across the supply chain in different parts of the country. The UK is also responsible for manufacturing 15% by value of each and every F-35 aircraft, with around 500 suppliers across the country contributing to the production of the programme.

Critical parts and components supplied by UK companies include the aft fuselage in Lancashire; the development and integration of the lift-fan system in Bristol; high-density circuit boards made in Tewkesbury; and the ejection seat produced in Buckinghamshire. In order to make the most of our success and maximise industry’s contribution to the nation’s prosperity, industry and government are working together through the Defence Growth Partnership (DGP). The DGP is a unique collaboration between 16 major defence companies, the Department of Business Innovation and Skills and the Ministry of Defence, and is designed to increase exports, foster innovation and improve the competitiveness of the whole value chain. Fostering innovation is essential to giving UK industry an advantage against international competition. The DGP – through initiatives including the UK Defence Solutions Centre, Innovation Challenges and the Dual Use Technology Exploitation programme – is able to engage the complete value chain, so that industry and its international customers benefit from the wealth of technological innovation concentrated in companies of all sizes throughout the sector. The 2016 Farnborough International Airshow will provide an important opportunity for UK companies to showcase their expertise. The UK Defence Solutions Centre, working alongside colleagues at the UKTI Defence and Security Organisation, will lead engagement with the many military delegations expected during the week. Together with the Royal International Air Tattoo at Fairford, Farnborough will provide an opportunity for the industry and wider public to get their first look at the F-35, as it displays for the first time in the UK. Industry and government working together are providing the route to sustaining our national security and prosperity.


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23/06/2016 16:44

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SIMON MICHELL Editor, RAF Air Power 2016

Increased tempo, enhanced capability


he past 12 months have seen the security and stability of Europe rocked by terrorist attacks, as Daesh-affiliated extremists target Western populations and our way of life. Russian airspace intrusions in the Baltics continue to impact on European regional stability, and Operation Resolute Support in Afghanistan is yet another theatre in which UK armed forces, and the Royal Air Force (RAF) in particular, are participating. As always, the RAF is playing a leading role in addressing these multifaceted challenges across the varied operational theatres. The Typhoon force completed its second year of assisting with the Baltic Air Patrols, and is now in its third consecutive year of patrols. The force is also active over Syria. In Iraq, the Typhoons are joined by Tornados and Reaper Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS). In addition, RAF Pumas are busy transporting personnel in and around Kabul. There is also the permanent RAF presence in the South Atlantic at RAF Mount Pleasant in the Falklands. The operational drumbeat is currently very demanding.

THE INVENTORY The 2015 Strategic Defence and Security Review has seen an increase in defence investment, with two significant additions to the RAF inventory. Firstly, there is the selection of the P-8A maritime patrol aircraft to replace the Nimrod, and the undertaking to purchase more than 20 RPAS to replace the existing 10 Reaper (Predator B) platforms as part of the Protector programme.

The beginning of 2016 has seen another two significant announcements, this time relating to the UK Military Flying Training System programme. The February announcement of the £1.1 billion contract to deliver the fixed-wing element of the programme marked a significant milestone. This was followed by a later statement about the £1.1 billion rotary-wing element, which was made public in May. Taken together, the two contracts have set the entire programme on an excellent footing. They will now be able to begin delivering elementary flying training in 2017 and helicopter and multi-engine aircrew training in 2018, followed by basic training at the beginning of 2019. The most significant addition to the RAF fleet, however, remains the F-35B Lightning II. The RAF will take delivery of its eighth aircraft by the end of the year. With five of the British F-35B at United States Marine Corps (USMC) Air Station Beaufort in South Carolina and a further three at US Edwards Air Force Base in southern California, the programme continues to progress at speed. Training for RAF and Royal Navy pilots is taking place in both locations. The F-35B itself went into service in July 2015, when the USMC VMFA-121 declared the initial operational capability of the Block 2B configuration. The past year has seen the RAF continue to offer the UK Government diplomatic choice backed up by impressive military capability – a capability that remains the envy of many of our partners and allies.


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23/06/2016 16:46

New British cargo airline delivers speed and capability Access to fast, responsive and reliable freight transport capacity is essential for government defence and peacekeeping operations as well as international development and aid missions. In recent times, however, the lack of UK all-cargo capacity has forced the use of overseas airlines but the launch of a new British cargo airline means a fast and efficient in-country solution is now available. Headquartered at London Stansted Airport, CargoLogicAir commenced operations in January 2016 after being awarded its Air Operator Certificate (AOC) by the UK Civil Aviation Authority. Its aim is to become a leader in the European outsize air cargo market. In support of its goal, the airline is investing in the most environmentally efficient and modern all-cargo aircraft. It was launched with a Boeing 747-400 Freighter at the start of 2016 and has since added a new generation Boeing 747-8F cargo aircraft with a capacity of 135 tonnes to its fleet. CargoLogicAir will take delivery of two more Boeing 747 freighters in 2017 and its fifth B747F in early 2018 as it expands its capability and operating network for customers requiring charter and scheduled cargo capacity in the UK and globally. Dmitry Grishin, CargoLogicAir’s Chief Executive Officer, said: “We may be a new airline but we have a highly experienced


team of air cargo professionals with many years of experience in the transportation and logistics industries. Our aim is to put the UK back on the map for all-cargo services and to give customers in the UK a solution for their larger volume shipments as well as a fast response for time-critical cargoes. The UK is the second largest air cargo market in Europe with a robust economy and a high level of demand from the manufacturing and logistics sectors. For example, the Aerospace industry is showing strong growth with new aircraft programmes being delivered by both Boeing and Airbus and we see big potential to become part of those supply chains. “We are also open for business to support British government departments that need fast and reliable transportation services. One of the strong selling points of our company is that we can offer a fast reaction time and over 100 tonnes of cargo capacity on a single flight. This is especially important, for example, when the government is sending humanitarian aid to help the victims of natural disasters

International development

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around the world. In these situations, speed is vital. We are more than capable of providing transportation solutions for military and international organisations and we have a team of specialists that already has considerable knowledge and expertise of working in the field of operations.” CargoLogicAir chose the Boeing 747 as its flagship because of its all-round capability and its proven reputation in the global cargo transportation market. There are very few cargoes the aircraft cannot carry. Its large cargo hold and onboard temperature-controlled zones enable the aircraft to carry shipments such as fresh food, motor vehicles, pharmaceuticals, aerospace cargoes, textiles, and consumer electronics. Another big advantage of the B747 is its nose-loading door which enables the loading of very long and heavy shipments. Combined with the B747-8’s side cargo door, this also helps to expedite the aircraft loading and handling process to meet strict transport deadlines.



CargoLogicAir is the new British cargo airline offering customers the highest levels of service, safety and security onboard our Boeing 747 Freighter operations, including air cargo charter flights for customers around the world. Based at London Stansted Airport, our highly experienced and knowledgeable team of air cargo professionals are ready to serve you. We’re open for business. Endeavour House, Cooper’s End Road London Stansted Airport Essex CM24 1AL United Kingdom

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17/06/2016 15:52


AIR MARSHAL LEO DAVIES AO, CSC Chief of the Royal Australian Air Force Plan Jericho: the Royal Australian Air Force’s blueprint for a networked and integrated air force


hortly after being appointed Chief of Air Force in July last year, I delivered my first major address to the RUSI conference. Then, I spoke of the RAAF’s recently launched Plan Jericho and my vision for the balanced, potent and integrated force it will deliver. Nearly a year on, and with the Australian Government having delivered a new policy framework through a Defence White Paper in March this year, it is timely to reflect on Jericho’s objectives, achievements, and its synchronisation with national policy settings. Since the turn of the 21st century the RAAF has developed and now realised a long-term strategy to improve its strategic weight through improved reach, connection and potency. The intent was to stay ahead of the security challenge in a dynamic region through ensuring Australia’s air force remained relevant to national defence and security. Capability renewal under that strategy has received support across governments, both conservative and labour, because a potent air force is seen as part of Australia’s maritime and larger international strategies. The lesson here is that having a strategy, and being patient and consistent with it, can deliver real results and set enduring vectors. That is particularly true if you demonstrate


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operational reliability and effect and so generate trust whilst simultaneously making arguments for reform. By 2025, the result will be an air force whose oldest aircraft will be its fleet of C-130Js, introduced in 1999. The RAAF has also added significantly to the range of missions it undertakes, as exemplified by the highly capable KC-30A tanker and E-7A Wedgetail Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEWC) aircraft – both currently on operations in Iraqi and Syrian skies. The RAAF will shortly be an air force of very young, very capable and, more importantly, networked platforms. The RAAF’s capability will be indispensable in meeting the government’s expectation of the larger Australian Defence Force. In her introduction to the Defence White Paper the Defence Minister, Senator Marise Payne, highlighted the uncertainty and complexity of global security in the coming decades. Capability, agility and potency are attributes government requires of the defence force it is evolving, to be prepared for the challenges of an uncertain but unstable future. The RAAF is aligned with the new White Paper and operationalised through Plan Jericho and is focused on taking its place in a networked and integrated Australian Defence Force. The RAAF in the past might rightly be accused of concentrating on the

platforms ahead of the systems and infrastructure that support and enable them. Of course, without the balanced evolution of both, the platforms will not achieve their potential. That is where Plan Jericho fits in. However, a plan is simply a blueprint. Without the workforce to transform it to reality it remains only of intellectual interest. Without the structure it conveys being seen to take shape, it risks losing commitment and momentum. Plan Jericho addresses both these issues. Plan Jericho delivers our vision of ‘a future force that is agile and adaptive, fully immersed in the information age, and truly joint’ through a programme of work comprising fifteen initiatives, each tasked to an Air Commodore for delivery under a directive jointly issued by the Deputy Chief of Air Force and the Air Commander. The initiatives are measurable, with defined timeframes, and with the nominated Air Commodores held accountable for delivery. They address the range of activities required across the air force to best structure it for the optimal integration of its capabilities, including the key requirement to address integration with army and navy. Demonstration and experimentation are delivering tangible indicators of progress of initiative implementation. Since its February 2015 launch, Plan Jericho has achieved some early,


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technology-oriented successes. The ability for commanders to mission plan while airborne has been demonstrated by streaming sensor video live from a Heron UAS into the cargo compartment of a C-17A Globemaster III. More recently, a Northrop Grumman system provided an airborne gateway, translating datalink protocols between aircraft that would otherwise have had incompatible data systems. These examples highlight the art of the possible. The Plan Jericho work programme also includes organisational initiatives such as the formation of an Air Warfare Centre, achieved in early 2016, whose structure would be familiar to those aware of the RAF’s centre. Through this particular initiative the RAAF intends to benefit from the world’s best practice and structure to optimise international engagement with allies. People are fundamental to delivering Jericho. In the top-down view, the work programme is devolved to an accountable Air Commodore. From the bottom up, and a thread woven into the fabric of Jericho, is the empowerment of the workforce to innovate and be heard by their superiors. In preparing for the introduction of the P-8A into service later in 2016, the operating Wing explored options for improving the connectivity of the current AP-3C



A JERICHO demonstration of live imagery datalinked from a Heron UAS into a C-17 cargo bay

allies and partners. While access to the high-fidelity training offered by exercises such as Red Flag are opportunities we value highly, the RAAF also welcomes its contacts through all modes of interaction, including its valued programme of exchanges. The personnel exchange programme between the RAAF and RAF continues to foster the sharing of operational experiences that have assisted in the concept development for new capabilities, including for the P-8A Poseidon. Like

BY THE END OF THE DECADE, THE RAAF WILL JOIN THE VANGUARD OF FIFTH GENERATION AIR FORCES aircraft. A number of datalink protocols were trialled, with the IBS/CIB system being successfully installed. As a result, the AP-3C force’s operational capability has been improved and the workforce is accumulating valuable experience which will be immediately applicable to operating the Link 16 equipped Poseidon. The RAAF does not purport to hold a monopoly on good ideas. Working in a coalition has become the way of 21st century operations, and we have much to learn from the diverse experience of our

the F-35, the P-8 is configured with next-generation systems of sensors, situational awareness, decision support and network communications. RAF exchange officers (experienced RAF tactical coordinators and acoustics operators), with their complementary skills developed in maritime operations in different environments to their RAAF counterparts, have supported the RAAF to both meet preparedness requirements and expand its appreciation of the current and future needs of maritime patrol aviation

through exchanging RAF operational and training experiences against conventional and nuclear submarine systems. Eighty years ago an aircraft was introduced that was to evolve to become a mainstay of the RAF of World War II and remains synonymous with air power: the Supermarine Spitfire. For all that has been written, both of the aircraft and the men who flew it, it was the air defence system of radars, observers and C2 structures which grew around it, and of which it was a pivotal component, that allowed its performance attributes to prevail. By the end of the decade, the RAAF will join the vanguard of fifth-generation air forces, an assertion embodied in the entry into service of the F-35A Lightning II. As I stated at RUSI last year, the F-35 replaces nothing, but it changes everything. Its innate capabilities must be networked into, distributed throughout, and integrated with, the wider air force and Australian Defence Force, if we are to realise its full potential. Therefore, it stands as a compelling motivator to stay the course with the implementation of Plan Jericho. In this way, the introduction of the fifth-generation combat aircraft into an effectively networked and integrated air force will herald the creation of a truly fifth-generation air force. Information on the RAAF’s Plan Jericho, including details of related demonstrations and experimentation, can be accessed at: Pages/Welcome.aspx


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GENERAL YOSHIYUKI SUGIYAMA Chief of Staff of the Japanese Air Self-Defence Force Preparing for the F-35A



feel most grateful for being offered such an honourable opportunity to write for this year’s Air Power, a splendid publication of the Royal Air Force (RAF). The governments of the United Kingdom and Japan have agreed to deepen our defence cooperation. Not least, the RAF No 3 Squadron (Typhoon) and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) 201st Fighter Squadron (F-15J) regularly interact with each other, declaring themselves sister squadrons. Following the visit of the RAF’s brandnew A400M Atlas aircraft to Japan last year, RAF Typhoons will fly to Japan to train with us this year. This will be a significant first, not only for the RAF and JASDF, but also for our two countries. We are earnestly making all necessary arrangements to realise this training. In addition, the UK and Japan have been collaboratively studying the feasibility of a new jointly developed Japanese-UK airto-air missile, the progress of which keeps drawing my attention. Continued progress of Japanese-UK defence cooperation and exchanges at every opportunity at various levels is very much expected. While the RAF acquires F-35Bs, the JASDF intends to acquire 42 F-35As as the replacement for the F-4. I personally have mixed feelings, because I am an F-4 pilot. However, it is exciting that we will

The Japanese Air Self-Defence Force intends to acquire 42 F-35A Lightning II aircraft

be able to see our first F-35A rolling out this year in Fort Worth. Concurrently in Japan, F-35As are being built in a domestic Final-Assembly-and-Check-Out facility as well. Our pilots and maintenance crews are being educated and trained in the United States to become the core members of the new F-35A squadron. We have been making every effort in getting our first F-35A deployed to Japan, which is to see the light of day in the fiscal year of 2017. Currently, the construction of training facilities for pilots and maintenance crew is proceeding at the home of Japan’s F-35As, Misawa Air Base. Furthermore, a regional depot for airframes and engines in the Asia-Pacific region will be established in

Japan. I firmly believe that the excellent stealth and network capabilities of the F-35A, together with other JASDF assets, will remarkably contribute not only to our homeland defence but also to the stability of the region. As is the case with the RAF, the F-35 is the first fifthgeneration aircraft that the JASDF will introduce. I believe that it is necessary for F-35 users to deepen exchanges in order to improve our mutual capabilities. In conclusion, I wish to have as many occasions as possible to exchange views on diverse topics with the RAF’s Chief of the Air Staff and my other counterparts attending the Air Power Conference and the Royal International Air Tattoo this year.


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Seb Cox, Head of the Air Historical Branch (RAF), Dr David Jordan, Defence Studies Department, King’s College London, and Group Captain Paul Wilkins, Director Defence Studies (RAF), reflect on the Royal Air Force’s tradition of innovation and inspiration, which dates back almost 100 years




he future operating environment will be more complex and uncertain than anything the Royal Air Force (RAF) has yet experienced, facing a broad range of threats and risks. The proliferation of military technology could see capability overmatch by adversaries, with sophisticated employment of anti-access and area denial (A2AD) capabilities, and significant challenges emanating simultaneously from state and nonstate actors in physical and cyber forms.


To overcome these situations, a level of understanding enabling the employment of focused conventional deterrence and, where necessary, coercive action to modify adversaries’ behaviour will be required. The need for cooperation will drive new levels of interoperability and adaptability across Defence. And should the UK need to act alone, it will also require effective warning mechanisms and agile force structures in place to enable the timely reconstitution of forces. Predicting the future, particularly in the military sphere, is a notoriously perilous occupation. There


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are, though, some certainties, and high among these is that the UK will seek to fully exploit air and space capabilities. Consequently, the RAF needs to situate itself – physically, morally and conceptually – to meet this challenge as a ‘Whole Force’: an RAF with an appropriate mix of regulars, reserves, MOD civilians and contractors. At first glance, this appears a daunting challenge, demanding significant change. It is, however, exactly the sort of challenge that the Service has met successfully many times before.


A VISIONARY JOURNEY The RAF was formed to “get the best possible use from British air power” and such attributes were evident from the outset. Had this not been the case, the fledgling RAF would either not have made it into adulthood or conceptually ossified once there. Trenchard’s inspirational vision and unique ideas set the conditions for a small, highly trained, permanent RAF, capable of expansion when required without drastic alteration to its ethos or organisational structures. He recognised the ‘extreme importance of training’, drawing personnel from a broad pool, and motivating junior personnel, on whom the future of the RAF depended. Trenchard’s idea of an educated body of NCOs and airmen was, at the time, socially revolutionary. By establishing the RAF Apprentice Scheme at RAF Halton, he provided the Service with its core of skilled tradesmen, leaving a legacy of excellence in aircraft engineering that was acknowledged worldwide and continues to this day. Meanwhile, the RAF College at Cranwell was established to train the regular officers to be the future senior and air-ranking officers, noting that by placing it “well away from the temptations of London” it was certainly innovative if, probably, unpopular. The RAF was designed to be, predominantly, a short-service force for most of its officers, who would then form the basis of a trained reserve, building a

The Royal Air Force is embedding an ethos of ‘Think to Win’ in all of its members, from new recruits to the senior staff


The RAF will need an organisational culture embracing innovation, which adopts new ideas and which is prepared to make swift adaptations to extant practice. This requires an environment where leaders recognise the value of affording time and space for personnel to think, thus promoting far-ranging ideas. This is not a new prospect for the RAF. The service has a long history of innovation, albeit ebbing and flowing with the prevailing strategic environment. The RAF in 1918 displayed considerable innovation in its approach at all levels of war, adapting in light of lessons learned and new thinking about air power. Conversely, the relative stability of the Cold War era reduced the need for dynamic thinking to address multiple complex problems, and saw a degree of stasis in doctrinal thought. The current environment demands a dynamic approach more akin to that of the Trenchard era, rather than that which was

necessary in preventing a Third World War, when rigidity of thought (heavily influenced by NATO doctrine) narrowed the Service’s outlook.


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‘Whole Force’-style resilience into the Service; it was upon this idea that pre-Second World War expansion schemes were based. A foundational link between Halton and Cranwell resulted in hundreds of former apprentices, or ‘Halton brats’, being commissioned, with a handsome number rising to air rank. A meritocratic approach combining technical skill with opportunity prevailed, perhaps best exemplified by the career of Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, the jet engine pioneer.



The Second World War saw a period of considerable innovation and conceptual development, as early disasters in ‘air-surface integration’ with the British Army gave way to highly successful cooperation between the RAF and its sister services in all theatres of war. After the heavy demands of the war, the RAF was called upon to face the challenge of introducing nuclear weapons and becoming the nation’s strategic deterrent, bringing a number of key changes to the way in which the

outset. Underpinning this throughout the Service’s history has been robust training. The RAF’s flying training system is globally recognised as a world-leader, emulated by many other air forces, and the 21st-century approach, in which synthetic training will play an increasingly important role (as described elsewhere in this publication) seems likely to prove just as influential. Since the end of the Cold War, the RAF’s capabilities and skills have been in high demand. This has predominantly been in conflicts in which ‘control of the air’ has been largely uncontested, but the future will be less certain here as potential adversaries become more capable, requiring deep thought about what the RAF does and how and why it will need to adapt at all levels if success is to be maintained. This is reflected in the Thinking to Win (T2W) programme, through which we seek to reignite and fan the flames of conceptual innovation. The message is that inspiration and the aggressive pursuit of innovation, to redefine the RAF as a fighting force fit for the challenges of the next 100 years, are required. Some of what we do and how we do it will endure, but some may not. Our Chief of the Air Staff’s comments during his Thinking to Win launch reinforced the point: “‘We live in a world with rapid changes in society, technology and our operating environment. Change is accelerating, bringing with it new challenges and new vulnerabilities. If we can’t consistently come up with new concepts to confront new challenges; if we remain rushed and reactive – too busy to think – we shall become less and less relevant and increasingly ineffective. To carry on doing what we have always done will simply not do – busily perpetuating tactical activity alone simply will not suffice. This is about making us all better at beating our enemies – violently, if necessary.”

THE NEXT 100 YEARS The RAF has continually been among the first to introduce innovative procedures, such as air-to-air refuelling


Service conducted its business. Further innovation was required with the passing of the deterrent to the Royal Navy’s Polaris SLBM (submarinelaunched ballistic missile) system, and once more to meet the complex security environment that emerged after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Further examples of innovation can be found in the development of air-to-air refuelling; the adaptation of extant platforms to achieve air power effects at long range was exemplified by the ‘Black Buck’ Vulcan raids and the deployment of 1(F) Squadron’s Harriers during the 1982 Falklands conflict. During the latter part of the Cold War, the RAF Harrier force was operating at the sharp end of dispersed fast-jet operations for survivability close to the East German border. These few examples highlight that innovation cannot be simply pulled through the Service from the top, but that it has to be ‘woven in’ to the fabric of the Service from the

Thinking to Win is an evolutionary step along one continuum that is the conceptual development journey of the RAF; it is reinvigorating its organisational culture, not establishing one. The maxim ‘the future belongs to those who prepare for it’ is prophetic in this regard. Fortunately, Trenchard’s legacy left strong foundations on which the Service can once again build, just as he planned. For a successful future, the RAF needs to refine its collective understanding of what is important and what is not, recognising that this will be context-dependent and not universal for all parts of the Service. The pedigree is strong, but the challenges ahead are significant. The conceptual element has never been more important, but the basis for success here was laid 100 years ago, and the task now is to recapture the spirit of innovation that drove Trenchard to apply it across the RAF, thus creating the conditions for success in the complex, dangerous and challenging world that we now face.


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Chief Executive, Lockheed Martin UK Over the past six decades, Lockheed Martin (LM) has evolved into one of the United Kingdom’s (UK’s) closest and most vital defence industrial partners. LM currently runs about 60 programmes in the UK and has more than 3,000 employees at 21 different sites dotted around the country. Its partnerships with the Ministry of Defence (MOD) cover an impressively broad spectrum – from the strategic deterrent, the Military Flying Training System and armoured vehicles to the C-130J Hercules transport aircraft and the F-35B Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter. For Peter Ruddock, Chief Executive of Lockheed Martin UK, the F-35B is a programme that he is especially proud of – one that puts the UK right at the centre of the largest defence programme in the world. According to Ruddock, “The F-35 is a global programme, and the United Kingdom is the only Tier One partner, so we have a special status within the programme.” However, the former RAF Air Marshal and pilot is quick to praise the partnership ethos that surrounds this rapidly maturing joint effort.

SPEAKING FROM EXPERIENCE As a former fighter pilot, Ruddock understands more than most how significant the progression is. “I have got a lot of experience flying fast jets. I have flown most of the fourth-generation fighters, but the discriminator these days is information and access. F-35 offers pilots a far superior understanding of the environment in which they are operating. It also gives them access to extremely hostile areas that would be lethal to the

current crop of fourth-generation aircraft. That is the difference,” Ruddock explains. “The nature of warfare is changing and information is absolutely the key to success. Another huge advantage the F-35 brings is the fact that it is so easy to fly. This frees the pilots from having to concentrate on flying the aircraft so that they can digest the information that is being delivered to them, enabling operators to gain better situational awareness and then focus on their weapon systems.” The F-35 programme received a series of boosts recently with the announcement that the UK will purchase the full complement of 138 aircraft previously envisaged, and that RAF Marham will be home to two squadrons by 2023. Ruddock points out how rapidly the programme is now moving: “There are now approaching 180 F-35s in the air. That is almost as many as the total number of F-22 aircraft built. What’s more, one UK F-35B will roll off the production line every eight weeks.” This summer marks another milestone. Five F-35 Lightning IIs will be flying in UK airspace at both the Royal International Air Tattoo and the Farnborough International Airshow.


Peter Ruddock

“The first thing I would say is that the Ministry of Defence (MOD) as well as Defence Equipment and Support (DE&S), together with the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the Royal Navy (RN) have an absolutely excellent team on the F-35 programme. That said, so does LM and our industry partners. We really have got our best people on this, because it is an incredibly complex programme, but we need to because the prize is huge,” explains Ruddock. By that he means that the capability the aircraft will bring to the RAF and RN is a step-change in operational sophistication compared to the fourthgeneration Tornado and Typhoon fighter aircraft that the RAF currently operates.

The number of F-35 Lightning II aircraft now flying has reached almost 180




For the first time in a generation, the Royal Air Force is set to expand. Assistant Chief of the Air Staff, Air Vice-Marshal Richard Knighton, highlights the challenges and opportunities presented by the Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) to a force that will continue to find itself in high demand for the foreseeable future

SDSR The challenges and opportunities that await the Royal Air Force will require the Service to think differently and to make the most of its airmen and women


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he Royal Air Force (RAF) remains at the forefront of the Government’s approach to conflict and crisis management around the world: every one of the RAF’s frontline aircraft types will be involved in operations in the coming year. The RAF’s responsiveness, light footprint and ability to plug quickly into coalition formations as a partner of choice will be in high demand for the foreseeable future. By any measure, the outcome of the Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) was good news for the RAF and represented a vote of confidence in the value the Government sees in air power. For the first time in a generation, the RAF is set to grow.

NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY Right now, the RAF is playing a leading role in the United Kingdom’s fight against Daesh and violent extremism. But the National Security Strategy (NSS) makes it clear that Defence and the RAF must also remain focused on deterring more potent state-based threats. The intent of the NSS to address the twin challenges of countering violent extremism and deterring the threat from Russia has shaped the decisions that were taken as part of the SDSR. Investment in combat aircraft, Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) and mobility support to special forces has sought to create a balanced force structure able to ‘warfight at scale’ with our allies against peer enemies, as well as win the fight against terrorism and violent extremism wherever it is found around the world. Delivering this growth in capability and size brings challenges. The Government’s commitment to spend 2% of GDP on Defence brings stability and certainty to the Ministry of Defence’s (MOD’s) finances, but affordability remains a concern in the near term. In the longer term, Defence must deliver a wide range of efficiencies to create the necessary headroom to invest in new capability. By being able to retain any savings that Defence can make, we are incentivised to deliver efficiencies and plough them back into new capability. The RAF has a strong track record of driving innovation in support and generating more efficient ways of delivering military output, but more will be required if we are to deliver the capability improvement promised.

large-scale expeditionary force of up to 50,000 people. This represents a significant and potent capability, but it also represents a big step up in ambition. The UK’s armed forces will need to scale up the excellent joint warfighting skills that we have developed over the past 20 years. Air power will be vital to any operational design of a future Joint campaign. Joint commanders will need to be educated, trained and exercised in bringing the Joint Force’s capabilities together to deliver success. If we are to fight together successfully, we need to train and exercise together in the most demanding settings, in both the real and virtual worlds. This applies as much to working with our allies as it does to working with the British Army and Royal Navy. We need to be ‘international by design’ in our training because we will have to be international in practice. We must, therefore, refocus our energies on major Joint and combined exercises, and we must also embrace new technology. The RAF is leading the way across Defence in the thinking about, and


JOINT FORCE 25 Joint Force 25 (JF25) is at the heart of Defence’s contribution to the NSS, which signalled clearly the intent to reshape the UK’s armed forces to meet its most demanding task. Rather than the ‘best effort’ outlined in the 2010 SDSR, JF25 will be able to deploy a

application of, synthetic training. We are out in front of our sister Services in this regard, and we will need to create Joint synthetic training opportunities at both the tactical and operational levels if we are to deliver the necessary training that will prepare us for operational success in an affordable way. These challenges are not unique to the RAF, or even to the United Kingdom. As the Chief of the Royal Australian Air Force, Air Marshal Leo Davies, remarks in his article, we should all aspire to “a future force that is agile and adaptive, fully immersed in the information age, and truly joint”. For the RAF, most of the building blocks for JF25 will be in place before the end of the decade. The recapitalisation of most of the RAF’s fighting equipment, that will have been concluded in little more than a decade, is remarkable and has left the RAF with a potent and world-class capability that we must exploit in the coming years. By the end of the decade, we will see Typhoon as the mainstay of our combat air capability. Before Tornado retires in 2019, Typhoon will have the INSPIRATION AND INNOVATION AIR POWER 2016

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full suite of air-to-ground weapons integrated, as well as the new Meteor Beyond Visual Range Airto-Air Missile. The F-35B Lightning II – the RAF’s first ‘stealth’ platform – will also have declared its land-based operating capability in 2018. In modern warfare, intelligence and understanding have become increasingly vital. Able to cover large distances, the RAF’s ISR aircraft are providing critical intelligence in the fight against Daesh, but they will also be vital to the full range of Joint operations in the future. The introduction to service of the P-8A Poseidon before the end of the decade sits alongside major investment in remotely piloted air systems (a much enhanced Protector force will succeed Reaper) – the E-3D Sentry will be upgraded, Sentinel will serve longer into the future and we will grow our Shadow fleet. The RAF also now has one of the most modern air mobility forces in the world. The introduction into service of the Voyager tanker-transport aircraft and A400M Atlas will also be complete before the end of the decade. Alongside the retention of a number of our C-130J Hercules in the special

An RAF Voyager aircraft practises refuelling a French Rafale (rear) and a British Typhoon (front). Exercises such as Griffin Strike 2016 are helping the Royal Air Force to become ‘international by design’


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forces role, the RAF’s air mobility fleet will be able to support the full range of tasks – from warfighting to humanitarian aid and disaster relief – that the Government will want to call upon.

PEOPLE But all of this equipment will be of little value if we do not have the right people to exploit and support it. The RAF is rightly viewed as having some of the best trained and most professional airmen and women in the world; they underpin the Royal Air Force’s capability. But society continues to change, and we will need to change if we are to remain successful. In particular, we must get better at recruiting from a more diverse background. The RAF may be leading the way across Defence in recruiting women, but there is much more to do. Similarly, we must also become more successful at attracting men and women from areas of society that we have not traditionally reached. This diversity will be essential to future operational success and is likely to play an important role in

generating the innovative culture that we will need to overcome future threats and challenges. To support these objectives, we will strive for much greater flexibility in our employment model and also in the mix of regulars, reserves, civilians and contractors in our workforce. We will also transform our training systems (particularly our technical training) to make them more modern, effective and efficient. Most importantly, however, we have to retain the skills of those already in the Service. As the economy improves, the ‘pull factors’ become stronger. In most instances, Defence will not be able to compete against private-sector salaries, so our focus must be on making people feel valued, engaged and ensuring that they feel that they are making a vital contribution to the Service and country. Air Vice-Marshal David Stubbs expands on the people challenge and how we will address it in the Training in Progress article.

THE CONCEPTUAL COMPONENT AND THINKING TO WIN In British Defence Doctrine, the equipment and the people are only two of the three components of fighting power. The third component – the ‘conceptual component’ – is just as vital and has, arguably, been neglected by the RAF to some extent over a decade in which the focus has been on the tactical fight in land-focused counter-insurgency operations. Without a renewed focus on the conceptual component, particularly at the operational level, we risk not making the most of the equipment we are bringing into service and not adjusting to the changing threats we face. ‘Thinking to Win’ is the programme that the RAF has put in place to reinvigorate the conceptual component. The programme aims to clarify our focus, inspire innovation and build advocates for air power. As societal and technological change accelerates, the effectiveness of air power will depend on our ability to think differently. This requires diversity of thought, a willingness to challenge received wisdom and leadership that values ideas on their merit – not on the status of the individual who dreamt them up.

CONCLUSION There is an exciting time ahead for the RAF. The challenges are significant, but so are the opportunities. The transformation of capability over the next 10 years will leave us with a highly capable modern air force. We expect to be at the forefront of operations across the globe for the foreseeable future. We intend to make the most of the investment the Government will make in air power and reward the faith that the public puts in us. This will require us to think differently, exploit the new capability, work with our friends and allies across the world, improve productivity and make the most of our talented airmen and women.


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24/06/2016 08:40


Chris Pocock talks to Air Commodore Linc Taylor – Senior Responsible Owner of the UK’s next fast-jet combat aircraft, the F-35B Lightning II – to find out what enhanced capabilities this fifth-generation stealth strike-fighter aircraft will introduce to the Royal Air Force




At the forefront of fighter aircraft technology, the F-35B Lightning II is designed for a range of mission types. The UK is due to take delivery of eight of the aircraft by the end of this year


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training base for its growing F-35A fleet. The first four RAF and RN pilots were trained there. But, together with BK-2 and BK-4, BK-1 now resides at Edwards AFB, where two RAF and one RN pilot are flying joint UK-US and UK-specific trials. Two more aircraft will join them as the process of learning how to employ the jet accelerates. “The F-35 has sensor fusion that we haven’t previously enjoyed,” notes Taylor. Compared with the Tornado strike aircraft that it replaces, the F-35 has no head-up display and no second crew member. Instead, the single pilot is presented with one large multifunction cockpit display, augmented with a very sophisticated helmet mounted display system (HMDS). Sensors feed these displays, notably an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar; an electrooptical targeting system (EOTS); a distributed aperture system (DAS); and a radar warning receiver (RWR). The APG-81 AESA is fully multimode, able to search, detect and track both air and ground targets. It provides high-resolution mapping previously found only on dedicated reconnaissance radars. The EOTS provides long-range, high-resolution infrared imagery, plus laser range-finding, designation and spot tracking. The DAS enables the pilot to virtually see through the structure of the aircraft, providing superior situational awareness. The RWR provides 360-degree location of emitters.

COOPERATIVE ENGAGEMENT All of this amounts to a lot of actionable information. Taylor says that a key element in developing tactics, techniques and procedures for the F-35 will be how to move some of it off the F-35 and onto other platforms. “There are many potential synergies. From a deep position, the F-35 could provide valuable Wg Cdr Dylan Eklund / CROWN COPYRIGHT

t’s an absolutely unique, world-beating capability. We must learn how to adapt to the fifth generation, and we must inspire and empower our people to innovate and exploit it.” That’s how Air Commodore Linc Taylor describes the task ahead for those responsible for bringing the Lockheed Martin F-35B Lightning II into UK service. Based at HQ Air Command, Taylor is the Senior Responsible Owner (SRO) for the stealthy combat jet, which is scheduled to achieve initial operating capability (IOC) at RAF Marham in December 2018. By the end of this year, the UK will have received eight F-35Bs – all of them the short take-off and vertical landing versions. Five of these will be based at Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina, where the first operational unit – No 617 Squadron, RAF – is being formed. The unit has a mix of RAF and Royal Navy (RN) personnel. Three more British F-35s are now at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB), California, where No 17(R) Squadron assumes the test and evaluation role. In both locations, British activities are tightly integrated with those of the US services. In particular, there is a very close relationship with the US Marine Corps (USMC), which declared its own IOC on the F-35B on 31 July 2015. British and American pilots fly each other’s aircraft at Beaufort, where No 617 is ‘nested’ within VMFAT-501, the USMC training squadron. Preparations for British F-35 operations got under way in 2004, when the first test pilot and 10 engineers were sent to NAS (Naval Air Station) Patuxent River in Maryland, where flight-testing of the F-35B has been mainly conducted. The UK took delivery of its first F-35B (BK-1) on 19 July 2012 at Eglin AFB, which is the main US Air Force

Initially, the UK F-35B will be equipped with AIM-120 and ASRAAM air-to-air missiles and the Paveway IV dual mode munition


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An RAF F-35B demonstrates its STOVL (short takeoff and vertical landing) capability

data to our Typhoons and RC-135W Air Seekers, for instance. We’re still at the start of this journey,” he says. Taylor is also the SRO for the Typhoon, and can see many possibilities for cooperative engagement. Then, of course, there is low observability (LO). The F-35 is designed to penetrate areas that are

THE F35 IS DESIGNED TO PENETRATE AREAS THAT ARE DENIED TO OTHER COMBAT AIRCRAFT denied to other combat aircraft by sophisticated air defence systems. “The US has been doing LO missions for 35 years, and we must now learn how to do them,” notes Taylor. But the UK is not starting from scratch in this field. Earlier in his career, Taylor completed an exchange tour on the US Air Force F-117A, and other RAF pilots have been similarly exposed to the B-2 and F-22 stealth aircraft. The LO learning task includes maintaining the F-35’s ‘stealth’ coatings, although Taylor says that this


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is much easier than on the earlier US stealth aircraft. Training RAF and RN engineers on the new type is well under way. The engineers are being sent on a phased basis to courses at Beaufort and Eglin. The front-line maintenance at Edwards of No 17(R) Squadron’s three F-35Bs is already carried out by UK personnel, although some facilities are shared with the US Air Force. Eglin is also the location for an F-35 software reprogramming laboratory that the UK will share with the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). In such a heavily software-driven aircraft – more than nine million lines of code are planned – the management of upgrades is critically important. The first two UK aircraft were delivered with Block 1B software, which integrated initial sensors and communications. BK-3 came with Block 2A software, which added networking capability. BK-1 and BK-2 are currently being upgraded to Block 2B, adding the initial weapons and DAS functionality. The fourth British aircraft has been delivered with the Block 3i standard – a re-hosting of Block 2B on new core processors, which also now provides for the definitive HMDS. From later next year, F-35s will be delivered with Block 3F software that offers full war-fighting capability. However, Taylor notes that negotiations are now under way to define the capabilities of Block 4. After that, he expects software upgrades to the F-35 every two years.


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Pratt & Whitney (P&W), one of the world’s best known aircraft-engine manufacturers, has been supplying power plants to the Royal Air Force (RAF) for more than 80 years. The ultrareliable DC-3 Dakota (C-47 Skytrain) that served with such distinction in the Second World War, and which is still in service with the RAF’s Battle of Britain Memorial Flight, is powered by two P&W Twin Wasp radial engines. The partnership continues today with P&W engines installed in RAF Agusta A109E and Bell 412EP Griffin helicopters, Beechcraft King Air B200 multi-engine trainers and the Boeing C-17A Globemaster III transport aircraft. The RAF’s next combat fast jet, the Lockheed Martin F-35B Lightning II, will maintain this tradition as it will be powered by P&W’s F135-PW-600 – a derivative of the F-22 Raptor’s F119-PW-100 turbofan. The RAF and P&W teams involved in the F-35B programme meet regularly through the supervision of Lieutenant General Christopher C Bogdan’s F-35 Lightning II Joint Program Office, based in Arlington, Virginia. They need to meet frequently because the F135-PW-600 engine that has been developed for the Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) F-35B is the most complex engine being produced for the three variants of the Lightning II. Fortunately, Mark Buongiorno who became head of the F135 engine programme in February 2015 is a big fan of the RAF: “The RAF is a great customer. We have always found them to be extremely knowledgeable, technically competent and great leaders.”


Vice President, Pratt & Whitney, F-135 engine programme

According to Buongiorno, the F135PW-600 reproduces the STOVL capability of the Harrier jump jet before it was withdrawn from RAF and Royal Navy (RN) service. The difference is that it combines a fifth-generation aircraft and associated systems with a fifth-generation engine. To do this they have partnered with Rolls-Royce, who developed the Harrier’s Pegasus engine and vertical take-off and landing capability. “When it comes to the propulsion system, it is P&W partnered with Rolls-Royce. The B model has some unique features in the lift system. There is the P&W main engine, but there is also a lift-fan and roll posts in a three-bearing swivel module, which are the enablers that facilitate the STOVL capability of the aircraft.” With the introduction of such a key platform for the RAF and RN, reliability and cost of ownership are crucial. In terms

of cost, Buongiorno explains, “We made a commitment back in 2009 to deliver this current engine and its capabilities for the price of our last product.” There has been good progress on this commitment. “Since its introduction, we have reduced the cost of production by more than half,” he confirms. In terms of reliability things appear to be equally optimistic. “Right now in 2016 we are meeting reliability milestones that we weren’t ask to meet until 2020,” says Buongiorno. He concludes by pointing out that “the RAF took possession of its first aircraft in 2012 and, today, Rolls-Royce and P&W are working together in the UK to stand up a propulsion support capability to be ready when the first aircraft arrives at RAF Marham in 2018”. It is, therefore, quite possible that the partnership between P&W and the RAF may well last for another half-century at least.





An RAF F-35B Lightning II raises its undercarriage shortly after take off

A key aspect of the F-35 software is the ambitious and completely paperless Autonomic Logistics Information System. Its development has fallen behind schedule, but Taylor says that it has “enormous strengths”. The system will communicate the mission data files and maintenance data to each aircraft. The work of No 617 Squadron will continue next year at Beaufort, with six more UK aircraft due to be received there. It will move to Marham in mid 2018, and the first flying trials on board the carrier HMS Queen Elizabeth will be conducted in the autumn of 2018. However, some of the UK’s aircraft will remain at Beaufort, in order to train British instructors for the Operational Conversion Unit (OCU) that is scheduled to form at Marham in mid 2019. After that, the second British F-35 squadron will be formed, again jointly manned by the RAF and the RN. Once carrier trials are complete, No 617 Squadron will conduct its own carrier qualifications to meet IOC (maritime) by December 2020. Unlike previous forces, the intent is that all pilots graduating from the OCU will be carrier-qualified. At IOC, three weapons will be qualified on the UK’s F-35Bs – the AIM-120 and ASRAAM air-to-air missiles,


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and the Paveway IV dual-mode ‘smart’ 500lb bomb. The very-long-range Meteor air-to-air missile will be added in Block 4, as well as the SPEAR Capability 3 mini-cruise missile. A gun pod will also eventually be carried. Critics have suggested that, although the F-35 may be a fine strike aircraft, it is not a true air-superiority

A KEY ASPECT OF THE F35 SOFTWARE IS THE AMBITIOUS AUTONOMIC LOGISTICS INFORMATION SYSTEM machine. Taylor says that some significant capabilities relating to the aircraft’s warfighting characteristics cannot be revealed in unclassified forums, and that focusing on only one aspect of performance misses the point. “I am confident of the F-35’s all-round superior warfighting capabilities,” he concludes.


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Cliff Robson Senior Vice President for the F-35 Lightning II programme, BAE Systems “The F-35 programme is extremely important to BAE Systems, to our UK, US and Australian businesses. Here in the UK, through our Military Air & Information (MAI) business, we are responsible for the manufacture of aft fuselages and horizontal/vertical tails across all three variants. We also have responsibility for the crew escape, life support and fuel systems, again across all three variants,” explains Cliff Robson, Senior Vice President for the Lightning II programme. In the UK alone, BAE Systems has around 1,700 people directly employed on the programme, and this will grow as production rates increase over the next few years and the UK takes possession of its jets. Across the Atlantic, BAE Systems’ US business provides a range of world-leading electronics to the programme, including the Electronic Warfare suite, Active Inceptor System Flight Controls and Vehicle Management Computers. Furthermore, BAE Systems Australia also has a significant involvement in the programme, supplying

titanium components for the vertical tails. It also supplies components for the aircraft’s communication, navigation and identification systems to Northrop Grumman. “The F-35 programme provides a fantastic opportunity to build on the close relationship we have with both the Royal Air Force (RAF) and Royal Navy,” says Robson. “For the past 15 or so years, we’ve moved from being a provider of aircraft, whether that’s Harrier, Hawk, Tornado or Typhoon, to a company that now works side by side with our UK customer to ensure they not only get the world-leading aircraft off our production lines, but that together we deliver a support solution that enables them to focus on what ultimately really matters – delivering the mission, whether that’s a training sortie from RAF Valley or QRA (Quick Reaction Alert) from RAF Coningsby. That is something we would welcome the opportunity to do on F-35, and, together with Lockheed Martin, we are working with the UK Ministry of Defence to develop that support solution.” You can trace BAE Systems’ relationship with the RAF all the way back to when the service was formed in 1918. That relationship has developed continually since then and no more so than in the last 15 or so years, as industry has worked more

closely with the RAF in the support world. Support and training is a vital element to the relationship as Robson explains: “I think this has proven beneficial for both industry and the RAF. Closer to home, I’d like to see a continuation of the relationship we’ve built up through our joint working on the availability contracts we’ve seen on the likes of Hawk and Typhoon, and transition that through to the UK’s F-35 fleet. “I also think that with our experience and expertise in training – gained through our Hawk and the wider training systems wrapped around it, and through our continued involvement in Typhoon training, both of aircrew and groundcrew – this is another area in which we can continue to work alongside the RAF.” Most recently, BAE Systems’ relationship with the RAF has taken a step in a slightly different direction with the company being responsible for the construction of three new facilities at RAF Marham, ahead of the UK’s F-35B fleet arriving in the UK from 2018. “RAF Marham is a station with which we have had a strong relationship over recent years, due to our work on Tornado, and I’ve no doubt that this contract is the start of a long and fruitful partnership with the station on F-35,” concludes Robson.



Simon Michell talks to Air Commodore Ian Gale about the Royal Air Force’s plan to introduce the P-8A Poseidon aircraft into service by 2020




ollowing extensive work to study the maritime threat to the United Kingdom, along with the potential solutions to address them, the 2015 Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) tasked the Ministry of Defence with acquiring nine P-8A multimission aircraft from Boeing to fill the maritime patrol aircraft (MPA) gap. If all goes to plan, the first P-8A will enter service at the end of the decade. To meet this deadline and keep costs down, the UK P-8As will be the same configuration as US Navy increment 3 aircraft. This type of commercial, off-the-


shelf acquisition is a compromise to some extent, but one that brings considerable benefits. By doing it this way, the RAF maintains complete interoperability with US Navy P-8As. Furthermore, according to Air Commodore Ian Gale, the Senior Responsible Owner for current and nascent airborne Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance capabilities, “we minimise costs, which can be driven by bespoke country solutions, and we get the fastest route to operating the system without the delays of developing new configurations… You can rest assured that no stone is being left unturned in driving down the cost of this programme.”


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Based on a modified and strengthened Boeing 737-800 commercial airframe, but with the stronger 737-900 wings, the aircraft’s primary function once operational will be to rapidly deploy at long range to detect and deter any activity by unwelcome visitors at sea – be that a submarine or surface vessel. To perform these tasks, the twin-turbofan P-8A has impressive speed, range and endurance and can, therefore, be in the air quickly and stay on station for long periods. Moreover, the aircraft is equipped, as standard, with a powerful computer-processing capability linked to state-of-the-art sonobuoys, sensors, digital communications, radar and weapon systems. One example of this is the AN/APY-10 synthetic aperture radar, which can detect objects in the

water and on the ground. The aircraft’s MX-20HD electro-optic/infrared sensor suite and electronic surveillance system are also able to operate over land and sea. This means that the aircraft can undertake long-range search-and-rescue missions around the UK coastline, as well as prosecute some overland surveillance tasks. Gale points out that, due to the open computing architecture and app-based approach, “you can configure the aeroplane to do very different tasks simply based on how you boot it up”.

The Royal Air Force will begin operating the P-8A maritime patrol aircraft by the end of this decade

INTEROPERABILITY IN MIND These capabilities will enhance and supplement the systems of other advanced future aircraft due to be delivered to the RAF over coming years. This is particularly exciting with regard to the introduction of the F-35B Lightning II, as well as remotely piloted air INSPIRATION AND INNOVATION AIR POWER 2016

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Embedded interoperability with the F-35B will enable the two aircraft to act as joint-force multipliers in the future

systems. Gale notes how the RAF is embedding a spirit of innovation and inspiration into the introduction of the new aircraft. “The P-8 has been designed from the outset with interoperability with systems like the F-35 in mind; consequently, there is significant potential for the F-35 and P-8 to act as mutual force multipliers. Beyond that, there are also some exciting possibilities for the P-8 to work with, and even control, unmanned platforms in the future. Some of these may even be launched out of the aircraft’s own sonobuoy tubes in the future.” For existing UK aircraft, the RAF is ensuring that P-8As have a seamless link with the Royal Navy’s Merlin helicopters. In terms of protecting the new carriers, the fusion of P-8A, F-35B and Merlins represents a formidable concept.

“TOGETHER, WE’RE PROUD TO BE DELIVERING THIS MUCHNEEDED CAPABILITY FOR THE UK” PROJECT SEEDCORN To preserve maritime patrol skills and knowledge over the past five years, RAF crews have been embedded in the MPA forces of allies around the world. “In 2011 and 2012 the UK arranged for experienced RAF maritime patrol operators to be seconded to other allied nations,” says Gale.


Under Project Seedcorn, aircrew were sent to Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the US. This proved to be a mutually beneficial process. “The high calibre of personnel seconded to these nations enabled the UK to make an important contribution to all of their respective MPA forces across the full breadth of requirements, including the front-line, instruction, weapons, tactics and test and evaluation. They have even won prizes in the other nations during that time,” says Gale. Crucially, the personnel that were seconded to the US Navy have been operating the P-8A Poseidon since 2012, which will stand them in good stead for the RAF P-8A units. Since the P-8A is based on the Boeing 737, it is straightforward to fly, and the modern, open architecture mission systems mean that training has been “straightforward and swift,” according to Gale. With the P-8A entry-into-service schedule now under active consideration, and with the first aircraft expected to be available before the end of this parliament, Gale has a significant task ahead of him: “My role as Senior Responsible Owner is to use the funding given to me by the Joint Forces Command and ensure that all of the things that make up a capability – for example the training, infrastructure and manpower as well as the aircraft itself – are all delivered on time and to cost.” To achieve this, he has a programme-management team at Air Command, working closely with the defence equipment and support team in Bristol. “Together, we’re proud to be delivering this muchneeded capability for the UK and look forward to the nine aircraft taking up residence at RAF Lossiemouth in Moray in a few years’ time,” he concludes.


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Michael J Gething speaks to the Royal Air Force’s Typhoon Force Commander, Air Commodore Ian Duguid, about current and future upgrades




Typhoon remains one of the world’s most capable multi-role fighters, with incremental upgrades keeping it at the forefront of technology



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improvements, such as upgrades to the radar, the EuroDASS consortium’s Praetorian defensive aids system suite (DASS) and targeting pods. P2Eb covers the integration of the MBDA Meteor advanced beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile. According to Duguid, these enhancements will not only increase threat awareness and pilot safety, but also improve Typhoon’s targeting capabilities. P3E will bring the MBDA Storm Shadow long-range cruise missile and MBDA Brimstone 2 (with a dual-mode seeker) closeair-support weapon into service on RAF Typhoons.

INTRODUCING THE AESA RADAR Duguid notes that the Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) published in November 2015 confirmed that integration of the Selex ES Captor-E radar with an advanced electronically-scanned array (AESA) – known within the RAF as the E-scan radar – would go ahead. This, he says, “replaces the mechanical scan with an electronic scanning antenna, as well as bringing with it significant processing power”. Expected in the early 2020s, this takes radar technology to a whole new paradigm. The one element of Tornado capability not yet in the Typhoon upgrade programme is a tactical reconnaissance capability to replace the existing RAPTOR (Reconnaissance Airborne Pod for Tornado) pod. The RAF is currently investigating various options, including pod-mounted or internal systems. In the interim, Duguid points out that the existing Captor radar can produce useable imagery through the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mode, and pictures can also be extracted from full-motion video produced by the Rafael Litening III advanced targeting pod. The 2015 SDSR also indicated that the RAF would form a further two Typhoon squadrons by delaying the out-of-service date (OSD) of Tranche-1 aircraft. According to Duguid, this will amount to about 30 aircraft, which will be absorbed into the overall fleet. Although they will have ground attack CPL DAVE BLACKBURN / CROWN COPYRIGHT

he RAF’s Typhoon Force comprises three units at Coningsby – 3, 11 and 29 Squadrons – as well as 41 (Reserve) Squadron, which is the RAF’s Fast Jet and Weapons Operational Evaluation Unit. There are a further three units at RAF Lossiemouth: 1, 2 and 6 Squadrons; plus 1435 Flight with four aircraft in the Falkland Islands. There is also a detachment of Typhoons on rotation at RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus, in support of Operation Shader, which has been flying operations over Iraq and Syria since December 2015. In April 2016, the RAF deployed a detachment of Typhoons to Estonia in support of the NATO Air Policing mission there. The Typhoon Force comprises some 90 operational aircraft, with another 30-plus aircraft involved in development work or various stages of maintenance and upgrade. Initially introduced as a fighter/interceptor aircraft, the planned development of Typhoon has seen it gradually assume increasing levels of groundattack capability. Some 48 aircraft are Tranche-1 standard (able to deliver Enhanced Paveway II precision-guided munitions or PGMs). The rest are the subsequent Tranche-2 aircraft, which are able to use the UK-developed Paveway IV PGW. All single-seat Typhoons are now designated FGR4 (Fighter, Ground Attack, Reconnaissance Mk.4) models, with the two-seat dual-control variants being Trainer Mks.1A and 3, depending on exact configuration. In early April 2016, the RAF accepted the first of its Tranche-3 aircraft. According to Air Commodore Ian Duguid, the focus is now on getting the Typhoon fleet through Project Centurion by December 2018, when they will become multi-role/swing-role strike fighters, able to assume the strike capabilities of the Tornado GR4. This will allow the latter’s withdrawal from service in 2019. The process involves implementation of the Phase 2 Enhancement (P2E) package, the first element of which (P2Ea) incorporates software and avionics

RAF Typhoons at Ämari air base in Estonia, part of a detachment sent to support NATO’s Air Policing mission in the country


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An enhanced Paveway II bomb, fitted to a Royal Air Force Typhoon aircraft. Some 48 Typhoons are equipped for Paveway munitions

capability, it is expected that they will be used mainly on air defence duties, such as providing Quick Reaction Alert interceptors, and also act as ‘Red Air’ (aggressors) for training purposes. The location at which they will be based is still under consideration. Despite the earlier reductions in RAF personnel strength, Duguid is optimistic that the extra aircraft will be effectively manned. There are currently 135 Typhoon pilots in the operational force, plus many others in non-operational roles. The extra personnel will be drawn from former Tornado pilots and slightly increased throughput from the flying training stream. “The extra pilots, experienced and new, will be integrated within the whole Typhoon force, thus allowing the balancing of experience levels within the force,” says Duguid.

THERE ARE 135 TYPHOON PILOTS IN THE OPERATIONAL FORCE, PLUS MANY OTHERS IN NONOPERATIONAL ROLES According to Squadron Leader Stefan Warwal, an instructor on the Typhoon operational conversion unit with 600 hours on Typhoon, the gradual introduction of upgraded capabilities has progressed smoothly. Having served with 1 Squadron during the introduction


of P1Eb software, Warwal notes the improvement of in-cockpit situational awareness, improved air-to-air capability – in part due to the Helmet-Mounted Sighting System (HMSS) – and the ability to use the Paveway IV precision-guided munition. He points out the use of the HMSS to cue an air-to-air missile (point-and-shoot) or the Litening III targeting pod camera on a ground target, adding that the radar can also cue targets. For the pilots, the arrival of Project Centurionstandard aircraft was eagerly anticipated. “They will display the information to the pilot when he needs to know it”, says Warwal, adding that the Praetorian DASS gives prioritised warnings. Looking ahead to the Tranche-3 aircraft, he confirms that the new weapons and systems, and the way they are fused together, will take Typhoon to a new level. Since SDSR 2015, the original Tranche-1 aircraft have a planned OSD of 2035, while the Tranche-2 and Tranche-3 airframes will fly to 2040 and possibly beyond. The current round of upgrades addresses the highest priorities for the Typhoon fleet but, says Duguid, “the future is developing the Tranche-2 and -3 capabilities”. These would include the tactical reconnaissance capability mentioned earlier, and the need for a new HMSS that adds an integral night-vision capability that is still to be decided. Summarising the current state of Typhoon, Duguid says, “it is delivering outstanding results on operations today, and its future, through both Project Centurion and the E-scan [AESA] radar, will ensure it remains one of the world’s most capable multi-role fighters”.


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Clemens Linden CEO, EUROJET TURBO GmbH


“On the one hand, the Royal Air Force (RAF) is a very demanding customer, but on the other, they are also a very well-educated one. This helps us immeasurably in our day-to-day interactions with each other. For example, it helps us to advance important Through Life Support (TLS) cost-saving measures related to maintenance and in-service support. It also helps us with the evolving design of the engine itself.” This is how Clemens Linden sums up the relationship between the RAF and the consortium that designs and manufactures

The EJ200 engine powers the RAF Typhoon fast jet

the EJ200 engine for the Typhoon fast jet, EUROJET TURBO GmbH. Linden is keen to highlight the strength of the relationship because, as he explains, “we are continuously looking to find new ways of helping our customers reduce their costs”. Fortunately, the EJ200 engine has distinct features which make this search easier, its modular construction being one of them. “We have 15 fully interchangeable modules, seven of which can be exchanged without the need for sending the engine to the test facility,” he says. “With previous engines, regardless of how many modules you had to replace, you had to send the whole engine back to the test house. Now seven modules can be replaced at the air base. This is a major part of the ease of maintenance that allows us to optimise in-service costs.” The baseline design of the engine was focused on reducing operating costs. One significant contributor to this is the Digital Engine Control and Monitoring Unit (DECMU), which allows precise calculation of the life usage of the engine components, resulting in up to 50% increased life usage compared to lifing methods used by other engines. Previously,

there was no way of knowing exactly what rate of usage these components had undergone. However, the DECMU has solved this problem. “Now we have exact figures instead of estimations. This has led to significant savings,” Linden explains. Linden is just as excited about the engine’s future. He is not disclosing everything, but he is willing to divulge this much: “We have some major design enhancements to the engine in the pipeline, and we have already completed some of the rig tests. We are now in a position to offer customers both an increase in the engine’s thrust range and a redesign to keep the engine on the wing for even longer.” The latter, in particular, tallies with the company’s philosophy to keep the engine on the wing for as long as possible. After all, according to Linden, “that saves money”. The strong relationship between the two organisations that has been built up over the years is a two-way street. Operations permitting, the RAF is proud to support the consortium’s member companies, which, of course, includes the iconic British engine manufacturer Rolls-Royce. “Over the past year we have been able to work with the RAF to invite Air Force officials from the Republic of Korea and Turkey to RAF Coningsby to experience the Typhoon’s maintenance concept up close and to receive an in-depth engine briefing. We are very grateful to the RAF for this,” says Linden. This sort of mutually beneficial partnership not only helps foster closer relationships between allies, it will also benefit the EUROJET members, including Rolls-Royce, if either of these two nations selects the EJ200 for their own indigenous fighter aircraft programmes.



A UNIQUE PARTNER FOR STRATEGIC LIFT For the past decade, Ruslan International and the Antonov 124-100 transport aircraft have been synonymous with peacekeeping and humanitarian missions all over the world.


uslan International Ltd is the world’s largest operator of the An-124100. The joint venture airline was formed in 2006 by Antonov Airlines and Volga-Dnepr Airlines and markets their combined fleet of 19 An-124-100 freighters to improve availability of this unique transport aircraft for customers all over the world. The An-124-100 is the world’s largest series-produced freighter aircraft but its ability to transport 120 tonnes of cargo around the globe within hours is only one of the reasons why it is such a vital component of air logistics operations. Originally designed for military use, the An-124 offers front and rear loading and is able to ‘kneel down’ to facilitate the loading of outsize and heavyweight cargoes, while wheeled vehicles can simply drive onboard. The freighter is equipped with its own onboard cranes and winches and can be effectively self-handling at locations around the world where aircraft handling equipment is not always accessible. The freighter’s cargo cabin measures 36.5m x 6.4m x 4.4m, enabling it to transport, for example, two CH-47 helicopters, four Warrior APCs or eight MRAP vehicles on a single flight. It is also used to carry the majority of other cargoes used in the field of operations, including

accommodation units, water purification systems, medical and rescue equipment. In fact, just about everything needed to sustain a mission anywhere in the world. The An-124-100’s design also means it has a 10% shorter landing distance than the Boeing 747, enabling it to touch down in many of the world’s most remote and challenging locations. Since 1990, the An-124 has been seen at over 1,200 airports in more than 190 countries. The combined expertise of the Ruslan International team and the unique operating capabilities of the An-124100 means voluminous and heavyweight cargoes that would once have taken weeks to transport by sea and road can now be moved point-to-point in a matter of hours. This is a major factor in its regular use for peacekeeping operations

or by governments and relief agencies sending humanitarian aid to help the victims of natural or man-made disasters. In such instances, Ruslan International’s fast response literally does help to save lives, such as during the Ebola crisis in Africa. In the aftermath of a natural disaster or when hostilities come to an end, Ruslan International’s presence in regions around the world continues as it delivers equipment and materials to support the rebuilding and construction processes as key infrastructure is restored. Today, used as a valuable complement to a nation’s existing freighter fleet as well as helping in times of peak activity and with exceptional loads, Ruslan International is a key strategic airlift partner supporting military projects and major commercial corporations across the globe.

Delivering the difference Ruslan International, the British heavy air cargo charter specialists, manages the world’s largest fleet of 19 Antonov An-124-100 ‘Ruslan’ freighters. Offering an unrivalled service for project cargo, we are capable of rising to any outsize or heavy air cargo challenge, safely and in the fastest possible time.



Dmitry Grishin

CargoLogicAir operates the Boeing 747-400 Freighter aircraft

Chief Executive Officer, CargoLogicAir CargoLogicAir (CLA) is a new British all-cargo airline based at London Stansted Airport. The airline commenced operations in January 2016, after being awarded its Air Operator Certificate by the UK Civil Aviation Authority. According to Dmitry Grishin, CLA’s Chief Executive Officer, the aim is to become a leader in the European outsize air cargo market by earning a reputation for quality, reliability, safety and customer service. “We may be a new airline, but we have brought together a highly experienced team of air cargo professionals with many years’ experience in the transportation and logistics industries and we see strong growth potential,” explains Grishin. When asked why CLA chose to set up their company in the United Kingdom, Grishin responds with these encouraging words, “The UK is the second largest air cargo market in Europe, with a robust economy and a high level of demand from the manufacturing and logistics sectors.” A particular sector of the market of which CLA is hoping to capture a major share is aerospace. CLA’s research suggests

that the UK is currently showing very strong growth, supporting new aircraft programmes being delivered by both Airbus and Boeing. “We have identified significant potential to become a part of those supply chains and, in doing so, help the aerospace industry deliver more aircraft more cost-effectively and on schedule. We obviously plan to grow a successful business, but we are also motivated by putting the UK back on the map for all-cargo services,” says Grishin. CLA operates a Boeing 747-400 Freighter and will shortly take delivery of a new Boeing 747-8F – the new generation of this iconic cargo aircraft. “This aircraft gives us the capacity to carry up to 135 tonnes of cargo on a single flight,” says Grishin. “These new Boeing freighters are highly efficient and more environmentally friendly than other cargo aircraft on the market. They demonstrate our commitment to providing the highest level of performance for our customers,” During its first five years of operations CLA plans to grow its B747 fleet to five freighters as they develop their charter and scheduled cargo operations.


According to Grishin, CLA chose the Boeing 747 as its flagship because of the aircraft’s all-round capability and proven reputation in the air cargo market. “There are very few cargoes we cannot carry on board the B747. Another big advantage is its nose loading door, which enables us to insert very long and heavy shipments, such as pipes for the oil and gas industry.” CLA is planning to widen its customer base beyond commercial markets to the defence sector and hopes to be able to attract military customers – particularly those involved in humanitarian aid. “One of the strong selling points of our company is that we can offer a fast response and a massive 100mt capacity to react to naturaldisaster situations and deliver much-needed aid to disaster-stricken areas,” says Grishin. “We are open for business and more than capable of providing transportation solutions for military and international organisations. A large number of the CargoLogicAir team already have considerable knowledge and expertise of working with these customers, so we understand their specific requirements and are ready to be of service.”



The Royal Air Force’s transport fleet of Atlas, C-17, C-130J and Voyager aircraft is one of the most modern in the world. Jim Winchester reveals what the added reliability of youth means to the support of operations

LIFTING THE WORLD A The RAF Airbus A400M Atlases currently available to the Air Mobility Force have been extremely busy, flying all over Europe to support ongoing operations

ir Commodore Stephen Lushington is the Commander of the RAF’s Air Mobility Force (AMF) headquartered at RAF Brize Norton. He is responsible for the RAF’s Atlas, C-17 Globemaster III, C-130J Hercules and Voyager tanker-transporter fleets based at Brize Norton, as well as the two Command Support Air Transport BAe 146 VIP aircraft and AgustaWestland 109E helicopters at Northolt. The AMF is currently recapitalising much of its fleet, going from an average age of more than 40 years to under 10, and this is leading to innovative thinking about the best way to utilise its aircraft and personnel. “The renewed fleet has encouraged new approaches to managing the AMF,” says Lushington.

“I’ve got a Voyager force right now with a dispatch rate of around 98%, and with that reliability comes a degree of confidence for the planners and the taskers to change the way they are thinking and the way we do business, about the way we control, manage and task those aircraft. “To think in the same way that we did when we had the older VC10s and the TriStars would just be wrong. We’d be negligent if we did that. What we’re doing right now is having a complete overhaul in the way that we think, the way we task, the way we manage, the way we control everything from routine training tasks in the UK to when we deploy overseas. If we didn’t, we wouldn’t be getting the best from these very capable assets.” INSPIRATION AND INNOVATION AIR POWER 2016

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Having replaced the veteran VC10 and Tristar aircraft, the Voyager delivers a 98% availability ratio


Crucially, the improved reliability and comfort of the Voyager allows RAF Brize Norton to behave differently as a station. It no longer has to deal with erratic arrival timings for aircraft that are struggling with maintenance issues due to their old age, resulting in a more reliable service. “The ground crew, the engineers, the movements team, the dispatch teams can now expect an aircraft to arrive at a certain time so they can configure and plan accordingly. Having a different, reliable aircraft touches all aspects of the way we do business at the end of the day,” says Lushington. The 14 Airbus Voyager tanker-transporters, of which the core fleet of nine is now in service, were procured under a private finance initiative deal agreed in March 2008. The contract with AirTanker

is worth approximately £10.5 billion over 27 years, amounting to some £1 million per day. That sounds a lot but, in addition to the aircraft themselves, the contract also includes training, maintenance, infrastructure and the provision of 14 Sponsored Reserve pilots and 48 qualified cabin crew. “As the person who has to deliver the capability it works very well indeed,” says Lushington. “If you imagine what that capability is delivering to the support of the Typhoons and Tornados in the middle of an operational zone, that represents value for money.” At the time of writing, five of the planned 22 Airbus A400M Atlas transporters are available to the AMF on a daily basis, while others are undergoing modifications prior to delivery. These aircraft have already been


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THE UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AN124100 Dennis Gliznoutsa Vice President of Ruslan International Ltd Ruslan International Ltd is a joint venture company, formed in 2006 by Antonov Airlines and Volga-Dnepr Airlines to market their combined fleets of 19 An-124-100 freighter aircraft. The An-124-100 is the world’s largest series-produced transport aircraft. It has a massive capacity and a range of unique features that make it perfect for the transportation of outsize and heavyweight air cargo. However, what makes this aircraft particularly special, according to Dennis Gliznoutsa, Ruslan International’s Vice President, is that it carries its own loading and unloading equipment on board, along with an ability to ‘kneel down’ the nose of the aircraft to make the cargo hold accessible to a wide range of cargoes. “It has its own on-board cranes and winches for loading,” says Gliznoutsa. “These can be especially important when operating in airports and airfields without on-site handling systems.” In addition, the aircraft was designed to fly to remote, unpaved airfields, and over the years it has successfully deployed to over 1,200 airports in more than 190 countries. According to Gliznoutsa, the An-124-100 is incredibly versatile. It can carry an impressive range of cargoes from satellites, rocket sections, fuselages, wings and aero engines to all manner of heavy-wheeled vehicles. “It regularly delivers urgent and strategic shipments for customers in the oil and gas (O&G) and energy and power (E&P) industries, as well as many other sectors.” Gliznoutsa reveals the utility of such a capability, saying, “Whereas big, heavy cargoes used to spend weeks travelling by road and sea, the An-124 is able to

The Antonov An-124-100 in ‘kneel down’ position

deliver them within a matter of hours anywhere in the world. This is especially important when we are asked, for example, to deliver an urgent piece of O&G equipment to enable a customer to resume operations and save millions of dollars a day in lost production.” However, Ruslan International is not merely an emergency service. “The diverse nature of our business means that some flights have to operate at very short notice while others, supporting big infrastructure projects, can be years in the planning before involving very intensive flight programmes.”

MILITARY EXPERIENCE Ruslan International does not just support commercial operations. On the contrary, it has extensive experience of working with military organisations. Most notably, this includes supporting peacekeeping operations in the Middle East, carrying equipment and supplies on behalf of numerous nations.


Antonov Airlines and Volga-Dnepr Airlines also have a second joint venture, Ruslan SALIS GmbH, which has provided strategic airlift services to NATO members and partner countries. “We have been proud to provide this solution since 2006, which again recognises the importance and capability of the An-124-100. For international governments, the ability to quickly and efficiently move defence and peacekeeping forces and equipment to fields of operations all over the world is a vital component in achieving their military objectives,” says Gliznoutsa. “Ruslan International Ltd and Ruslan SALIS GmbH have a proven and respected track record of providing unique airlift solutions to support military partnerships, earned over many years of operations,” says Gliznoutsa in conclusion. “We have built trust and confidence in our capabilities and we are confident the An-124-100 will be a vital part of military logistics projects and humanitarian missions for many years to come.”



THE ENLARGED 47 SQUADRON WILL INITIALLY SHARE UP TO 20 HERCULES ACROSS FOUR OR FIVE FLIGHTS extremely busy. They have now flown to 118 airports and airfields in 46 countries including the UK and are currently flying all around Europe as part of a routine Mediterranean airbridge to support ongoing operations. As an example of the new way of thinking, training requirements are being married up with live tasks, says Lushington. “There is no difference to one of these crews, if they’ve got the right

experience levels, between flying into Akrotiri with support for the ongoing operation [and] putting on a bespoke training task which is artificially made up. So why not put them on a live task?” The Atlas is still undergoing capability development. In some areas it is ahead of schedule and in others the fine detail is yet to be signed off. “We are stretching the capability while bringing it into service,” says Lushington. “We are finding the occasional glitch but we have great teams of people working hard to make sure that they understand what these are and that they are addressed and overcome. “There’s a long shopping list of things we need to do. We are just slowly working our way through it. We are making sure that we get the greatest operational agility upfront so that if there are things we’re going to move more frequently, or if there’s a big exercise or if we’ve got some coalition partners we are helping, we are prioritising those things right now.”

The C-130J has earned a reprieve from plans to retire the fleet by 2022, and will now remain with the RAF until 2035



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Richard Thompson Chief Executive Officer, Airbus Military UK The A400M Atlas is able to carry loads over intercontinental distances at high speeds and altitudes

WHAT MAKES THE AIRBUS A400M ATLAS SPECIAL? There has never been an aircraft such as the A400M available to the world’s air forces before. This is an aircraft that, for the first time, will provide true strategic and tactical capabilities in a single machine. On the one hand, it can fly intercontinental distances, carrying heavy and outsized loads, at speeds and altitudes comparable to jets. On the other, it can land at and take off from unprepared runways in distances about the same as tactical transports that carry only half its payload. These will become priceless capabilities at a time when the ability to fly from austere forward operating bases close to the scene of ground operations – military or humanitarian – is increasingly vital.

HOW WILL THE ATLAS ENHANCE ROYAL AIR FORCE CAPABILITIES? First, the Atlas is a replacement for the C-130 Hercules and it will do everything that the Hercules can, but it will also do far more. Basically, the Atlas has twice the payload and range of the C-130,

and it also has a much larger cargo hold that is the same height as that of a C-17. In fact, the Atlas can carry 80% of all the UK armed forces’ air-portable items – including a Chinook helicopter, for example – compared with 29% in the C-130J and 92% in the C-17.

HOW DOES ATLAS COMPARE WITH, OR COMPLEMENT, THE AIRBUS VOYAGER AIRCRAFT? Voyager is, above all, an air-to-air tanker, although it can also transport up to 291 troops and 45 tons of pallets on its lower deck. It has very long range – up to 8,000 nautical miles – but operates from the long runways typically used by airliners. Atlas carries 116 troops, but can use short and unprepared runways, carry large-sized loads, and perform air-dropping and paratrooping operations. So, they have very different roles, even if there is some overlap in load-carrying capability. A400M can also be used as a tanker, in fact, although the Royal Air Force (RAF) does not immediately plan to do that.

WHAT WILL THE TWO AIRCRAFT TYPES ENABLE THE RAF TO DO THAT IT COULDN’T BEFORE? Voyager is already transforming the RAF’s air mobility and tanker force. It is unquestionably the world’s most capable tanker, in large part due to its basic design that means its maximum fuel load of 111 tons is potentially available to receiver aircraft, while leaving its passenger and freight transport capability intact. Also, Atlas will deliver huge gains in day-to-day operating efficiency thanks to its basic performance, as well as a vastly enhanced mission systems capability when required.

WHAT IS THE TIMELINE FOR DELIVERIES OF THE REST OF THE VOYAGER AND ALL THE A400M AIRCRAFT? The last of the 14 Voyagers will be delivered in mid 2016. Eight of the planned Atlas fleet of 22 aircraft have been handed over already, and the detailed schedule for the remainder is under discussion with Airbus Defence and Space.




The new plan for the fleet of C-130J Hercules will see up to 14 aircraft retained until 2035

“I TAKE ORDINARY PEOPLE AND DO EXTRAORDINARY THINGS WITH THEM. I NEVER CEASE TO BE AMAZED BY THE THINGS PEOPLE DO” The Strategic Defence and Security Review, published in November 2015, saw a change in the previous plan to retire the fleet of 22 C-130J Hercules by 2022. The new plan will see up to 14 aircraft retained out to 2035, equipping No 47 Squadron as No 30 Squadron transitions to the Atlas in spring 2017. The enlarged 47 Squadron will initially share up to 20 Hercules across four or five flights, one of


them with high-end esoteric skills. “Some of the customer groups know it and like it and understand its capabilities, but they’ll get used to using the A400M in due course,” says Lushington. Despite the retention of the Hercules, “there is still that appetite and desire to migrate the parachuting capability to the A400M on the original timelines. What the extension to the C-130J gives us, however, is just a little bit of extra flexibility. It gives us more headroom. We might not choose to transfer that capability quite so quickly now.”

STRENGTH IN ITS PEOPLE Summarising the strength of the AMF – its people – Lushington concludes: “I take ordinary people and do extraordinary things with them every single day. I never cease to be amazed by the things people do, given the opportunity, the correct training, the best equipment. When you glue it all together, you get a quite phenomenal capability.”


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CELEBRATING 50 YEARS OF WORLDCLASS PARTNERSHIP 50th year of supporting the RAF C-130 aircraft. Not surprisingly, the company intends to celebrate its half-century in style, “We have some exciting plans. Rest assured we will be celebrating 50 years of world-class partnership with our partners, employees and suppliers. We will mark the occasion by recognising the work of those who have, are and will play a part in the support of the C-130 to 2035.”

A LONG TRADITION OF SUPPORT TO THE MOD Steve Fitz-Gerald CEO, Marshall Aerospace and Defence Group “Signing the £369 million contract for the continued in-service support of the Royal Air Force’s (RAF’s) C-130J fleet was a highlight for me in 2015. We are incredibly proud to have supported the Hercules fleet since 1966, and the announcement to extend the life of the aircraft in RAF service until 2035 recognises the crucial role that the C-130 plays in support of operations around the world,” says Steve Fitz-Gerald, CEO of Marshall Aerospace and Defence Group. The contract was a fitting way to end 2015, especially as 2016 marks Marshall’s

Marshall Aerospace, now in its 106th year, is one of the United Kingdom’s leading aerospace and defence companies, and one of a select few that are privately owned. The company has a wide portfolio across the commercial and defence markets, and has long been associated with the UK’s defence sector. Fitz-Gerald reinforces this relationship, saying: “We are proud to be delivering and supporting national security critical and operationally sovereign services to UK defence.” Beyond the C-130 work, Marshall Aerospace and Defence Group also supplies fuel tanks for the P-8 Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft, nine of which will be delivered to the RAF over the rest of the decade. This activity is another

success story for the company. “We have just delivered our 400th auxiliary fuel tank in support of Boeing’s P-8 programme. Since 2012, every auxiliary tank has been delivered on time and we were honoured in 2014 to have been awarded with a ‘Supplier of the Year Award’,” says Fitz-Gerald. However, defence aerospace is not the only activity that Marshall excels in. The company was awarded a contract in September 2015 to provide a high-fidelity replica of the Ajax driver’s compartment, as part of the driver training modules for the British Army’s brand-new armoured reconnaissance vehicle. This work, which is being undertaken in collaboration with Thales subsidiary XPI Simulation Ltd, highlights Marshall’s ability to provide complex engineered solutions. FitzGerald and his colleagues are hoping that this will become a growth market for the company. “We expect this capability to be an area of opportunity for us going forward and it is exciting for us to be involved in another major MOD programme to support our Armed Forces on land, at sea and in the air,” he says. Beyond this activity, Marshall excels in another niche capability: that of mobile medical facilities. “The UK MOD has taken delivery of a mobile hospital system supplied by the company to enhance its operational medical capability as part of Joint Force 2025,” Fitz-Gerald reveals. Marshall is enjoying success in overseas trade as well. The company is expanding its export portfolio and has won a 2016 Queen’s Award for Enterprise in the International Trade category. The award recognises how, during the course of three consecutive financial years, Marshall saw an increase of almost 70% in its international trade.



Chief of the Swedish Air Force Major General Mats Helgesson reveals how the Meteor missile is changing Swedish air defence capabilities



ith a population of just under 10 million people, Sweden is a relatively small but highly technologically advanced nation. Its air force – Flygvapnet in Swedish – operates just under 100 JAS 39C/D Gripen multi-role fast jets, with about a quarter of those in the training role. The country is a member of NATO’s Partnership for Peace Programme, and is very active on the international stage. The Swedish Air Force participated in Operation Unified Protector to support the no-fly zones over Libya in 2011, and


Swedish Armed Forces, including Flygvapnet personnel, participated in the International Security Assistance Force mission in Afghanistan. Flygvapnet’s main combat platform, the Saab JAS 39 Gripen, is a highly effective, fourthgeneration fighter/attack aircraft that is being continually upgraded. The aircraft has enjoyed export success with the Czech Republic, Hungary, South Africa and Thailand, and the Brazilian Air Force has recently put in an order for 36 JAS 39NG/F jets. It is also the first aircraft to put the MBDA Meteor beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile into service.


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This ramjet-powered air-defence weapon system, described by some as a game-changer, has the longest range of any air-to-air missile on the market and the largest no-escape zone available. As such, it has the ability to transform an air force’s capabilities. Chief of the Swedish Air Force Major General Mats Helgesson is excited about the missile’s introduction onto the Gripen, and explains that Sweden’s commitment to the programme extends a long way. “When we looked into the future some 15 years ago we came to the conclusion that we had a need for an upgraded air-to-air capability,” says Helgesson. “What we needed was longer range with a more robust solution for the future, based on the area surrounding Sweden where we are charged with undertaking air

defence.” However, the country didn’t want to just buy a missile off the shelf; it wanted to participate in its design and development. “So, 15 years ago, we decided to join the MBDA development with France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK on the Meteor missile.”

The Swedish Air Force’s Saab JAS 39 Gripen was the first aircraft to put the MBDA Meteor beyond-visualrange air-to-air missile into service

UPGRADING THE GRIPEN Helgesson is very pleased with the way things have progressed since then. “Being part of the international partnership has been a success,” he says. “We have been in many different consortia and joint ventures in the past. Some have been successful, others not quite so, but this is a good example of how it should be run. It has been more or less on time, as well as more or less spot on in terms of the finances, so we are happy.” For the Flygvapnet, in particular, things have gone extremely well and the missile has been installed and INSPIRATION AND INNOVATION AIR POWER 2016

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tested and has now gone operational. Its introduction has coincided with a raft of other changes to the Swedish Air Force’s Gripen. “We are getting it into operational service right now, this spring, with the introduction of a new software version of the Gripen,” says Helgesson. “This version 20 is a big upgrade. There are lots of different new systems involved, like the small diameter bomb, full implementation of Link 16, radar upgrades and, of course, the Meteor missile itself.” When asked about the transformation that the new upgrade delivers, Helgesson says: “When you look

“THE INCREASED RANGE GIVES US A TACTICAL ADVANTAGE” at what we arm the Gripen with, both the Meteor and the IRIS-T, I think we have got a really good weapons suite. Meteor is a radar-guided missile and it is equipped with a ramjet engine. It has a long range. It has a larger no-escape zone than earlier missiles and it also has a two-way data link that offers the pilot better situational awareness. Basically, this gives us better control of the battlefield meaning we can take fewer risks. Plus we can use different sorts of tactics that do



The new E version of the Gripen is in production, and will come with an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar

not necessarily include the extreme height or extreme speeds that we have used with previous missiles.” When asked whether having such a capable new missile translates into reducing the number of aircraft required to fulfil the Flygvapnet’s tasks, Helgesson is categorical: “No. I wouldn’t say that. There is no direct correlation. The increased range gives us a tactical advantage, but not the need for fewer aircraft.” The next big update for the Gripen will be the introduction of an active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, which is being readied for the new E version of the aircraft. “At the moment we are integrating the Meteor missiles with the current radar system,” says Helgesson. “However, with the next generation of AESA radar on the next generation of the Gripen, we will have increased integration and, of course, increased performance.”


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FLEET Air Vice-Marshal Julian Young explains to Anne Paylor how upgrading the technology on the Royal Air Force’s helicopter fleets gives a new lease of life to the aircraft, making them cheaper to run and enhancing their operational capabilities

T With a fleet of 60 Chinook helicopters, the RAF is one of the biggest operators of this remarkable rotary-wing aircraft

he RAF’s current Rotary Wing Strategy dates back to 2009, when the decision was taken to enhance the capability and extend the life of the existing Puma and Chinook helicopter fleets. The strategy helped inform the UK Government’s 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) and proposed a plan for the RAF’s helicopter force in the light of extensive operational experience at the time. The SDSR reinforced the strategy’s acknowledgement that there was a continued need for the capability, but trimmed some of the numbers involved to meet tough affordability challenges, in line with overall defence priorities. At the time of the SDSR, the RAF operated four fleets of helicopters: Merlins, Pumas, Chinooks and Sea Kings. The entire fleet of 30 Merlins has since

been transferred to the Royal Navy Commando Helicopter Force, and the Sea King search and rescue helicopters were retired from service on 31 March 2016. As a result, the RAF now operates just two helicopter fleets: Pumas and Chinooks. The SDSR reduced the Puma fleet from 28 to 24 aircraft and, following the loss of one aircraft in October 2015, the Puma fleet now stands at 23. The number of Chinooks, however, has increased to 60 with the addition of 14 new Mark 6 helicopters, the last of which was delivered in December 2015.

A NEED TO UPGRADE “At the time of the SDSR, we were at the tail end of operations in Iraq and in the throes of the Afghanistan conflict – two theatres in which helicopters proved to be a primary requirement,” INSPIRATION AND INNOVATION AIR POWER 2016

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explains Air Vice-Marshal Julian Young, Director Helicopters, Defence Equipment and Support. “However, these particular conflict arenas highlighted some of the frailties of the fleet, both in terms of capability and age.” The Puma, for example, was underpowered for the high temperatures in which it was operating, and the hot and dusty conditions were creating a heavy operational workload for the aircrews of both helicopter fleets, particularly at night and in poor visibility.

EXTENSIVE MODIFICATION In addition, the primary structure cracking caused by continual vibration running through the airframe, which is associated with all rotary-wing aircraft operations, was becoming more frequent and troublesome to repair, rendering the fleets less reliable. They needed extensive modification to address both safety and capability issues, and to extend their operational life. The cost was inevitably going to be high, but substantially less than the cost of brand-new helicopters.

“TO THINK AN AIRCRAFT WE BOUGHT IN 1980 WOULD FLY THROUGH TO 2060 IS INCREDIBLE, ESPECIALLY FOR A HELICOPTER” The Pumas have been fitted with new and more powerful engines, which have also given them extended range, greater speed, and a 25% reduction in fuel consumption, despite a 35% increase in thrust. Both aircraft types also needed a range of structural enhancements to make them stronger and more resistant to cracking, plus a host of systems and technology upgrades. Crucially, both helicopter fleets have been retrofitted with glass cockpits to ease aircrew workload, especially in conditions of reduced visibility, and a digital automatic flight control system that Young describes as a “gamechanger” in terms of capability. Both of these systems were already fitted to the new Mark 6 Chinooks. “The SDSR reinforced the Rotary Wing Strategy decision in effect to ‘recapitalise’ the fleet, taking what we had already – which was performing well and in many instances was world-leading – and upgrading it to enhance operational capability and extend its working life,” says Young. “The Chinook, for example, is operated by many countries across the world, is an amazingly capable aircraft, has great utility, and a really strong proven track


record in operations. What else would we have bought to replace it? What we have been able to achieve is to fit a huge variety of technical enhancements to what were relatively old airframes in some instances.”

A NEW LEASE OF LIFE The current out-of-service date for the Chinook stands at 2040, but Young points out that the United States is planning to extend the aircraft’s operational life out to 2060 or 2070 because the helicopter has been so successful. He says that plans being drawn up to extend the RAF Chinook fleet’s operational serviceability beyond 2040 would probably in time include a mix of refurbishing or upgrading some of the newer helicopters and replacing some of the older aircraft.


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“To think an aircraft we bought in 1980 would fly all the way through to 2060 is incredible, especially for a helicopter,” says Young. “The trick will then be to try and maintain the fleet in harmony and make sure we do not create fleets within fleets. Going through a transition, we will always end up with some marks that are slightly different from others, but we need to make them as similar as we can to reduce through-life costs and maximise value for money for the taxpayer, as well as meet crucial operational requirements.” The planned out-of-service date for the Puma is 2025, but Young expects that, like the Chinook, its operational life will be lengthened. “It’s a really capable aircraft and there is nothing to stop it flying

successfully beyond 2025. Unless there is some significant or substantial change in the context or environment, why discontinue operating something with which you have such a wealth of experience?” Young points out that the immediate customer – Army Command (the budget for helicopter operations across the services resides with the Army) – was “delighted with the outcome and the aircraft they have got, and the new capabilities that they bring. Joint Helicopter Command is a tough customer and seems to be pleased with what we have provided.”

The RAF’s fleet of 23 Pumas has been fitted with new engines that increase the helicopters’ power and range

Air Vice-Marshal Young was promoted to Air Marshal in April 2016 and now is Chief of Materiel (Air), managing the RAF’s fixed-wing fleets INSPIRATION AND INNOVATION AIR POWER 2016

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SPYDR II—The Rapid Aircraft Payload Deployment System (RAPDS) L-3 Mission Integration’s next-generation architecture, RAPDS, provides mission-tomission reconfiguration to swiftly adapt to changing threats. RAPDS achieves true plugand-play capability by accommodating current and future sensors and can be tailored to meet our customers’ most demanding needs in a matter of hours versus days.

Aerospace Systems

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Being able to stalk your adversary to gain vital information about their movements and intentions has always been part of the art of warfare. The ability to do this from the air and space is one of the Royal Air Force’s unique strengths. Alan Dron asks the RAF’s ISTAR Force Commander, Air Commodore Dean Andrew, how it is done


RAF’s ISTAR Force Commander. “There is going to be plenty of work for people in the ISTAR industry. Our aim is to provide ‘intelligent understanding’ for the commander.” The unmanned component will increase substantially as a result of last autumn’s announcement of the intention to acquire at least 20 Protector unmanned vehicles.

The RAF Shadow R1 provides front-line troops with vital real-time battlefield intelligence


he Royal Air Force’s Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Reconnaissance (ISTAR) capability has grown steadily in recent years as both manned and unmanned aircraft types have been added to the inventory. That growth is set to continue. “It’s the growth place to be,” explains Air Commodore Dean Andrew, the


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NEW CAPABILITIES ENHANCE PROTECTOR PROGRAMME Dr Jonny King Director, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems UK


The 2015 Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) marked a turning point in the United Kingdom’s defence posture. After a period of disinvestment, more resources were to be made available to the armed forces and the wider security sector. For General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) the timing was perfect, as the Protector programme will replace the Royal Air Force’s (RAF’s) fleet of 10 Reaper (Predator B) remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) with more than 20 of a new, enhanced version. These new aircraft would introduce a

step-change in capability. “We have been developing a new generation of Predator B, along with its ground control station, which will meet UK and NATO certification standards, enabling the aircraft to operate within civilian airspace,” explains Jonny King, Director, GA-AS UK. Key to this capability is the future insertion of a sense-and-avoid suite inside a remodelled front fuselage that can incorporate GA-ASI’s own Due Regard Radar. This would give the aircraft situational awareness and tell it whether it is flying near any other aircraft, so that it can alter course. The system has been in development for some time and is being tested on NASA’s own Predator B aircraft, the Ikhana. On current plans, the new

The Protector programme will provide the RAF with a fleet of improved remotely piloted aircraft capable of flying within civilian airspace, such as the Certifiable Predator B

aircraft will be fielded with ‘cooperative’ sense-and-avoid based on transponder information from local traffic, to allow it to fly in controlled or segregated airspace. The exciting future developments, though, could open up the prospect of much wider airspace access and big improvements in manned aircraft safety. There are a number of other enhancements to the new Predator B, making it a more capable platform. “It will have a larger wing and longer endurance, and it will also be able to take off and land automatically,” says King. The longer wing introduces one additional hard point per wing for attaching sensors or weapons and, whereas the current Reapers can stay in the air for over 20 hours depending on what equipment they are carrying, the new ones will be able to fly up to 50% longer, reducing the cost of operating the fleet. The automatic take-off and landing system will add to these savings in the cost of ownership, as the aircraft operators will not need to be trained to undertake these tasks. According to King, the baseline avionics suite is similar to the existing Reaper’s systems, but the new aircraft eventually will be able to carry the UK Brimstone and Paveway IV precision munitions, making it a formidable strike platform. Its longer range and future development possibility to fit a maritime radar should also enable it to work alongside the new P-8 aircraft when they enter service at around the same time as the RAF Protector, which will be early in the new decade. “The flight of the prototype will be before the end of 2016. Then, the first UK aircraft can be available for test and evaluation before the end of 2018,” confirms King.




The ISTAR force is normally based at RAF Waddington, although at the time of writing it was dispersed to several bases as the Lincolnshire airfield underwent major runway reconstruction. Four manned types now make up the force: the Boeing E-3D Sentry airborne warning and control system (AWACS); the Sentinel intelligencegatherer with its distinctive airborne stand-off radar (ASTOR) in a large ‘canoe’ fairing beneath the fuselage; the Shadow tactical aircraft for disseminating real-time intelligence to ground troops; and Airseeker, for signals intelligence work. Developments in the international arena have led to a change of course for the Sentry, says Andrew. “In earlier budget rounds around 10 years ago, the decision was made that Sentry would gracefully retire

SHADOW R1 “GIVES A FANTASTIC CAPABILITY THAT FOCUSES ON TACTICAL FIGHTING” from service before too long, as the threat was no longer high-end warfighting. What has happened is that the aircraft has been used for de-confliction and control. It has moved from identifying an enemy aircraft coming towards us; in Syria there’s a different requirement to have AWACS there, to stop aircraft crashing into each other. We will now keep six platforms

in service until 2035. There The last of three RAF Airseeker are plans for a midlife update aircraft is due for in the 2020-25 timeframe.” delivery in 2017. The Airseeker The Sentinel, which has already seen uses its advanced radar to operational service build up a detailed picture against Daesh in Iraq and Syria of movements on the ground, was intended to be phased out of service around now, but has been given two reprieves due to the value of the intelligence it can gather. Recent activities have included basing in West Africa to help French and Nigerian forces deal with Islamist extremists. The aircraft are now funded until 2021, after which the platform may be re-roled. Shadow R1, a converted Beechcraft Super King Air, “is very much a tactical platform that gives a fantastic capability that focuses on tactical fighting, which is where it works with forward troops and provides them with real-time intelligence,” says Andrew. Six are currently in service.

NIMROD SUCCESSOR Finally, two Boeing RC-135W Airseekers operate in the highly classified signals intelligence role, with the third and final example due to join the force in mid 2017. The two aircraft in service have an initial operating capability that allows them to be sent on active operations as required. Successors to the Nimrod R1, the Airseekers are effectively identical to the US Air Force’s 17 Rivet Joint aircraft and will benefit from the US ‘spiral upgrade’ programme for the aircraft. The RAF will contribute to this continuous improvement programme. “This means we effectively put in three-twentieths of the cost but get twenty-twentieths out,” says Andrew. INSPIRATION AND INNOVATION AIR POWER 2016

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The RAF’s unmanned vehicle fleet, meanwhile, is planned to grow with the arrival of the new Protector platforms. Originally known as the Scavenger programme, Prime Minister David Cameron renamed the system when he unveiled the government’s defence review in late 2015.



The phasing-out of Sentinel has twice been postponed due to the valuable intelligence it can gather

Protector is likely to be based on the US-built General Atomics Predator B, of which 10 have served in the RAF since 2007 as the MQ-9 Reaper. The new aircraft will be certified to fly in recognised civilian airspace, unlike its predecessor, which can only be used in an operational zone or over the sea. The service hopes to have an initial operating capability for Protector by 2021. “Without going into too much

detail, it’s a much better collection platform,” says Andrew. “It will have a much better ability to soak up intelligence or to gather signals and take pictures. It will also generally be a much more intelligent platform. “If you think of intelligent computers that are able to learn what they are looking for and build up their own experience, this will be similar. It will also be able to process some information while airborne. The skills required from its crews will be the same as we have now, but the way we operate the platform will be very much an intelligence-led capability.” Andrew concludes by explaining the force set-up under which the new aircraft will operate. “The way we set up the squadron will be different. At the moment, we have a mission operator and pilot, with intelligence oversight. The next generation will be much more intelligence-led. The platform will be tasked much more on intelligence requirements. It will also be better than the current platform in contested environments, with a better degree of survivability.” As intelligence becomes ever more important in current and future operations, the RAF is developing an enviable force of ISTAR manned and unmanned platforms that is able to meet the growing demands for knowledge.



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Ron Cook CBE Ron Cook CBE is the Senior Vice President running the UK business of global aerospace, communications and electronic systems company L-3. He has a great passion for the Royal Air Force (RAF) – not surprising given he retired from the service as an Air Commodore and is justifiably proud that, in the 11th year of his current tenure, L-3 is working more closely than ever with the UK Armed Forces. In that regard, Cook is keen to promote the great and varied activities of his business. “In the first instance, we are delighted to have delivered ahead of time and schedule the first two RC-135 aircraft as part of the Airseeker Programme for the RAF,” he says. “The third aircraft, which completes the platform delivery schedule, arrives next summer.” The RC-135 is a manned electronic surveillance aircraft equipped with a variety of sensors, giving the RAF a high level of situational awareness and both tactical and strategic intelligence. In so doing, it performs a critical role in satisfying defencewide decision-making requirements. Cook is keen to focus on this surveillance theme, outlining L-3’s goals


Corporate Senior Vice President, London Operations, L-3

L-3 Link Simulation & Training Gray Eagle Composite Maintenance System Trainer

with regard to small, manned Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) requirements, both in the UK and internationally. He says: “Based on our experience of the design and production of over 66 King Air 350 ISR-equipped aircraft, L-3 Mission Integration has developed a Rapid Aircraft Payload Delivery System (RAPDS) that allows the rapid reconfiguration of sensors and upgrade of capability in response to new threats and opportunities.” Cook explains that there is far more to L-3 in the UK than mission integration, with, for example, the company’s expertise in Total Training Solutions. This entails ‘end-to-end’ pilot training and simulation, continuing to expand and address the expected global shortage of trained airline pilots. With Commercial Training Solutions (Link UK and CTC Aviation), L-3 has a global offering in this field, which includes cadet selection, training, resourcing, simulation and recurring training. In this regard, Cook is also

particularly focused on growing L-3’s military capability in the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) area in the UK and Europe, saying: “L-3 is already the prime contractor on the USAF’s Predator Mission Aircrew Training System program, the first high-fidelity simulation systems ever used by a US military service. Link Simulation & Training also jointly operates the UND/L-3 UAS Training Center with the University of North Dakota to offer MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper UAS training opportunities for college students and US Government agencies. “Further, we are providing Sinclair Community College with the first-ever UAS Classroom Training Suite, comprising 10 student stations designed to educate students and industry participants in the operation and application of UAS platforms. Additionally, our acquisition of CTC Aviation now enables us to offer an end-to-end training and simulation solution to meet the RAF’s future training for its Reaper and Protector crews.”



Air Commodore Dawn McCafferty, Commandant of the Air Cadet Organisation, tells Simon Michell how the organisation is marking its 75th anniversary this year and looks to the future of this world-leading youth organisation



HRH the Duchess of Cambridge is the new Royal Patron, Honorary Air Commandant of the Air Cadet Organisation


he Air Cadet Organisation (ACO) launched the 75th anniversary of the Air Training Corps (ATC) in style, with a celebratory service in London at St Clement Danes, the central church of the RAF, followed by a reception at the Royal Courts of Justice, attended by their new Royal Patron, Honorary Air Commandant Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Cambridge. The Duchess expressed her delight at becoming the new Royal Patron, succeeding His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh, who had performed the role for 63 years. “I believe that the Air Cadets bring genuine benefit to our young people and, indeed, wider society. The cadets offer countless opportunities to develop leadership, teamwork skills and community spirit, as well as self-confidence borne of testing boundaries in a safe but exciting environment,” the Duchess said. Cadets and staff alike were delighted to welcome the Chief of the Air Staff and other senior leaders to their launch event, held on 7 February. On the same day, the ACO Honorary Ambassador, Group Captain Carol Vorderman VR(T), opened a new exhibition at the RAF Museum Hendon to mark the anniversary. Vorderman expressed great enthusiasm for the cadets and the staff who support them: “I just love working with the air cadets. They are so smart, so disciplined, so motivated and so funny! I am honoured to be able to help promote the great work of the ACO and to help raise the profile so they can attract more adult volunteers, who are the lifeblood of the organisation and without whom the cadets would not be able to do all the amazing activities on offer.”

More events are planned to raise awareness of the organisation and to stimulate recruitment of adult volunteers and cadets, as well as raise funds to support the cadet experience. The main event is the 75th anniversary parade and music extravaganza, taking place at RAF Cranwell, home to HQ Air Cadets, in August. Thousands of cadets and staff will attend a formal parade in front of the College Hall Officers Mess, as well as a reception and a concert featuring the ACO’s three national bands, individual performers and the first appearance of the ACO National Choir. Throughout the summer, air cadets will be participating in a sports challenge, a crosschannel swim and a torch relay across the United Kingdom. Most wings will be hosting major parades and events to mark the anniversary, and there are plans to plant ATC woods around the UK. There are also plans to bury a time capsule at RAF Cranwell, to be opened at the ATC’s centenary.

AIR SHOW PARTICIPATION Meanwhile, Air Cadet participation at the main air shows will be enhanced, with thousands due to attend the Royal International Air Tattoo and many more supporting Cosford and Farnborough International Air Show. A cadet presence at the Edinburgh Royal Military Tattoo is also being arranged and plans are progressing for a legacy trust to support cadets as they transition to full-time employment. Commandant of the ACO Air Commodore Dawn McCafferty says of the plans: “Our aim is to remember where we have been, reflect on where we are going


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and to recruit for the journey. Key objectives of the anniversary year are to celebrate success, increase our footprint and raise funds. Every cadet and member of staff should be able to get involved in some way in the 75th celebrations and we very much see this as a rehearsal for the RAF’s own celebrations in 2018, when the service will celebrate its centenary.”



McCafferty is confident in the future of the organisation and believes it will continue to evolve to reflect the needs of the current and next generation of air cadets. As part of its 2020 strategy, the organisation’s senior leadership has conducted comprehensive reviews of key elements of the Air Cadet experience, including target shooting, camps and flying and gliding to ensure that these core activities are sustainable within existing resources into the longer term. There are significant changes planned for the delivery of cadet gliding and air experience flying, but the overall experience of flying will remain at the heart of the Air Cadets’ activities. In

Being a cadet can also have a positive influence on a young person’s performance at school or college, with better attendance, higher standards of discipline and greater academic achievement all linked to the experiences they enjoy in the service. The Cadet Expansion Programme, to which the current government is committed and which also enjoys strong cross-party support, seeks to grow the number of cadet units in state schools across the UK, with the aim of having 500 cadet units parading by 2020. The ACO currently has more than 200 RAF sections in the Combined Cadet Force and will be playing its part in the expansion programme. An emerging theme of the ACO 2020 strategy is to support the transition from cadets into the world of tertiary education, apprenticeships and full-time employment, be that in the military or other fields. Significant efforts have been expended to create a meaningful cadet CV, which translates a cadet’s skills and experiences into language a university or prospective employer is able to recognise. Moreover, work is ongoing to create a 75th anniversary RAF Cadet Development Trust, which will explore ways to secure bursaries, apprenticeship places and sponsorship for former cadets. The ACO is working with defence industry partners to promote the unique skill set offered by high-achieving cadets and is keen to ensure that every cadet has the best possible chance to build a successful career.


Group Captain Carol Vorderman VR(T), the ACO’s Honorary Ambassador, helps promote the organisation and raise funds


line with this, the ACO will retain its unique offering to young people: the opportunity to become airborne, visit RAF units and support the UK’s largest air shows. Innovation lies at the heart of the cadet syllabus, which will soon provide opportunities for STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) and cyber training. New aerospace camps are being trialled and the use of flight simulators is being increased following generous donations from the RAF Charitable Trust. Music is a growth area, with the ACO now boasting three national-level cadet bands: marching, concert and pipes and drums. A new national choir will also perform for the first time this year. Alongside these developments, the Duke of Edinburgh Award scheme, celebrating its 60th anniversary, continues to thrive. It is widely recognised that membership of a uniformed youth organisation can help young people to develop skills and gain experiences that will better prepare them as future citizens and employees.

McCafferty emphasises that there are ample opportunities for adults to volunteer to support the next generation, and points out that previous military service or experience of working with young people is not essential. Volunteers can support the Civilian Committees, act as Civilian Instructors, or assume uniformed staff roles as either senior noncommissioned officers (SNCOs) or officers. Appropriately qualified personnel can volunteer as chaplains or as gliding or AEF instructors. Many adult volunteers speak of their enormous sense of personal satisfaction gained from helping a young person achieve their potential, and also comment that they have gained valuable skills and qualifications that have helped them in their primary employment. Anyone wishing to volunteer with the ACO is invited to contact their local squadron.. In reaching their 75th anniversary, the Air Cadets continue to inspire young people in the virtues of service and love of aviation that their service has fostered in them. Never have the skills that cadets gain been more relevant to modern society, and the innovative approaches the ACO is taking to ensure that skills are transferable to the adult workplace will mean that ex-cadets will lead the RAF and industry into an exciting and challenging future.


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Wing Commander Andy Green reveals how the RAF is supporting the BLOODHOUND SuperSonic Car World Land Speed Record attempt and how this engineering adventure is inspiring the next generation of science and technology students


The performance of the BLOODHOUND SuperSonic Car (SSC) is certainly going to boast some impressive figures. With more than 200 kilonewtons (kN) – equivalent to 45,000lb – of thrust, BLOODHOUND will be the most powerful land vehicle in history. Acceleration of 2g (twice the force of gravity) and deceleration of 3g may not sound like much in aviation terms, but think about it as a car: 3g is the equivalent of 60mph to zero in one second. From a standing start, BLOODHOUND will accelerate to 1,000mph, cover the measured mile in 3.6 seconds, and then come to rest again 12 miles away, just

BLOODHOUND SSC will attempt to drive at 1,000mph and beat the existing world land speed record by more than 200mph


nspiring young people to explore the exciting world of science and technology is a core aim of project BLOODHOUND – an attempt to set the most remarkable world land speed record of all time. Working towards this aim is a Bristol-based team of aerospace and motorsport engineers that is building the ultimate straightline racing car. This project is pushing back the boundaries of physics, with a car designed to reach the limit of modern technology – estimated to be around Mach 1.4 at ground level. In layman’s terms, that’s just over 1,000mph.


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BLOODHOUND’S TARGET OF 1,000 MPH IS FASTER THAN ANY JET FIGHTER HAS EVER BEEN AT GROUND LEVEL two minutes after brakes off. That’s the same as travelling from Westminster to Heathrow in 120 seconds. As the first land-speed-record car of the digital age, BLOODHOUND SSC will be streaming live video and data during every run, enabling the biggest live online audience in history to take part in this extraordinary engineering adventure. The BLOODHOUND SSC is constructed using a mix of a Formula One-style carbon fibre cockpit at the front of the car, combined with more conventional


aerospace metal structures for the rear of the vehicle. Jet power comes from a used EJ200 engine from the Eurofighter test programme, which is now surplus to Ministry of Defence (MOD) requirements. However, BLOODHOUND’s target of 1,000mph is faster than any jet fighter has ever been at ground level, including Typhoon. Taking the EJ200 above its design speed has given the Rolls-Royce support team plenty of extra homework, but they remain confident that this remarkable engine will survive the experience. The jet engine will need some help, though, with additional thrust from a prototype ‘Nammo’ hybrid rocket being developed for the European Space Agency. BLOODHOUND is being used by the UK Government in several ways. In conjunction with the Department for Education, the project is being studied as part of the national science curriculum, which is already delivering the long-term goal of inspiring the next generation of young scientists and engineers. Some two million young people in the UK have already engaged with the BLOODHOUND project, with many more joining in around the world. The global appeal of this project is also being


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The SSC project is a real team effort, comprising a range of technical and engineering skills

Another area in which RAF experience is proving invaluable is in the installation and operation of the EJ200 Typhoon engine. BLOODHOUND has some of the most highly skilled aerospace and motorsport engineers, but none of them have ever used a supersonic military jet engine before. Step forward Chief Technician Tony Dineen from the Typhoon engine bay at RAF Coningsby. ‘Typhoon Tony’, as he is known at BLOODHOUND, is providing both jet-engine expertise and leadership to the team. His job is to ensure safe and successful use of the world’s best military jet engine.


exploited by the GREAT Britain campaign, making BLOODHOUND SSC one of only 10 high-speed vehicles to carry the GREAT campaign logo. Given that the other nine are the RAF’s aerobatic team, the Red Arrows, BLOODHOUND is in the very best company.

BLOODHOUND’s jet engine will receive additional thrust from a prototype hybrid rocket being developed by the European Space Agency

Of course, the vehicle’s technology is only part of the challenge. The BLOODHOUND team is planning to deploy to South Africa with the most complex and highperformance land-speed-record vehicle in history, and safely test it in stages up to 1,000mph. Responsibility for this falls to BLOODHOUND’s Team Manager, Squadron Leader (Retired) Martyn Davidson, who will draw on his RAF engineering background to manage this huge operation. Part of his remit will be the command and control of the team in South Africa, and in this he will be very ably assisted by BLOODHOUND’s ‘Run Controller’, RAF air traffic controller Flight Lieutenant John MacLeod. MacLeod will control a 12-mile long ‘runway’, managing 50-plus speaking units on several different frequencies. This will include team operations, support services, media, emergency services and local security support from the police and military, as well as numerous local VIPs. For a 12-mile track, the curvature of the earth is a major factor. The far end is more than 20 metres below the horizon, so most of the control will have to be procedural when everything is out of sight. This is deployed battlespace management at its very best, which is why BLOODHOUND approached the RAF to request the best expertise available.



None of this would be happening without key technical support from the RAF. For example, BLOODHOUND SSC’s tail fin is going to experience airspeeds of over 1,000mph (almost 900 knots), making it the hardest-working aerodynamic fin in history. Some 137 bespoke components on the two-metre-tall fin make up a structure that must be accurate to less than five minutes of arc (one 12th of a degree, or about two millimetres from front to back). This is the highest level of aerospace precision, providing a challenge even for 71 (Inspection and Repair) Squadron at RAF Wittering. A small team of specialist engineers from the squadron constructed BLOODHOUND’s tail fin last year, and at the same time gained valuable professional training working with the BLOODHOUND design engineers. INSPIRATION AND INNOVATION AIR POWER 2016

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Training Corps (ATC) to get involved directly during the media and public open days, when thousands of spectators will come to see the world’s fastest car being tested. The cadets will not be joining the spectators, though, as they will be providing crowd management and organisational support for the event. This high-profile and highly responsible task will enable the local Wing Headquarters to offer the cadets another unique personal development activity, adding to the vast range already being delivered through the ATC. With the help of the cadets, BLOODHOUND is aiming to complete its UK test programme at Newquay in 2017.


Wing Commander Andy Green OBE is set to drive BLOODHOUND SSC into the record books

In addition to the Team Manager, the Run Controller, the Engine Manager and the technical build support, the RAF is supplying the driving skills as well. Wing Commander Andy Green, fast-jet pilot and current holder of the world land speed record, will be driving BLOODHOUND SSC. Initial preparation for the record run will be carried out in the UK. Testing of the car will take place at Newquay airport, part of which was formerly RAF St Mawgan, with ‘low-speed’ runs of at least 200mph. This will allow Davidson, MacLeod and Dineen to train the team under relatively close supervision, before deploying to South Africa. It will also enable the Air



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Jenny Beechener talks to Group Captain Gavin Hellard, Royal Auxiliary Air Force Inspector, who offers an insight into the growing importance of the RAF’s Whole Force approach, which is delivering military effect across the service


of about 33,000 down to 31,750. The reserve force, meanwhile, is rising steadily as Air Command balances its requirement to provide capability within budget and adopt the Whole Force approach. The RAF has already met its target level of 1,860 reservists, and plans to recruit up to 3,000. “The RAF is going beyond the target because it sees the value of the reserve component,” says Group Captain Gavin Hellard, Royal Auxiliary Air Force Inspector. “The reservists give us the opportunity and the resilience

Royal Air Force reservists from 606 (Chiltern) Squadron, based at RAF Benson, take part in a training weekend


ix years after the UK Government published its 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review, there has been a noticeable change in the role played by reservists. Not only are they a more familiar sight as all three forces align their manpower resources to comply with Future Force 2020, but they are also bringing a wider skill set to day-to-day operations. Under Future Force 2020, the number of RAF regular personnel is set to fall from the current level


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An RAF reservist working as part of a video production team takes a low shot of a Voyager aircraft

to cope with broader tasks. We may be engaged in an enduring operation such as Afghanistan, a small event such as an earthquake evacuation, and a civil aid task such as a firefighters’ strike, but we have to do them all at the same time. It is about resilience.” So how can reservists match the output of regular personnel? “Some of the skill sets we are providing for the regular component are only available in the

up to a year. The RAF pays a salary that is commensurate with the rank of the placement, and will reimburse any salary shortfall. The employer is also compensated, for example for costs associated with advertising for a replacement, a higher wage bill, or retraining when the employee returns to work. Either party has the option to request a deferment of the deployment.


“THERE IS A DEFINITE PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVANTAGE GAINED FROM SERVING AS A RESERVIST” civil space,” says Hellard. “The medical branch is a good example. Retaining the skills we require in a military environment is not easy when your practice is made up of healthy 18-to-55 year olds.” In contrast, a medic working with the National Health Service (NHS) encounters major trauma on a routine basis. “We benefit directly from those skill sets. Having it continuously is not important; having access to it is the key.” A volunteer reservist commits to a minimum of 27 days per year and, once trained, can be mobilised for


“The average reservist is mobilised about once every five years. We pay for that one year, but this is nowhere near the equivalent cost of regular personnel,” says Hellard. The result is a degree of resilience for the air force, and security for both the volunteer and their employer. The Defence Reform Act of 2014 strengthened the legal framework for employers, and the recently formed Defence Relationship Management government department provides advice and support for organisations and individuals participating in, or entering, the reserve service. “There is a definite personal development advantage gained from serving as a reservist. We deliver leadership training in-house and you develop management skills,” says Hellard. Companies are beginning to recognise the benefits: the NHS already offers an extra two weeks’ paid leave to reservists, and the Civil Service is campaigning for at least one in 10 of its staff to join a reserve force. Brize Norton provides an illustration of how the RAF takes advantage of the talent on offer as it delivers


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the UK’s air mobility effort under the government’s Whole Force concept. Of a total of 6,500 personnel routinely employed at the station, approximately a third is comprised of reservists, contractors and civil servants. For example, the Airbus A300-200 Voyager transport tanker aircraft stationed there are owned by public-private partnership AirTanker Services. They may be loaded and unloaded by reservists, and catered by an independent contractor. “Brize Norton has a fantastic record of developing highly capable reservists. Many are working in Cyprus at the moment, our main airhead to support operations in the Middle East,” says Hellard. This has prompted fresh thinking at the senior level, which is interested in tapping a wider resource. “The air force is starting to realise, instead of trying to put square pegs in round holes, an individual may have skills that can benefit the service. Speckled around the whole of the reserves are people who have resources to offer,” says Hellard. The recently launched Thinking to Win initiative by Air Command reflects this new approach by encouraging input from all ranks. “It says you don’t have to be an Air Marshal to have a good idea.” The RAF is also receptive to the idea of flexible engagement contracts. There is a range of employment models – with six different reservist terms and conditions of service – that allow individuals to alter their career path to suit their needs. This encourages qualified personnel to stay, and attracts new talent previously put off by the old-fashioned hierarchy.




Hellard himself is a good example of this. Having started in the reserves 30 years ago, he moved to regular service, rising to Squadron Leader. A young family led him to move to part-time reservist with additional duties, but his career continues with promotion to Group Captain and an expanding portfolio that includes reserve recruitment. “The cultural aspect is challenging as we slowly mature this model, but it is certainly an exciting time to be involved with the reservists just now,” he says.

A reservist nurse who also works at London’s Guy’s and St Thomas’s Hospital is pictured on the annual Reserves Day. Staff from the NHS bring valuable medical skills to the RAF


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The way in which the Royal Air Force employs and trains its personnel is embarking on a profound transformation as it prepares for a more unpredictable future. Chris Aaron talks to Air Vice-Marshals David Stubbs and Andrew Turner about the challenges that lie ahead


PROGRESS T Not only is the RAF changing the way it recruits and trains people, but the prospective recruits themselves want a different experience from their time in uniform


he environment in which RAF training takes place is changing rapidly. The technologies and skills used in war-fighting are evolving, the methods and means of training are being updated, and there is a new profile of the kinds of people the RAF needs to recruit. It is clear from talking to the Head of Personnel, Air Vice-Marshal David Stubbs, and the Head of Training, Air Vice-Marshal Andrew Turner, that this is not a one-off change of state, but a shift to an environment that will be in continual flux. For the

RAF, adapting to this means a shift in education, with continuous learning a central feature of the modern-day air force, as well as the opportunity for recruits to choose flexible career patterns. “For the RAF, the ‘Millennials’ or ‘Generation Z’ bring very interesting challenges,” says Stubbs. “Millennials are looking for portfolio careers. They join an organisation with a very clear view that, after a few years, they are going to move on because they need to broaden their portfolio to remain competitive. “So the challenge for a very technical service such as the RAF is to be able to sell this generation


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Ian Bell Vice President and General Manager EMEA, CAE

The Tactical Control Centre at CAE’s Medium Support Helicopter Aircrew Training Facility

According to Ian Bell, CAE Vice President and General Manager of Europe, MiddleEast and Africa, CAE has a very simple company vision, and that is to be “the global training partner of choice to help our customers enhance safety, efficiency and readiness”. One of those customers is the Royal Air Force (RAF). The relationship between the RAF and CAE goes back 20 years, when the company started supporting helicopter training at RAF Benson in one of the first military training private finance initiatives. Last year, the RAF and CAE celebrated another anniversary – that of 15 years working together on the C-130J training programme. “The RAF was the launch customer for the C-130J Super Hercules, and CAE has been the training partner since the beginning,” explains Bell. In the knowledge that evolution keeps a relationship strong, CAE continuously innovates to ensure that it remains a relevant training provider to the RAF. A good example of this is its synthetic database solutions. The MOD has adopted the use of databases built to the Common Database (CDB) standard, which is an open

architecture that is rapidly updateable and enables joint distributed mission training. This is important in terms of future capabilities and the RAF’s desire to make increased use of live-virtual-constructive training for enhanced mission training. Bell recounts this heartening example: “Last year, following the devastating earthquakes in Nepal, CAE was able to support the Royal Australian Air Force almost immediately with the development of a CDB of the affected area. Because the RAF’s C-130J simulators in the UK also conform to that database standard, we were able to use the same database so that the British aircrews could practise and rehearse flying into the Nepal region in the simulator before they too flew there to carry out their vital humanitarian mission.”

MFTS AND BEYOND CAE is a key partner in the Military Flying Training System (MFTS) programme and has won a significant share of the competitive procurements to provide high-fidelity synthetic training equipment. The company’s involvement is wide and varied. “We developed the Hawk

T2 full-mission simulators at RAF Valley,” explains Bell. “In addition, the RAF and Royal Navy use CAE-developed tactical mission trainers for rear-crew and observer training as part of the MFTS programme. And, just recently, CAE was contracted by Lockheed Martin to develop the Phenom 100 synthetic training equipment that will be used as part of the Fixed-Wing element of the MFTS programme. We are also well positioned to provide the synthetic training equipment required for the MFTS rotary-wing training element.” In terms of future innovation, Bell anticipates a growth in virtual Red Flagtype exercises. CAE is actively promoting standard architectures, such as the CDB, that help provide the foundation for making networked, distributed mission training in simulation more routine. In the UK, programmes such as the Defence Operational Training Capability (DOTC) will see the MOD making increased use of livevirtual-constructive training. “This is an area of focus and investment for CAE. We can help improve UK armed forces training by making it more integrated, more immersive, and more interoperable,” concludes Bell.




and further interventions were rare,” says Turner. “What we’re talking about now is training people for the next job on a more continuous basis, which allows people to migrate across the employment fields within the service much more freely, because we haven’t committed someone wholly to one career stream. We can actually move people around between streams in an adaptable manner.”

“WE HAVE TO REFLECT MODERN EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES, ENGAGING FLEXIBLY WITH OUR PEOPLE” Turner sees this approach as giving personnel more flexibility in terms of manning the service, and making training more efficient because, as he puts it, “we can train just in time for the right thing, rather than early for everything, which is wasteful”. It will also give the individual recruit more control and flexibility. “The idea of a portfolio career in which one has various careers in one’s overall working life is something that we can now provide through the multiple strands of the RAF, and that’s where the Ministry of Defence wants to go in terms of engagement structures,” says Turner.

Developing the skills of RAF personnel for tasks as and when required results in greater efficiency


a portfolio opportunity. We have to focus on that, because we already offer a fantastic portfolio career opportunity, but we need to present it in a way that grabs the imagination. We have to reflect modern employment practices, engaging flexibly with our people, in how we manage them and employ them. That will enable us to attract and retain the right kind of people, with the right skills for the right length of time.” Stubbs notes that a recruit can currently join either the full-time regulars or the part-time reserves and, at the moment, if a full-time commitment to the regulars is, or becomes, impractical, there is no halfway house. It is the reserves or nothing, which Stubbs says “loses valuable skills and talent”. This will change as the UK Armed Forces People Programme matures. Although the final detail is not yet decided, Stubbs envisages that “you might see a range of engagements from full-time through to part-time, both for regulars and reserves. So you might join and start a career as a regular with a full-time commitment and then, if you get married and have children, you might go on to a limited commitment, which means we don’t deploy you for a period of time; indeed, you might also drop down to a part-time arrangement and then, in mid life, return to a fuller commitment.” This shift in employment structures will have an impact on the approach to training. To enable this kind of flexible employment scheme, the RAF will need to engage in continuous education. “Thirty years ago, recruits were trained, sent off for work,



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Managing Director, Ascent Flight Training February 2016 marked a major milestone for the UK Military Flying Training System (UKMFTS). After almost a year of intricate negotiations, the UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) and Ascent signed a £1.1 billion deal to provide fixed-wing (FW) training to the UK Armed Forces. Ascent’s Managing Director, Paul Livingston, is understandably pleased with the outcome as it bears witness to the high levels of team work required to bring the agreement to a close. “The closure of this complex deal is a testament to the successful partnering between Ascent and the MOD, as well as Ascent’s supply chain, including Affinity, Lockheed Martin and Babcock,” he explains. Moreover, this part of the UKMFTS, which will continue until 2033, represents roughly a third of the whole programme. It will provide Elementary Flying Training on 23 German-built Grob 120TP Prefect trainer aircraft, basic training on 10 Beechcraft T-6C Texans and multi-engine training on five Embraer Phenom 100s.

and uniformly assessed training experience for the aircrew that will go through the system, but it will also give an economic boost. “UKMFTS creates jobs in the UK economy. And by creating a more efficient training design, it produces aircrew faster, so it also saves money.” In addition, the aircrew that progress through the training syllabus will emerge with a wider skillset than before. This will have a knock-on effect by enabling them to shorten their time at Operational Conversion Units (OCUs) as they transfer from the training aircraft they learnt to fly in to the aircraft they will be flying as part of their operational duties. This shortened period will consequently lead to more time available for front-line service. With the contract for the rotary-wing element also recently concluded, the implementation schedule is now fully under way. Elementary Flying Training is due to start in 2017, helicopter training in the spring of 2018, followed by Multi-Engine Pilot Training in the summer and, finally, Basic Training at the beginning of 2019. ASCENT FLIGHT TRAINING

Paul Livingston

The Prefect is a very important aircraft for the programme, as not only is it a significant step up from the current training aircraft in terms of cockpit instrumentation, but also every student pilot who passes through the UKMFTS training pipeline will learn to fly on this aircraft. Furthermore, it will also provide airborne training for some rear-crew roles. Once the trainee FW pilots have completed their stints in the Prefect they will proceed either to the T-6C or the Phenom 100, depending on the aircraft type they have been selected to fly in the future. With the signatures now on the contract, things are beginning to happen. Livingston clarifies: “The aircraft are being manufactured, courseware is being produced and assured, recruitment has started for specialist roles and infrastructure works have commenced.” According to Livingston, UKMFTS is a good deal for the taxpayer and the armed forces. The highly integrated and comprehensive design of the programme not only delivers a better, more efficient

The first UKMFTS Embraer Phenom 100 in production





Operating and maintaining systems will be as important to the RAF in future as the ability to physically repair aircraft

The front-line equipment employed by the RAF, and the types of activity in which the service is engaged, are changing and becoming more complex at an ever-increasing rate. This changes the skill sets that are needed, the type of recruits selected and the ways in which recruits are educated. “We know that, in future, a hammer and a spanner are not what we will need to maintain aircraft – it’s going to be latex gloves and a keyboard and mouse,” says Turner. “Gone are the days of riveting on panels because a rocket has gone through the plane and we need to get it airborne again. Instead, we need to confront how we can be reprogramming the aircraft from London while it is in flight over enemy

UK MILITARY FLIGHT TRAINING SYSTEM UKMFTS The UKMFTS reached a major milestone in May 2016 as the Ministry of Defence (MOD) agreed the terms of a rotary-wing training contract worth £1.1 billion with the Ascent Flight Training consortium. This followed an earlier contract agreed in February 2016 for the fixed-wing element, also worth £1.1 billion. Roughly £500 million of the fixed-wing fee will be allocated to Affinity Flying Services for the supply, maintenance and support of the aircraft to be used in the elementary, basic and multi-engine elements of the MFTS. The balance will fund Ascent’s provision of ground-based training equipment and infrastructure – such as simulators, classroom facilities and teaching aids – through to 2033. With the rotary-wing element now in place, a contract with Airbus Helicopters UK has been placed for the purchase of 29 H135 and 3 H145 training helicopters, along with their through-life support. Air Marshal Sir Baz North, the Senior Responsible Owner for UKMFTS, notes that Ascent’s offering “employs modern, adaptable and sustainable systems which exploit the advantages of the simulated environment to prepare our aircrew to meet the challenges of future combat operations”, while Air Vice-Marshal Sue Gray, Director of Combat Air at the MOD’s Defence Equipment & Support organisation, emphasises the importance of the up-to-date training methods that will be developed to ensure that students are able to “progress to operational training more efficiently and provide value for money.”


territory 1,000 miles away, while monitoring the performance of its engine, and recapitalising its logistics prior to its return back to its ship. “We’re moving into a different world: a world of directed energy weapons and cyber actions. Of course, fast jets will remain very important, but as we think about recruitment and training we need to consider these emerging disciplines... and the requisite skills, which are less of the physical hard skills and more of the intellectual, psychological skills about manipulating data and managing systems.”

KEEPING PACE WITH CHANGE When it comes to the practical aspects of delivering training, it will be essential to have trainers and the means and methods that can adapt to a fluid environment. “We need to employ trainers that understand the new type of recruit coming in, the new skills that are needed and the new technology that we are fielding at the front line,” says Turner. He is confident that trainers’ skills can keep pace, but what is more challenging is the materiel means of training people, the training aids, the means of education and the type of equipment that they are learning on. There are, in effect, epochs of training evolution that are determined by the hardware available for training, and the time needed to procure nextgeneration materiel. To mitigate this, Turner predicts the employment of more adaptive hardware that is able to evolve at the same pace as the instruction methods and the students. Essentially, this means more open systems, more computer-based technology, and more emulation and simulation, that can be adapted and upgraded with software releases and plug-ins. The UK Military Flying Training System programme is one way in which the RAF aims to achieve this continual improvement in training hardware and methods.


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T6C TEXAN: A WORLDCLASS TRAINING AIRCRAFT Tom Hammoor On 3 February, 2016, Beechcraft Defense Company, a subsidiary of Textron Aviation, announced that it had signed a contract with Affinity Flying Training Services to supply 10 T-6C Texan II training aircraft to the United Kingdom’s Ministry of Defence (MOD) for its Military Flying Training System (MFTS) programme. At the same time, the company also announced a five-year contract to supply engineering services, parts support and maintenance training, as well as on-site field service representatives who will be able to offer technical expertise to UKMFTS maintenance personnel. “The Beechcraft T-6C delivers a worldclass training capability to the UKMFTS programme as the world’s leading military flight trainer,” says Tom Hammoor, President of Beechcraft Defense Company. “One of its key features is that it is ideally suited for teaching the most basic introductory flight training tasks through to the more challenging and complex advanced training missions – all with low operating costs.” Another important aspect of the MOD’s new training aircraft is that its stateof-the-art cockpit is also much more akin to the cockpits of the advanced platforms in which the trainee pilots go on to fly. “The Beechcraft T-6C military trainer is an advanced version of the original T-6A with updated cockpit avionics,” explains Hammoor. “In order to replicate today’s high-tech front-line aircraft, the new cockpit includes a Head-Up Display (HUD), Up-Front Control Panel (UFCP), threecolour Multi-Function Displays (MFD) and a Hands-On Throttle and Stick (HOTAS),


President, Beechcraft Defense Company

as well as advanced synthetic air-to-air and air-to-ground weapons training capabilities. The integrated glass cockpit, combined with a state-of-the-art avionics suite, greatly expands its capabilities, enabling the advanced systems and information management skills training required in current and future military aircraft.” Beechcraft’s relationship with the MOD, and the Royal Air Force in particular, is a long-standing one. Beechcraft King Air B200 aircraft currently provide an interim solution for the military multi-engine pilot training element of MFTS. It is no surprise then that Hammoor considers the MFTS contract to be one of Beechcraft’s top priorities in Europe, and is confident that it will help to cement the relationship between the two organisations. “We look forward to continuing our successful relationship with the Royal Air Force and the UK Ministry of Defence to help train the next generation of military pilots,” he says, adding: “Beechcraft

Defense Company is proud to offer the UK MOD a proven and highly capable solution that will certainly meet its current and future training needs.” The UK is not the only country that has recognised the benefits of the Texan II. To date, Beechcraft has delivered more than 900 T-6 trainers. All together, they have amassed more than 2.9 million flight hours. The aircraft is being used to train pilots, navigators and weapons systems operators from more than 20 countries around the world. Of these, Mexico, Morocco, New Zealand and the UK have all opted to operate the newer T-6C variant. Deliveries of the T-6C to the UK are expected to begin in 2018, and, if the Royal New Zealand Air Force experience is anything to go by, they are expected to proceed at pace. It took them only two years to introduce their military training capability from the day they signed the contract.



Simon Michell reviews the special relationship that the United Kingdom has long enjoyed with the United States and asks whether changing global realities will affect the bond between the two countries



hen considering the special relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom, it is commonly thought of in terms of shared military and diplomatic priorities. The countries are close military partners that enjoy an open and mutually beneficial intelligencesharing agreement, but the ties that bind the US and UK together go much deeper. In fact, the countries’ relationship dates back centuries, before either nation existed in its current form – their bond existed before the 1707 Act of Union that established the UK, and therefore before the US declaration of independence in 1776. The closeness


that links the two nations is manifested across almost every facet of our daily lives, particularly culturally, commercially, industrially and economically. Above all, the special relationship is anchored in the countries’ shared interests: the things that each state requires to ensure the safety, security and prosperity of its citizens. For the Royal Air Force, this special relationship is somewhat more condensed. A strategic priority of the Chief of the Air Staff is to harmonise the UK’s air power capability, concepts and doctrine with those of the US forces. As the world becomes ever more unstable and insecure, the UK continues to partner with the US as the sole country with sufficient military capability and financial resource


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to face down adversaries, be they state or nonstate, that may threaten our common interests. Reinforcing this view, the RAF Future Air and Space Operational Concept recognises that “the close alliance with the US will continue to be vital, particularly for intelligence and access to space capabilities. These underpin the UK’s critical national infrastructure and act as key enablers for military operations across all environments.”

FUNDAMENTAL TO OUR SECURITY Supporting this is the UK’s National Space Security Policy, which states: “The United Kingdom’s pre-eminent security relationship is with the United States of America; it remains fundamental to our defence and security at home, in Europe and around the world. Security, defence and intelligence cooperation with the United

States is exceptionally close and our work together in and through space is an essential part of this.” The US has traditionally regarded the UK as its closest ally. When UK Prime Minister David Cameron visited the White House in 2012, President Barack Obama said of the countries’ relationship: “Our alliance is essential. It is indispensable to the security and prosperity that we seek, not only for our own citizens, but for people around the world.” In April 2016, Obama visited the UK and took the opportunity to underline the exceptional nature of the special relationship. “There are emotional and cultural and commercial and strategic bonds between our two countries that are unmatched by any two countries around the world,” he said. There is a proviso to the special relationship, though: the US is keen for the UK to continue to perform a key and connected role in international affairs and to invest sufficiently in its military capabilities to make its involvement possible.

Britain’s role as both a tier one supplier to and major customer of the F-35 programme has helped cement the UK-US special relationship, particularly between the RAF and the US Department of Defense


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During President Obama’s visit to the UK in April 2016 he reiterated the close ties that bind the US and the UK

The UK aerospace sector, in particular, continues to enjoy an elevated position in terms of its contribution to US aircraft programmes. BAE Systems is the only tier-one supplier in the F-35 programme, and the UK will be one of the largest export customers for the aircraft. UK companies also form a significant portion of the supplier base, with over 120 firms involved. This equates to more than 25,000 highly skilled aerospace technicians employed in the project. Some 15% of every aircraft sold will have some form of UK input. Furthermore, the world’s largest defence programme not only links the UK’s aerospace sector into the development and production phase, but also into the sustainment phase that will follow and last at least until 2060.

IT IS DIFFICULT TO FIND ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF TWO COUNTRIES ENJOYING SUCH LONGLASTING FRIENDSHIP The recent selection of the P-8A Poseidon maritime patrol aircraft is another example of the depth of this special relationship. The US has been instrumental in maintaining UK maritime patrol skills in the absence of a dedicated fixed-wing aircraft since the cancellation of the Nimrod MRA4 upgrade programme. RAF personnel have been flying the US Navy P-8A Poseidon for several years in anticipation of a replacement for the Nimrod MRA4. With that decision now having been announced as part of the


UK Government’s 2015 Strategic Defence and Security Review, the US partnership has been invaluable. These developments form part of the Seedcorn maritime patrol project, and the skills-maintenance concept found within this programme is not new. It mirrors US efforts to help the UK maintain carrieroperations skills in anticipation of two new Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers entering service at the end of the decade. This will happen at the same time as the RAF P-8As enter into service.

RECIPROCAL BENEFITS The UK enjoys many benefits from its ties with the US, and the reciprocated benefits for the US are not inconsequential. Aside from the intelligence-sharing arrangements, there is the willingness of the UK to support the US whenever it is operating in the international arena in defence of the countries’ shared interests. It is difficult to find another example of two countries enjoying such long-lasting, high levels of mutual trust and friendship that is rooted in so much shared history. As a result, it is unlikely that the US-UK special relationship will change dramatically over the next few years, although there are some potential turning points on the horizon, particularly in light of the UK’s uncertain relationship with Europe. It is also difficult to ascertain what will happen to the special relationship in the future, as military and economic power tilts ever eastwards towards Asia. Every nation will have to adapt to those changing global realities, but the US and UK have an advantage that other nations do not share: close cultural, diplomatic, economic and military ties that date back centuries.


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Elizabeth Quintana of the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI) explores the evolving status of air command and control and poses some challenging questions about what lies ahead




The traditional military model, where operational headquarters command a theatre of operation and act as the single point of decision-making, interpreting strategic guidance and flowing down orders to the tactical level, is a thing of the past. Single Combined Air Operations Centres now integrate a mixture of coalition forces of varying quality, levels of interoperability and national rules of engagement. They have to coordinate assets based in multiple countries to support operations across multiple theatres, while interfacing with local forces and governments to obtain the necessary permissions to act. Conjoined

Fifth-generation fighters such as the F-35B (foreground) will be expected to be able to operate alone and unafraid


ommand and control (C2) is changing. This is chiefly due to the fact that military forces must now conduct warfare in the information age, with all the associated benefits and disadvantages that come with it. Commanders from all services must unpick the habits acquired over 15 years of counterinsurgency warfare in Afghanistan and Iraq, which means adapting to a contested environment and learning to operate in spite of aggressive Anti-Access/Area Denial (A2AD), electronic warfare, and space and cyber threats.


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Exercise Griffin Strike was an opportunity for British and French forces to combine air operations in support of the land and naval forces

air operations centres, such as Ramstein Air Base, Royal Air Force High Wycombe and Base Aérienne Lyon-Mont Verdun, also collectively run operations. Combined military effects in the land, maritime and air domains are now being coordinated with less certain – but no less necessary – ‘full-spectrum effects’. This is most notable in strategic communications and

A DEBATE ON THE NATURE OF AIR C2 IS CRITICALLY IMPORTANT FOR 21ST CENTURY OPERATIONS space/cyber/electronic attack, which are predominantly coordinated at national strategic levels. Military effects also need to be coordinated alongside diplomatic and international overseas development efforts through national government departments, which may not have an operational layer. This means that coordination occurs at the national, rather than the operational, level.

REVOLUTIONISING MILITARY AFFAIRS Innovations in technology and organisational concepts have a fundamental effect on the conduct of military operations, and the information age is bringing major


changes in the nature of modern warfare. One such event was the US Revolution in Military Affairs, which conceptually sought to flatten military hierarchies in order to network as many platforms as possible and maximise the effectiveness of each platform, pushing decision-making to the tactical edge. General Stanley McChrystal adopted this concept with his Team of Teams approach in Special Operations Command, saying: “It takes a network to defeat a network.” This approach mirrors efforts in the commercial sector with the Agile Management model, which emerged from the IT sector in 2001. However, the adoption of this concept has been slow and costly, requiring an operation in Afghanistan to act as a forcing function to NATO in order to convince allies of the need to share, rather than secure at all costs, information. Also, although this approach works well when pursuing decentralised insurgent groups such as Daesh or Al Qaeda in a non-contested environment, these very networks will be the first to be attacked in the event of a major, more conventional conflict. Indeed, the main purpose of exercises such as Griffin Strike, Joint Horizon and Joint Venture has been to teach a new generation of forces how to defend and manoeuvre within a contested environment. So should European air forces stick to tried-andtested methods, or become more decentralised? Is there a requirement to flex between the two? Should air forces continue to use Reachback (those capabilities that support theatre command without having to


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deploy to forward locations), or should headquarters be co-located with operational headquarters? What happens if, or when, all communication is denied? These are all important questions that require answers. A debate on the nature of Air C2 is critically important for 21st-century operations.

COMMAND OR CONTROL? Whatever the balance of opinion, current trends, which shift away from command to looser control, do indeed have merit. For example, Air Chief Marshal Sir Stuart Peach, speaking at the RUSI Air Power Conference in 2013, opined that flattened C2 structures would be necessary in the future for information assurance purposes. Furthermore, disaggregated headquarters provide resilience against attack, and the move to multirole platforms and devolved dynamic targeting reduces the requirement for reachback. This moves us closer to

the ‘alone and unafraid’ operating model that stealth aircraft such as the F-22 and F-35 are able to adopt. Counterintuitively, the best defence may in fact be greater interoperability. A dense mesh of networks will make it difficult, if not impossible, for an adversary to intercept or thwart all means of communication, although it may be possible to deny communications in one particular location. As a result, communications may be rerouted and patched around problem areas. As Air Marshal Greg Bagwell puts it: “In a contested world we will have to plan-in inefficiency and accept a far reduced return on our investment. Aircraft will not get their gas and targets will not be serviced. The rules of engagement will have to be relaxed to allow greater freedoms in the cockpit. Quite simply, we will drop less, hit less and know less – war will get a lot uglier.” The question is whether we become more independent or more interdependent as a consequence.

More than 5,000 British and French armoured infantry and airborne troops took part in Exercise Griffin Strike. RAF support included Chinook helicopters


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During the second half of the 1970s, the requirement to detect high-speed, low-level combat aircraft made it necessary to augment NATO’s existing system of ground-based radars with an airborne system – and so the NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control (NAEW&C) Force was created. Air Commodore Ian Teakle DSO OBE, Deputy Commander and Chief of Staff NAEW&C, explains



T The RAF’s E-3D Sentry aircraft form one of the two Components of the NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control Force


he NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control (NAEW&C) Force consists of two components – the NATO E-3A Component at NATO Air Base Geilenkirchen, Germany, and the UK E-3D Component at RAF Waddington. Full Operating Capability of the E-3A Component was reached in 1988, and the UK’s E-3D Component began sharing the NAEW&C mission with its sister component in July 1992. In the years that have followed the establishment of the NAEW&C force, both components have been intimately involved in all of NATO’s major operations and, in the case of the E-3D Component, all of the UK’s major campaigns. Over the years, the role of AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System) has changed considerably. In the early years, the role was primarily airborne earlywarning and fighter control; nowadays, the aircraft is viewed more as an airborne battle management and control platform with a formidable airborne surveillance capability. This change was fed by the

lessons from operations (such as Operation Allied Force, NATO’s 1999 operation to remove Serbian forces from Kosovo) and major exercises – such as Exercise Red Flag in the US – that have provided the impetus for both the development of new tactics, techniques and procedures and for the modification of the aircraft. The E-3A Component has undergone a number of upgrade programmes, many of which have led the field across the international AWACS community. While the UK’s E-3D has undergone a number of minor enhancements since its introduction to service, the announcement in the 2015 Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) that it will be modified to extend its service life to 2035 is extremely welcome news. This will align the E-3D force with NATO, the US Air Force and the French Air Force, all of which are implementing lifetime-extension programmes. Although the E-3A and the E-3D may currently have different levels and standards of equipment, they are employable on an almost-equal basis to support NATO operations and missions. One exception was


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UNIQUE CHALLENGES The multinational make-up of the E-3A Component is undoubtedly its greatest strength, but it also presents some unique challenges. For example, the turnover of personnel, some of whom may only spend four years in post before returning to their nation, is significantly greater within a multi-national Force. This not only places a burden on the component’s training resources, but it also limits the extent to which the component can actually grow. In a national force, this is far less of a concern – investment in human capital means the force can grow faster and further than is possible in a multinational force. It also means that experience can be grown and retained more easily. The E-3D Component is the perfect example of this initiative. Such investment in human capital produces individuals who are able to apply their

knowledge, experience and intellect to develop new concepts and drive the development and continuous improvement of the force. Some of the most innovative and inspiring ideas for NAEW&C force improvement have been generated from the numerically smaller E-3D Component.

ABILITY TO EXPERIMENT A national and multinational interplay between components also provides a far more fertile space for experimentation and test, meaning that ideas and concepts can mature faster. Interoperability is at the forefront of everything we do in the NAEW&C force and with partners in the wider international AWACS community. The E-3D is extremely influential SAC ANDY STEVENS / CROWN COPYRIGHT

Operation Afghan Assist, which ran from 2011-14 and involved the deployment of E-3A aircraft to Mazar-eSharif airfield in Afghanistan, for which the Large-Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures system was mandated. Although the E-3D contributed to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in the run-up to Operation Afghan Assist, once NATO had deployed the E-3A to Afghanistan the task fell solely to them. In March 2014, and in response to events in Ukraine, NATO implemented a number of measures to reassure allies on the Eastern Flank of NATO. The first of these assurance measures exploited the inherent readiness and responsiveness of the NAEW&C force. Within days of North Atlantic Council (NAC) approval, E-3As and E-3Ds began flying almost-daily orbits in both the North and South Implementation Areas and, augmented by AWACS aircraft from France and Turkey, have continued to do so ever since. These missions provide a clear demonstration of NATO’s collective resolve, cohesion and commitment to deterrence and collective defence against any perceived threat of aggression to the alliance. Specifically, NATO AWACS is tasked to contribute to preserving NATO airspace integrity; enhance situational awareness; contribute to the recognised air and surface picture; contribute to intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance activity; and support NATO Air Policing. The E-3D Component contributes approximately 25% of the overall NAEW&C assurance measures effort. As mentioned, although largely comparable in overall capability and employability terms, the E-3D’s mission equipment currently lags some way behind the E-3A. Notwithstanding that, the fundamental difference between the components is not the aircraft standard, but the complexion of the force. The E-3A Component is truly multinational, with 16 NATO nations contributing personnel to flying or mission crew positions.

in this forum and is recognised for bringing tested concepts or developments to the table, rather than just ideas. These concepts and developments may not be fully validated, but the fact that they can be tested before they are delivered to the front line reduces risk and allows concept development – a feature that has been exploited through the linking of E-3A and E-3D mission simulators. When the E-3D was introduced into service in 1992, it was the most modern AWACS platform in the world, and the prerogative was to grow the crews to operate it most effectively. It has proven its operational relevance repeatedly, but it is due for a refresh of its capabilities. This will allow the vastly experienced operators to maintain their reputation as among the world’s best, right up to the aircraft’s scheduled retirement in 2035. The E-3D modernisation programme announced in the SDSR will bring together experienced, creative and innovative operators with a technically sophisticated and modern platform. The potential of this marriage is huge, and much will be gained from the synergies that will continue to flow across the entire NAEW&C force.

The RAF’s Sentry systems can display targets on screens in the aircraft or transmit information to ground- and ship-based units


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Mike Bryant asks Air Commodore Alan Gillespie and Group Captain Martin Johnson about the RAF’s important role in securing the nation’s space-based capabilities



afeguarding national interests by ensuring the security of the UK’s space-based assets forms an important part of the RAF’s mandate. “The RAF’s role is to provide that level of understanding required to protect access to our space-based capabilities,” says Group Captain Martin Johnson, the RAF Director of National Air Defence and Space Operations. Johnson’s boss is Air Commodore Alan Gillespie, Air Officer Battlespace Management for 1 Group, Headquarters Air Command at RAF High Wycombe. He makes the important point that “it’s all about


national capabilities, not just defence”. Gillespie notes that the UK Government recently designated space as an element of critical national infrastructure (CNI), formalising what these officers and their colleagues were already well aware of: denial of access – whether through a natural occurrence or the deliberate action of an adversary – to space-based assets is a critical threat not just to the country’s defence, but also to its day-today activities, given the reliance of almost all elements of the country’s infrastructure on satellite-based data. Securing that access is very much an RAF responsibility. From the high-tech radar station at


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RAF Fylingdales to the Space Operations Coordination Centre (SpOCC) in the bunker at High Wycombe, it is the RAF that is primarily tasked with securing the UK’s space-based capabilities. Manned 24/7, SpOCC acts as the UK’s national hub for space operations and space situational awareness and is the UK’s tasking authority for Fylingdales.

LONGSTANDING ROLE The RAF has a long-standing role in space, one that dates back to 1963 and the opening of RAF Fylingdales on the North Yorkshire moors. The station was established as one of three Ballistic Missile Early Warning Systems (BMEWS) to support UK and US requirements, and continues to operate in that role

today. Within a couple of years, Fylingdales had also developed a space surveillance role, because space naturally comes into play when operating a ballistic missile early-warning capability. The UK’s BMEWS and space surveillance capabilities continue to be highly reliant on the solid-state phased array radar at Fylingdales. Upgraded just under 10 years ago, it can look deep into space and can process and make sense of what would otherwise be an incomprehensible picture. With approximately 22,000 objects now tracked in orbit, of which perhaps 1,500 are active satellites (the rest is ‘space junk’), it is a complex, fast-moving environment. “Space surveillance is all about not only seeing but understanding that environment,” says Johnson. “[It is also about] understanding what goes up there, so we can identify those objects,

The RAF is tasked with defending the UK’s space-based capabilities, which are integral to the nation’s day-today activities


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surveillance); position, navigation and timing satellite capabilities (such as GPS, for example); and satellite communications. “From a defence point of view, we rely heavily on all three capabilities, but we also do so from a national point of view,” says Gillespie. Moreover, Johnson reiterates: “Every aspect of CNI relies on space to some extent.” Plus, as a previous Chief of the Air Staff once observed, space gives the UK “a competitive advantage”. The danger having been identified, there was a drive to create a National Space Security Policy (NSSP), which was published in 2014. This national – not specifically defence – policy had four main objectives: to enhance UK resilience against a loss of space-based capabilities; to enhance national security interests through space; to move towards making space a safer and more secure environment; and to work with industry and academia more closely. It identified both the natural hazards and man-made threats to the nation’s satellite-based assets, as well as the importance of space situational awareness. All of these objectives are major drivers of the RAF’s commitments today.


track them, provide surveillance, and – more broadly – characterise what goes on in space.” The RAF’s role is largely unchanged in that regard since 1963, although the level of activity in space has changed considerably and the technology used to monitor and protect the UK’s access to its space-based assets has advanced exponentially. However, over the past few years a number of developments have largely redefined the RAF’s interest and role in space. Most importantly, in 2010 the National Security Strategy

The Fylingdales solid-state phased array radar is one of three Ballistic Missile Early Warning Systems (BMEWS) in the UK

“THE NORMS OF STATE VERSUS STATE DON’T APPLY IN SPACE... THERE ARE NO BOUNDARIES UP THERE” and the associated Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR), identified that any denial of access to national space-based capabilities was a significant risk, and it identified the need to mitigate that risk. The satellite-based capabilities to which the RAF is trying to safeguard access fall into three broad categories. These are characterised as earthobservation capabilities (meteorology, monitoring and


“The NSSP also recognised the importance of working with the US as our pre-eminent national space security partner, all as part of the need to work collaboratively nationally and collectively to meet our broad national requirements,” says Johnson. ‘Collectively’ incorporates not only the US, but also numerous civilian national and international agencies, including the UK Space Agency and the European Union’s space programmes, to which the RAF also provides support. The UK Government’s most recent SDSR, published in 2015, illustrates its increasing commitment to space. It points towards an increase in space-based command and control capability through SpOCC and shows a clear understanding of the importance of space to national interests. Furthermore, it represents, according to Gillespie, “a welcome clear indication of the UK’s interest in re-energising the UK’s BMD [ballistic missile defence] capability”. The size and complexity of the RAF’s responsibilities in relation to space have grown and become ever more complex. This is due to the increasing number of players involved in that environment, thanks in large part to the greater affordability of launching satellites and other bodies into space. It is also the result of technological developments that now enable the launch of nanosatellites and objects that are not much bigger than a coffee cup into orbit. However, this is a complex arena. Space presents a very different sort of theatre of operations to that which we encounter on Earth. “The norms of state versus state don’t apply in space,” says Gillespie. “There are no boundaries up there, no territorial possession, so normal protocols don’t apply.”


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Despite a global media focus on Russian combat operations in Syria supporting the Assad regime in the first part of 2016, the RAF and the rest of the US-led coalition have maintained vital pressure from the air against Daesh in parts of the country and in Iraq. Justin Bronk, Research Fellow at RUSI, reviews the situation



he House of Commons vote in December 2015 to extend British air strikes into Syria led to RAF Typhoons joining the Tornado GR4s already conducting operations against the Daesh terrorist group. Since the start of combat operations against Daesh in 2014, the US-led coalition has destroyed over 22,700 individual targets with approximately 10% of those being conducted by non-US partners. The RAF has been a leading contributor to this.

The deployment of Tranche 2 Typhoons with P1Eb multirole software represents an important step for the RAF’s premier front-line fast jet. Not only does it show the increasing maturity of Typhoon in the strike role as the retirement of Tornado in 2019 draws closer, but it also means that Typhoon is now deployed as part of every front-line fast-jet task. It has been involved in tasks from the Falklands and the Baltics to quick-reaction alert situations at home, and is now helping to degrade Daesh in Iraq and Syria.

The Tornado GR4 continues to be the mainstay of RAF strikes against Daesh in Iraq and Syria


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Against Daesh positions in these two countries, Typhoon has proven itself a highly accurate delivery system for the precision Paveway IV bomb, using the Litening III targeting pod for self-designation. Typhoon is also capable of defending itself against any potentially hostile actions by Russian aircraft during operations over Syria, which remains highly congested and


Six Typhoons and one Tornado from RAF Lossiemouth prepare to take off for Syria in the early hours, following the House of Commons vote to extend air strikes against Daesh


tense despite the recent withdrawal of the Su-34 and Su-24 contingents from Russia’s air base at Latakia. The Tornado GR4 continues to provide the backbone of RAF strikes against Daesh in the less geopolitically tense airspace of Iraq, especially as the Brimstone anti-armour missile is in high demand due to its unrivalled precision for strikes on vehicles, including those in close proximity to Iraqi security forces and Peshmerga positions or civilians. Typhoon will also be able to employ Brimstone from 2018, but for now this highly regarded precision strike capability is the sole preserve of Tornado in the RAF.

The Tornado crews in IX(B), 12 and 31 Squadrons – the three remaining front-line squadrons – are almost exclusively combat veterans with multiple tours of duty over Iraq, Afghanistan and Libya. Therefore, they are experienced in conducting precision strikes against often-elusive targets in complex warzones. As a result of this and the maturity of the GR4 as a weapons system, the RAF’s Tornado crews in particular remain among the most effective closeair support and interdiction aircrew in the world.

APPLICATION OF EXPERIENCE The RAF’s Reaper crews are also deeply experienced in their operational role, having conducted it non-stop for many years in Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria. One of the unique features of Reaper operations is that crews can sustain a more regular operational tempo because they operate from their home base, and this means that they remain current on the operational context in which they operate. As a result of knowing their operating areas extremely well, their employment of precisionguided bombs and Hellfire missiles can not only be extremely precise, but also carried out with the benefit of a deep understanding of the situation on the ground. All sorties are tasked centrally from the Combined Air and Space Operations Centre at Al Udeid in the Middle East, and are allocated according to the Joint Task Force Commander’s directions. The vast majority of strike sorties are in direct support of land operations being conducted by the Iraqi and Kurdish security forces.


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A smaller percentage of sorties are dedicated to the interdiction of logistics and revenue streams, as well as the constant hunt for key leadership targets. Despite the overwhelming superiority enjoyed by the coalition through air power, it is the ability of the troops on the ground to advance that dictates the pace of the operation. In a congested battlespace and against an enemy that routinely employs civilians as human shields, RAF strike crews have to maintain absolute adherence to the laws of armed conflict and international humanitarian law. Alongside the fast-jet crews, the heavily tasked Voyager tanker/transporter aircraft and E-3D AWACS (airborne warning and control system) crews continue to provide much-needed fuel and command and control support respectively to the huge variety of Western and Arab coalition aircraft operating as part of the coalition. Meanwhile, the Sentinel R.1, Shadow and Airseeker fleets contribute to the common effort to satisfy the insatiable demands for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) to find, track and fix targets for the strike aircraft. The MQ-9 Reaper and Tornado, with its Raptor pod, also provide valuable, additional ISR input. All this means that despite the relatively small number of RAF aircraft compared to the US Air Force, US Marine Corps and US Navy over Iraq and Syria, their contribution is significant, both in operational and political terms. While the RAF and the wider coalition bombing campaign cannot in itself defeat Daesh, it is absolutely essential to containing the group on the

ground along the Kurdish and Iraqi security forces’ front-lines, until the latter is able to successfully retake the remaining ground lost since 2014. Without coalition air power, it is possible that Daesh would not have been stopped at the gates of Baghdad, and setbacks such as the fall of Ramadi in May 2015 were likely to have been repeated across Iraq in particular. Instead, Daesh has lost Ramadi, Tikrit and a significant proportion of its previously conquered territories in both Iraq and Syria. This would not have been possible without the coalition air campaign to support Western allies on the ground, and that fact should not be overlooked, even though the current situation in Syria in particular is far from stable. In Iraq itself, the issue now is no longer if Daesh will be defeated on the ground, but when and by whom.

Reaper provides the RAF with the ability to sustain a more regular operational tempo and to carry out air strikes with extreme precision


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INDEX OF ADVERTISERS AIRBUS Defence & Space ...................................................................................................................................................... 22 AQUILA Air Traffic Management Systems .....................................................................................................................6 Ascent Flight Training ..............................................................................................................................................................14 Babcock International ...........................................................................................................................................................107 BAE Systems ................................................................................................................................................................................108 Beechcraft .......................................................................................................................................................................................10 CAE UK ..............................................................................................................................................................................................16 CargoLogicAir .............................................................................................................................................................................. 26 CYMA Petroleum ....................................................................................................................................................................... 39 EUROJET Turbo GmbH ..............................................................................................................................................................9 General Atomics Aeronautical Systems.............................................................................................................19 & 21 L-3 Communications................................................................................................................................................................ 70 Lockheed Martin...........................................................................................................................................................................2 Marshall Aerospace and Defence Group .....................................................................................................................12 Martin-Baker Aircraft Company ........................................................................................................................................ 49 Pratt & Whitney........................................................................................................................................................................... 24 QinetiQ................................................................................................................................................................................................4 RAF Regular and Reserve...................................................................................................................................................... 30 RUSLAN International.............................................................................................................................................................. 54



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Supporting Air Power from the ground and the air Through the provision of engineering, training and vital ground-based support services, we are proud to be part of the whole force. Our engineering and training expertise, coupled with our strong partnering approach, means we are trusted to deliver.

RAF Air Power 2016.indd 1

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F-35 Lightning II. The partnership that defines innovation in aviation.

Clear := False; desc = sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c);

scanf("%d", &n1);   scanf("%d", &location);

  printf("\nEnter the element to be inserted :");    scanf("%d", &element); root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a);      printf("\nEnter the location");    scanf("%d", &location);      //Create space at the specified location protected type Runway is    for (i = num; i >= location; i--) { entry Assign_Aircraft (ID: Aeroplane_ID);       arr[i] = arr[i - 1]; entry Cleared_Runway (ID: Aeroplane_ID);    } entry Wait_For_Clear; private Clear: Boolean := True; printf("\nEnter the element end Runway;to be inserted :"); task type Aeroplane (ID: Aeroplane_ID); type Runway_Access is access all Runway; scanf("%d", &element);

#include <stdio.h>

  float desc, root1, root2; #include<stdio.h> return (0); #include<math.h> #include <math.h>   if <= arr2[j]) { int (arr1[i] main() {          float a, b, c; type Aeroplane_Access is access Aeroplane;      float desc, root1, root2;    printf("\nEnter the location");      printf("\nEnter int the Values i, j,ofk, a :n1, "); n2;   scanf("%d", &location); = (-b + desc) / (2.0 a);   root1    printf("\nEnter the Values of a : *");    //Enter the magnitude of the pressure coefficient    (iscanf("%f", &a); desc sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c);      printf("\nEnter element to belocation; inserted :");= for = the num; i >= i--) { #include <math.h>    scanf("%d", &element); = arr[i - 1];    printf("\nEnter the Values of b : ");         arr[i] with Ada.Text_IO; use Ada.Text_IO;      printf("\nEnter theWait_For_Clear location"); entry }    scanf("%f", &b); = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a);    scanf("%d", &location); root1   #include <math.h> procedure Traffic    //Create at the specified location   space printf("\nEnter the Values of c : is "); int rad;    for (i = num; i >= location; i--) {       arr[i] = arr[i - 1];    float PI = 3.14, area, ci;    scanf("%f", &c); type Aeroplane_ID is range 1..10;    }    Some elements task type (ID: /* in array Aeroplane 'arr1' are still remaining where as   the printf("\nEnter array Aeroplane_ID); 'arr2' is exhaustedradius */ of circle: ");     printf("\nEnter the Values if "); (arr1[i]    : scanf("%d", &rad); <= arr2[j]) {    (idesc = sqrt(b * b - 4of* aa * c); while < n1) {

int main()

int arr[30], element, num, i, location;

int i, j, k, n1, n2; <math.h>

int main() { i < n2; Clear: Boolean := True; #include

#include <math.h>

Clear := False; power int rad; return (0); iscanf("%d", < n2; &n1);

arr[location - 1]

//Displaying v2 = 0;   printf(”:Enter the //Print out the result desc = sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c); scanf("%d", &n1); delay 4.0;

num++; root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a); protected type Runway is end loop; entry Assign_Aircraft (ID: Aeroplane_ID); } entry Cleared_Runway (ID: Aeroplane_ID); end Traffic;   float desc, root1, root2; entry Wait_For_Clear;

entry Wait_For_Clear

private //Merging starts int when i, j,Clear k, n1, is n2; Clear: Boolean := True; return v5; (-b + desc) / //Displaying end Runway; begin v2access = 0; type Runway_Access is all Runway;

float PI = 3.14, int i, j, k, n1, n2;


{ } else arr[i] { = arr2[j]; arr[i // scanf("%d", &n1); return (0); arr[i //Displaying { return (0); return (0);


delay 4.0; null; } end; scanf("%d", &n1); + end desc) Traffic; / (2.0 * a); end Runway;

desc = sqrt(b * b 4 * aloop; * c); end

root2 =if (arr1[i] int arr1[ #include <math.h> arr2[j];   root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a); int main() printf("\nEnter the of a : "); #include    root2 = (-b - desc) /    (2.0 * Values a); <stdio.h> printf("\nEnter the Values of a : "); return (0); arr[location 1] while (i < n1 && j < n2) {   printf("\nEnter the Values of b : "); descRunway_Access) = sqrt(b *is b of- b4: *");a * c);    printf("\nEnter the Values    printf("\nFirst Root : %f", root1); task type Controller (My_Runway: root1 = (-b root2 = (-b - desc) / (2.0 * a);

root2 *= b(-b / (2.0 * a); desc = sqrt(b - 4-:*desc) a * c); Clear: Boolean := True; printf("\nFirst Root %f", root1); printf("\nSecond Root : %f", root2);Clear := False; delay 4.0; root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a); res[k] = arr1[i]; end loop; return (0); protected type Runway is i++; use Ada.Text_IO; protected type Runway is entry Assign_Aircraft (ID: Aeroplane_ID);    area = PI with * radAda.Text_IO; * rad; end Traffic; k++; entry Assign_Aircraft (ID: Aeroplane_ID); entry Cleared_Runway (ID: Aeroplane_ID); } entry Cleared_Runway (ID: Aeroplane_ID);    printf("\nArea of circle : %f ", area);    printf("\nEnter the element to be inserted :");   entry Wait_For_Clear; entry Wait_For_Clear; procedure Traffic is private/* Some elements in array 'arr2' are still remaining where as the array 'arr1' is exhausted */    scanf("%d", &element); private Clear: Boolean := True; Clear: Boolean  := True;    ci = 2 * PI * rad; end Runway;    printf("\nEnter the location"); end Runway; task Aeroplane Aeroplane_ID); desc = type sqrt(b * b -   4 (ID: * a *is c); type Runway_Access is access all Runway; &location);    printf("\nCircumference /*: Some %f elements ", ci); in array 'arr1' are still remaining as the array 'arr2'all exhausted */ typewhere Runway_Access isscanf("%d", access Runway;   type Aeroplane_Access is access Aeroplane; Clear := False;      //Create space at the specified location    for (i = num; i >= location; i--) {    return (0);       arr[i] = arr[i - 1]; }    }

type Aeroplane_Access is access Aeroplane; #include <math.h>

Clear := False;

(arr1[i] printf("\nEnter radius ofifcircle: ");<= arr2[j]) {

scanf("%f", &b);   float desc, root1, root2;    scanf("%f", &b);    printf("\nSecond Root : %f", root2); entry Request_Takeoff (ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Takeoff: out Runway_Access);

printf("\nEnter the Values of c : printf("\nEnter "); task type Aeroplane Aeroplane_ID);   printf("\nEnter the "); Values of (ID: c : "); radius of circle:   float a, b, c; entry Request_Approach(ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Approach: out Runway_Access); res[k] =   arr2[j]; res[k] = arr1[i]; is access Aeroplane; returnController (0); task  type Runway_Access) is * b type desc = sqrt(b - 4 *Aeroplane_Access a * c);    float desc, (My_Runway: root1, root2; end Controller;    //Print out the result of insertion Runway1 Runway; printf("\nEnter element to :bealiased inserted } area = PI * rad * rad;  num, i, location; the (ID: i++; entry Request_Takeoff in Aeroplane_ID; Takeoff: :"); out Runway_Access); int arr[30], element, Controller1: Controller (Runway1'Access); (arr1[i] <= arr2[j]) { desc = Controller sqrt(b * b - 4 *Runway_Access) a the * c);    printf("\nEnter Values of a : "); task type (My_Runway: is int i, j, k, n1, n2; return entry Request_Approach(ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Approach: out Runway_Access); starts(0); #include<stdio.h> k++; protected body Runway is    scanf("%f", i//Merging <<math.h> n2; int main() Request_Takeoff (ID: in &a); Aeroplane_ID; Takeoff: &rad); #include<math.h> v2 = 0; printf("\nEnter the entry element to   beprintf("\nEnter inserted the Values of a : "); int#include main() { (ID: Aeroplane_ID) thesqrt(b Values Approach: of b*: "); end Controller; desc =:"); bout -Runway_Access); a printf("\nEnter * scanf("%d", c); entry Request_Approach(ID: in Aeroplane_ID; out Runway_Access); location; i--)entry {   Assign_Aircraft int main() New_aeroplane: Aeroplane_Access; scanf("%d", &n1); {4 *pressure =(My_Runway: (-b    +Runway_Access) desc) / (2.0    scanf("%f", &a); when Clearintismain() { root1 scanf("%f", &b); * a); } else the task type Controller is #include <math.h> scanf("%d",    &n1); scanf("%d", &element); end Controller;    printf("\Provide distribution :");    float a, b, c; //Merging starts i < n2; int arr1[30], arr2[30], res[60]; entry Request_Takeoff (ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Takeoff: out Runway_Access);    printf("\nEnter the Values of b : "); begin (i arr[location 1] i#include < - <math.h> n2; begini >= location;    printf("\nEnter the Values of c : "); int rad; for =ci;num; i--) {    floatentry desc,Request_Approach(ID: root1, root2; #include<stdio.h> i < n2; num++; in Aeroplane_ID; Approach: out Runway_Access); res[k] = arr2[j]; I in Aeroplane_ID'Range loop } =for      float PI 3.14, area, for (iis= num; i >= location; i--) { //Merging starts Clear := False;    :"); scanf("%f",   area printf("\nEnter the element to = num; be iinserted >= location; i--)   for int i, j,{ scanf("%d", k, n1,      end(i Controller; task&c); type n2; Controller &element); Runway_Access) := new* Aeroplane (I);   #include =Aeroplane_ID'Range PI{New_aeroplane *4.0; rad rad; #include <stdio.h> =Request_Takeoff (-b + (My_Runway: desc) / (i(2.0 *Takeoff: a); the location"); Values of a : (ID) ");    printf("\nEnter the element to printf("\nEnter be inserted :");    printf("\nEnter Put_Line (Aeroplane_ID'Image & " root1 on runway ") delay return v5;   the    printf("\nEnter the Values of out a : "); <math.h> for Iint in main()    printf("\nEnter radius ofloop circle: "); for = num; i >= location; i--) { entry (ID: in Aeroplane_ID; arr2[j]) { k++;    scanf("%f",Runway_Access) &a);Runway1   of */       &element); int Controller arr[30], element, num,(My_Runway: i, location; task type is :"); Runway; printf("\nEnter the element to be Runway_Access); inserted :");    scanf("%d", end&rad); loop; New_aeroplane := new Aeroplane (I);    scanf("%d", scanf("%d",v2 &n1);  aliased = sqrt(b * b Request_Approach(ID: - 4 * * c);    * /* Some elements in 'arr1' are still remaining    printf("\nEnter where the array 'arr2' the is exhausted    as printf("\nEnter the Values Values of b : a ");:desc   array entry Approach: outRunway_Access) Runway_Access); desc = asqrt(b bin- Aeroplane_ID; 4 task *&element); a c); type* Controller (My_Runway: protected body isRunway is   end Traffic; }4.0;    scanf("%d", &location); float a, b,= 0;c;   delay    scanf("%d", main()   int    scanf("%f", &b);Controller1: printf("\nEnter no of elements in 1st array :");    printf("\nEnter no of elements :"); #include <stdio.h> entry Request_Takeoff (ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Takeoff: out Runway_Access); entry Request_Takeoff (ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Takeoff: out Runway_Access);   Controller (Runway1'Access);    scanf("%f", &a);    printf("\nEnter the* location"); end loop; j++;    area = PI rad * rad; end Controller; entry Assign_Aircraft (ID: Aeroplane_ID) while (i < n1)0; {    scanf("%d",    printf("\nEnter the Values of c : "); scanf("%d", &n1); v5int =rad; v4res[k] intof &num); main() entry Request_Approach(ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Approach: out Runway_Access);    == scanf("%d", &location);   = printf("\nEnter the location"); end    Traffic; printf("\nArea circle : %f    ", area); (-b&n1); + desc) (2.0 * a);     float a,ZwClose(Handle); b, c; printf("\nEnter the Values scanf("%d", of    b :root1 "); arr1[i]; when Clear is    scanf("%f", &c);   ci; float PI area, {=Runway_Access) v2 int = 0;   main() entry Request_Approach(ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Approach: out /Runway_Access); end Controller;   = 3.14, #include <math.h>   else { { i++; task type(arr1[i] Controller (My_Runway: is if (arr1[i] <= arr2[j])  space &b);    root2 = (-b - desc) / (2.0 *}a);   printf("\nEnter the location"); begin   = for =* { 0; i < num; i++)    { scanf("%f",   }    //Create space the specified location if <= arr2[j])    //Create at the specified location    ci 2 at * (i PI rad; k++; in    scanf("%d", &location); taskscanf("%d", type Controller &location); (My_Runway: Runway_Access) is entry Request_Takeoff (ID: Aeroplane_ID; Runway_Access);    desc = sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c);       scanf("%d", &arr[i]);    printf("\nEnter radius ofi circle: "); out    float a, scanf("%d", &n1); end Controller; #include Clear := False;    forb, (i num; >= Takeoff: location; i--)   = c; printf("\nCircumference : {%f ",   ci); printf("\nEnter the Values for of  c :(i ");= 0; i < n1; i++) { -   1] protected type Runway is <math.h> } n1, Clear := False; entry Request_Takeoff (ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Takeoff: out Runway_Access); int i, n2; entry j, Request_Approach(ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Approach: Runway_Access);  num; the element to be inserted i :");>= location; i--) {arr[location    }   printf("\nEnter   k, scanf("%d", &rad); return(ID: v5; Aeroplane_ID);       arr[i] = arr[i 1];   outfor   (i =   entry Assign_Aircraft } i < n2; }Aeroplane else {    root1, out Runway_Access); printf("\nFirst Root : %f", root1);entry Request_Approach(ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Approach: &c);    root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a);       scanf("%d", &element);   scanf("%f", scanf("%d", &arr1[i]);  Aeroplane_ID); task type    float desc, root2; }       }(ID: Put_Line (Aeroplane_ID'Image (ID) & " on runway "); //Displaying   return (0);    /* =Some in 'arr2' are the still remaining where as the =array is exhausted end //Create Controller; space at the specified location    = root2 (-b -'arr1' desc) / (2.0 * a); */      array printf("\nEnter element to be area PI *elements rad *} rad; desc = sqrt(b * b} - 4 * a * c); #include <math.h>       printf("\nSecond Root : %f", root2);       arr[i] arr[i - 1]; task type Aeroplane (ID: Aeroplane_ID);   : printf("\nEnter the location");  int }c);    scanf("%d", &element); type return Aeroplane_Access is access Aeroplane; printf("\nArea of circle %f ", area);   v5;       for (i = num; i >= location; i--)end; { i,* Controller k, n2; arr[location - 1] delaytask4.0;   Runway_Access)    desc   = printf("\nFirst sqrt(b b j, - 4: *%f", a root1); * n1, type Aeroplane_Access is   access    //Enter the magnitude of the pressure coefficient type Aeroplane task type (My_Runway: is Root &location);      scanf("%d",      root1 (ID: = (-b + desc) / (2.0int * a); main() } Aeroplane; &arr[i]); #include <math.h> res[k] = arr2[j]; int main()       arr[i] = arr[i - 1]; { Aeroplane_ID); type Aeroplane_Access access entry Request_Takeoff in Aeroplane_ID; Takeoff: out Runway_Access);    printf("\nSecond Root : %f", (ID: root2);   the Values    printf("\nEnter the location");    ci/Aeroplane; =(2.0 2 * * PIa); * rad; of a : "); } =    task type Aeroplane (ID: Aeroplane_ID);    return (0); printf("\nEnter the Values of a : ");    root2 (-bis- printf("\nEnter desc) end loop; protected type Runway is return (0);    printf("\nEnter the element    to printf("\nCircumference be inserted :"); res[k] entry Wait_For_Clear entry Request_Approach(ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Approach: out Runway_Access);      //Create space at the specified location arr2[j]; : %f ", = ci); type ci Aeroplane_Access   = 2 * PI * rad;is access Aeroplane;    printf("\nEnter the element to be inserted :");    float desc, root1, root2;    for (i = num;   i} >= location; {iis < n2; } Aeroplane_ID);    scanf("%f", i--) &a);    scanf("%d", &element); when Clear      float desc, root1, root2; Assign_Aircraft end (0);   {entry return for (i = num; i >= location; i--)   (ID:  Root scanf("%f", #include <math.h>    printf("\nFirst : %f", root1); &a); Traffic; printf("\nCircumference : %f ", ci); root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a); if   (arr1[i] <= arr2[j]) {Controller;     end scanf("%d", &element); } entry       arr[i] = arr[itask - 1]; type Aeroplane (ID: Aeroplane_ID);   Root return (0);    printf("\nEnter thebegin Values of b : "); #include <math.h> //Merging starts int i, j, k, n1, n2;    desc, root1, root2; while (i < n1) {    float printf("\nSecond : %f", root2); Cleared_Runway (ID: Aeroplane_ID); end Controller;    printf("\nEnter the   location"); null;    } type Aeroplane_Access is access Aeroplane; printf("\nEnter no of elements in 2nd array :");       arr[i] = arr[i 1]; } printf("\nEnter the Values of b : "); desc = sqrt(b * b 4 * a * c);   //Enter the //Print magnitude the result the insertion coefficient task type Controller (My_Runway: Runway_Access) is    scanf("%d", &location); end; entry Wait_For_Clear; int rad; res[k] = arr2[j]; <math.h> desc = sqrt(b *out b#include -of<stdio.h> 4#include * a pressure *of c); int(ID: arr1[30] = arr2[j]; entry Request_Takeoff in Aeroplane_ID; Takeoff: out Runway_Access); res[k] = arr1[i]; res[k]   arr[i]); end Runway; with Ada.Text_IO; use Ada.Text_IO; //Print out the result // Merging starts scanf("%d", &n2);    scanf("%f", &b); root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a); #include <math.h> private entry Request_Approach(ID: in Aeroplane_ID; out Runway_Access);    Approach: //Merging starts    printf("\nEnter the element inserted :"); //Merging starts printf("\nCircumference : %f ", ci);to=be arr2[j]; end Traffic Controller; Clear: Boolean := True;<stdio.h> procedure is power #include <stdio.h> #include } else { i++; //Create space at the   specified location res[k]    scanf("%d", &element); arr[location printf("\nEnter 1] the element to be inserted :"); float a, b, c; end Runway; <stdio.h> Root %f", root1); protected Runway for (i Aeroplane_ID i#include >= location; i--) #include { <stdio.h>      printf("\nFirst    scanf("%d", &element); type is range 1..10; arr[i]); printf("\nEnter the  Values of a : body "); : (-b + is desc) / (2.0 * a); (i == num; num; type Runway_Access is access all Runway; entry Assign_Aircraft (ID: Aeroplane_ID) #include <math.h> //Merging starts for (ik++; = num; i >= location; i--) { int main()    printf("\nEnter the location"); < n2; protected type Runway isi #include <stdio.h> {area = PI * rad when Clear is * rad; #include <math.h> entry Assign_Aircraft (ID: Aeroplane_ID);    scanf("%d", &location); #include <math.h>    } float desc, root1, root2; begin return (0); entry =Cleared_Runway (ID: /Aeroplane_ID);   * root1 (-b + desc) (2.0 * a); root1 = (-b  + desc) / :=(2.0 a); entry Wait_For_Clear; Clear False;    root2 = (-b desc) / (2.0 * a); private    Aeroplane //Create space(ID: at theAeroplane_ID); specified location task type Put_Line (Aeroplane_ID'Image (ID) Clear: Boolean := True; & " on runway ");    float desc, root1, for (i root2; = num; i >=  location; i--) {Aeroplane; end Runway; type    Aeroplane_Access access end;    is printf("\nFirst Root all : %f", type Runway_Access is access Runway;root1); desc = sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c);

root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a);

desc = sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c);

root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a);

root2 = (-b - desc) / (2.0 * a);

desc = sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c);

root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a);

  printf("\nEnter thebegin element to be inserted :");    scanf("%d", &element);for I in Aeroplane_ID'Range loop New_aeroplane := new Aeroplane (I);   delay 4.0;    printf("\nEnter the location"); end loop;    scanf("%d", &location); end Traffic;      //Create space at the specified location    for (i = num; i >= location; i--) {       arr[i] = arr[i - 1];    }

  printf("\nEnter the element to be inserted :");    scanf("%d", &element);      printf("\nEnter the location");    scanf("%d", &location); task type Aeroplane (ID: Aeroplane_ID);   Aeroplane; type Aeroplane_Access is access    //Create space at the specified location    for (i = num; i >= location; i--) {       arr[i] = arr[i - 1];    }

protected type Runway is entry Assign_Aircraft (ID: Aeroplane_ID); entry Cleared_Runway (ID: Aeroplane_ID); entry Wait_For_Clear; private Clear: Boolean := True; end Runway; type Runway_Access is access all Runway;

  root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a);    root2 = (-b - desc) / (2.0 * a);      printf("\nFirst Root : %f", root1);    printf("\nSecond Root : %f", root2);

task type Controller (My_Runway: Runway_Access) is entry Request_Takeoff (ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Takeoff: out Runway_Access); entry Request_Approach(ID: in Aeroplane_ID; Approach: out Runway_Access); end Controller;

desc = sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c);

root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a);

task type Aeroplane (ID: Aeroplane_ID); type Aeroplane_Access is access Aeroplane;

desc = sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c);

root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a);

     arr[i] = arr[i - 1];

int arr1[30], arr2[30], res[60]; num++;

  printf("\nEnter the element to be inserted :"); int arr[30], element, num, i, location;    printf("\nSecond Root : %f", root2);    scanf("%d", &element);    }      printf("\nEnter the element to be inserted :");    printf("\nEnter the location");    scanf("%d", &element);    scanf("%d", &location); desc  = sqrt(b * b - 4 *  a * c);    //Create space at the specified location #include<stdio.h> for location"); I in Aeroplane_ID'Range loop    for (i = num; i >= location; i--) {    printf("\nEnter the       arr[i] = arr[i - 1];   New_aeroplane := new Aeroplane (I); &location); a scanf("%d", * c);      } desc = sqrt(b * b - 4 *   int  main() { delay 4.0; area = PI * rad * rad; desc = sqrt(b  *int b arr1[30], - 4 space * aarr2[30], * the c); res[60]; location v2 = 0; loop; atend specified task type Aeroplane//Create (ID: Aeroplane_ID); #include <math.h> k, n1, n2; end Traffic;   int fori, (ij, = num; i >= location; i--) { type Aeroplane_Access is access Aeroplane; ZwClose(Handle);         arr[i] = arr[i - 1]; for I in Aeroplane_ID'Range loop no of elements in 1st array :");   printf("\nEnter } New_aeroplane } := new Aeroplane (I); scanf("%d", &n1); delay 4.0; for (i = 0; i < n1; i++) { end loop; begin return v5; scanf("%d", &arr1[i]); for I in Aeroplane_ID'Range loop end Traffic; New_aeroplane := new Aeroplane (I); } printf("\nEnter the } Values of a : ");

desc = sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c); scanf("%d", &rad); for (i = num; i >= location; i--) {

BAE Systems is a tier one partner to the global F-35 programme

if (arr1[i] <= arr2[j]) { desc = sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c);   root1 = (-b + desc) / (2.0 * a); area = PI * rad * rad;

  printf("\nEnter the Values of a : ");    float desc, root1, root2; scanf("%f", &a);    scanf("%f", &a);       printf("\nEnter the Values of b : "); Clear := False; Merging starts    printf("\nEnter// the Values of b : "); while (i < n1 && j < n2) {

int main() { if (arr1[i] <= arr[location 1]{ arr2[j])


else//Merging {

arr2[j]) int main()

New_aeroplane: Aeroplane_Access;


BAEBAEGEN16024K011_BAE_RAF_News_Print_F-v2.indd 1

24/06/2016 11:01

RAF Air Power 2016 – Inspiration and Innovation  

An official publication of the Royal Air Force

RAF Air Power 2016 – Inspiration and Innovation  

An official publication of the Royal Air Force