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Foundry Improvements 改进铸造工艺

Also 还请关注: Industry News p. 11 行业新闻 p.11

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CASTING A PUBLICATION OF THE AMERICAN FOUNDRY SOCIETY

Casting Competence Across Three Continents


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Void in casting, after machining, seen with a Hawkeye Pro Hardy 7”

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Flash as seen with a Hawkeye V2 Video Borescope

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MARCH 2019

volume 9 number 1

P.18

P.50

P.28 FEATURES

专题文章

28 Census

28 5步识别铸件缺陷

S. KANNAN, A. PATHAK AND T. COBETT

31 MN-S 1 A MODERN CASTING STAFF AND AFS INSTITUTE REPORT

39 Inorganic Cores A MODERN CASTING STAFF AND AFS INSTITUTE REPORT

S. KANNAN, A. PATHAK AND T. COBETT

31 解决铸造企业的难题 A MODERN CASTING STAFF AND AFS INSTITUTE REPORT

39 解决铸造企业的难题 A MODERN CASTING STAFF

DEPARTMENTS

专栏

9 Editorial 11 Industry News 45 Product News

9 编者的话 11 行业新闻 45 产品新闻

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STAFF/工作人員

STAFF/工作人员 MODERN CASTING

FOUNDRY-PLANET.COM

Managing Editor SHANNON WETZEL, swetzel@afsinc.org

Publisher/Editor THOMAS FRITSCH, tf@foundry-planet.com

Associate Editor BRIAN SANDALOW, bsandalow@afsinc.org

Senior Editor/ International Sales ADRIANA WEISENBACH, aw@foundry-planet.com

Advertising Sales JOE MURPHY, AdSales25@aol.com FABIO CAVALIERI, fabio@afsinc.org

Advertising Sales OANH LARSEN, ons@foundry-planet.com THERESA NEUMANN, tn@foundry-planet.com

Art Director MICHAEL J. BERRAFATO, mberrafato@afsinc.org

MODERN

CASTING CHINA FOUNDRY ASSOCIATION 中国铸造协会 Publisher/Executive Vice President & Secretary General/ 出品人 ZHANG LIBO/ 张立波 Senior Editor/ 主编 WEN PING/ 温平 Deputy Editor/ 副主编 HUANG TIANYOU/ 黄天佑 FAN QI/ 范琦, fanqi@foundry.com.cn Editor/编辑 GAO WEI/高巍, gaowei@foundry.com.cn Li Mengmeng/李 蒙蒙, limengmeng@foundry.com.cn Advertising Sales Manager/ 广告销售主管 GAO WEI/ 高巍, gaowei@foundry.com.cn

张立波 出品人 中国铸造协会

Shannon Wetzel Managing Editor MODERN CASTING

Thomas Fritsch Publisher/Editor-in-Chief Foundry-Planet.com

March 2019 FOUNDRY-PLANET.COM | MODERN CASTI NG | CHINA FOUNDRY ASSOCIATION |

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editorial/编者的话

A Splendid Foundry Year of 2019

A

展示铸造辉煌的2019年

c cording to the latest world casting census by Modern Casting in Dec. 2018, the world casting production grew by 5.3% in 2017. The world foundry industry is continuing with its growing trend in 2019. A series of professional and high-level foundry events will be staged one by one this year, showing the vitality and innovation of foundry industry in every region of the world. At the beginning of 2019, IFEX was held from Jan 16-18 in India. In March 13-16, Shanghai, sponsored by China Foundry Association, the 17th China International Foundry Expo (METAL CHINA 2019) together with the 13th China International Die Casting Industry Exhibition will display the latest development of Chinese foundry industry and the Chinese foundrymen are expecting the world participation; On the other side of the Pacific Ocean, the triennial CASTEXPO will be held in the Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta; and GIFA will again attract the attention of the world foundry industry from June 25-29, in Dusseldorf, Germany . From July 18-19, the 5th Asia Foundry Forum will be hosted by Taiwan Casting Industry Association in Taipei City. Hosted by China Foundry Association, Seminar of Asian Foundry Technology History Society will be held on Aug 29-31 in China’s ancient capital Xi’an. In September, there will be at least three activities in different parts of the world. The biennial Latin American Foundry Fair (FENAF) will be held from Sep.17-20 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The 9th BRICS Foundry Forum will be held during FENAF. The World Foundry Technical Forum will be held from Sept. 18-20 in Portoroz, Slovenia. The first self-organized oversea event of Metal+Metallurgy Thailand will make its debut from Sept. 18-20, BITEC, Bangkok, which will fully demonstrate the communication and cooperation with the “Belt and Road” initiative. Sponsored by China Foundry Association, the 16th Conference of Investment Casting will be held on Nov. 17-21 in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. 2019 will prove to be a year of close communication and deep cooperation among the world foundry industry, Global Casting Magazine will play its role in reporting various and brilliant events, providing you with the latest foundry industry news on a global scale. ■ Zhang Libo Publisher/President China Foundry Association

张立波 出品人 中国铸造协会

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018年12月,Modern Casting发布最新的全球 铸件产量普查,2017年全球铸件产量同比增长 5.3%。

2019年,全球铸造行业持续发力,今年也是国际铸

造业会展活动最为密集的一年,世界各地将展示铸造业 的活力与创新! 新年伊始,印度国际铸造展IFEX于1月16-18日落下 帷幕;而接下来,由中国铸造协会主办的“第十七届 中国国际铸造博览会”、“第十三届中国国际压铸工 业展览会”将于3月13-16日联袂在上海新国际博览中 心举办,为您展示中国铸造业的最新发展、让您感受 中国铸造人的热情;跨越太平洋,4月27-30日,三年 一届的美国铸造展CASTEXPO将在亚特兰大乔治亚世 界会议中心举办;6月25-29日,在德国杜塞尔多夫, 四年一届的GIFA展将再次吸引全球铸造人的目光;7 月18-19日,由台湾铸造品工业同业公会承办的“第 五届亚洲铸造论坛”将在台北市召开;由中国铸造协 会承办的“亚洲铸造技术史学会大会”将于8月29-31 日在中国古都西安举办;金秋9月,全球铸造业的活动 将精彩不断。两年一届的拉美国际铸造展FENAF将于 9月17-20日在巴西圣保罗举办,同期还将举办“第九 届金砖国家铸造业高层论坛”;世界铸造组织技术论 坛也将于9月18-20日在斯洛文尼亚举办;中国铸造协 会首个海外展泰国国际铸造冶金展览会将于9月18-20 日在曼谷国际贸易展览中心精彩亮相,充分展示在“ 一带一路”倡议下的铸造业的深入交流与合作;11月 17-21日,由中国铸造协会主办的“第十六届精密铸 造会议”将在江苏无锡举办。 2019年势必将成为世界铸造业密切交流、深入合作 的一年,《世界铸造》杂志也将参与各项活动,及时报 道活动的精彩内容,为您提供更多的铸造业信息。■ 张立波 出品人 中国铸造协会

Shannon Wetzel Managing Editor MODERN CASTING

Thomas Fritsch Publisher/Editor-in-Chief Foundry-Planet.com

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

Industry News Contents 行业新闻目录

Botou Foundry Enterprises Environment Improved 泊头铸造企业提升环保水平

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IFCE-2018 Held in Lahore-Pakistan 2018巴基斯坦铸造大会暨展会成功举办

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Meide Gengchen Starts Production 玫德庚辰顺利投产

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China-Pakistan Blast Furnace Starts Production 中巴钢铁公司高炉成功点火生产

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EJ starts production at new facility EJ新厂投产

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Clinkenbeard expands with new facility Clinkenbeard扩建 

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Busche raises $150 million for growth Busche增加1.5亿美元投资 

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Petmin planning new Ohio pig iron plant 南非Petmin公司计划在俄亥俄州建生铁厂

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Nucor acquires precision castings company in Mexico 纽柯钢铁公司收购墨西哥精密铸造企业 

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Waupaca announces Michigan expansion 沃帕卡铸造厂宣布密歇根扩建项目

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Ruiming Group’s Intelligent Manufacturing Project Passed Acceptance 瑞明集团智能制造项目通过验收 Industry Vane--METAL CHINA and CIDC 2019 2019“铸博会”、“压铸展”领航开幕

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

EJ starts production at new facility EJ新厂投产 In October 2018, AFS Corporate Member EJ had a ceremony to celebrate the opening of its new facility and hosted a private open house for the greenfield foundry in Warner Township, near Elmira, Michigan, U.S. In a news release, the company said “the new (facility) will allow EJ, previously known as East Jordan Iron Works, Inc., to remain competitive, grow the business, and retain 340 jobs in Northern Michigan.” The 200-acre site in Warner Township had been under construction since February 2017, and was slated to begin production in November 2018. The new foundry is 14 miles from their current manufacturing facility in East Jordan. “EJ is proud to continue to keep manufacturing in Northern Michigan and to be able to retain employment,” the company said. “In just a few weeks, the foundry will be in production, producing some of the highest quality infrastructure access solutions in the world,” said Tracy Malpass, president, EJ. “This facility is the single largest investment undertaken by our company.” Attendees were provided a tour of the facility. Over the following weekend, over 1,200 EJ retirees, employees and family members received a first-hand look at the facility. “On behalf of the employees and our valued customers, we thank the shareholders for their reinvestment in the company, which will service us well in the long-term,” said Tom Teske, vice president and general manager, EJ. The ceremony was attended by fourth, fifth, and sixth generation members of the Malpass family, as well as many state and local dignitaries, which included U.S. Congressman Jack Bergman, State Representative Tristan Cole, State Senator Wayne Schmidt, and Brandon Fewins on behalf of U.S. Senator Debbie Stabenow. ■

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2018年10月,美国铸造协会会员企业EJ公司在新厂举 办了开业典礼,并在位于密歇根埃尔迈拉附近的华纳镇的 工厂举办了开放参观活动。 据报道,EJ公司称:“新厂将使EJ公司(原公司名为 East Jordan Iron Works, Inc.)继续保持其竞争力及业 务增长,保留其在密歇根州北部的340个就业岗位。” 占地约200英亩(约81万平方米)的华纳镇工厂自 2017年2月开建,2018年11月投产。新厂距离EJ公司 旧址约22公里。 公司表示,“EJ公司对能够继续留在密歇根州北部并 保留就业岗位而感到自豪。” “几周内,新工厂将投入生产,生产出世界上最优质 的基础设施铸件产品,”EJ总裁特蕾西•马尔帕斯说,“ 这个工厂是公司进行的最大单笔投资。” 参加开幕庆典的嘉宾参观了新厂。在接下来的周末, 公司的退休人员、现有员工及其家庭成员组成的1,200多 人有机会可以作为第一批客人进行参观。 “我代表员工和客户,感谢股东对公司的再投资,这 将可以为公司长期提供良好的服务,”EJ副总裁兼总经 理汤姆•特斯克说。 出席开业仪式的包括马尔帕斯家族的第四代、第五代 和第六代成员,以及州和地方的很多政要,其中包括美 国国会议员杰克•伯格曼、州代表特里斯坦•科尔、州参 议员韦恩•施密特和代表美国参议员黛比•斯塔贝诺出席 的布兰登•费文。 ■

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

Clinkenbeard expands with new facility Clinkenbeard扩建 In December 2018, Clinkenbeard relocated to a 40,000-sq.-ft. facility in South Beloit, Illinois, U.S. The new facility is twice as big as the previous facility, and includes space for engineering, machining, a mechanical mockup build shop, and a foundry pattern shop. In addition, several upgrades to the business have recently been made. The company recently installed a 5-axis milling center and a turning center. Clinkenbeard provides complex castings and machined parts using a wide variety of ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The company’s principal markets include U.S. defense and government, aerospace, aviation, automotive, heavy truck and engine, power generation, and industrial. ■

2018年12月,美国Clinkenbeard公司搬迁至位于伊 利诺伊州南贝洛伊特的新址,新厂占地40,000平方英尺 (约3716平方米),是原工厂的两倍,包括工程、加 工、机械模型制造车间和铸造模具车间。 此外,最近还对该厂进行了多次升级,安装了DMG Mori的5轴铣削中心和DMG Mori车削中心。 Clinkenbeard使用各种黑色和有色金属材料生产复 杂的铸件和机加工零件。该公司的主要市场包括美国国 防和政府部门、航 空航天、汽车、重 型卡车和发动机、 发电设备和其他工 业领域。 ■

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

Busche raises $150 million for growth Busche增加1.5亿美元投资 AFS Corporate Member Busche Performance Group (Southfield, Michigan, U.S.) announced it has secured $150 million with the completion of a senior secured credit facility. Along with previously announced equity infusion from its shareholder group, BPG has now completed its planned capital structure. “This will materially strengthen the company’s balance sheet, enhance its working capital position, and create opportunity for future growth. In addition, this action further supports the board’s vision of continuing to build BPG into a strategically-relevant, supplier-of-choice for the global OEMs,” the company said in a news release. “The completion of the capital structure accomplishes a key planned step in the evolution of BPG,” the company said. “We are now firmly positioned to be a supplier of choice and capture market share in the highly competitive automotive supply space.” BPG selected Wells Fargo Bank and the Direct Lending Group of TCW Asset Management Company LLC

美国铸造协会会员企业Busche集团(密歇根州南菲 尔德)宣布已完成了一项高级担保信贷,获得1.5亿美元 资金。 除了之前宣布的股东的股权注入外,BPG现已完成计 划的资本结构的构建。 该公司在新闻发布会上表示,“这将大大加强公司的 资产负债表,改善其运营资金状况,并为未来增长创造 机会。此外,这一行动进一步支持了董事会的愿景,即 继续将BPG建设成为全球原始设备制造商的战略性最佳 供应商。” “资本结构的确立使BPG实现了关键的发展步骤,” 公司表示,“我们现在更加坚定将成为最佳供应商并在 竞争激烈的汽车供应领域占有市场份额。” BPG选择富国银行和直接信贷集团TCW资产管理公司

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻 as co-lenders to provide a maximum credit amount of $150 million. Wells Fargo will serve as the administrative agent and lead arranger for the revolving credit portion of the facility, while TCW will serve as the administrative agent and lead arranger for the term loan portion of the facility. “We are proud to be working with Wells Fargo and TCW,” said Joe Perkins, CEO, Busche Performance Group. “Their belief in our vision was apparent through this short, efficient fundraising process.” ■

作为共同贷方,为其提供1.5亿美元的最高信贷额度。 富国银行将担任该信贷项目循环信贷部分的行政代理 人和牵头人,而TCW公司将担任该项目定期贷款部分的 行政代理人和牵头人。 “我们很自豪能与富国银行和TCW合作,”Busche集 团首席执行官乔•珀金斯说,“通过这次快速有效的筹款 过程,他们认同我们的发展愿景的信念显而易见。” ■

Petmin planning new Ohio pig iron plant 南非Petmin公司计划在俄亥俄州建生铁厂 Petmin USA, a subsidiary of South African company Petmin, is planning to build a new pig iron plant in Ashtabula, Ohio, U.S. Bradley Doig, president and CEO of Petmin USA, told the Star Beacon the proposed $474 million facility would be Petmin’s first in the U.S. The proposed plant would produce nodular pig iron, which is used in castings for automotive, aerospace, rail, construction, and other industries. “Metal casting is the backbone of the U.S. manufacturing economy,” Doig told the newspaper. “It is a $33 billion industry that provides nearly 200,000 U.S. jobs. The industry is central to a growing economy, modern infrastructure and national defense.” The facility would produce 425,000 tons of pig iron per year, and design of the project could be completed by June. Construction could begin as soon as July, and production at the site could start in 2021. ■

南非Petmin公司的美国子公司计划在俄亥俄州阿什塔 比拉建新的生铁厂。 据当地媒体Star Beacon报道,Petmin美国公司的 总裁兼首席执行官布兰德利•多伊格表示,投资金额达 4.74亿美元的新厂将是Petmin在美国的第一家工厂,将 用于生产汽车、航空航天、铁路、建筑等行业铸件的球 墨铸铁用生铁。 金属铸造是美国制造业的支柱产业,”多伊格说,“ 这是一个产值达330亿美元、为美国提供大约20万个就 业岗位的行业。铸造行业对经济发展、现代基础设施建 设和国防起着重要作用。” 工厂每年将生产42.5万吨生铁,项目设计预计将于6月 完成,工程建设将于7月启动,计划于2021年投产。 ■

Nucor acquires precision castings company in Mexico 纽柯钢铁公司收购墨西哥精密铸造企业 Nucor Corporation (Charlotte, North Carolina, U.S.) announced it is acquiring Corporacion POK, S.A. de C.V. (POK), a fully integrated precision castings company with a facility in Guadalajara, Mexico. POK produces complex castings and precision machined products used by the oil and gas, mining and sugar processing industries. “Our company has had a presence in Mexico for more than a decade. We know the market and the customers there. This acquisition supports Nucor’s strategy in Mexico, which is focused on downstream processing for high-quality, value-added applications targeting niche markets,” said John Ferriola, chairman, CEO and president of Nucor Corporation. “Expanding our capability to produce value-added products is a key component of our strategy for long-term profitable growth.” POK produces precision castings using steel, bronze, iron and specialty exotic alloys. In a news release, Nucor said “the acquisition of POK will enable Nucor to broaden its current product offerings and gives the company the opportunity to increase sales into new and existing markets. POK currently employs 425 people at its Guadalajara production facility.” ■ 18

位于美国北卡罗来纳州夏洛特市的纽柯钢铁公司宣布 收购墨西哥POK公司。POK公司是一家完全整合的精密 铸件公司,在墨西哥瓜达拉哈拉设有工厂,为石油和天 然气、采矿和糖加工行业生产复杂的铸件和精密机械加 工的零部件。 “纽柯钢铁公司在墨西哥已有十多年的历史。我们了 解墨西哥市场和这里的客户。此次收购支持纽柯钢铁公 司在墨西哥的发展战略,即专注于针对新兴市场的高质 量、增值应用的下游行业,”纽柯钢铁公司董事长、首席 执行官兼总裁John Ferriola表示,“增强公司生产增值 产品的能力是我们实现长期增长战略的关键组成部分。” POK公司使用钢、青铜、铁和特种异种合金生产精密 铸件。纽柯钢铁公司在新闻发布会上表示,“收购POK 将使纽柯钢铁公司扩大现有产品范围,并使公司有机会 扩大在新市场和现有市场的销售。目前,POK的瓜达拉 哈拉工厂拥有425名员工。” ■

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

EUROGUSS Family Diecasting Shows EUROGUSS Family联动平台 – 压铸行业的领先展会 With more than 15 years of experience in the diecasting industry, NürnbergMesse has proven competence in the field. EUROGUSS is one of the most important trade fairs for the diecasting industry worldwide and takes place every two years in Nuremberg. However, the exhibition company is not only the organiser of EUROGUSS, but also offers companies a network of various trade fair platforms in the most important international diecasting markets. With the EUROGUSS Family, NürnbergMesse promotes international exchange and makes it possible to transport expertise and knowledge to other countries. The goal is to bring companies together and create access to new markets. This gives companies the opportunity to network with the world's leading players in the die-casting industry. The EUROGUSS Family is currently represented in four markets: China, India, Mexico and Thailand. China is the world's largest diecasting market. NürnbergMesse has been active there for more than five years with CHINA DIECASTING, China's leading diecasting exhibition. The event takes place annually in Shanghai. India is the third largest producer of aluminium diecasting parts. ALUCAST is India's leading trade fair for diecasting and aluminium casting and takes place every even year in India at different locations. Mexico is also regarded as a large potential market for the diecasting industry and is one of the leading markets for motor vehicles. This is why NürnbergMesse organized the EUROGUSS Mexico pavilion for the first time last year as part of Fundiexpo. In 2020 EUROGUSS Mexico is going to take place again in Guadalajara. The EUROGUSS ASIA PACIFIC exhibitor pavilion also celebrated its premiere in 2018 at Metal AP, the trade fair for the metal and casting industry in Bangkok, Thailand. Thailand ranks among the top five countries for automotive production and is therefore also extremely lucrative for the diecasting industry. More information at: www.euroguss.de/international.

纽伦堡国际博览集团(NürnbergMesse),在压铸行 业拥有超过15年的经验,在业界享誉盛名。EUROGUSS欧洲压铸工业展,是全球压铸行业最重要的贸易展会之 一,在纽伦堡每两年举办一届。 本会展公司除了组织EUROGUSS展会,还在全球最 主要的压铸市场为各企业提供多种交易会网络与平台。 通过EUROGUSS Family联动平台,NürnbergMesse公 司促进国际交流,并将其专业特长和知识传授给其他国 家。我们的目标是促进公司间合作以创造进入新市场的 机会。该目标使得公司有机会与压铸行业世界领先的企 业建立联系。 目前EUROGUSS Family联动平台在四个市场开展业 务:中国、印度、墨西哥和泰国。中国是全球最大的压铸 市场。NürnbergMesse公司已超过五年积极参与了中国 压铸行业最著名的中国压铸展览会。该展会每年在上海举 办。印度是世界第三大铝压铸零件生产国。ALUCAST是 印度最著名的压铸和铝铸造贸易展会,每年在印度不同的 城市举办。墨西哥也被认为是压铸行业一个巨大的潜在市 场,且是汽车行业领先市场之一,因此NürnbergMesse 会展公司在去年的Fundiexpo会展中首次举办了EUROGUSS墨西哥展馆。2020年EUROGUSS墨西哥展会将再 次在瓜达拉哈拉举办。EUROGUSS亚太展馆也于2018 年在泰国曼谷举办的亚太金属展(Metal AP)上首次亮 相,这是在泰国金属和铸造行业的重要展会之一。作为五 大汽车制造国之一的泰国,对于压铸行业来讲极具前景。 详情请访问: www.euroguss.de/international.

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

Waupaca announces Michigan expansion 沃帕卡铸造厂宣布密歇根扩建项目

The Michigan Economic Development Corporation announced AFS Corporate Member Waupaca Foundry, a Hitachi Metals company, plans to expand in the city of Ironwood, Michigan, U.S. According to a news release, the project is expected to generate an investment of $4.3 million and create 61 jobs. “Waupaca Foundry’s decision to establish a facility in Ironwood is great news for Gogebic County and will mean good jobs for many of the talented workers in the region,” Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder said. “We applaud the company for choosing to locate here and are thrilled to welcome them to Michigan.” According to a news release, Waupaca “needs to expand in order to process castings, including cleaning and finishing, as a means to meet increasing demand – all in a location where there is sufficient labor supply.” Waupaca plans to acquire an existing 50,000-sq.-ft. facility in Ironwood, which will also allow for additional iron casting finishing operations. Waupaca has been awarded a $1.2 million Michigan Business Development Program performance-based grant. “The economy is strong and Waupaca Foundry is growing due to increased customer demand for cast and machined iron castings. Opening a facility to handle cleaning and finishing of cast parts will allow us to meet customers’ expectations in quality and delivery of their parts,” Waupaca Foundry executive vice president John Wiesbrock said. According to the news release, Waupaca conducted job fairs and identified “a strong pool of motived, highly talented workers in the Ironwood region. This new facility is a step in the right direction for the community and region.” “Like many employers across the nation Waupaca Foundry is finding ways to overcome low unemployment and a shortage of skilled workers,” president, COO and CEO

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密歇根经济发展集团公布,日立金属集团下属公司、 美国铸造协会会员企业沃帕卡铸造厂计划在美国密歇根 州艾恩伍德市扩建。据报道,该项目预计将带来430万 美元的投资,创造61个就业岗位。 “沃帕卡铸造厂决定在艾恩伍德市新建工厂对戈吉比 克县来说是个好消息,将给当地很多人才带来很好的工作 机会,”密歇根州州长里克•斯奈德说,“我们欢迎沃帕 卡公司将工厂建在这里,热烈欢迎他们来到密歇根州。” 据报道,沃帕卡公司“需要扩大产能,生产铸件以及 铸件清理和精加工,以满足日益增长的需求,所有这些 都需要充足的劳动力供应。” 沃帕卡公司计划收购艾恩伍德市现有的一个50,000 平方英尺的工厂,这里将可以进行额外的铸铁精加工操 作。公司已获得一笔120万美元的基于绩效的密歇根州 商业发展计划补助金。 执行副总裁John Wiesbrock表示:“目前的经济发 展强劲,由于客户对铸件和机加工件的需求增加,沃帕 卡铸造厂在持续增长。新建一个铸件清理和精加工厂将 使我们能够满足客户对其铸件质量和交付要求的期望。” 据报道,沃帕卡铸造厂举办了招聘会,并证明了“艾 恩伍德市有大量有干劲、有能力的工人。新厂对社区和 本地区的发展都将起到积极的作用。” “像其他的很多雇主一样,沃帕卡铸造厂正在寻找克 服高失业率和技术工人短缺的方法,”公司总裁、首席 运营官兼首席执行官迈克•尼古拉说,“由于没有足够

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻 Mike Nikolai said. “There simply are not enough workers to fill the open positions we have so we explored expansion in regions that had a solid base of talented workers.” ■

的工人来填补目前的空缺岗位,所以我们通过调研,选 择在拥有大量高质量劳动力的地区进行了扩建。” ■

IFCE-2018 Held in Lahore-Pakistan

2018巴基斯坦铸造大会暨展会成功举办 Pakistan Foundry Association (PFA) organized the 7th International Foundry Congress and exhibition on November 13-15, 2018, at Pearl Continental Hotel, Lahore, Pakistan. Sikandar Mustafa Khan- president, Pakistan Foundry Association, welcomed the chief guest, ministers, academia, foundrymen, young engineers, all foreign delegates, national and international industrial representatives. He highlighted that Pakistan needs to initiate cluster growth in this industry to increase engineering exports and its global share of castings and engineering items. Imports of castings in various sectors are to be reviewed by government for the growth of local industry. Abdur Razzak Dawood, advisor to PM on commerce, textile, and industry, inaugurated IFCE-2018. PFA is engaged in the development of the foundry sector with the objective of preparing local foundries for export markets through technological upgrades and skills development. All members of PFA, vice chancellors from various universities, technical teams from leading industrial sectors and many more witnessed the exhibition and conference. Shafqat Mehmood, the Federal Minister of Education and Skills Development and federal secretaries from various departments were also present. The IFCE-2018 provided an opportunity to investors, machinery manufacturers, foundry material suppliers and service providers to showcase their products and services to their counterparts and potential customers to make alliance. This forum also provided a platform to the participants to get together and discuss advancement and opportunities in foundry business. PFA supports foundries to adopt new technologies and to prepare them to improve casting production. In this regard, 25 technical papers were presented during IFCE-2018 over two days. Almost all sessions were successfully organized on important subjects of casting. It was an interesting initiative for those who wanted to bring changes in their industry. Moreover, multinational companies (Omega, Sinto, Saint-Gobain, MAGMA, Cukurova Kimya Endustrisi – Turkey, EGT, Turkey, Forace Polymers Pvt. ltd, Electrotherm (India) Ltd. Inductotherm, Megatherm), China Foundry Association, and suppliers of manufacturing equipment, foundry machinery, and material also exhibited and presented their latest technical updates to the participants of IFCE-2018. IFCE-2020 will be held in mid-November 2020. ■

由巴基斯坦铸造协会主办的“第七届巴基斯坦国际铸 造大会暨展览会(IFCE-2018)”于2018年11月13-15 日在巴基斯坦拉合尔五洲明珠大酒店举办。巴基斯坦铸 造协会会长西坎达尔•穆斯塔法•汗为来自国内外的参会 嘉宾,包括政府机构官员、行业组织、学者、工程师、 企业代表举行了欢迎仪式。 他强调,巴基斯坦需要实现集群式的发展,增加工程 技术的出口,并在全球铸件生产和加工市场占有一席之 地。各领域的铸件进口将由政府进行审批,以促进当地 工业的发展。 总理顾问阿布杜尔•拉扎克•达乌德先生宣布大会开 幕。会议由巴基斯坦铸造协会组织,目的是通过技术升 级和技能提高使本地铸造企业达到出口水平,促进铸造 行业的发展。巴基斯坦铸造协会的会员企业、各高校的 副校长、来自主要工业部门的技术团队等见证了本届展览 和会议的开幕。联邦教育和技能发展部长沙夫卡特•马哈 茂德先生及其他部门的联邦秘书也出席了会议。 IFCE-2018为投资者、设备制造商、铸造材料供应商 和服务商提供了一个向同行和潜在客户展示产品和服务 的机会。论坛还为与会者提供了一个研讨铸造行业发展 趋势和市场机遇的平台。 目前,巴基斯坦铸造协会支持铸造厂采用新技术并为 改进铸件生产做好准备。鉴于此,仅在IFCE-2018的2 天会议期间就有25份技术报告,所有的分论坛都围绕铸 造主题。对于那些希望改变行业发展的人来说,这是一 个有吸引力的举措。 此外,跨国公司(包括Omega、新东、圣戈班、迈 格码、土耳其库库罗瓦、EGT、Forace、印度Electrotherm、应达、Megatherm)等铸造设备、材料、供 应商以及中国铸造协会等铸造行业组织参加了此次大会 暨展览会。 下届巴基斯坦铸造大会暨 展览会将于2020年11月举 办。 ■

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

Botou Foundry Enterprises Environment Improved 泊头铸造企业提升环保水平

Botou city in China has 1,400 years of foundry history and is the “hometown of foundry” in China. The main products produced in Botou cover industry, handicrafts and municipal facilities, including more than 10 series and thousands of types, such as automobile molds, machine tool castings, auto parts, wind power parts, military and aerospace parts, nuclear equipment, pump and valves, explosion-proof tools. Metalcasting is an important pillar in the economic sector of Botou. By the end of 2017, the number of foundry enterprises had been reduced to 589 from 1,500 due to consolidation in the past 10 years. The annual design production capacity is more than 4 million tons, the casting output reaches 2 million tons, and sales revenue comes to 16 billion yuan. In order to realize the sustainable development of Botou foundry industry and promote its modern, high-end and green transformation, and to make the industry stronger, Botou city has carried out an overall environmental protection improvement. Meanwhile, China Foundry Association has provided consulting and technical support, dispatching more than 1,000 experts in areas of technical process, environmental protection technology and industrial policy to guide the work. More than 700 companies have been evaluated and 372 evaluation programs have been passed. After the initiative, standardized and clean workshops have been established in the city, with the environment improved inside and outside the plant and better production conditions for the occupational health of workers. ■

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泊头铸造传承悠久,距今已有1400年历史,是“中 国铸造之乡”。主要产品包括工业品、工艺品、市政设 施三大类,涉及汽车模具、机床铸件、汽车配件、风电 配件、军工及航空航天配件、核用装备、泵阀、防爆工 具等十余个大系列、上千个品种。 铸造产业是泊头市经济发展中处于重要的支柱地位, 截止2017年底全市有铸造企业由十年前的1500多家整 合为589家,年铸件设计生产能力400多万吨,铸件产 量200万吨,销售收入160亿元。 为实现泊头市铸造产业可持续发展,推动整体向现 代、高端、绿色转变,做强泊头铸造产业,泊头市在全 市范围开展铸造企业环保水平提升工程。中国铸造协会 为整改提升全过程提供咨询和技术保障,先后派驻技术 工艺、环保技术、产业 政策等方面专家1000 多人次,评审方案700 多家次,通过方案评审 企业372家。 整改后的铸造企业, 建成了标准化的厂房、 洁净化的车间,厂区内 外环境优美、生产条件 大为改善,工人的职业 健康得到有效保障。 ■

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

Meide Gengchen Starts Production 玫德庚辰顺利投产

Linyi Meide Gengchen Metal Material Co., Ltd., a subsidiary of Meide Group, a high-tech enterprise specialized in metal pipes and fittings, pipeline control system and electric power fittings, produced its first iron pour on Dec. 9, 2018, marking the start of the “one million tons new material project” of Meide Gengchen. It’s an innovation-driven result of Meide Group and will open a new development chapter. The new material project covers an area of nearly 333,000 square meters and is an important step for the global strategy of Meide Group. It took 233 days from the groundbreaking in April to its completion on Dec. 9. The completion and commissioning of the project will open up a huge space for the future development of Meide Group. ■

2018年12月9日,临沂玫德庚辰金属材料有限公司生 产出第一炉铁水,标志着玫德庚辰100万吨新材料项目 顺利下线投产,书写了玫德集团创新驱动、跨越发展的 历史新篇章。 玫德庚辰100万吨新材料项目,占地近500亩,是玫 德集团走出去战略的重要一步,自2018年4月份开始破土 动工到12月9日顺利投产仅仅历时233天。 7个多月的施工工期,是我们已知钢铁建设史上的最 快速度,也是玫德建设史上一次性建设体量最大、速度 最快的项目!该项目的建成投产,为玫德集团未来发展 打开巨大发展空间。 ■

Ruiming Group’s Intelligent Manufacturing Project Passed Acceptance 瑞明集团智能制造项目通过验收 In December 2018, entrusted by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the Ministry of Finance, Zhejiang Economic and Trade Office and Zhejiang Provincial Department of Finance organized the acceptance of the "New Model Application Project for Automotive Aluminum Alloy Casting Intelligent Workshop" in Ruiming Group. The project is based on the transformation and upgrading of the production of key aluminum casting products for automobile engines. Through the combination of system integrators, software developers and equipment manufacturers, the intelligent manufacturing technology that is the key and bottleneck in the production process has been overcome and formed a new model for the production of key aluminum casting in automobile engine. The new model application helps to realize the "digital, network, intelligent" green casting. The project passed acceptance after the experts’ review and inspection. After the implementation of the intelligent manufacturing project, Ruiming Group will increase its production efficiency by 44.71% and energy utilization increased by 31.64%, and its operating costs will be decreased by 27.92%, product development cycle shortened by 44.88%, defective rate decreased by 74.16%. During the implementation of the project, 20 invention patents and 9 software copyrights have been registered and 4 enterprise standards have been formed. ■

2018年12月,受国家工信部、财政部委托,浙江 省经信厅、浙江省财政厅在瑞明集团组织召开了《汽 车铝合金铸件智能车间新模式应用项目》验收会。 该项目基于汽车发动机关键铝铸件产品生产的转 型升级的需求,通过系统集成商、软件开发商、装备 商组成联合体,集中攻克生产过程中的关键及瓶颈的 智能制造技术,形成适合汽车发动机关键铝铸件行业 的智能制造新模式;通过新模式示范应用,实现“数 字化、网络化、智能化”绿色铸造。 经专家组的审阅和考察后,项目通过了验收。 智能制造项目实施后,瑞明集团生产效率提高了 44.71%,运营成本降低了27.92%,产品研制周期缩 短了44.88%,产品不良品率降低了74.16%,能源利 用率提高了31.64%。项目实施期间,申报发明专利 20项,登记软件著作权9项,形成4项企业标准。 ■

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

China-Pakistan Blast Furnace Starts Production 中巴钢铁公司高炉成功点火生产 On December 6, 2018, the blast furnace of ChinaPakistan Steel Corporation, which was invested by Shanxi Jianbang Group, started production in Karachi, Pakistan. Under the “Belt and Road” Initiative, Shanxi Jianbang Group responded positively and quickly. By overcoming many difficulties under the concerted efforts of China and Pakistan team, it only took 6 months for the construction which started in April 2018 and completed in October. And its first tapping was successfully produced in December, creating a new record in Pakistan's industry history. ■

2018年12月6日,由山西建邦集团投资入股的中巴 钢铁公司高炉在巴基斯坦卡拉奇成功点火生产。 在“一带一路”倡议的号召下,山西建邦集团积极 响应、快速行动,该项目在中国和巴基斯坦双方团队齐 心协力下,从2018年4月动工到2018年10月底,仅用6 个月时间就建设竣工,在12月成功出铁,创造了巴基斯 坦工业史的新记录。 ■

Industry Vane-METAL CHINA and CIDC 2019 2019“铸博会”、“压铸展”领航开幕 Metalcasters from around the world will gather in Shanghai on March 13-16, 2019. As the vane of the foundry industry, the 17th China International Foundry Expo (METAL CHINA 2019) together with the 13th China International Die Casting Industry Exhibition (CIDC) are going to be held in March

24

2019年3月13~16日,全球铸造人将再次聚集中国 上海。 作为行业发展的风向标——第十七届中国国际铸造博 览会(Metal China 2019)、第十三届中国国际压铸工

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

and leading the industry development. Entering 2019, the Chinese foundry industry will continue to face the great challenge of strict environmental protection and safety regulations. The industry is integrating, transforming, and gradually moving toward the middle and high end. The exhibition closely follows the development trend of the industry and faces the pain-points, becoming the window to get close to the Chinese foundry market, and also the best platform to promote the integration of Chinese and the world foundry industry. Following are highlights of this session.

业展览会(CIDC 2019)领航开幕。跨入2019年,

1. Intelligent manufacturing and environmental protection

一、智能制造、绿色环保

"Quality, efficiency, intelligence, green" is the eternal theme in the development of the foundry industry. In order to meet the needs of environmental protection/safety upgrading of the industry, to help enterprises have more choices in environmental protection and safety facilities transformation, and to find the most suitable solution, the organizer will set up an “environmental protection and safety equipment” exhibition area, where advanced workshop dust removal system, explosion protection system, noise reduction system, etc. as well as one-stop solutions for environmental protection and safety will be displayed and provided, effectively guiding foundry enterprises to upgrade environmental protection and safety protection, and assisting small and medium-sized enterprises to deal with their bottleneck problems. During the exhibition period, a series of seminars will be held on environmental protection issues. Relevant government leaders and industry experts will explain the environmental protection/security policy and the latest standards in detail.

中国铸造行业仍需面对环保与安全法规持续加严的巨 大挑战,产业在变革中整合、在发展中转型,逐步迈 向中高端。展会紧扣行业发展热点、直面行业发展痛 点,成为了解中国铸造业市场变化的第一窗口,也是 助推中国铸造与世界铸造融合的最佳平台。展会亮点 纷呈,邀您一睹为快!

“优质、高效、智能、绿色”是铸造行业发展永恒 的主题。为满足当前行业环保/安全升级改造需求, 帮助企业在环保、安全设施改造方面有更多选择,找 到最适合的解决方案,主办方特别打造“环保、安全 设备”展区,此区域里将集中展示先进的车间除尘系 统、防爆系统、降噪系统等,并针对不同基础铸造厂 的环保、安全提供一站式解决方案,有效指导铸造企 业做好环保和安全防护工作,助力中小企业突破发展 瓶颈……展期内还将针对环保问题举行系列专题研讨 会,政府相关部门领导和业内专家将为您详细解读环 保/安全政策,明晰最新标准。 此外,展会还汇聚了当前最先进的“轻、精、优”

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻 Moreover, the most advanced light, fine and excellent high-end castings, as well as efficient, energy-saving and intelligent melting, molding, core making, pouring, cleaning, processing equipments and all kinds of testing instruments will be displayed; advanced domestic precision equipment and a series of new green environmental raw materials will be exhibited; efficient and intelligent equipment at home and abroad perfectly show the upstream and downstream industrial chain of the foundry industry; intelligent die-casting island, semi-solid diecasting machine, high-efficient molding line, high-efficient and energysaving melting equipment, on-line testing equipment, sand recycling equipment will be highlight the exhibition, supporting the transformation and upgrade of Chinese foundry industry, and promoting the industry to realize sustainable development.

2. Bringing together advanced technology to help industry’s transform and upgrade Intelligent foundry is the result of deep integration of advanced foundry technology and new generation information technology. 3D printing, simulation technology, robot and cloud service platform are the necessary conditions for intelligent foundry. The cutting-edge technologies, such as remote design, remote control, virtual production, 3D printing, intelligent robots, online monitoring and precision machining, will be displayed and help you understand

26

高端铸件展品,在这里,高效、节能、智能化的熔 炼、造型、制芯、浇注、清理、后续加工设备和各类 检测仪器等悉数登场;先进的国产精密铸造装备和系 列化新型绿色环保铸造用原辅材料相映生辉;海内外 高效、智能装备完美演绎铸造行业上下游产业链,智 能压铸岛、半固态压铸机、高效率造型线、高效节能 熔炼设备、在线检测仪器、旧砂再生设备等各路装备 将大显神通,炫彩展会,助力中国铸造转型升级,助 推行业实现可持续发展……

二、荟萃行业先进技术,助力行业转型升级 智能铸造是先进铸造技术与新一代信息技术的深 度融合,3D打印、铸造模拟技术、机器人、云服务 平台是实现智能铸造的必要条件。本届展会上展示的 远程设计、远程控制、虚拟生产、3D打印、智能机 器人、在线监测及精密加工等前沿技术将助您了解智 能铸造、握手智能铸造。

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻 and connect with intelligent foundry.

3. The diecasting industry keeps high growth With the increasing demand for lightweight and energy-saving products by downstream users, Chinese diecasting market has expanded significantly. China Foundry Association, Hong Kong Foundry Association and more than 100 industry organizations will jointly create a diecasting industry exhibition every two years in Shanghai. The session in 2019 will be upgraded again and achieves historic breakthroughs. As a top-class event of the diecasting industry, exhibitors and trade visitors are all expecting to participate. During the exhibition, all kinds of high-end diecasting parts, diecasting machines and new technologies will be displayed. The exhibits will cover the upstream and downstream of the diecasting industry chain. The famous diecasting enterprises will bring the latest intelligent products and technologies to the show. With the theme of “lightweight, stronger, more environmental friendly,” the “green channel” will be opened for automobile lightweight, supporting the diecasting industry to move towards environmental protection. Especially, Top 50 Die Casting Enterprises and Top 20 Die and Mold Enterprises which are selected by experts from industry associations and institutions, will represent the highest level of Chinese die casting development.

4. Concurrent activities to create unlimited business opportunities A series of exciting activities will enrich the exhibition connotation: the 15th China Foundry Association Annual Meeting, “Top 50 China Die-casting Enterprises, Top 20 Die-casting Mould Enterprise Awarding Ceremony,” Diecasting Sourcing Conference, and onsite industry experts consultation. New product and technology release, seminars and lectures, young workers meetings and other activities, conveying policy guidance to the industry; talent recruitment, results transfer and business matching provide unlimited opportunities, establish industry models, build a high-end business circle in the foundry industry, leading China's foundry industry to a new height!

5. Segmentation and precise matching Continuing with the previous scale, this session has added three outdoor exhibition halls, with a total exhibition area of nearly 100,000 square meters. The exhibition halls are segmented more professionally: international hall, casting hall, foundry materials hall, equipment hall, diecasting parts hall, diecasting equipment hall, intelligent manufacturing hall, etc. There are different areas in one hall, such as precision casting, mold area, robot area and 3D printing area. The exhibition highlights the industry hotspots and provides accurate and efficient services for trade visitors, which help them find target exhibitors quickly, improve the efficiency of visiting exhibitions, and ultimately achieve accurate matching between exhibitors and buyers. ■

三、压铸行业保持高速增长 压铸市场需求随着下游用户对轻量化、节能的持 续推进而扩大,中国铸造协会携手香港铸造业总会 等百余家行业组织共同打造的两年一届的压铸行业 展会将再度华丽升级,规模实现历史性突破。作为 压铸领域最高端的展会,参展商精心准备,专业观 众翘首企盼。本届展会期间将集中展示各类高端压铸 件、压铸机及压铸新工艺、新技术、新产品,展品范 围涵盖压铸产业链上下游;届时行业内知名压铸企业 将携最新智能产品和技术重磅亮相,在延续“更轻、 更强、更环保”主题的背景下,为汽车轻量化开启“ 绿色通道”,助力压铸行业迈向绿色环保。特别是由 行业协会、知名专家共同评出的“中国压铸50强、压 铸模具20强”,展示中国压铸业发展的最高水平。

四、多场同期活动,打造商机无限 展会期间将举办第十五届中国铸造协会年会,“ 中国压铸50强、压铸模具20强评选活动及颁奖典 礼”“压铸件采购洽谈会”,行业专家现场咨询等 百余项精彩活动,丰富的活动将活跃展会气氛,丰 富展会内涵。产品及技术发布、趋势研究、专家讲 座、青年工作者交流会等活动,向业界充分传递政 策导向、上下游行业发展动态内容丰富、专业高效、 亮点频出,人才招聘、成果转让、商贸对接等,网联 八方商机,树立行业标兵,构建铸造行业的高端商务 圈,引领中国铸造驶向新的航程,站上新的高度!

五、专业细分、精准配对 “双展”在延续历届展会规模的基础上,新增3处 室外展馆,总展出面积近10万平方米,展区划分更加 专业、细致:有国际馆、铸件馆、铸造材料馆、铸造 设备馆、压铸件、压铸设备、智能制造等,馆内各区 域又分为精铸展区、铸造模具展区、铸造机器人展 区、3D打印展区等不同区域;展会在凸显行业热点 的同时为专业观众带来更为准确高效的服务,助其 快速找到目标展商,提高观展效率,最终实现展商 和专业买家的精准配对。 ■

For more information, please visit: www.expochina.cn

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27


Census of World Casting Production

Global Casting Production Expands Worldwide casting production grew by 5.3% during a busy 2017. an mcdp staff report

全球铸件产量普查:2017年全球铸件 产量显著增长

I

n 2017, global production increased to more than 109.8 million metric tons, an increase of 5.3% when compared to the previous year, according to this year’s Modern Casting Census of World Casting Production. The nearly 110 million metric tons of metal castings produced in 2017 represent an increase of 5.5 million tons. This rate of growth comes after two years of less than a half-percent growth. Of the 33 countries that provided data for the past two years, 25 reported an expansion in annual volumes when comparing 2017 to 2016. Among the top 10 countries in total output, Russia had the highest growth in 2017 with an increase of 8.3% in production. China increased its total production by two million metric tons to a total of 49.4 million. Meanwhile, the U.S. saw its tonnage increase by 4%, and the gray-iron heavy India saw an increase of 6.2%. Total production of iron increased, with gray iron growing 6% and ductile iron expanding by 3.8%. Steel output grew by 6%, while aluminum production jumped by 6.7%. The data reported in the Census of World Casting Production is supplied by each nation’s metalcasting association or similar representatives, as well as the World Foundry Organization and CAEF-The European Foundry Association. ■

28

据美国铸造协会Modern Casting杂志进 行的全球铸件产量普查,2017年,全球 铸件产量达到1.098亿吨(见表1),比

2016年增长近550万吨,同比增长5.3%。这是连续2 年增幅不足0.5%之后实现的较大增长。 在过去两年均参与普查的33个国家和地区中,25个 国家和地区的铸件产量同比增长。铸铁件产量实现全面 增长,其中灰铁增长6%,球墨铸铁增长3.8%。铸钢件 产量增长6%,铝合金铸件增长6.7%。 在10大铸件生产国中,中国的铸件产量达到4940万 吨,增长220万吨,占全球铸件产量近45%,与去年持 平;美国铸件产量增长了4%,以灰铸铁生产为主的印 度,产量增长了6.2%;俄罗斯的铸件产量增幅最大,为 8.3%。 本报告中的数据由各国和地区的铸造协会、世界铸 造组织以及欧洲铸造协会提供。■

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2017 Casting Production (metric tons)

表1:2017年各国和地区铸件产量及全球产量统计表(单位:t) Country 国家

Gray Iron 灰铸铁件

Ductile Iron Malleable Iron 球墨铸 可锻 铁件 铸铁件

Steel 铸钢件

Copper Base Aluminum Zinc Magnesium 铜合金 铝合金 锌合金 镁合金铸件 铸件 铸件 铸件

Other Nonferrous 其他

Total 总计

Austria 奥地利

42,900

102,900

A

10,800

-

148,287

-

-

-

304,887

Belarus 白俄罗斯

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

258,900

Belgium 比利时

26,900

8,400

A

7,300

-

799

-

-

-

43,399

Bosnia & Herzegovina* 波黑*

17,500

9,100

-

1,350

-

10,500

-

-

-

38,450

1,261,107

517,222

-

186,616

20,811

223,359

5,458

1,154

-

2,215,727

Bulgaria 保加利亚

30,300

9,200

A

10,400

292

5,540

-

42

-

55,774

Canada 加拿大*

330,841**

-

-

90,091**

14,237**

211,374B

-

-

-

646,543

China 中国

21,150,000

13,750,000

600,000

5,550,000

800,000

7,300,000C

-

-

250,000

49,400,000

Croatia* 克罗地亚*

31,100

11,800

-

50

221

25,174

-

25

15

68,385

Czech Republic 捷克

176,000

55,000

A

64,000

20,000

101,000

-

1,000

-

417,000

Denmark 丹麦

27,500

56,100

A

-

1,292

3,014

-

-

100

88,006

Egypt 埃及

175,000

-

-

10,000

8,000

7,000

-

-

-

200,000

Finland 芬兰

19,500

36,300

A

6,200

3,247

2,548

-

101

-

67,896

France 法国

574,100

696,300

A

60,400

17,877

346,899

-

24,719

2,501

1,722,796

Germany 德国

2,421,400

1,587,700

A

175,800

79,192

1,137,096

18,190

62,188

4

5,481,570

Hungary 匈牙利

24,600

54,500

A

3,100

1,799

124,229

327

1,717

-

210,272

Brazil 巴西

India 印度

8,442,300

1,227,200

50,000

1,030,200

1,305,400

-

-

-

12,055,100

Italy 意大利

755,800

425,100

A

54,100

71,007

856,381

8,001

72,007

700

2,243,096

Japan 日本

2,281,000

1,403,612

42,000

161,900

75,401

1,489,700

-

-

-

5,453,613

Korea (Republic of) 韩国

1,019,800

686,500

2,000

159,800

25,700

629,400

-

-

13,000

2,536,200

Mexico 墨西哥

892,188

526,897

-

373,965

217,200

817,911

-

81,300

-

2,909,461

Norway 挪威

8,300

21,100

A

-

-

8,883

-

-

-

38,283

Pakistan 巴基斯坦

163,000

24,730

-

45,550

15,540

17,600

-

-

-

266,420

Poland 波兰

480,000

160,000

A

50,000

6,100

330,000

-

7,500

2,900

1,036,500

Portugal 葡萄牙

41,500

97,200

A

5,900

16,800

35,000

-

2,250

-

198,650

Romania 罗马尼亚

20,000

3,500

-

7,000

4,500

70,000

7,000

500

250

112,750

Russia 俄罗斯

2,637,500E

-

-

862,500

-

725,000F

-

-

-

4,225,000

Serbia 塞尔维亚

26,300

3,100

-

18,150

3,100

10,120

1

30

-

60,801

D

Slovenia 斯洛文尼亚

75,100

38,600

A

30,200

842

51,209

-

-

-

195,951

South Africa 南非

140,000

157,000

-

93,500

14,000

38,000

-

500

-

443,000

Spain 西班牙

365,700

698,100

A

64,900

15,096

141,810

-

8,941

850

1,295,397

Sweden 瑞典

159,400

55,600

A

21,750

8,312

46,138

1,138

9,274

-

301,612

Switzerland 瑞士

36,500

22,800

A

1,100

2,021

13,373

-

1,209

-

77,003

Taiwan 中国台湾

605,081

208,293

-

66,193

30,826

368,286

-

-

-

1,278,679

Turkey 土耳其

720,000

825,000

A

170,000

25,000

380,000

-

35,000

-

2,155,000

Ukraine** 乌克兰**

400,000

120,000

30,000

580,000

60,000

280,000

15,000

25,000

50,000

1,560,000

U.K. 英国

138,000

196,000

A

44,700

8,500

136,200

2,640

7,350

-

533,390

U.S. Metric 美国

3,327,027

2,633,294

40,034

1,264,026

209,369

1,679,072

138,890

325,062

51,292

9,668,066

WORLD TOTAL 合计

49,043,244

26,428,148

764,034

11,281,541

1,776,282

19,076,302

196,645

666,869

371,612

109,863,577

* 2016 Results ** 2015 Results A Includes Malleable Iron B Source: Aluminum Association C Includes Magnesium D Includes all diecasting E All iron F All nonferrous 注:* 2016年数据 * *2015年数据 A包含可锻铸铁 B来源于铝协会 C包含镁合金 D包含所有压铸件 E包含所有铸铁件 F包含有色金属铸件 March 2019 FOUNDRY-PLANET.COM | MODERN CASTI NG | CHINA FOUNDRY ASSOCIATION |

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Metalcasting Plants by Nation & Trends Country 国家

Iron

表2:2017年各国/地区铸造企业数 铸铁

Steel 铸钢

Austria 奥地利

20

3

Belarus 白俄罗斯

-

Belgium 比利时

-

Nonferrous 有色金属

2017 Total 2017年总数

33

56

-

-

135

-

6

6

Bosnia & Herzegovina* 波黑*

5

2

4

11

Brazil 巴西

452

153

565

1,170

Bulgaria 保加利亚

-

-

18

18

Canada** 加拿大**

-

-

-

175

China* 中国*

14,000

4,000

8,000

26,000

*Croatia 克罗地亚* Czech Republic 捷克

26

5

-

31

-

-

37

37

Denmark 丹麦

8

-

7

15

Finland 芬兰

11

7

14

32

France 法国

-

-

-

380

Germany 德国

192

45

337

574

Hungary 匈牙利 India 印度

27

7

86

120

-

-

-

4,600

Italy 意大利 Japan** 日本**

139 550 5

37 -

862 100 6

1,038 1,612 650 800 11

Korea 韩国 Mexico 墨西哥 Norway 挪威 Pakistan 巴基斯坦 Poland 波兰 Portugal 葡萄牙 Romania 罗马尼亚 Russia* 俄罗斯*

60

185

1,840

180 23 -

35 8 -

240 57 -

455 88 100 1,140

-

-

-

Serbia* 塞尔维亚* Slovenia 斯洛文尼亚

11

8

17

36

-

-

45

45

South Africa 南非 Spain 西班牙

38

43

86

167

46

29

52

127

Sweden 瑞典 Switzerland 瑞士

26 15 441 270

12 2 105 280

61 39 386 290

99 56 932 840

216

-

204

420

617

341

977

1,935

18,697

5,182

12,510

45,331

Taiwan 中国台湾 Turkey 土耳其 Ukraine* 乌克兰* U.K.* 英国* U.S. 美国 TOTAL 总计 **2015 data

注:*2016年数据

**2015年数据

Photo courtesy ID 30607394 © Everythingpossible | Dreamstime.com

*2016 data

1,595

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Finding the Right Balance of Manganese and Sulfur to Increase Cast Iron Strength An AFS research project on the effect of manganese and sulfur on cast iron and its microstructure illuminates how and why adding the right balance of two elements can achieve optimal strength. richard gundlach, element materials technology (wixom, michigan)

平衡锰、硫含量,提高铸铁件强度 美国铸造协会的研究项目《锰和硫对铸铁及其微观结构的影响》表明,平衡锰和 硫两种元素的含量可以优化铸铁件强度。

A

美国密歇根州威克瑟姆Element Materials Technology公司

research study funded and published in 2013 by AFS and the Iron Division demonstrated that, through balancing manganese and sulfur according to the solubility limit of MnS at the eutectic temperature, the strength of gray cast iron can be optimized. Solubility limit occurs when %Mn x %S equals 0.02 to 0.04. Based on a literature review and experimental work, it was possible to define what levels of manganese and sulfur might produce the best properties with regard to strength. At the same time, the 2013 study raised some questions about the Mn-S relationship in gray cast iron: • Are the variations in strength due to variations in microstructure? • How do variations in Mn and S affect the microstructure, particularly the graphite structure, when balancing Mn and S for optimum strength? • Did pearlite hardness contribute to the variation in strength? • Does optimum balancing of Mn and S provide similar strengthening at all CE values (other than 4.0) • Can Mn-S balancing be used to make gray iron more competitive with CGI? • Does balancing for optimum strength cause problems with machinability? • Does proper balancing of Mn and S reduce the need for additional alloying? • Does the inoculation response change when optimum balancing is employed? Consider evaluating various inoculants at

Fig. 1. Shown are the results of tensile strength as a function of sulfur in the 0.28%Mn series from previous AFS research.

理查德•冈拉克

国铸造协会及其铸铁分会于2013年资助并 发布的一项研究表明,根据硫化锰在共晶温 度下的极限溶解度来平衡锰和硫含量,可以

优化灰铸铁的强度。当%Mn x%S等于0.02-0.04时, 出现极限溶解度。 根据研究文献和实验,确定锰和硫的含量,有可能得 到最佳的铸铁强度。 与此同时,2013年的研究对灰铸铁中锰和硫的关系 提出了一些问题: -微观结构的变化会引起强度发生变化吗? -当锰和硫的含量达到平衡并获得最佳铸铁强度时, 锰和硫的变化将如何影响微观结构,尤其是石墨结构? -珠光体的硬度是否会导致强度变化? -锰和硫的最佳平衡是否对所有碳当量值(除4.0外) 都具有类似的强化效果? -通过锰和硫的平衡,可以使灰铸铁比蠕墨铸铁更具 竞争力吗? -达到最佳强度的平衡是否会导致机械加工出现问 题? -锰和硫的适当平衡是否 减少了对补充合金化的需 求? -采用最佳平衡时,孕育 反应是否会发生变化?考虑 以较低的%Mnx%S比例评

图1:显示了美国铸造协会以 前研究项目中0.28%锰系列中 的拉伸强度与硫变量的关系。

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图2:在0.78%锰系列中硫含量 (0.15%)升高的B试棒中的微观 结构,说明大的共晶团由D型石墨 包围。原始放大倍数=50倍。

Fig 2. Microstructure in B bar with an elevated S concentration (0.15%) in the 0.78% Mn series illustrating large eutectic cells surrounded by type D graphite. Original magnification = 50X

图3:图11中所示的较低延展性拉 伸试样的断裂面的立体宏观图(BBar含有0.78%Mn+0.15%S)。 原始放大倍数=6倍。

Fig 3. Stereo macrograph of the fracture face of the lower ductility tensile bar shown in Figure 11 (B-Bar with 0.78%Mn + 0.15%S). Original mag. = 6X

lower %Mn x %S, where proeutectic MnS precipitation has been inhibited. The study was continued, and new research focused on a more thorough evaluation of the microstructure in the 96 metallographic specimens from the original study. Additional mechanical testing was performed and fractographic examinations of the fractured tensile bars were also conducted. The analysis consisted of: • Further study of the graphite structure. • More complete analysis of eutectic cell count in all cast sections. • Determine matrix (pearlite) hardness and its influence on variation in tensile strength. • Investigate the formation of type D graphite at cell boundaries with increasing S. • Investigate the tendency for spikey graphite and intercellular carbides in all cast sections. • Conduct tensile testing of selected materials from the B, C and 3-inch bars, particularly those with the highest and lowest strengths in a series. Tests included precision stress-strain curves.

Fig 4. Plot of mean flake size as a function of sulfur content.

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估各种孕育剂,其中预共晶的硫化锰沉淀已被抑制。 研究还在继续,最新研究的重点是对原来研究中96 个金相试样的微观结构进行更彻底的评估。进行更多的 力学性能测试,并且还进行了拉伸试样的断口检查。 分析包括: -进一步研究石墨结构; -更全面地分析铸件各部位的共晶团数量; -确定基体(珠光体)硬度及其对拉伸强度的影响; -随着硫元素的增加,研究在共晶团边界D型石墨的 形成; -研究所有铸件中针状石墨和胞状晶间碳化物的发展 趋势; -对B、C和3英寸棒材中的选定材料进行拉伸实验, 特别是那些具有最高和最低强度的棒材。测试包括精确 的应力-应变曲线。

图4:硫含量变化下的平均薄 片尺寸图。

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图5:本研究中的24种合 金中锰与硫含量的关系图 以及针状石墨的产生。

Fig 5. Plot of manganese versus sulfur content in the 24 alloys of this study and the occurrence of spikey graphite.

图7:高硫铸铁的胞状晶间碳化物 (0.10%S-0.28%锰)。4%苦醇, 原始放大倍数=200倍。

Fig. 7. Intercellular carbides in high-S iron (0.10%S - 0.28%Mn). 4% Picral, original mag. = 200X

图8:高硫铸铁中的胞状晶间碳化物 和硫化物(0.10%S-0.28%锰)。过 硫酸铵,原始放大倍数= 200倍。

Fig. 8. Intercellular carbides and sulfides in high-S iron (0.10%S – 0.28%Mn). Ammonium persulfate, original mag. = 200X

The test data were evaluated with the intent of finding correlations among the properties, microstructure and composition. Specifically, there was interest in determining what causes the reduction in strength with increasing sulfur content. It was anticipated that fractographic studies might reveal the mechanism(s) causing reduced strength.

Background of the 2013 Study The original experimental work focused on Class 35B

评估测试数据的目的是找到材料属性、微观结构和成 份之间的相关性。具体而言,测试将能够确定随着硫含 量增加导致强度降低的原因。预期的结果是,断口研究 可能揭示出导致强度降低的机制。

2013年项目的研究背景 最初的实验是为了得到试件长度为3英寸的Class 35B

Table 1. Master Heat Base Iron Chemistries (Sulfur ranged from 0.01 to 0.15%) 表1:主要铁水化合物(硫含量范围为0.01-0.15%) Element

Heat A

Heat B

Heat C

C Si Mn P S Cu Sn Ti

3.31 1.83 0.28 0.030 <0.01 0.34 0.044 0.011

3.33 1.81 0.47 0.030 <0.01 0.33 0.044 0.011

3.28 1.81 0.78 0.030 <0.01 0.32 0.044 0.011

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Table 2. Summary Results of Mechanical Testing 表2:力学性能测试结果 %Mn

0.28%

0.47%

0.78%

Bar Size A B C 3” A B C 3” A B C 3”

UTS min 26.5 26.8 25.8 28.4 40.9 33.4 26.2 25.6 40.9 33.4 29.5 28.5

%S 0.15 0.15 0.10 0.15 0.11 0.13 0.13 0.085 0.084 0.15 0.11 0.15

iron cast in sections up to 3-inches. For the study, a 9,000-lb. master heat was produced by Bremen Castings Inc. (Bremen, Indiana). The manganese level of the heat was periodically increased to obtain alloys at three manganese concentrations (0.3%, 0.5% and 0.8%). The sulfur concentration was adjusted in a transfer ladle such that split heats were poured with varying sulfur levels ranging from 0.01 up to 0.15%. All alloys and cast sections were fully pearlitic. Table 1 lists the compositions for the three base alloys. The hardness and tensile strength were determined in all 24 alloys. (Table 2 lists the compositions for the test bars displaying maximum and minimum strength in each Mn series. The study showed that at optimum manganese and sulfur levels, the strength in B bars can be 7-11 ksi higher than in poorly balanced chemistries. The highest strengths were found in chemistries containing between 0.026% and

UTS min 45.2 38.6 33.9 33.5 48.4 40.6 35.1 35.4 49.6 42.0 37.1 36.0

%S 0.044 0.044 0.026 0.044 0.030 0.030 0.026 0.026 0.026 0.026 0.026 0.043

UTS Max/Min 1.71 1.44 1.31 1.18 1.18 1.22 1.34 1.38 1.21 1.26 1.26 1.26

铸铁。为了实验,Bremen铸造公司(印第安纳州不来 梅)提供了9,000磅的铁液。定期向铁液中加入锰,以 获得3种锰含量(0.3%,0.5%和0.8%)的合金。通过 调节转运包中铁液的硫含量,使浇注铁液具有不同的硫 含量,范围为0.01-0.15%。所有的合金和铸件的基体 都是珠光体。表1列出了3种基础合金的组成。 测定24种合金试样的硬度和拉伸强度。表2列出了每 类锰含量试样最大和最小强度。研究表明,在最佳的 锰和硫含量下,B试样的强度可以比不平衡的配比下高 7-11ksi。含硫量在0.026%和0.044%之间的试样的强 度最高。当硫含量超过这一水平时,强度开始下降。图 1显示含有0.28%锰的Class 35B铸铁中,4个铸件部位

Table 3. Results of Tensile Testing with Precision Elongation Measurements 表3:用精密伸长率测量法测试的拉伸结果 Specimen ID Tensile Elongation at Reduction in Strength (ksi) Fracture (%) Ductility %Mn %S Bar size 0.28 0.005 B 32.1 0.681 18% 0.28 0.044 B 37.9 0.827 Base 0.28 0.085 B 30.8 0.667 19% 0.28 0.15 B 28.0 0.415 50% 0.28 0.005 C 29.2 0.662 28% 0.28 0.044 C 34.9 0.919 Base 0.28 0.15 C 24.0 0.432 53% 0.28 0.044 3” 32.2 0.902 Base 0.28 0.15 3” 22.7 0.385 57% 0.47 0.026 B 37.0 0.844 Base 0.47 0.13 B 36.2 0.599 29% 0.47 0.026 C 33.5 0.824 Base 0.47 0.13 C 26.5 0.539 35% 0.47 0.026 3” 34.6 0.893 Base 0.47 0.13 3” 24.8 0.604 32% 0.78 0.026 B 39.8 0.820 Base 0.78 0.15 B 33.0 0.593 28% 0.78 0.026 C 35.1 0.423 Base 0.78 0.15 C 27.9 0.550 (30%) 0.78 0.043 3” 31.4 0.666 Base 0.78 0.15 3” 26.0 0.438 34% Reduction in ductility is based on a comparison of the elongation at fracture with the maximum value (“Base”) in the series 延展性的降低基于断裂伸长率与系列中的最大值(“基础”)的比较。

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图6:24种合金中游离硫含量随 锰和硫浓度变化的估值。

Fig. 6. Estimate of the Free Sulfur content as a function of the Mn and S concentrations in 24 alloys.

0.044% sulfur. When sulfur was increased above these levels, strength began to decrease. Figure 1 illustrates the variation in strength in four cast sections when varying S in Class 35 iron containing 0.28% Mn. The variation in Mn and S contents produced significant changes in the properties of the metal and a brief summary of the findings of the previous investigation were as follows: While Class 35B iron was produced, strengths over 40 ksi were achieved at some manganese and sulfur levels. Strengths of 35 ksi were even achieved in the 3-inch test bar. However, at some Mn and S levels, much lower strengths were observed. Maximum strength occurred when manganese and sulfur were near the solubility limit of MnS, typically when %Mn x %S ranged from 0.02 to 0.04. Minimum strength occurred at the highest sulfur levels studied (0.13 – 0.15%) regardless of the manganese concentration. Stoichiometric balancing of manganese and sulfur, using an excess Mn of 0.3%, usually produced irons of inferior strength, particularly at higher sulfur levels. Chilling tendency was greatest at the very lowest sulfur levels and at the very highest sulfur levels, and it was generally lowest at the sulfur levels that produced maximum strength. Intercellular carbides were observed at levels of 0.10% S and above in the 0.28% Mn series. At higher manganese levels, no carbides were seen. It was concluded that, at higher sulfur levels, manganese controlled free sulfur content, and that IC carbides were avoided when free sulfur was held below 0.1%. Spikey graphite was observed in all cast sections and manganese levels at higher sulfur concentrations. Spikey graphite was generally avoided when free sulfur was held below 0.08%. The tensile strength-to-hardness ratio varied with composition and decreased with increasing sulfur content. The fall in UTS/HB ratio suggests the decrease in strength accompanied a change in graphite structure. Controlling the sulfur content is paramount when maximizing the strength in gray cast iron. The research shows Mn is only effective up to the solubility limit of MnS. Further research is needed to better understand the negative effects of sulfur at concentrations beyond the solubility limit of MnS.

在不同的硫含量下的强度变化。

New Research Findings

新的研究成果

The next study sought to provide a more thorough examination of the 96 metallographic samples. These specimens were used to further evaluate the microstructure and assess the influ-

锰和硫含量的变化使金属性能发生了显著变化,原来 研究成果的小结如下: 虽然生产的是Class 35B铸铁,但在某些锰和硫的含 量时,铸铁的强度超过了40ksi。3英寸试样的强度甚至 达到35ksi。然而,在某些锰和硫的含量,记录的强度 非常低。 当锰和硫接近硫化锰的溶解度极限时的强度最高, 也就是通常当%Mnx%S范围为0.02-0.04时。无论锰的 含量是多少,最高硫含量(0.13-0.15%)时强度都会 最小。 锰和硫的化学计量平衡,锰含量超过0.3%时,通常 铁的强度较低,特别是在硫含量较高的情况下。 硫含量最低和最高时,低温倾向最明显,通常在硫含 量最低时,强度最大。 锰含量为0.28%系列,硫含量在0.10%及以上时,观 测到胞状晶间碳化物。锰含量较高时,未见有碳化物。 结论是,在硫含量较高时,锰控制游离硫含量,并且当 游离硫含量保持在0.1%以下时可避免产生胞状晶间碳 化物。 在硫含量较高时,在所有铸件部位和各锰含量水平下 观察到针状石墨。当游离硫含量保持在0.08%以下时, 通常可以避免针状石墨的产生。 拉伸强度与硬度比随化学成分而变化,并随着硫含量 的增加而降低。UTS/HB(极限抗拉强度/布氏硬度)比 率的下降表明强度的降低,并伴随着石墨结构的变化。 当需要灰铸铁的强度最大时,控制硫含量至关重要。 研究表明,锰含量仅在硫化锰的溶解度极限值有效。需 要进一步研究以更好地理解硫含量超过硫化锰溶解度极 限时的负面影响。

接下来的研究旨在对96个金相试样进行更详尽的检 查。这些样品用于进一步评估微观结构并评估锰和硫的

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ence of variations in manganese and sulfur. More detail on the experimental procedures and results is available in the original paper, “Influence of Mn and S on the Microstructure of Cast Iron” (18-091). Based on the findings of the previous study, it was hypothesized the changes in mechanical properties were caused by a change in the graphite structure. Since there was little change in hardness as sulfur was increased, it was concluded that the decrease in strength at higher sulfur levels was due to changes in the graphite structure. The results of the current investigation show that the change in strength is more complex. Eutectic cell count tended to rise and fall with increasing sulfur content in a manner similar to tensile strength. However, in several instances, the strengths in the C bars, with larger eutectic cells, were greater than the strength in B bars with smaller eutectic cell sizes. Therefore, the fall in strength with increasing sulfur could not be entirely attributed to a decrease in cell count. It was discovered there was an increase in the amount of type D graphite with increasing sulfur content. The D graphite occurred in the cell boundaries and surrounded large eutectic cells (Figure 2). This phenomenon was particularly visible in the fracture faces of the broken tensile bars, where fracture in the D graphite regions were readily distinguished from fracture through the large eutectic cells (Fig. 3). The type D graphite distributions were even observed in the coarse C bars, where type D graphite could hardly be attributed to severe undercooling ahead of eutectic solidification. This finding suggests type D graphite formed toward the end of solidification, rather than at the beginning of solidification. It could be argued the reduction in tensile strength associated with increased sulfur contents is due to the formation of D graphite in the cell boundaries. However, the refined graphite flakes associated with type D graphite are only damaging to strength when free ferrite is present. In the present samples, the matrix microstructures remained fully pearlitic in all 24 alloys and in all cast sections. Therefore, the reduced strength is not attributed to the presence of type D graphite in the cell boundaries. The average flake size was observed to decrease with increasing sulfur content (Fig. 4). This could mean the decrease in flake size is the result of an increase in the

Fig. 9. Stress-strain curves for B bars of two different sulfur levels from the 0.28%Mn series illustrating a significant reduction in elongation at fracture at a higher sulfur level.

36

变化产生的影响。关于实验过程和结果的更多细节可 在原始论文“锰和硫对铸铁微观结构的影响”(18091)中获得。 基于之前的研究成果,可以假设力学性能的变化 是由石墨结构的变化引起的。由于硫含量的增加几乎 没有引起硬度变化,因此可以得出结论,在较高硫含 量下强度的降低归因于石墨结构的变化。目前的调查 结果表明,强度的变化更加复杂。 随着硫含量的增加,共晶团数会出现涨落,其方 式与拉伸强度相似。然而,在一些情况下,具有较多 共晶团的C试样中的强度大于具有较少共晶团的B试 样中的强度。因此,硫含量增加导致的强度下降不能 完全归因于结晶数量的减少。 实验发现,随着硫含量的增加,D型石墨数量增 加。D石墨发生在晶界并包围大的共晶团(图2)。 这种现象在断裂的拉伸试样的断裂面中特别明显,其 中D石墨区域中的断裂很容易通过大的共晶团与断裂 区分开(图3)。甚至在不平整的C试样中观察到D型 石墨分布,其中D型石墨几乎不能归因于共晶凝固前 的过冷。研究发现D型石墨在凝固结束时形成,而不 是在凝固开始时形成。 可以认为,与硫含量增加相关的拉伸强度的降低 是由于在晶界处形成了D石墨。然而,与D型石墨相 关的细小石墨薄片仅在存在游离铁氧体时引起强度降 低。在样品中,基体微结构在所有24种合金和所有铸 造部位保持完全珠光体。因此,强度的降低不能归因 于晶界处存在D型石墨。 实验观察到平均薄片尺寸随着硫含量的增加而降 低(图4)。这可能意味着薄片尺寸的减小是D型石 墨含硫量增加的结果。也就是说,晶界处D型石墨薄 片量的增加使薄片数量增加并导致平均薄片尺寸减 小。

图9:来自0.28%锰系列的两种 不同硫含量的B棒的应力-应变曲 线,说明在较高硫含量下断裂伸 长率显著降低。

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图10:来自0.47%锰系列的两 种不同硫含量的C棒的应力-应 变曲线,说明在较高硫含量下 断裂伸长率显著降低。

Fig. 10. Stress-strain curves for C bars of two different sulfur levels from the 0.47%Mn series illustrating a significant reduction in elongation at fracture at a higher sulfur level.

incidence of type D graphite with sulfur content. That is, the increase in the amount of D graphite flakes in the cell boundaries increased the flake count and caused the average flake size to decrease. As the sulfur content increased, spikey graphite developed in the eutectic cell boundaries. The presence of spikey graphite might by itself be responsible for the decrease in tensile strength. Figure 5 showed the incidence of spikey graphite was greater in the low-Mn (0.28%) series, and this is attributed to a higher free sulfur level resulting from a lower Mn content (Fig. 6). Since sulfur has such a pronounced effect on growth rate of the graphite phase, spikey graphite could be caused by high free sulfur content.

Evidence of Sulfur Segregation As the sulfur content increased, intercellular carbides also formed in the eutectic cell boundaries of some alloys. The intercellular carbides were only observed in the 0.28% Mn series, and they are attributed to the particularly high free sulfur levels in the low manganese series. At higher manganese contents, no intercellular carbides (IC) were observed. The fact that the spikey graphite and carbides are confined to the cell boundaries suggests sulfur is segregating to the remaining liquid as the eutectic cells are growing. Even globules of MnS were found in the cell boundaries (Figs. 7-8). One might also argue that the formation of type D graphite around the eutectic cells in the higher sulfur alloys occurs as a result of segregation of sulfur to the remaining liquid phase during solidification. The partition coefficient, k, for sulfur is commonly reported to be 0.02, indicating sulfur strongly segregates to the liquid phase during solidification. Micro-hardness testing of the pearlite matrix revealed the hardness of the pearlite varies significantly within each test bar. Many samples displayed a wide range in hardness. Very high pearlite hardness was observed even in the 3-inch bars with hardness values as high as 398 HK. The higher pearlite hardness readings in some regions of the microstructure suggest that that pearlitic constituent has a high combined carbon content. Pearlite hardness is a function of carbon content and the fineness of the lamellar spacing. The lamellar spacing is a function of the transformation temperature. Due to recoalescense produced by the heat of formation, pearlitic transformation in the test bar castings is expected to occur at a relatively constant temperature and, therefore, the pearlite hardness was expected to be uniform. And yet, there was a significant variation in hardness in each sample as noted by the high standard

随着硫含量的增加,针状石墨在共晶团边界形 成。针状石墨的存在本身可能是拉伸强度降低的原 因。图5显示,在低锰(0.28%)系列中,针状石墨 的发生率更高,这要归因于锰含量较低时自由硫的含 量较高(图6)。由于硫对石墨相的生长速率具有非 常明显的影响,因此针状石墨可能是自由硫含量高引 起的。

自由硫的实验证明 随着硫含量的增加,胞状晶间碳化物也在一些合 金的共晶团边界形成。仅在0.28%锰系列中观察到胞 状晶间碳化物,并且它们归因于锰含量低而自由硫含 量特别高。锰含量较高时,未观察到胞状晶间碳化物 (IC)。 针状石墨和碳化物仅存在于晶界的事实表明,随 着共晶团的生长,硫进入到残留的液体中,甚至在晶 界也发现了硫化锰球(图7-8)。另一种观点认为在 硫含量较高的合金中,共晶团周围形成D型石墨是由 于在凝固过程中硫分离到剩余的液相中。通常认为, 硫的分配系数k为0.02,表明硫在凝固过程中强烈偏 析到液相。 珠光体基体的显微硬度测试显示,珠光体的硬度 在每个试样内部都差异很大。许多样品的硬度范围很 广。即使在硬度值高达398HK的3英寸试棒中也能观 察到非常高的珠光体硬度。在微观结构的一些区域 中,较高的珠光体硬度值表明该珠光体组分中渗碳体 含量较高。 珠光体硬度是碳含量和层状间距的细度的函数。 层状间距是转变温度的函数。由于由形成热产生的再 反射,测试棒铸件中的珠光体转变预期在相对恒定的 温度下发生,因此预期珠光体硬度是均匀的。然而, 如观察到的高标准偏差所示,每个样品的硬度存在显 著变化。人们期望在细胞边界发现更高的硬度,但是

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图11:来自0.78%锰系列 的两种不同硫含量的B棒的 应力-应变曲线,表明在较 高硫含量下断裂伸长率显著 降低。

Fig. 11. Stress-strain curves for B bars of two different sulfur levels from the 0.78%Mn series illustrating a significant reduction in elongation at fracture at a higher sulfur level.

deviations observed. One would expect to find higher hardness in the cell boundaries, but the locations of the microhardness readings were random and could not be specifically located in the cell boundary or cell center. The wide variation in matrix hardness further supports the hypothesis that sulfur is segregating during eutectic solidification and influencing the combined carbon content of the pearlite matrix in the last metal to freeze. Past research indicated that as sulfur increases (and the Mn:S ratio decreases) the combined carbon content in cast iron increases.

Evidence of Embrittlement Probably the most compelling data generated in this study were the stress-strain properties of the alloys. The reduction in strength associated with increasing sulfur was associated with a reduction in the elongation at fracture. That is, premature fracture was observed in the stress-strain plots (Figs. 9-11). Premature fracture in the tensile test was observed in every manganese series and in every section size. The data in Table 3 shows the elongation at fracture decreased on average 37% and was as much as 53%. The greatest reduction in fracture elongation occurred in the 0.28% Mn series. Once again, it is notable the series also exhibited the highest free sulfur contents. Scanning electron microscopy on some of the fractured tensile bars revealed changes in the fracture mode in samples of high and low strength. As strength and elongation decreased, the fracture mode changed from ductile tearing to transgranular cleavage, a brittle fracture mode. With transgranular cleavage fracture, there is very limited plastic deformation occurring during crack propagation. It is proposed that the reduction in strength with increasing sulfur was caused by an embrittlement of the alloy. The embrittlement may well be due to the presence of spikey graphite and IC carbides in the cell boundaries. Clearly, the transgranular cleavage fracture mode is associated with the pearlitic matrix; and the harder the pearlite, the more likely the fracture mode will be by transgranular cleavage. The original hypothesis was that changes in manganese and sulfur produced changes in the graphite structure, which in turn produced a reduction in strength. The findings of this investigation indicate the reduction in strength is due to an embrittlement phenomenon. It now appears that the degradation in strength with increasing sulfur may be more a function of high free sulfur contents and sulfur segregation during solidification, rather than to a modification of the graphite structure. The roles of MnS precipitation and the influence of MnS inclusions on the microstructure are less clear. ■ 38

显微硬度值的位置是随机的并且不能特异性地位于细 胞边界或细胞中心。基体硬度的大幅变化进一步支持 了这样的假设:硫在共晶凝固过程中偏析并影响最后 凝结金属中珠光体基体的化合碳含量。过去的研究表 明,随着硫含量的增加(以及锰:硫比率降低),铸 铁中的碳含量增加。

脆裂的实验证明 本研究中,最引人注目的数据可能是合金的应力应变特性。与硫增加相关的强度降低与断裂伸长率的 降低有关。也就是说,在应力-应变图中观察到过早 断裂(图9-11)。在每个锰系列和每个截面尺寸中观 察到拉伸试验中的过早断裂。表3中的数据显示,断 裂伸长率平均降低37%,并且高达53%。断裂伸长率 的最显著降低发生在0.28%锰系列中。而且,值得注 意的是该系列还表现出自由硫含量最高。 在一些断裂拉伸试样上,扫描电子显微镜检查显示 出高强度和低强度样品中的断裂模式的变化。随着强 度和伸长率的降低,断裂模式从韧性撕裂变为穿晶断 裂,即脆性断裂模式。对于穿晶断裂,在裂纹扩展期 间发生非常有限的塑性变形。对此,可推断随着硫的 增加导致强度的降低是由合金的脆化引起的。脆化很 可能是由于细胞边界中存在针状石墨和胞状晶间碳化 物。显然,穿晶断裂模式与珠光体基体有关;并且珠 光体越硬,穿晶断裂的断裂模式越可能发生。 最初的假设是,锰和硫的变化会在石墨结构中产生 变化,从而导致强度降低。实验结果表明,强度的降 低是由于脆化现象造成的。现在看来,随着硫含量的 增加,强度的降低可能更多的是凝固过程中自由硫含 量高和硫偏析的作用,而不是石墨结构的改性。硫化 锰析出的作用和硫化锰夹杂物对微观结构的影响还不 太清楚。 ■

| FOUNDRY-PLANET.COM | MODER N CASTI NG | CHINA FOUNDRY ASSOCIATION March 2019


Development of a newly patented process to speed up the hardening of inorganic sand cores

无机砂芯硬化新专利工艺的研发

S

and cores are the backbone of modern foundry products and enable the most complex shapes. A newly patented process will improve the inorganic sand core hardening process by up to 33%. The processes and industry behind the manufacturing of sand cores is constantly evolving to drive more environmentally friendly solutions while also improving the cost and cycle times. Various well-known companies are specialized to offer solutions to modern foundries from sand preparation, core shooting, core hardening and core removal. For prototyping and small series, additive manufacturing known as 3D-printing is leading the way. For large series the cold box process and inorganic core manufacturing are both evolving while inorganic processes are constantly gaining market share due to raising environmental standards around the globe. The key concept behind inorganic binders is that heat enables hardening of sand cores. Unfortunately sand and binder compositions have a limited heat conductivity. Therefore the heat is applied externally and transferred as close as possible to the sand cores via potentially complex core boxes. The heat transfer from the core box to the sand cores

芯是现代铸件产品的基础,并能够形成极 为复杂的内腔。一种新的专利工艺将使无 机砂芯硬化速度提高33%。

工艺和行业的发展推动制芯技术不断发展,带来更

环保的解决方案,但同时也提高了成本和生产周期。 许多知名公司为现代铸造厂提供量身定制的解决方 案,包括砂处理、射芯、砂芯的硬化和取芯。 对于样件制造和小批量产品,增材制造技术例如 3D打印是优先的工艺。对于大批量的产品,冷芯盒 工艺和无机粘结剂技术都在不断发展,而无机工艺因 为全球环保标准的提高而不断获得市场份额。 无机粘结剂的关键概念是加热使砂芯硬化。遗憾的 是,砂与粘结剂混合物的导热系数有限。因此,外部 热量通过很复杂的芯盒传输,应尽可能靠近砂芯。从 芯盒到砂芯的传热是以铝到砂的良好导热性为基础。 在固化过程中,砂芯的导热系数过低会导致壳层的形

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is supported by good heat conductivity from aluminum to sand. Low heat conductivity within sand are causing shell formations during the curing process as the heat can´t be transferred as fast from the outer core to the inner sand core. Financial aspects do not always justify a 100% curing of the sand cores due to the required times. The project “ACS - Advanced Core Solutions” developed by Soplain GmbH is therefore focusing especially on the heat generation directly inside the sand cores by the application of electrical currents. This underlying principle of heat generation due to electrical resistance is well known and now applied to sand core manufacturing processes. The benefits are not only faster sand core hardening but also better energy efficiency and reduced maintenance effort as external heat generation outside the core box could be eliminated. The concept of generating heat by electricity is not new. Initial patents were filed back in 1970 but they never succeeded. The main reason was that core boxes are usually made from aluminum or steel. Any application of electricity will therefore result in a short circuit once electricity is applied. The newly patented processes tackles this issue by adjusting the core box material to align the electrical resistance of the core box material with the electrical resistance of the sand binder mixture. As a consequence, the electrical resistance between two electrodes is almost the same at any given point and therefore a homogenous flow of electrical current through the core box and sand core is ensured. The positive effect is heat is directly generated inside the sand core and each part is equally heated up. This results in better sand core quality due to homogenous hardening and allows an immediate use of sand cores afterwards. The team behind ACS - Advanced Core Solutions demonstrated the process on a lab scale and is currently preparing a validation on regular industry core shooters.

Experimental approach Dozens of existing inorganic sand binder mixtures have

Figure 2 shows the typical curve which can be measured.

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成,因为热不能从芯盒快速传递到砂芯。由于交货 时间的要求,考虑到经济因素,并不总要求100% 固化砂芯。 因此,Soplain公司开发的“ACS-先进制芯解决 方案”项目的特殊之处是利用电流直接在砂芯内部 产生热量。通电的电阻能产生热量这一基本原理众 所周知,现在已应用于砂芯制造过程。其优点不仅 是砂芯硬化速度更快,因为不必通过芯盒加热,所 以能效更高,并且减少了维护工作量。 电能转化热能的概念并不新鲜,最初的专利是在 1970年申请的,但从未成功应用。主要原因是芯盒 通常由铝或钢制造,因此,一旦通电,都可能引起 短路。新获得专利的工艺通过改变芯盒材料,使芯 盒材料的电阻与砂粘结剂混合物的电阻一致来解决 这一问题。 因此,两个电极之间的电阻在任何给定的点上几 乎是相同的,从而保证了通过芯盒和砂芯的电流的 均匀流动。积极的效果是,热量直接产生于砂芯内 部,每个部分都被均匀加热。这会使硬化均匀,从 而砂芯质量更好,并且砂芯可以立即使用。 ACS-先进制芯解决方案的技术团队已经在实验室 内演示了这一过程,目前正在准备对常规的射芯作 业进行验证。

1.实验方法 对现有的几十种砂与无机粘结剂的混合物进行测 试,测量电阻的温度曲线。在这种方法中,对各种 不同的砂与粘结剂混合物样件通电不断加热,并测

图2是可以测量的典 型曲线。 | FOUNDRY-PLANET.COM | MODER N CASTI NG | CHINA FOUNDRY ASSOCIATION March 2019


been tested to measure the electrical resistance temperature curve. For this approach a sample size of various sand binder mixtures were heated up constantly by applying electrical current and the electrical conductivity and temperature was measured. With this approach the optimal electrical resistance has been identified to apply the maximum energy level into the sample. There are usually three main phases when applying electrical current to sand-binder mixtures: • Phase 1: Initial resistance. After applying the electrical current the initial resistance needs to be overcome. Once the sand-binder mixture will heat up this resistance will drop as with temperature increase more electric charge carriers will be available. • Phase 2: Constant reduction of electrical resistance till the sand-binder mixture reach about 100C and the electric charge carriers evaporate. At the end of this phase the maximum energy can be applied to the samples. The electrical conductivity in this phase also defines the ideal conductivity (red dot in picture above) of the core box material to ensure the resistance is nearly identical between the sand-binder mixture and the core box material. • Phase 3: Resistance start to increase as the electric charge carriers have been removed from the core. The temperature (depending the pressure) is now above 110C and with higher temperature the resistance constantly increase further. During tests the inorganic binder used required with conventional core shooters about 150-180C. This defined temperature is usually defined to ensure no damage to the binders due to overheating while at the same time the temperature is chosen as high as possible to ensure a better transfer of the heat into the sand cores. With the newly patented process these working temperatures could be reduced as it is not necessary to run the core box with higher temperatures as the required heat are directly achieved inside the sand cores.

量电导率和温度。通过这种方法,确定最佳电阻和应 用到样品的最大能级。 在砂与粘结剂混合物中通电时,通常有3个主要阶 段: • 第一阶段:初始电阻。通电后,需要克服初始电 阻。因为随着砂粘结剂混合物升温,初始电阻就会 随着温度的升高而下降,会出现更多的载流电荷。 • 第二阶段:恒定减小电阻,直至砂与粘结剂混合 物达到100℃左右,载流电荷消失。在此阶段结束 时,可对样品通最大电流。这一阶段的电导率还定 义为芯盒材料的理想电导率(图中红点),以保证 砂与粘结剂混合物与芯盒材料之间的电阻几乎相 同。 • 第三阶段:随着载流电荷在芯盒减少,电阻开始 增加。温度(取决于压力)在110℃以上,温度越 高,电阻越大。 在试验中,无机粘结剂的温度是射芯设备的通用温 度,约150°~180°C。这种规定的温度通常是为了确 保粘结剂不因过热而损坏,同时选择温度尽可能高, 以确保更好地将热量输送到砂芯。使用新专利的工 艺,工作温度可以降低,因为没有必要使芯盒保持较 高的温度,因为所需的热量是直接在砂芯内获得的。 芯盒材料的导电性是基于砂与粘结剂混合物的温 度-电阻曲线。如果芯盒材料与砂粘结剂混合物的电阻 有很大的不同,那么电流要么只通过芯盒,要么通过 穿过砂芯的最短路径。在这两种情况下,砂芯将不会 均匀加热,如图3所示。

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The electrical conductivity of the core box material was based on the temperature resistance curve of the sand-binder mixture. If the electrical resistance core box material differs massively from the sand-binder-mixture then the electrical current will either flow only through the core box or through the shortest path across the sand core. In both cases the sand core will not be equally heated as demonstrated in Figure 3.

2. 新专利工艺的优点

Advantages of newly patented process

增益。其结果应是,不会形成壳层的较大砂芯可在

Various advantages have been identified during the lab trials and during preparations for the pilot project. The main benefits are expected for large sand cores with a high annual volume. This is related to the effect that especially in larger sand cores the equally generated inside the sand core will demonstrate the highest quality and efficiency gains. The results should be larger sand cores without shell formation which can be instantly used after the curing time. Furthermore, this process also can be applied to larger family core boxes as each sand core cavity could be equipped with an individual electrode pair and consequently controlled according to the sand core thickness. Any external heat generation can be eliminated which will not only positively influence the energy consumption per core but also the maintenance, space and capital requirements. The barrier for application in foundries has been drastically reduced as existing inorganic binder compositions can be applied without any required reformulation. Existing core shooters also can be reworked to adapt to the new core box and controlling unit. All in all, a significant cost and time reduction of up to 33% is foreseen versus conventional core hardening processes. This is mainly driven by three aspects: energy consumption, cycle time and maintenance cost. All benefits are currently explored during lab trials and will be confirmed in identified projects in the near future.

固化时间后立即使用。此外,该工艺还可应用于较

Outlook At the moment, the new technology promises a high potential to improve the efficiency of sand core manufacturing while reducing the energy consumption. The foundational feasibility studies and lab trials are almost completed. The preparations for a scale-up to industry equipment is underway with identified pilot partners to demonstrate the benefits during a fully automated manufacturing process. Further results will be shared in the near future. ■

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许多优点已经在实验室试验和实验项目筹备过程 中得到确认。 对于使用量和体积较大的大型砂芯,其主要效 益是可预期的。特别是与较大的砂芯的效果有关, 内部均匀硬化的砂芯将显示出最高的质量和效率

大的组芯芯盒,因为每个砂芯腔可配备单独的电极 对,并且根据砂芯厚度控制。 任何用于外部加热的设备都可以去掉,这不仅 会对制芯的能耗产生积极的影响,而且会对设备维 护、空间和资金需求产生积极的影响。 现有的无机粘结剂可无需重新配制直接应用,因 此在铸造厂中应用的障碍已经大大减少。此外,现 有的射芯设备可以重新改造,以适应新的芯盒和控 制单元。 总之,与传统的砂芯硬化工艺相比,成本和生产 周期预计将减少33%。这主要是由3方面驱动的:能 耗、生产时间和维护成本。所有的优点在实验室的 试验中得到了验证,并将在不久的将来在已确定的 试验项目中得到确认。

3.展望 目前,这项新技术有望在降低能耗的同时提高 制芯效率。基础可行性研究和实验室试验已基本完 成。实际生产的验证的准备工作正在与已确定的试 点合作伙伴一起进行,以展示在完全自动化制造过 程中的效益。进一步的成果将在不久的将来继续发 布。

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Germany No Longer Likes the Diesel Engine They speak poorly of their own technology, courts order driving bans - this could be a fatal mistake thomas fritsch, editor in chief www.foundry-planet.com

德国不再喜欢柴油发动机了 他们贬低自己的柴油技术,法院发布禁驾令——这可能是个致命的错误。 铸造星球网站主编Thomas Fritsch先生的观点。

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o date, there are 11 German cities in which courts have ordered diesel driving bans; the only driving bans for diesel-powered vehicles worldwide. Politicians, industry experts, and citizens are irritated, wondering how the once so highly praised diesel technology is now the chicanery of the car industry. They fear the next diesel disaster caused by the new driving bans and wait helplessly as vehicle owners experience a rapid depreciation of their vehicles, even relatively new cars.

Who triggered the diesel chaos? Diesel engines do not hold up to what the manufacturers promise, and German courts are beginning to order driving bans for inner cities and even freeways because the diesel is blamed for pollution. German car manufacturers have preferred to invest in manipulated software instead of clean diesel development and have done the automotive industry and its satellite industries a massive disservice. The European governments have agreed to the very strict EU limit of 40μg for nitrogen oxides to 1m³ of air, without setting this limit against realistic living and measuring conditions. While a limit of 100 μg / 1m³ is accepted in the U.S. and a limit of 950 μg/1m³ is allowed in the workplace in Europe, the limit on road traffic of 40 μg/1m³ is absurd and arbitrary. More and more physicians are speaking out to show that nitrogen oxides per se and in the values by 40 micrograms are not harmful and certainly not life-threatening. Nevertheless, the controversial lobbyist association Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH), which is behind the lawsuits and the court verdicts, were supported by the courts. Recognized values must be adhered to by the rule of law, even if they do not do justice to the practice, because in the same cities where driving bans will be put in place in the future, ships and trucks can continue on their way quite comfortably, not to mention that nitrogen oxides are also a product of brake dust and other emissions – but only the diesel engine in passenger vehicles is to blame. Nitrogen oxides are measured across Europe, but are sometimes subject to different conditions (such as different measurement positions), which obviously make it possible to comply with the stringent EU nitrogen oxide limits elsewhere. It is astonishing that in all of Europe, only the values measured in German cities are found to be excessive.

目前为止,德国有11个城市的法院已经下令 禁止柴油车上路行驶,这是全世界唯一对柴 油汽车的驾驶禁令。

政府官员、行业专家和市民们都感到不理解,他们想

知道,曾经受到高度赞扬的柴油发动机技术为何现在遭 到了如此待遇。他们担心新的驾驶禁令会引发接下来的 柴油发动机的灾难,而使用柴油发动机的汽车,甚至是 相对较新的汽车都在快速贬值,车主只能无助地等待。

谁引发了柴油发动机的混乱? 由于柴油发动机质量不符合制造商的承诺,人们将污 染的矛头指向柴油,因此德国法院开始下令禁止柴油发 动机汽车在城市内甚至高速公路上行驶。德国汽车制造 商更愿意投资于软件,而不是清洁柴油的研发,这给汽 车业及其附属产业带来了巨大的损害。 欧洲各国政府已经批准了欧盟大气氮氧化物排放限值 40μg/m3的严格标准,而不对现实的生活和测量条件设 定这一限制。然而美国对这一排放的限值是100μg/m3, 在欧洲的工作场所允许的排放限值是950μg/m3,但是 对车辆排放的40μg/m3的限值是荒谬和武断的。越来越 多的医生表示,氮氧化物本身和40微克的数值并不会对 健康有害,当然也不会危及生命。 然而,诉讼和法庭判决的幕后推手,有争议的说客协 会——德国环境援助协会(DUH)得到了法院的支持。 法律必须坚持公认的价值观,即使这些价值观不能公 正地用于实际,因为在今后禁止驾驶的同一城市,使用 柴油发动机的船舶和卡车可以自在地继续行驶,更不用 说氮氧化物也是刹车灰尘和其他排放物的产物,但是, 只把柴油发动机汽车认定为了罪魁祸首。 氮氧化物在整个欧洲都有测量,但有时受到不同条件 的影响(如不同的测量位置),这显然使其他地方有可 能遵守严格的欧盟氮氧化物限制。令人惊讶的是,在整

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In Germany, the diesel engine is to blame - the beginning of the end of diesel technology? In Germany, the culprits have been identified: it is the diesel engines in cars. While keeping the discussion objective, it is important to point out that the diesel engine is superior to the gasoline engine in terms of CO² emissions. While the required EU CO² limit value of 95 μg seems to be a long way off, as of 2021, automobile manufacturers will face horrendous penalties for CO² emissions. This could give the diesel engine the advantages. Municipalities can set standards in public transport, in addition to developing fundamentally new urban transport concepts - the development of electric drives presumably makes the most sense here. Car manufacturers could make clear statements on the outlooks of the different drive technologies, but they hesitant, unable to admit that the diesel technology is well-developed and still able to be improved. Obviously, OEMs, politics and associations have completely different goals and do not dare to present them to a European public. Pro-Diesel in the mix of different concepts - A social question for politics and associations, and an issue for which the industry must finally reveal its true position The diesel engine seems to still be very competitive, at least in the meantime, in its maturity, its economy and in the cost / benefit ratio of the electric drive. It emits less CO² than gasoline, and politics, society, and municipalities should develop a consensus that make a realistic use of diesel vehicles possible, even in a strict Germany, without losing sight of the environmental and health aspects. But it cannot be that a whistle blower, which calls itself an environmental aid group, can subjugate an entire country, a whole technology, an industry and its subcontractors and lead to absurdity and chaos. “The 4th Industrial Revolution is driven less by technology or economy than by society,” emphasized Joe Kaeser, President and CEO of Siemens AG at the World Economic Forum in Davos. Now the company has the opportunity, with politics and industry associations, to set the course right again -but hopefully not against a technology that has proven its worth and will continue to be needed until e-mobility or fuel cell really present better environmental compatibility, or society clears the way for a revolutionary transport policy. Otherwise, the whole world will laugh about Germany, which destroys its diesel industry without thought. The first signs are already recognizable: the diesel registrations in Germany have decreased significantly in the last 4 months, by about 12%. It is high time to put an end to the foolishness and take a clear position. There must be a wake-up call in society, not to the detriment of ecology, but in favor of reason and also for planning security in the casting industry. This is the task of politics and industry associations, which have to fulfill their duties very quickly in Germany and in Europe. The OEMs in the automotive industry must now clarify how the diesel technology should continue. It is not enough to announce that billions are being invested in electromobility. That’s all ok, but it is not convincing enough, and there is too much at stake! ■ 44

个欧洲,只有德国城市的测量值被发现过高。 在德国,柴油发动机是罪魁祸首——柴油发动机技 术将要走向终结? 在德国,已经查明了罪魁祸首:汽车上的柴油发动机。 为保证讨论结果更加客观,必须指出,在CO2排放量 方面,柴油发动机优于汽油机。虽然欧盟规定的95μg 的CO2排放限值似乎还有很长的路要走,但到2021年, 汽车制造商将面临CO2排放的严厉惩罚。 这将对柴油发动机有利。市政当局除了发展全新的 城市交通概念外,还可以制定公共交通标准——电动 汽车的发展可能是最有意义的。汽车制造商可以就不同 的驱动技术的前景明确表态,但他们犹豫不决,他们无 法承认柴油技术已经发展得很好,而且还可以改进。显 然,OEM制造商、政府和协会有着完全不同的目标, 但他们不敢向欧洲公众展示。 在一系列不同的观点中支持柴油,这是与政府和社团 有关的社会问题,也是业界最终必须揭示其真实地位的 问题。 柴油机似乎仍然很有竞争力,至少在可靠性、经济性 和电力传动的成本/效益比方面如此。它排放的CO2比 汽油少,政府、社会和市政当局应形成共识,使柴油车 辆的使用成为可能,即使在法规要求严格的德国也是如 此,同时又不忽视环境和健康方面的问题。但是,一个 自称环境援助组织的告密者不可能征服整个国家、整个 技术、整个工业及其分包商,并导致荒谬和混乱。 “第四次工业革命与其说是由技术或经济驱动,不如 说是由社会驱动,”西门子公司总裁兼首席执行官乔· 凯泽在达沃斯世界经济论坛上强调。现在,该公司有机 会与政府和行业协会一起,重新确定发展方向——但希 望不要反对一项已经证明其价值、并将继续被需要的技 术,直到电力驱动或燃料电池真正呈现出更好的环境兼 容性,或者社会为一项革命性的交通政策扫清了道路。 否则,全世界都会嘲笑德国,因为德国不加考虑地 摧毁了其柴油工业。但是初始迹象已经显现:在过去4 个月里,德国的柴油汽车注册数量大幅下降,减少了约 12%。 现在是结束愚昧和采取明确立场的时候了。必须在社 会上鸣响警钟,这不是损害生态环境,而是支持理性, 也有利于规划铸造行业的安全。这是政府和行业协会的 任务,它们必须在德国和欧洲迅速履行其职责。汽车行 业的OEM制造商现在必须明确柴油技术应该如何继续 下去。仅仅宣布在电动汽车方面投入了数十亿欧元是不 够的。这些是需要说明的,但是不够令人信服,而且存 在太多的风险! ■

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product news/产品新闻

Product News Table of Contents 产品新闻目录 MOLD, CORE & SAND PREPARATION

MELTING, POURING & HEAT TREATMENT

New Molding Material Recipe Eliminates Veining 新型造型材料消除脉纹缺陷

SCANIA selects Formimpress from KÜTTNER SAVELLI 48 斯堪尼亚集团选购科特纳萨维利造型设备

Helping Foundries Reduce Emissions 助力铸造企业减排

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Personalized Rapid Customization Integration Solution for Complex Parts 51 装备复杂零部件个性化快速定制一体化解决 方案提供商 Fusion-Diamond Ultrahard Grinding Tools & Equipment Create a New Grinding World 金刚石熔合超硬磨具及磨削设备开创磨 削新天地 Focus on Innovative Foundry Solutions 关注创新解决方案

Inoculation – The move towards higher potency alloys 孕育技术——瞄准高效能合金

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Luitpoldhütte’s Finds Success With W Abrasives W Abrasives公司专家变身试验顾问

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product news/产品新闻

New Molding Material Recipe Eliminates Veining 新型造型材料消除脉纹缺陷 Even though furan is reliable for the high production requirements of cores and molds as a binder system in 3D printing, some small weaknesses are present. So far, the veining on the surface and on the inner contours of castings with furan in combination with sand in complex geometries in high-temperature casting is difficult to avoid. Following consistent development work, ExOne (Gersthofen, Germany) has counteracted the veining in furan through the use of additives. Veining is and remains annoying, not only because the reworking on the surface or on the inner contours of castings always requires a complex post-processing and drives up production costs. For many casters, it is also a personal disappointment after all the preparations in the core manufacturing process and subsequent casting, to come across the annoying casting errors when unpacking the casting. ExOne has been intensely involved with the task of combining furan together with a classic silica sand and a number of different additives. Particularly convincing results have been shown by the use of furan resin in combination with sand and a mineral additive. In test experiments, silica sand in combination with furan binder has achieved a higher elasticity due to the addition of the additive. This has completely avoided the typical rupture of the sand core surface in high temperature stressed places, such as the inner contours of the castings, when casting the hot cast material. As a result, the industrial test object, in this case a typical impeller from the pump industry, could be cast without any signs of veining. In principle, when casting with steel, several factors responsible for the expansion of the sand core surface meet. The expansion of the silica sand results in the quartz inversion. High casting temperatures cause fast quartz conversion and thus lead to increased stresses in the molded part. But the grain size and grain distribution of the silica sand also has an influence on the surface behavior, because a higher degree of uniformity leads to higher stresses, since all silica grains pass through the transformation temperature at the same time. Thus, all the basic components of a typical sand mold have low ductility, and when the hot metal is poured, there is a high pressure on the surface of the sand mold. The liquid, hot metal surrounding the core after casting causes a temperature gradient between the surface and the center of the core, which is explained as a consequence of structural characteristics of the mold base material. Silica sand, for example, extends linearly up to approximately 752F (400C) and then shows a sudden increase in the temperature range of the reversible-transformation and thus increases the stresses. Instead of being able to compensate for the pressure due to material flexibility, the rigid property of the sandbinder mixture causes cracks in the surface. The mixture of sand and furan binder, thus organically bonded moldings, gives way and forms surface cracks. The liquid metal now 46

3D打印的砂芯和铸型对粘合剂系统要求严格,尽管 呋喃树脂在此生产工艺的应用中是可靠的材料,但是也 存在一些小缺点。目前为止,仍难以避免在使用呋喃树 脂与砂粘结的高温、复杂几何形状的铸件表面和内部轮 廓上产生脉纹缺陷。经过不断的研发,位于德国格斯特 霍芬的ExOne公司通过使用添加剂成功地消除了呋喃树 脂产生的脉纹。 脉纹的存在令人烦恼,不仅因为在铸件表面或铸件 的内部轮廓上进行再加工总是需要复杂的后处理工艺, 而且增加了生产成本。对很多铸造企业来说,在砂芯生 产和随后的铸造工作完成之后,在打开铸型时看到铸件 出现缺陷的时候会让人很失望。 ExOne公司始终致力于将呋喃与传统的硅砂和多 种添加剂结合起来使用。 通过使用呋喃树脂与砂子和矿物添加剂的组合,已 经显示出特别令人信服的结果。所有的试验表明,由于 添加了添加剂,硅砂与呋喃粘合剂组合获得了更高的弹 性。在浇注金属液时,完全避免了在高温应力位置(例 如铸件的内轮廓)的砂芯表面出现断裂。以泵行业的典 型叶轮为工业测试对象,结果表明,铸件没有任何脉纹 缺陷。因此,首先,呋喃树脂的质量达到更高的水平, 已证明其在形状复杂的工业叶轮中的应用。 一般而言,在铸钢生产中,导致砂芯表面膨胀有几 个因素。硅砂的膨胀导致所谓的石英转化。高温铸造导 致快速的石英转化,从而导致造型部件中的应力增加。 但是,硅砂的粒度尺寸和粒度分布也对铸件表面有影 响,因为更高的均匀度产生更高的应力,因为所有的硅 砂同时达到相变点。因此,典型砂型铸造的所有基本 部件都具有低延展性,并且当浇注金属液时,砂型表面 上存在高压。浇注后环绕砂芯的液态热金属导致铸型表 面和砂芯中心产生温度梯度,这一现象可以用铸型基础 材料的结构特征来解释。例如,硅砂温度直线上升至约 400℃,然后呈现出可逆β-相变的温度范围急剧升高, 从而增加应力。 由于材料柔韧性不能补偿压力,砂子粘合剂混合物 的刚性特性导致表面出现裂缝。砂子和呋喃树脂粘合剂 的混合物,组成的有机粘合造型材料,发生退让并形成

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product news/产品新闻 flows into these very fine surface cracks. The fact that silicon dioxide expands in the mold cavities causes the filling of the casting metal in the resulting gap. Then, with the removal of the casting from the sand mold, the imprint of the previous cracks on the surface will rise, forming a rib-like, vein-like crust, protruding from the smooth surface. In technical terms, one speaks of thin, irregular metallic protuberances, which occur primarily on the inner contours of a casting mold or in angles, corners and edges of the castings. The aim of the ExOne test series was to avoid these irregular metallic protuberances. The development department meticulously tested all possible combinations of ExOne certified sands together with the furan binder and various additives. The “benchmark” was to eliminate veining. The refined FS003 sand with a reduced packing density and thus a smaller tension, in contrast to the FS001 sand, was able to achieve a 50% reduction in veining. When blending furan with synthetic sand, no veining could be detected in the test series. With an addition of 2% of the additive, only about 10% of the usual veining effect, as it normally arises, remained. If the addition of the additive is increased from 2% to 4%, i.e. twice the amount, then the end product, which is free from veining, was reliably reproducible, as in the furan-sand mixture. ■

表面裂缝。液态金属流入这些非常细小的表面裂缝中。 二氧化硅在型腔中膨胀产生的间隙中流入金属液。 恰好此时,随着将铸件从砂型中取出,铸件表面上 先前产生的裂缝痕迹出现,形成从光滑表面突出的肋状 脉纹。 从技术角度看,人们说的薄而不规则的金属突起,主 要产生在铸型的内轮廓上或铸件的凸起、拐角和边缘。 ExOne公司宣布进行的一系列测试的目的是避免产生 这些不规则的金属突起。研发部门对ExOne认证的砂子 以及呋喃树脂粘合剂和各种添加剂的所有可能组合进行 了精心测试。“基准测试目的”是消除脉纹。 与FS001砂相比,更细的FS003砂具有更低的堆积密 度、因此张力更小,能够将脉纹减少50%。 当将呋喃树脂与人造砂混合时,在测试系列中没有检 测到脉纹。添加2%的添加剂时,会产生通常情况下的 10%的脉纹。如果添加剂的量从2%增加到4%,即增加 到2倍,那么生产出的最终产品将可以实现没有脉纹, 如呋喃树脂-砂混合物具有可靠的可再生性。 ■

Helping Foundries Reduce Emissions 助力铸造企业减排 Lightweight casting and emission reducing technologies are two of the latest examples of innovation in metalcasting, and Imerys, a green molding sand supplier, is managing relevant key projects that can offer custom made solutions, responding that way rapidly to the new market challenges. The goal and vision of the group is supported by the Imerys Foundry Laboratories, whose main functions include customer service, quality control and new product development. The labs are fully equipped with all the standard molding sand testing equipment as well as with devices specialized in a range of more sophisticated applications, like emissions measurement of molding sands and raw materials. Specifically for the emission reduction technology, the expert knowledge of the chemical reactions that occur inside the molding sand during the casting process and the pyrolysis of the carbonaceous components in the molding sand, led Imerys

轻量化铸造和减排技术是铸造行业创新方面的最新发 展,湿型砂供应商伊莫瑞斯集团正在研究可提供定制解 决方案的相关重点项目,以快速应对新的市场挑战。 该集团的目标和愿景得到了伊莫瑞斯铸造实验室的 支持,其主要功能包括客户服务、质量控制和新产品开 发。实验室配备了所有标准型砂测试设备以及专门用于 一系列更复杂应用的设备,如型砂和原材料的排放测量 设备。 专门针对减排技术的,铸造过程中型砂内部发生的 化学反应以及型砂中碳质组分的热解的专业知识,促使 伊莫瑞斯公司研发了一系列产品,减少铸件生产过程中 产生的有害气体,从而改善了工作环境、保护了环境和

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product news/产品新闻 to design and develop a series of products that have enabled the foundry process to operate with fewer harmful gas emissions, improving workplace conditions and protecting both the employees’ health and the environment. The development started nearly 20 years ago, with ENVIBOND introduced during GIFA 2007. And although the company recently celebrated 10 years of ENVIBOND, the development is still ongoing. Samples from all over the world arrive on a daily basis in Imerys Foundry labs, supporting not only customers, but also the Imerys Technical Support Departments in different geographical areas, such as the US, China and Europe. Another area of customer support includes knowledge exchange, problem solving and customer training. The training can be onsite in the foundries or in Imerys’s service laboratories. It includes nearly all molding sand related analysis and physical molding sand properties e.g. determination of active clay, loss of ignition, and determination of fines’ content in the molding sand as well as the important strength tests. Imerys Metalcasting Innovation has worldwide co-operations and partnership contracts with various universities and foundry institutes in North America, Europe and Asia. Through those collaborations, Imerys manages to continually increase the technical knowledge and keep abreast of the latest breakthrough developments and newest methods. Finally, all Imerys processes are conducted under the highest safety standards; safe working conditions are the basis for all activities in Imerys and Foundry Labs are no exception to that. The daily business is guided by strict health- and safety regulations and protocols that ensure the safety and well-being of anybody present on the Imerys premises at all time. Moreover, regular safety trainings and in-house seminars by EHS specialists are offered not only to the staff members of the labs but also to all employees from all the different functions. ■

员工的健康。这项研发工作在20年前就已启动,并在 2007年的GIFA展会期间推出了ENVIBOND。该公司最 近举办了ENVIBOND的10周年庆祝活动,但该研发项 目仍在继续。 伊莫瑞斯铸造实验室每天都会接收来自世界各地的样 品,实验室不仅向公司客户开放,还为美国、中国和欧 洲等全球各地的伊莫瑞斯技术部门提供支持。 客户支持还包括技术交流、提供解决方案和客户培 训。培训可以在工厂内或实验室进行。它包括几乎所有 与型砂相关的分析和型砂物理性质,例如:确定有效粘 土及烧失量、确定型砂中的细粒含量以及重要的强度试 验。 伊莫瑞斯铸造创新公司与北美、欧洲和亚洲的很多高 校和铸造研究院签订了合作协议。通过全球合作,伊莫 瑞斯公司努力提高技术水平,及时了解最新的突破性技 术和最新工艺。 最后,伊莫瑞斯公司的所有工艺都是在最高安全标准 下进行的;安全是伊莫瑞斯公司所有生产活动的基础, 铸造实验室也不例外。日常业务以严格的健康和安全法 规和指南为指导,确保伊莫瑞斯公司内所有人的安全和 健康。此外,环境、健康和安全部门的专家定期为实验 室工作人员以及其他部门的所有员工提供安全培训,开 展内部研讨会。 ■ 更多信息,请访问伊莫瑞斯公司网站:www.imerys.com。伊莫瑞斯公司将 参加GIFA2019。

For more information visit www.imerys.com. Imerys is also exhibiting at GIFA 2019.

SCANIA selects Formimpress from KÜTTNER SAVELLI 斯堪尼亚集团选购科特纳萨维利造型设备 Based in Sweden, SCANIA is a global provider of transport solutions, including trucks and buses for heavy transport applications combined with an extensive product-related service offering. It is investing about SEK 1.5 billion in a new foundry in Södertälje, Sweden, in order to triple production capacity and achieve a 50 percent reduction in energy consumption compared to the technology and methods used in the current foundry. Through more efficient materials handling and recycling, a sharp reduction will also be achieved in the transport need per manufactured unit. The foundry will be operated using electricity produced from re-newable energy sources. As the first step, SCANIA selected KÜTTNER SAVELLI for the supply of a complete new high performance automatic flask molding line to produce motor blocks and heads. The engineering team paid special attention to a detailed 48

斯堪尼亚集团总部位于瑞典,是世界领先的重型卡车 和大型巴士以及相关产品及服务供应商。公司投资约15 亿瑞典克朗在瑞典南泰利耶市新建一家铸造厂,与目前 铸造厂使用的技术和工艺相比,新厂的生产能力是原来 的3倍,能耗降低了50%。 通过更有效的材料处理和回收工艺,每个制造单元 的输送需求也将大幅减少。铸造厂将使用可再生能源产 生的电力。首先,斯堪尼亚公司选择科特纳萨维利公司 提供的全新的高性能自动造型线生产发动机的缸体和缸 盖。 工程团队特别关注第一批产品的详细的工艺比较。除

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product news/产品新闻 process comparison for the first package to be awarded. In addition to meeting the stringent quality requirements for mold quality and its repeatability, special attention was paid to the overall energy consumption. Here, the mold’s compaction process Formimpress offered by KÜTTNER SAVELLI was particularly successful because it requires no compressed air for compaction and has a minimized hydraulic connection capacity. Also, all possibilities of feedback from kinetic energies are used. In order to significantly improve the resource efficiency of the foundry, SCANIA has taken great care in examining all the details involved separating the material flows and decided to lift the castings package up and out of the mold in order to separate the handling of the core and green sand flow. This lifting up and out concept enables both material streams to be prepared in the best possible way and reclaimed with a low energy input. For the core sand one expects a recycling rate of 70% which has a large influence on the environmental sustainability of the entire production taking under consideration the long supply ways for new sand. KÜTTNER SAVELLI is particularly happy about this success at SCANIA and has already stepped into the detail planning of the new system. The engineering team is supported by GEMCO Engineers B.V., Eindhoven (The Netherlands). ■

了满足严格的砂型质量要求及其可重复性外,还特别关 注整体能耗。 在这次生产中,科特纳萨维利公司提供的造型设备非 常成功,因为它不需要使用压缩空气进行压实,并且连 接液压的能耗非常小。此外,还利用了所有可能的动能 反馈。为了显著提高铸造厂的能源效率,斯堪尼亚公司 一直非常重视检查所有涉及物料分离的传送细节,决定 将铸件包从砂型中取出,以便分离运送芯砂和湿型砂。 这种分离概念使得两种物料流都能以最佳方式制备,并 以低能量输入进行回收。对于芯砂,人们期望70%的回 收率,考虑到新砂的长期供应方式,这样的回收率对整 个生产的环境可持续性产生很大影响。科特纳萨维利公 司对斯堪尼亚公司取得的成功感到特别高兴,并已进入 新系统的详细规划中。工程团队由位于荷兰埃德霍芬的 GEMCO工程有限公司提供支持。

Inoculation—the move towards higher potency alloys 孕育技术——瞄准高效能合金 The growth and diversity of iron casting in the Asian markets has led forward-thinking foundries to re-examine their inoculation processes. New iron grades demand new process solutions, growth in production stretches the availability of good quality melting stock and end users require higher specifications. Traditionally, the Asian market has used calcium/bariumbased inoculants and these are widely available, albeit of hugely variable quality. However, their low potency and slag forming tendency leaves them unsuited to many applications in this changing market.

亚洲铸铁件的产量增长和多样性使得具有远见的铸 造企业重新审视其铸铁孕育技术。新的铸铁品级需要新 的工艺,产量的增长对优质熔融金属的可用性提出了更 高要求,最终用户对产品性能有更高要求。 传统上,亚洲市场使用钙/钡基孕育剂,虽然质量差 异很大,但它们因易于获得而广泛使用。然而,低效能 和熔渣形成趋势使它们不适合应用于不断变化的市场中 的诸多领域。

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product news/产品新闻 Challenges such as shrinkage control in both grey and ductile irons, producing higher strengths in thinner section lighter weight castings, and matrix structure all offer the opportunity for an examination of the inoculants available today. In grey irons, strontium containing inoculants, such as Superseed are globally used at low addition rate to prevent shrink, while giving excellent type A graphite structures. Variants on Superseed inoculant are marketed for foundries operating at low sulphur levels. In ductile irons, where the properties are controlled by the matrix, good nodule number, shape and ferrite promotion are prerequisites to obtaining the right mechanical results. A number of medium and high potency inoculants, such as Alinoc and Ultraseed Ce inoculants have been designed to meet these needs, the former being a powerful ferrite promoting inoculant and the latter designed for more difficult-to-inoculate low base nucleation irons. With the incidence of chunky graphite becoming more of a concern, a new rare-earth free high potency inoculant is now available. Known as Ultraseed Zr, this alloy has been formulated to add back the key constituents necessary for inoculation, sulphur and oxygen during the formation of the nuclei while being RE free and having the ability to generate new nuclei during solidification. The tendency towards chunky is reduced. ■ For more information on new inoculation technologies, visit www.elkem.com/foundry.

例如防止灰铁和球墨铸铁的缩松缺陷、生产高强度壁 更薄且更轻的铸件以及基体结构等挑战都为目前可用的 孕育剂提供了检验对比的机会。 在灰铁中,含有锶的孕育剂,例如Superseed以低添 加率在全球广泛使用,以防止缩松并使铸件具有优异的 A型石墨结构。Superseed孕育剂的改良产品应用于含 硫量低的铸铁件。 球墨铸铁性能由金属基体控制,良好的石墨数量、 形状和铁素体促进作用是获得适当的力学性能的前提条 件。为了满足需要,已经研发出了很多种中高能效的孕 育剂,例如Alinoc和Ultraseed Ce,Alinoc是强有效的 铁素体可促进孕育,Ultraseed Ce用于更难以孕育的低 碱基成核铁。 随着碎块状石墨的出现变得越来越受关注,现在出现 了一种新的无稀土高效孕育剂。这种合金被称为Ultraseed Zr,可以在成核过程中添加孕育所需的关键成分硫 和氧,同时不含稀土元素,并且具有在凝固过程中产生 新核的能力,从而减少了产生碎块状石墨的倾向。 ■ 如需了解更多信息,请访问埃肯公司网站:www.elkem.com/foundry

Luitpoldhütte’s Finds Success With W Abrasives W Abrasives公司专家变身试验顾问 Luitpolhütte is a German company producing highquality castings in small and medium-sized series for renowned companies throughout the world. Its main key differentiating point is based on a unique offer: it is focused on heavy, technical, sophisticated and core-intensive castings of up to 1,000 kg. Faced with a blasting issue, Luitpoldhutte asked Winoa for help and came for a trial at W Abrasives‘ Le Cheylas Test Center.

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德国Luitpolhütte公司为世界各地的客户生产中 小型的高品质铸件。产品基于公司独特的优势:专注 于重型、技术、精密和芯子复杂的铸件,最大铸件重 1,000kg。 面对铸件的喷丸清理问题,Luitpoldhutte公司毫不 犹豫地信任Winoa的专家团队并前往W Abrasives公司 的勒谢拉测试中心进行试验。

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product news/产品新闻 What are the stakes of the trial? Currently, Luitpoldhütte is reblasting most of its parts two or three times, focusing on one or two critical areas which is a real waste of time and money. The goal of the trial was to find a more efficient abrasive in order to minimize the galvanization and to avoid reblasting on engine blocks.

How was the trial carried out? The trial started by using the W Abrasives spinner hanger with two wheels and the customer’s operating mix; this allowed the team to work by comparison. Using these references, parts were blasted with five abrasives using the same parameters. Stainium products, especially the SM512, gave the best results by reaching the cleaning results in the target cycle time. Nevertheless, the first blasting did not give the expected results due to the variation of the industrial process. W Abrasives suggested finishing the specific areas by air blasting in concurrent operation time. The experts suggested installing a small manual air blasting cabinet at the exit of the wheel-blasting machine using the same operating mix from the silo to avoid a second complete blasting. The customer appreciated W Abrasives‘ work and participated in the different tests on their parts. It was a real challenge for the team to conduct the trial successfully, due to the size of the engine block. Choosing the optimal steel abrasive is only part of the optimal solution. The W Abrasives approach includes services and expertise which meet the requirements of the customer’s process control. ■

试验存在的风险 目前,Luitpoldhütte公司对其大部分铸件产品进行 两次或三次的喷丸处理,却只是为了一两个关键部位, 这的确是浪费时间和金钱。 试验的目的是为了找到更有效的磨料,以尽量减少镀 锌、并避免对发动机缸体再次进行喷丸处理。

试验如何进行? 试验使用W Abrasives公司双轮旋转吊架喷丸设 备结合客户的操作,可以使工作团队进行比较。通过 比较,试验使用相同的参数对铸件进行了5次喷丸处 理。Stainium钢丸,尤其是SM512,在目标周期内达 到清理的最佳效果。 然而,由于生产方式的变化,第一次喷丸处理没有达 到预期的效果,但W Abrasives公司不能为其客户提供 这样的不确定性的结果。 W Abrasives公司建议在清理过程中同时对特定部位 进行喷丸处理。专家建议在轮式抛丸设备的出口处安装 小型手动喷气柜,与滚筒作业混合进行,以避免第二次 完全喷丸处理。 客户对W Abrasives公司的工作表示赞赏,并参与了 对其铸件的不同测试。发动机缸体的尺寸对团队成功进 行试验是真正的挑战。 选择最佳的钢质磨料只是最佳解决方案的一部分。W Abrasives公司的方案包括满足客户过程控制要求的服 务和专业技术。 ■

Personalized Rapid Customization Integration Solution for Complex Parts 装备复杂零部件个性化快速定制一体化解决方案提供商 China Academy of Machinery Science & Technology Group (CAM) was founded in 1956 and its goal is to improve the equipment manufacturing level of China. CAM has 16 subsidiaries, including the holding companies with the operation system of the group management of parentsubsidiary type. CAM has built 39 key laboratories and an engineering research center, and all these have been certified by government as national, provincial and industrial level innovation platform. CAM is engaged in the basic common technology research for manufacturing industry. With the

机械科学研究总院集团始建于1956年,提升中国 装备制造水平是机械总院的神圣使命。拥有16 家全 资及控股子企业(公司),实行母子公司式集团管理 体制。建有39个国家级及省市级重点实验室和工程( 技术)研究中心。主要从事装备制造业制造技术 (基础共性技术)研究开发的研究院和现代制造服务 业企业,自成立五十余年来,累计取得科研成果及

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product news/产品新闻 development in these 60 years, CAM has gained more than 7,000 achievements which have been applied in the main domestic economical industries such as machinery manufacturing, automobile, aeronautic and aerospace, environmental protection, energy, transportation, information, metallurgy chemical engineering, construction and etc. Complicated casting patternless composite manufacturing technology and equipment developed by CAM won the second prize of National Technological Invention. The key patternless casting technology of high-efficiency, high-performance, and high-precision have been made in technology, composite casting and Seria equipments. Complex curved sand/core flexible extrusion near forming technology, cutting net forming technology and composite forming process developed by CAM make the patternless, high-precision, high-efficiency manufacturing of complicate castings realized, shortening the manufacturing cycle by more than 50% and reducing the cost by more than 30%. CAM invented a multi-material composite casting mold that when matched with the casting and its assembly method, realized the active regulation of the casting performance, solved the problem of shape and performance precisely control, reduced casting scrap rate reduced from 5%-10% to 2%-4%, and reduced weight by about 10%-20%. CAM also developed the digitally controlled flexible array contacts and high wear-resistant large aspect ratio cutting tools, proposed an integrated tool cooling and cutting sand removal method, developed a sand/core flexible extrusion molding machines, patternless casting precision forming machines and 15 other kinds of equipment in seven categories, solved the problems of complicate castings highprecision forming manufacturing equipment, and increased casting accuracy by 2 to 3 levels, reaching up to CT8. The patternless casting precision forming machine can be used to manufacture resin sand, water glass sand, coated sand, ceramics, etc. The maximum forming size is 5000mm×3000mm×1000mm. CAM has been granted 47 invention patents (19 in the United States, Japan, and Europe) and 12 software copyrights. It won the second prize of National Technological Invention in 2017, the China Machinery Industry Science and Technology Award (technical invention) in 2016, China Patent Gold Award in 2016, Beijing Science and Technology Award (technical invention) in 2012, First Prize of Beijing Invention Patent in 2011 and three national key new products. The technology has been promoted and applied in more than 100 companies including Shanghai Academy of Space Technology, AECC Harbin Dongan Engine, Guangxi Yuchai Machinery Group, FAW Foundry and Yto Group Corporation. The equipment has been exported to Spain. Fourteen application demonstration bases have been established in China for the manufacturing of steel/ iron, aluminum/magnesium alloy castings. This technology is of great significance for promoting the innovation of high-end equipment technology, safeguarding of national defense security, and promoting of green development. CAM will participate in the 17th China International Foundry Expo (METAL CHINA) March 13-16, 2019, in SNIEC Shanghai, see us at booth No. E6B07. ■

专利7000 多项,广泛应用于机械制造、汽车、航空航 天、环保、能源、交通运输、信息产业、冶金、化工、 建筑等重要产业领域。 由机械科学研究总院集团自主研发的“复杂铸件无模 复合成形制造方法与装备”荣获国家技术发明二等奖。 该成果突破了复杂铸件高效率、高性能、高精度无模成 形关键技术,在工艺方法、复合铸型、系统装备等方面 取得重大成果。开发出复杂砂型/芯曲面柔性挤压近成形 技术、切削净成形技术及其复合成形工艺,实现了复杂 铸件无模化、高精度、高效率制造,制造周期缩短50% 以上,成本降低30%以上;发明了一种与铸件相匹配的 多材质复合铸型及其坎合组装方法,实现了铸件性能主 动调控,解决了形性精确控制难题,铸件废品率从5% ~10%降至2%~4%,减重10%~20%;开发出数字化 控制的柔性阵列触头、高耐磨大长径比切削刀具,提出 了刀具冷却与切削排砂一体化方法,研制出砂型/芯柔性 挤压成形机、无模铸造精密成形机等7类15种装备,解 决了复杂铸件高精度成形制造装备难题,铸件精度提高 了2~3个等级,可达CT8。无模铸造精密成形机可用于 树脂砂、水玻璃砂、覆膜砂、陶瓷等多种铸型制造,最 大成形尺寸为5000mm×3000mm×1000mm。 该成果获授权发明专利47件(美、日、欧等19件) ,软件著作权12项。获2017年度国家技术发明二等 奖、2016年中国机械工业科学技术特等奖(技术发明) 、2016年中国专利金奖、2012年北京市科学技术一等 奖(技术发明)、2011年北京市发明专利一等奖和3项 国家重点新产品等。该技术已在航天八院、东安发动 机、广西玉柴、一汽铸造、中国一拖等100多家企业推 广应用,设备出口西班牙,并在国内建立14个应用示范 基地,实现了铸钢/铁、铝/镁合金等铸件制造。该技术 对促进高端装备技术创新,维护国防安全,推动绿色发 展具有重大意义。 我公司将参加2019年3月13-16日在上海新国际博览 中心举办的“第十七届中国国际铸造博览会”,展位号 E6B07。 ■ 更多内容,请访问www.cimpe.cn

For more information, please visit: www.cimpe.cn

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product news/产品新闻

Fusion-Diamond Ultrahard Grinding Tools & Equipment Create a New Grinding World 金刚石熔合超硬磨具及磨削设备开创磨削新天地 Nanjing Guhua Electromechanical Technology Co., Ltd. was founded in 2017 and located in Nanjing, China. It is a one-stop service-oriented international high & new technology company specializing in research & development, manufacture and sales of ultrahard grinding tools & equipment for foundry industry. Meanwhile, it adheres to 16 years’ advanced international management model and experience of the main company (Nanjing Guhua Metalwork Co., Ltd. - established in 2003). “Guhua” brand fusion-diamond ultrahard grinding tools & equipment which can be widely used in manual and automatic grinding are specially developed for the characteristics of foundry industry and problems-solving of traditional grinding tools. It is the latest invention in the field of international ultrahard abrasives and an upgrade & update of traditional diamond ultrahard grinding tools, resin silicon carbide and corundum grinding tools. The characteristics are as follows: 1. High-efficient, Durable & Economical—Advanced international fusion-diamond technology ensures high diamonds exposure and high-strength bonding between diamonds and steel substrate. Compared with traditional grinding tools, the grinding efficiency of cast iron will double and the service life will be over 60 times. 2. Safe & Environmental-friendly—The product consists of premium steel and diamonds, has thoroughly eliminated many problems of traditional grinding tools, such as poor water & alkali resistance, short storage time, easily broken, large sparks and serious dust pollution. 3. Perfect Choice For Automatic Grinding Equipment— Compared with traditional diamond ultrahard grinding tools, higher efficiency and longer service life ensure more continuous operation of the automatic equipment. With persistence, ingenuity, strictness, integrity and relying on strong capability of management, research & development, design and manufacture, premium international certified products, reliable delivery time, excellent service and etc., “Guhua” will committed to creating a safe, highefficient and environmental-friendly grinding new world! ■

南京固华机电科技有限公司成立于2017年,地处南 京市六合区,是一家秉承主公司(南京固华金属制品有 限公司-建于2003年)逾16年国际化经营管理模式及经 验、面向国际市场、专业从事铸造行业专用超硬磨具及 磨削设备的研发、生产与销售的一站式服务型国际化高 新技术企业。 “固华牌”金刚石熔合超硬磨具及磨削设备,是针 对铸造行业特点及传统磨削工具中存在的问题而研发及 生产的,可广泛应用于手工与自动化磨削。它是国际超 硬磨具领域的最新发明,是传统金刚石超硬磨具、树脂 碳化硅及刚玉磨具的升级换代产品。具备以下特点: 1. 高效 耐用 经济——领先国际的金刚石熔合技 术,确保金刚石出露高、金刚石与钢基体结合强度高。 打磨铸铁件的效率较传统磨具可增加一倍以上,使用寿 命可达传统磨具的60倍以上! 2. 安全 环保——磨具基体采用优质钢材、磨料采用 金刚石,彻底消除了传统磨具的耐水性及耐碱性差、保 存期短、易断裂、火花大、粉尘污染严重的问题! 3. 自动化磨削设备的最优选择——较传统金刚石超 硬磨具,磨削效率更高、使用寿命更长,确保自动化设 备更加连续地运转工作。 凭借“执着、智慧、严谨、诚信”以及强大的管 理、研发、设计和生产能力、高品质的国际认证产品、 可靠的交货期和优质的服务,“固华”将为您打造一个 安全、高效、绿色环保的磨削新天地! ■ 更多信息,请登录网站了解:http://www.njguhua-et.com/

For more information, please visit: http://www.njguhua-et.com/

High-Speed Grinding Machine

Fusion-Diamond Ultrahard Grinding Tools 高速砂轮机

金刚石熔合超硬磨具

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product news/产品新闻

Focus on Innovative Foundry Solutions 关注创新解决方案 Ever since its foundation in 1956, Nitto Kohki has focused on innovation (technology, market and human resources) as the basis of management and has comprehensively contributed to the development of its business through socially significant business activities based on the theme of “energy and laborsaving operations” focusing on people. For more than 60 years, it has seriously tackled the pursuits of “one-of-a-kind product development ahead of times” and “highly reliable and sincere technology.” Today, as a forerunner of energy and labor-saving equipment, the company has established a network of production and sales both in Japan and overseas, with a comprehensive lineup of products covering household use to high-tech industrial applications and enjoy strong trust from a firm customer base. The Head Office, R&D Lab and domestic/international subsidiaries have acquired the certification of ISO14001 International environment management standard, promote the evolution of ecofriendly application development of products and focus on green procurement of materials, parts and components. Toward the realization of management policies, “contribution to society,” “employees’ wellbeing” and “corporate development,” it will promote further the invigoration of management and keep on acting as a good corporate citizen in the global society. The innovative products to foundry solutions are as follows.

POWER & MACHINE TOOLS: achieve energy and labor savings in processing work Machines and tools are used at various processing sites for such work as cutting, polishing, scaling, drilling and chamfering of steel materials. Nitto Kohki has created a product line up of pneumatic, electric and hydraulic machines and tools to match the diversification of processing methods and conditions of work operations.

QUICK CONNECT COUPLINGS, “CUPLA”: enable flexible, fast and secure connections in various fluid lines Nitto Kohki’s unique technologies and dedicated research have been proven by numerous patents, which led to the development of 25,000 different product variations. ■

自1956年成立以来,Nitto Kohki(日东工器 公司)一直以创新(技术、市场和人力资源)为 基础,并以人为本、通过“能源节约和劳动力节 约”为主题开展一系列社会活动,全面促进公司 发展。 60多年来,公司一直致力于“单件产品开发” 和“可靠技术”的发展理念。如今,作为节能和 省力设备的先行者,公司已在日本和海外建立了 生产和销售网络,拥有涵盖家庭用品和高科技工 业应用的全面产品阵容,并获得了巨大的信任和 稳定的客户群。 公司总部、研发实验室和国内/国际子公司已获 得ISO14001国际环境管理标准认证,推动产品的 环保研发并重点关注材料、零部件的绿色采购。 为了满足公司的经营理念,包含“为社会做贡 献”、“员工福利”和“企业发展”,公司将进 一步提升管理水平、继续当好全球的企业公民。 公司的铸造解决方案的创新产品包括: 机械工具:节能和省力 机械工具应用于各加工环节,如钢材的切割、 抛光、清理、钻孔和倒角等。日东工器研发了气 动、电动和液压机械工具的产品系列,以适应加 工工艺和工作条件的多样化。 快速流体接头“CUPLA”:在各种流体管路中 实现灵活、快速和安全的连接 日东工器独特的技术和专业的研究已经获得 了众多专利,得到有力的证明,公司研发出了 25,000种不同的产品。

更多信息,请访问:http://www.nitto-kohki.co.jp/e/

For further details, please visit: http://www.nitto-kohki.co.jp/e/

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Profile for Global Casting Magazine

Global Casting Magazine Volume 9, Number 1  

Global Casting Magazine Volume 9, Number 1