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Busche Builds Its Platform Busche在创建属于自己的平台

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CLOSER LOOK AT JAPAN FOUNDRY INDUSTRY p. 26 日本铸造行业发展现状及展望 p. 26

MODERN

CASTING A PUBLICATION OF THE AMERICAN FOUNDRY SOCIETY

Casting Competence Across Three Continents


WWW.GLOBALCASTINGMAGAZINE.COM

JUNE 2017

volume 7 number 2

P.28

P.43

P.9

FEATURES

专题文章

26 Status and Vision of the Japan Foundry Industry

26 日本铸造产业的现状和未来展望

Y. KAKUTA

28 Busche Builds Its Platform

Y, KAKUTA

28 Busche在创建属于自己的平台 S. WETZEL

S. WETZEL

36 Inclusions in Permanent Mold Magnesium

36 镁合金铸造模具中的夹杂物

A. ELSAYED, C. RAVINDRAN, E. VANDERSLUIS, S. LUN SIN

A. ELSAYED, C. RAVINDRAN, E. VANDERSLUIS, S. LUN SIN

DEPARTMENTS

专栏

7 Editorial 9 Industry News 43 Product News

7 编者的话 9 行业新闻 43 产品新闻

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STAFF/工作人員

STAFF/工作人員 MODERN CASTING

FOUNDRY-PLANET.COM

Managing Editor SHANNON WETZEL, swetzel@afsinc.org

Publisher/Editor THOMAS FRITSCH, tf@foundry-planet.com

Associate Editor BRIAN SANDALOW, bsandalow@afsinc.org

Senior Editor/ International Sales ADRIANA WEISENBACH, aw@foundry-planet.com

Advertising Sales JIM BECKWITH, jbeckwith@afsinc.org JOE MURPHY, AdSales25@aol.com MARK MCGOWAN, mmcgowan@afsinc.org

Advertising Sales OANH LARSEN, ons@foundry-planet.com THERESA NEUMANN, tn@foundry-planet.com

Art Director MICHAEL J. BERRAFATO, mberrafato@afsinc.org

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CASTING CHINA FOUNDRY ASSOCIATION 中国铸造协会 Publisher/Executive Vice President & Secretary General/ 出品人 ZHANG LIBO/ 张立波 Senior Editor/ 主编 WEN PING/ 温平 Deputy Editor/ 副主编 HUANG TIANYOU/ 黄天佑 FAN QI/ 范琦, fanqi@foundry.com.cn Editor/编辑 GAO WEI/高巍, gaowei@foundry.com.cn Li Mengmeng/李 蒙蒙, limengmeng@foundry.com.cn Advertising Sales Manager/ 广告销售主管 GAO WEI/ 高巍, gaowei@foundry.com.cn

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editorial/编者的话

We Need to Talk: Turn Your Sights to the Future 坚定信念 放眼未来

E

ven in times of political and economic uncertainty, it makes sense to stay optimistic when there are strong, promising signs for the future. Hopefully, the U.S. metalcasting industry will benefit from “America first.” As well for China, where the Chinese 5-years plan has set ambitious goals to reduce a huge number of Chinese foundries to less and more efficient ones. But it is not only strategy; the global metal casting industry is facing fundamental challenges and opportunities. It’s pretty difficult to predict the best and most ecological development for powertrains in the next 15 years. What we know today is that our industry has highly interesting developments in light-metal castings. Hybrid drives could be the magic technique and promises more castings than before. But the most important factor is the attitude of the global foundry industry. An industry always proud to look back on ,5000 years of history, and but also needs to turn its sight to the future and present itself as what it is: Highly professional and technical, and ready to compete with other processes and ideas. This thinking should not stop at any border. ■

张立波 出品人 中国铸造协会

管目前全球政治和经济存在很多不确定性, 但是面对坚挺乐观的信号,我们理当对未来 保持积极的心态。 令人欣慰的是,美国铸造行业将从“美国第一”的 政策中受益。同样,对中国来说,中国的五年发展规 划已经制定了宏伟的目标,将大大减少现有的铸造企 业数量,提高企业的生产效率。但是,这不仅仅是一 项发展战略;全球的铸造行业面临着根本性的挑战和 机遇。 很难预测,未来15年最好的和最具生态效益的发展 动力是什么。目前,我们已经看到铸造行业在铸件轻 量化方面取得了引人瞩目的成就。多种技术发挥了神 奇的魔力,大大提高了铸件产量。 但是,最重要的因素是全球铸造行业对未来持有的 态度。铸造行业不能总是为自己拥有的5000年发展历 史感到骄傲,它也需要面向未来,展示更好的自己: 专业化水平和技术水平更高,能够与其他生产工艺和 理念竞争。这种想法在任何地区都不应停止。 ■

Shannon Wetzel Managing Editor MODERN CASTING

Thomas Fritsch Publisher/Editor-in-Chief Foundry-Planet.com

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行業新聞

Industry News Contents 行业新闻目录

CITIC Dicastal Awarded as "Single Champion Enterprise of China Foundry Association" 中信戴卡喜获中国铸造行业单项冠军企业 A New Site for Italpresse and Gauss in China ITALPRESSE中国公司迁新址 Top China Die Casting Enterprises Award Ceremony Held in June 中国压铸强企颁奖仪式6月举办 Metal China and CIDC 2017 a Big Success 2017铸博会、压铸展炫彩落幕

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Hydro opening EUR 130 million automotive line in Germany on May 4 11 Hydro 公司在德国引入了价值1.3亿欧元的汽车生产线 Sakthi Portugal Opens Its Doors 萨克蒂(葡萄牙)公司打开新局面

South Africa Hosts Brics Forum, WFO And Metal Casting Conference 2017 2017年金砖国家铸造论坛、 世界铸造组织会议在南非举办

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Mercury Marine Installs New High-Pressure Diecasting Machine Mercury Marine公司安装了新型高压压铸机 American Axle Honored by GM, Acquisition of Metaldyne Complete 获得通用汽车赞誉的American Axle完成对 Metaldyne的收购

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Waupaca Foundry - Plant 6 Provides Free Training to Community 17 Waupaca Foundry –Plant 6为社区提供免费培训 Roshan Invention Granted Patent Roshan发明获得专利

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Efforts to Save Historic Knight Foundry Get a Boost 保存具有历史意义的Knight Foundry 的努力获得了进展

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Nemak Opens Plant in Mexico Nemak在墨西哥开设工厂

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Topeka Foundry & Iron Works Purchased Topeka Foundry & Iron Works被收购

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Muskegon Castings Operates After Fire Muskegon Castings在火灾后开工

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行業新聞

Hydro Opens EUR 130 Million Automotive line in Germany Hydro 公司在德国引入了价值1.3亿欧元的汽车生产线 Aluminium from the state-of-the-art facility will help lightweight millions of new cars each year – enabling them to further curb emissions. The new automotive line in Grevenbroich Germany, is one of Hydro’s strategic investments in European industry. Car makers increasingly use aluminum to lightweight their vehicles and curb emissions. As a consequence of this industry megatrend, Hydro has over the last few years made several strategic investments in Norway and Germany to meet this demand and at the same time secure the viability of high competence industrial jobs in both countries. The new automotive line in Grevenbroich is a prime example of this. “I look forward to showing the result of great efforts made by our sharpest engineers, leaders and operators. It has taken years of research, experience and ingenuity, in close cooperation with Europe’s world-leading automotive industry, to reach this level of cuttingedge development. Our new automotive line will help lightweight millions of cars each year and strengthen aluminums’ position as a building block of modern society – which from our new automotive line comes with quality stamp “Made in Europe” – “Mit Leichtigkeit!” said Hydro President & CEO Svein Richard Brandtzæg. The new automotive line investment is closely linked to investments Hydro has made further upstream in the company´s value chain in Norway. Over the last couple of years, casthouses in Sunndal, Høyanger, Årdal and Karmøy have been upgraded with new innovations and equipment, specifically designed to meet the requirements of car makers. The new automotive line is 190 meters long and will alone deliver 150,000 tonnes of aluminium to the automotive industry per year. Altogether, these investments are worth close to NOK 150 million. New casting technology is under implementation in Høyanger and Årdal, where Hydro produces sheet ingot, which at the plants in Germany can be rolled into plates and used in so-called hang-on parts such as doors, hoods, roofs, and trunk lids. ■

这套世界最先进的设备生产的铝材每年可以满 足数百万辆新车轻量化要求,进一步减少汽车排放 量。这条位于Grevenbroich公司的新汽车生产线也 是一项Hydro 公司在欧洲工业的战略投资。 汽车制造商越来越多地使用铝来使车辆轻量化 以减少汽车排放,这已成为这一行业的大趋势。为 了满足这些需求,在过去的几年里Hydro 公司已经 在挪威和德国进行了几项战略投资,同时确保两国 工业的高竞争力和活力。Grevenbroich公司的新汽 车生产线就是一个很好的范例。 “我期待着展示我们最优秀的工程师、领导者 和运营商所付出的巨大努力取得的成果。经过多年 的研究,结合我们的经验和创意,通过与欧洲世界 领先的汽车工业密切合作,我们已经取得了阶段性 的成果。我们的新汽车生产线将轻量化数百万辆新 车和增强铝在构建现代社会的地位。新汽车生产线 将会打上“欧洲制造”的印记。Hydro 集团总裁兼 首席执行官Svein Richard BrandtzæG提到。 欧洲制造! 新汽车生产线的投资运营将遵循Hydro公 司之前在挪威所创造的价值链模式。过去几十年 里,Sunndal、HøyangerÅrdal和Karmøy公司已 经升级和专门设计新的设备来满足汽车制造商的要 求。 这些投资的总价值接近1亿5000万克朗。 新的铸造技术将会在Høyanger和 Årdal公司推 行。Hydro 公司在德国生产线生产的铝锭可以轧制 成板材,用于制造汽车的悬梁部件,例如车门、车 前盖、车顶以及汽车的行李箱盖。

Mercury Marine Installs New High-Pressure Diecasting Machine Mercury Marine公司安装了新型高压压铸机 Mercury Marine (Fond du Lac, Wisconsin), a manufacturer of recreational marine engines, announced the commissioning of a new high-pressure die casting machine, said to be the largest in North America. This

Mercury Marin公司(Fond du Lac,Wisconsin)是一家娱乐用船发动机的制造商, 宣布将要推出一台新的高压压铸机,据说是北美最大

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行業新聞

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行業新聞 investment is a 4,500-ton Buhler-Prince machine. Installation began late in 2016 and was completed in March 2017. According to a news release, Mercury Marine has now invested more than $800 million in R&D and manufacturing expansion at its Fond du Lac campus since 2009. “This new machine positions us to make castings that no one else in the industry can do,” said Mike Meyer, general manager, Mercury Castings. “With this new machine, Mercury can make larger, lightweight structural components and reduce the overall weight of our engine by producing more efficient castings.” The new machine has 4,500 tons of closing force with three industrial robots integrated into the cell. The total weight of machine with tools and oil is more than one million lbs. The new machine can produce large, structural components for the high horse power marine segment, and other segments such as automotive. “This new state-of-the-art casting machine on our campus gives us the opportunity to continue to drive growth for the business,” said John Pfeifer, president, Mercury Marine. “This investment is one of many milestones on Mercury’s investment journey to support our customers now and into the future.” ■

的压铸机。这笔投资是4500吨的Buhler-Prince 机器。于2016年晚些时候开始安装, 2017年3月 完成。 据报道,Mercury Marine公司自2009年以 来,已经在他的Fond du Lac大学投入超过8亿美 元用于研发和制造业扩张。 Mercury Castings公司总经理Mike Meyer表 示:“这种新机器使我们能够制造业内无人能做的铸 件。“借助这台新机器,Mercury可以制造更大、更 轻的结构件,并通过生产更高效的铸件来减少发动机 的整体重量。” 新机具有4500吨锁模力,并整合了三台工业机 器人。机器加上模具和油的总重量超过一百万磅。 新机器可以为大马力轮船和汽车生产大型结构件。 Mercury Marine总裁John Pfeifer表示:“这一 新型最先进的铸造机器使我们有机会继续推动业务 发展。”“这笔投资是Mercury投资中的里程碑之 一,支持我们现在和将来的客户。”

Mercury Marine announced the commissioning of a new high-pressure diecasting machine, said to be the largest in North America.

Mercury Marine 宣布推出新型高压 压铸机器,据说将 会是北美最大的。

American Axle Honored by GM, Acquisition of Metaldyne Complete 获得通用汽车赞誉的American Axle完成对Metaldyne的收购 American Axle & Manufacturing (Detroit) was named a GM Supplier of the Year by General Motors during its Supplier of the Year awards ceremony. GM recognized 118 of its best suppliers from 15 countries that have consistently exceeded GM’s expectations, created out14

American Axle & Manufacturing(底特律)在通 用汽车供应商年度颁奖典礼中被评为年度通用汽车供 应商。 通用汽车认可了来自15个国家的118家持续超过通

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行業新聞 standing value or brought new innovations to the company. “We are focused on building positive supplier relationships, bringing new, customer-centric innovations to GM and being the OEM of choice among suppliers,” said Steve Kiefer, GM vice president, global purchasing and supply chain. “The companies we recognize tonight not only have brought innovation, they delivered it with the quality our customers deserve.” Winning suppliers were chosen by a global team of GM purchasing, engineering, quality, manufacturing and logistics executives and selected based on performance criteria in product purchasing, indirect purchasing, customer care and aftersales, and logistics. “AAM’s partnerships with our customers are an integral part of our mission to provide value while supplying innovative, high-quality driveline products,” said David C. Dauch, chairman and CEO, AAM. “We are honored by this recognition from GM and will continue to work each day to exceed our customers’ expectations.” American Axle also completed the acquisition of Metaldyne Performance Group. The move had been announced late last year. “Today is a historic day where we combine the strengths of both AAM and MPG into a premier, global Tier 1 automotive supplier with broader capabilities across multiple product lines,” Dauch said. “This transformational acquisition will allow us to maximize stakeholder value by creating a company with greater size, scale and increased business diversification that delivers efficient, powerful and innovative solutions for our customers.” The acquisition, worth a reported $3.3 billion, was first announced in November. ■

用汽车期望的优秀供应商,它们为公司创造了卓越的 价值或给公司带来了创新。 负责全球采购供应链的通用副总裁Steve Kiefer表 示:“我们专注于建立积极的供应商关系,为通用汽 车带来新的以客户为中心的创新,并成为供应商之中 的OEM(原始设备制造商)。“我们认可的公司不仅 带来了创新,而且还提供了客户需要的质量。” 获奖的供应商由通用汽车来自采购、工程、质量、 制造和物流等部门的行政人员所组成的全球团队评出 的,取决于各项绩效指标包括:品采购、间接采购、 客户服务和售后服务以及物流等。 AAM董事长兼首席执行官David C. Dauch 说:“AAM与客户的合作关系是我们提供创新的高 品质传动系统产品的使命的重要组成部分。“我们很 荣幸获得通用汽车的认可,并将继续超越客户的期 望。” American Axle也完成了对Metaldyne Performance Group的收购。这一收购已于去年年底公布。 “今天是一个历史性的一天,我们将AAM和MPG 的优势结合成为一个全球一流的汽车供应商,从而在 多个产品线上具有更丰富的能力,”Dauch说。“这 次转型收购将使我们能够通过创建一个规模更大、业 务更多元化的公司来最大化利益相关方的利益,为客 户提供高效、强大和创新的解决方案。” 这一价值33亿美元的收购事件首次在11月份公布 。■

CITIC Dicastal Awarded as "Single Champion Enterprise of China Foundry Association" 中信戴卡喜获中国铸造行业单项冠军企业 On June 11th, the 13th annual conference of China Foundry Association (CFA) was held in Shanghai. During the conference, CITIC Dicastal won the "Single Champion Enterprise of China Foundry Association” with its major product: aluminum alloy wheels. There were only seven enterprises which won altogether seven single product championship this year. This conference had a high level of attendees, huge number of the representatives, as well as its foreseeing topics. With "Opportunity, Innovation to Development" as the theme, the conference intends to explore a new developing path for foundry industry, so that they can accommodate new demand, new supply and new momentum while having innovation as the main driving force. ■

2017年6月11日,第十三届中国铸造协会年会 在上海隆重举行。中信戴卡凭借主营产品铝合金车 轮,荣获“中国铸造行业单项冠军企业”,全国仅 有7家企业获得七项产品单项冠军。 据悉,“中国铸造协会年会”是铸造业精英的大 聚会,以参加代表层次高,人数多,会议议题富有 前瞻性而享誉业界。本届年会以“顺势而为,创新 发展”为主题,意在探索以两化融合为特点的第四 次工业革命大背景下,铸造行业顺应新需求、新供 给、新动能,以创新为主驱动力的发展之路,引导 企业专注所在领域,提质增效,提升我国制造业的 整体竞争力。 ■

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Waupaca Foundry – Plant 6 Provides Free Training to Community Waupaca Foundry –Plant 6为社区提供免费培训 Waupaca Foundry – Plant 6 (Etowah, Tennessee) gave free certified Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) training to participants of a local program. According to a report from The Chatanoogan, Gordon Michaud, maintenance department training coordinator at Waupaca, taught OSHA 10 classes to members of The Refuge, a program to help disadvantaged people train for employment. Waupaca teamed with Cleveland State Community College’s OneSource Workforce Development. “Education and training build sustainability for those who seek it out and follow through,” Michaud said, according to the report. “The training provides entry level general industry workers’ safety information so people with no experience in an industrial setting have the information needed to help them work safely in an industrial field.” “We have great people who work hard every day,” Sam Greene, plant manager, told The Chatanoogan. “We support their efforts to volunteer in our community. Our organization is successful thanks to our work force so it’s our turn to help the community where we can.” The report said that Waupaca covered the cost for 20 participants. ■

Waupaca Foundry - Plant 6(Etowah,田纳西 州)向当地计划的参与者提供了免费认证的OSHA培 训。 根据Chatanoogan的报告,Waupaca的维修部门培 训协调员Gordon Michaud向“避难所”的成员教授了 10个OSHA班级,帮助弱势群体就业。 Waupaca与克利夫兰州立社区学院的OneSource劳 动力发展部门合作。 据报道,Michaud说,“教育和培训为那些寻求并 关注的人们提供了生计。”“这项培训提供了入门级的 员工安全方面的信息,以帮助没有经验的人们获得在工 业领域安全作业所需的信息。” “我们有伟大的员工,每天都在努力工作,”工厂 经理Sam Greene告诉Chatanoogan。 “我们支持他 们在社区志愿服务。我们组织的成功取决于我们的劳动 力,所以轮到我们帮助社区。” 报告说,Waupaca为20名参与者提供了费用。 ■

FCRI Ceramic Fliter

No. 18, Liuyuan Road, Shiwan, Foshan, Guangdong, China, 528031

FCRI GROUP CO.,LTD.

+86-757-82780713

www.fcri.com.cn

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行業新聞

A New Site for Italpresse and Gauss in China ITALPRESSE中国公司迁新址 In order to meet the increasing demands of clients throughout the country and serve as a hub to support clients and projects throughout the Asia Pacific region, the site of Italpresse in China has been relocated to a larger shop in Kunshan. Italpresse has been active in China since 1990 and the branch in Shanghai was established in 2005 with the aim to support sales activities, project management and service for local customers. The site will be coordinated by the new incumbent general manager of Italpresse Kunshan Die Casting Equipment C, Ltd., Marco Antonacci who will be supporting customers as regards sales, spare parts, service and technical requests with the cooperation of the onsite sales and service team. “Our expansion in the China market reflects our continuing commitment to providing superior service to our global clients as well as our local China-based clients,” said Antonacci. “The entire Asia Pacific market remains a key strategic area for Italpresse.” The Chinese market requires year by year higher quality and performance, and, for these reasons, Italpresse aims to improve its presence in China. The new site will meet the needs of its Chinese customers, increasing spare parts availability on site, customer care and project management capability. ■

为了满足全国客户日益增长的需求以及充当支持亚 太地区客户和项目的枢纽,在中国运营的ltalpresse公 司地址已迁移至昆山更大的工厂。 Italpresse自1990年起进入中国市场,其在上海的 分部成立于2005年,旨在支持销售活动,进行项目管 理以及为当地客户提供服务。 公司新厂将由Ltalpresse昆山压铸设备有限公司新任 总经理Marco Antonacci先生进行协调规划。Marco Antonacci先生的工作将是在现场销售与服务团队的合 作下在销售、备用配件、服务与技术要求方面为客户提 供支持。 “我们在中国市场的扩张反映出了我们正不断致力 于为我们的全球客户以及当地的中国客户提供优质的服 务,”Antonacci说,“整个亚太市场依然是Italpresse的重要战略领域。” 中国市场对质量以及性能的要求在逐年提高,所 以,Italpresse旨在提升我们在中国的业务表现。 新厂将能满足中国客户的需求,提升就地备件的可 用性,提升客户服务以及项目管理能力。 ■

Nemak Opens Plant in Mexico Nemak在墨西哥开设工厂 Nemak, which provides lightweighting for the world’s automotive industry, opened a high-pressure diecasting facility in Monterrey, Mexico. Mexican president Enrique Peña Nieto presided over the event. According to a news release, the plant’s technology will support production of aluminum automotive components, primarily engine blocks, transmission cases and structural components. There will also be a machining center for processing. The investment is $200 million and production will begin this year. The new plant is just the latest news Nemak has made in Mexico. In December, the company was honored in two categories of the National Technology and Innovation Awards, winning honors in Process Innovation and Product Innovation. “Our support of research and innovation has enabled us to develop technologies which drive vehicle weight reduction and make mobility more sustainable,” Armando Tamez, CEO, Nemak, said in a news release. “This award is a true honor for our company, providing us with added motivation to continue these important efforts.” ■

为世界汽车工业提供轻量化产品的Nemak公司在 墨西哥蒙特雷开了一家压铸厂。墨西哥总统Enrique Peña Nieto主持了这次活动。 根据新闻报道,该工厂的技术将支持铝制汽车零部 件的生产,主要是发动机缸体,变速箱和结构件,还 将有一个加工中心。投资额为2亿美元,今年将开始生 产。新工厂只是Nemak在墨西哥的最新动作。 十二月,公司荣获国家技术和创新奖两个类别奖, 分别获得过程创新和产品创新奖。 Nemak首席执行官Armando Tamez在新闻发布会 中说:“我们对研发创新的支持使我们能够开发出能 够减轻车辆重量的技术并从而使车辆运行更加持久。 这个奖是我们公司的荣誉,为我们继续努力提供了重 要的动力。”

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行業新聞

South Africa Hosts Brics Forum, WFO and Metal Casting Conference 2017 2017年金砖国家铸造论坛、世界铸造组织会议在南非举办 John Davies, CEO of the South African Institute of Foundrymen, and his team organized an international metal casting conference for the 7th BRICS Foundry Forum, WFO technical Forum and South African metalcasters. The conference included a number of national and international industry presentations, academic papers, and technical papers. The 291 delegates heard emphasis being given to new markets and strategies, as well as leaders for the future in the plenary sessions. Metallurgy, technology, and processes were covered in industry and technical presentations as well as academic streams. Twentyeight exhibitors participated in the exhibition. South Africa has about 170 foundries which directly employ about 9,500 people. Mostly small and medium-sized enterprises, a total of 25 foundries have closed in South Africa since 2010, shedding 1,600 jobs. “Foundries need to embrace and adapt to the new manufacturing technologies of the fourth industrial revolution by being informed of the latest research and developments,” Davies said. “While there are challenges, ultimately there is a need to modernize for sustainability.” In addition, South African metal casting businesses need to transform in terms of human capital, innovation and sustainability to arrest the decline of the sector and compete on a global scale. Some of the challenges faced by foundries include the costs of compliance with new regulations, such as air emissions standards. They put a strain on small and medium sized foundry businesses, which are also dealing with a lack of off-take agree-

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第七届金砖国家铸造论坛、WFO技术论坛、南非铸 造会议由南非铸造协会的首席执行官约翰•戴维斯和他 的团队组织。 会议包含来自许多国家和国际工业的报告、学术论 文和技术论文。会议由多个分会组成,291人参会, 会议的重点是新市场及其战略以及该领域未来的领导 人。会上来自工业界技术界和学术界的报告以及28家 参展商涵盖了冶金、技术和工艺等方面。 南非大约有170家铸造厂,直接雇佣了大约9500 人。大多是中小企业,南非自2010年以来共有25个铸 造厂关闭,削减了1600个工作岗位。 铸造厂需要接受并适应最新的制造技术。”戴维斯 说。“虽然有挑战,但是最终还是需要可持续发展的 现代化。” 此外,南非铸造企业需要改变在人力资本方面的策 略,以创新和持续性阻止行业的衰退,加强在全球范 围内的竞争。 铸造厂所面临的一些挑战,包括遵守新法规的成 本,如空气排放标准。这把中小型铸造企业的经营弄

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行業新聞 ments and high levels of capital investment requirements due to aging infrastructure and capital equipment. "In the next Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP), we are emphasising the importance of supporting the metals and casting industries to modernise and grow. This requires support in terms of research and development, human resource development and supply-side support in the form of incentives for the metals and agro-processing industries. Along with demand-side initiatives, such as local procurement designations, this support will help to grow demand," said October. “The foundry industry in South Africa is mature and many foundries have the capacity and capabilities to produce for designated sectors, including those that export,” said Ashley Bhugwandin, Manager: National Foundry Technology Network (NFTN). Through the DTI, the NFTN aims to make funding available for recapitalisation and to address the low capacity utilisation through technical and regulatory support, engaging local buyers and developing the industries' collective capacity and capabilities. Taking a look at the impact of the foundry industry on manufacturing in South Africa, Henk Langenhoven, Chief Economist: Chamber of Mines of South Africa, said that it is not manufacturing that is declining, but rather manufacturing is declining as a percentage of the economy. “If one looks at GDP growth in correlation with physical tonnage of castings produced in the country, it begs the question of whether we are giving away too much market share in imports. Or is our domestic base too small? In the 1990s, there were massive investments in infrastructure and in the economy. This has subsided and now the consumption part of our economy is driving the demand for castings.” Collaboration emerged as an important factor in success for foundries. To this end, sessions were held that focused on information sharing to collectively address common issues and improve knowledge on new technologies. One common issue is the shortage of young people in the industry and the need to improve skills. The 7th BRICS Foundry Forum, in conjunction with the World Foundry Organisation working group for Human Capital Development, hosted a collaboration workshop with international and local industry players to find practical and immediate actions to drive the growth of the global industry. ■

得十分紧张,他们正在处理缺乏基础设施和固定设备老 化所需的承购协议和高水平投资的问题。 在下一步的工业政策行动方案(IPAP)中,我们强调 支持金属和铸造工业进一步发展和现代化的重要性。这 需要支持研发、人力资源开发和以金属工业和农产品加 工工业的发展带动的需求。随着需求方面的举措,如当 地主动采购,这种支持将有助于发展。”October说。 “铸造行业在南非是成熟的和有能力进行定制生 产的,包括那些出口产品。”全国铸造技术网络(NFTN) 经理Ashley Bhugwandin说。通过国家DTI部门,NFTN 旨在使资金用于资本重组,通过技术和管理支持解决产 能与利用率较低的问题,寻找当地的铸件消费者和发展 铸造行业的集聚能力和产能。 南非的矿山首席经济学家Henk Langenhoven说,看 一看南非铸造行业对制造业的影响,不是制造业下降, 而是制造业占比经济总量的下降。 如果将GDP增长与国家的铸件产量的吨位联系起来, 这就引发了另一个问题:我们是否正在放弃太多的进口 市场份额?还是我们国内市场太小?在90年代,有大规模 的基础设施和经济发展投资。现在投资已经减弱了,目 前我们的经济中的消费正在推动对铸件的需求。” 合作是铸造厂成功的一个重要因素。为此,会议专注 于信息共享、集体解决常见问题和提高新技术的知识。 一个常见的问题是行业缺少年轻人和需要提高技 能。第七届金砖国家铸造论坛结合世界铸造组织人力资 本发展工作小组,与国际和当地合作举办了一场研讨会 来寻找实用的和直接推动全球工业增长的方式。 ■

Topeka Foundry & Iron Works Purchased Topeka Foundry & Iron Works被收购 According to a report from the Topeka Capital-Journal, Topeka Foundry & Iron Works (Topeka, Kansas) was purchased in January by Haas Metal Engineering (Topeka, Kansas). The purchase was effective Jan. 1. The report said Topeka Foundry & Iron Works will do business under its name. According to the Capital-Journal, the companies will collaborate on steel fabrication. “We believe the acquisition will magnify the strengths of both companies, allowing us to better achieve success together, than what we can do apart,” said Jon Haas, owner, HME Inc., according to the report. ■

根据Topeka Capital-Journal的报道,Topeka Foundry&Iron Works于1月份被 Haas Metal Engineering公司(堪萨斯州,托皮卡)收购。收购自1月1日 起生效。 报告指出,Topeka Foundry & Iron Works将以其名 义开展业务。据Capital-Journal报道,公司将在钢铁装 配领域开展合作。HME公司的所有人Jon Haas说:“我 们相信收购将会扩大两家公司的实力,使我们相比分开 干,能够更好的获得成功。” ■

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行業新聞

Sakthi Portugal Opens Its Doors 萨克蒂(葡萄牙)公司打开新局面 The brand new Sakthi Portugal SP21 company is located in Águeda, Portugal (80km from Oporto). The SP21 unit, a work of art in itself, is a state-of-the-art linear nodular iron foundry, with an installed capacity of 90 KTon that will add to the current 95 Kton capacity of the «mother» foundry in Maia (Oporto) which are becoming to be insufficient to answer a challenging demand and an increasing market share since 2011. Both foundries produce safety-critical components - namely brake housings, differential cases, suspension control arms and a host of other components - for most of the OEMs and TIER1 major names in the automotive industry as Mercedes, PSA, VW group, Volvo, AMG, Ford, Continental, Dana and others. The SP21 plant was inaugurated in February 2017 together with almost 7.000 visitors and international guests, after a record 11 months period for the construction of a work of art with its 280 meters long and almost 30 meters in the highest areas. Another first was the challenge of installing the equipments and test them while the construction works were taking place! ■

全新的萨克蒂葡萄牙SP21公司位于阿格达,离葡 萄牙波尔图市80公里。SP21公司是最先进的球墨铸 铁铸造生产厂,生产能力9万吨,在玛雅(波尔图) 的母公司铸造能力为9.5万吨,原来母公司越来越不 能满足挑战性的要求和自2011年以来不断增加市场 份额。两个铸造厂都为OEM和第一梯队的汽车厂生 产安全性能要求苛刻的铸件:刹车罩壳、差速器箱、 悬架控制臂和许多其他铸件,这些汽车厂有奔驰、标 志、大众、沃尔沃、AMG、福特、大陆、德纳等。 SP21工厂落成于2017年2月,创记录地仅用11个 月就建成了长280米最高处约30米的厂房,约7000 名国际游客和来宾参观。另一个第一次是厂房建成后 来自于设备安装和测试的挑战! ■

Top China Die Casting Enterprises Award Ceremony Held in June 中国压铸强企颁奖仪式6月举办 During the 12th China International Die Casting Industry Exhibition (CIDC 2017), June 13-16 in Shanghai, the result of “Top 50 China Die Casting Enterprises of Comprehensive Strength,”, “Top 20 China Die Enterprises of Comprehensive Strength” and “Best-in-class Die Casting” has been released and the grand award ceremony was held during the reception dinner. The selection is open, authoritative and professional, which will be conducive to increase enterprises’ brand effect and set examples for the whole die casting industry. The award program plays a positive role in accelerating the transformation and upgrade of the China die casting industry, helping the key enterprises to play their leading role and increasing international competitiveness. China Foundry Association will make more efforts in the selection and award programs for the die casting industry in the future. ■ 22

“第十二届中国国际压铸工业展览会”于6月13-16 日在上海成功举办,展会期间,“中国压铸件生产企业 综合实力50强”、“中国压铸模具生产企业综合实力20 强”、“优质压铸件金奖”等一系列评选活动结果揭晓 并举行了隆重的颁奖仪式。评选是集权威性、专业性于 一体的压铸行业企业品牌甄选活动,将进一步加强压铸 行业品牌影响力推广,更广泛、深入地推动宣传压铸行 业优秀企业品牌建设,树立行业标杆。 为加快铸造产业结构调整和转型升级步伐,发挥重 点骨干企业的示范引领作用,同时为集中行业优势资 源支持重点骨干压铸企业快速提升品牌,扩大“中国压 铸”的整体影响力和更好地参与国际竞争,起到了积 极作用。中国铸造协会将继续做好压铸行业评优工作, 使“中国压铸件企业 50 强”、“中国压铸模具企业 20 强”、“优质压铸件金奖”这样的评选活动成为压铸行 业最有影响力的奖项。 ■

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行業新聞

Muskegon Castings Operates After Fire Muskegon Castings在火灾后开工 Muskegon Castings (Muskegon, Michigan) is operating after a March fire. According to a report from aluminuminsider.com, Muskegon Castings has moved to multiple buildings in the area. The report said the company’s building was destroyed, but all 40 employees who were present were unharmed. Muskegon Castings, the report said, is still supplying its main client Subaru. “We are blessed with the fact we have four other facilities in the area, and we were able to get in after the fire and pull out and remove all the tooling for our customers,” said John Essex, CEO of parent company Port City Group. Essex told aluminuminsider.com that the company didn’t know if it would rebuild on the same site. “We have some floor space we could utilize at the other facilities,” Essex said. “We’re still weighing our options on building” a replacement plant.” ■

Muskegon Castings(密歇根州Muskegon)在3月 份的火灾之后重新运行。 据alumininsider.com报道,Muskegon Castings已 经迁移到该地区的多个建筑物。 报告称,公司的建筑物 遭到破坏,但所有在场的40名人员都没有受伤。 该报告称,Muskegon Castings仍在为它的主要客户 Subaru供应产品。 其母公司Port City Grou的首席执行官John Essex表 示:“幸运的是我们能够在火灾后进入当地其他四个设 施,并为客户撤出所有工具。” Essex告诉aluminuminsider.com不知道该公司是否 会在同一地址重建。 Essex说:“我们的其他设施还有一些空间能够利 用,仍然在考虑是否要建立一个新的工厂。 ■

Metal China and CIDC 2017 a Big Success 2017铸博会、压铸展炫彩落幕 The 15th China International Foundry Expo (Metal China 2017), together with the biennial Die Casting Industry Exhibition (CIDC), as well as Metallurgical Industry Expo, Industrial Furnace Exhibition and Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Exhibition once again made a big success, June 13-16 at Shanghai New International Expo Center in Pudong, Shanghai, the heart of one of China’s business and industry hubs. 1263 exhibitors from 16 countries and regions as well as 97,422 visitors came to the show. This event is jointly organized by China Foundry Association, China Iron and Steel Association, Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (CMES), Metallurgical Council of CCPIT, Industrial Furnace Institution of CMES and Hannover Milano Fairs Shanghai Ltd. The exhibiting space reaches 90,000 square meters.

CIDC develops quickly and blossoms in June More than 100 die casting enterprises, including Faw Foundry, CITIC Dicastal, German Metal Automotive Accessories, Kashui Group, Suzhou Chunxing, Yadelin, Dalian Yaming, Chongqing Dajiang Millison, Guangdong Hongtu, and Guangdong Hongtai, as well as famous die casting machine and peripheral equipment manufacturers including Buhler, Frech, L.K. Group, Yizumi, Suzhou Sanji, Idra, Yanhing Group, Chit Shun, Wenjie, and HYDEB showed their high-end and competitive products and machines at CIDC. The die casting products are applied in a variety of sectors, such as automobile, motorcycle, electronics, communications, aerospace, construction, etc.

“第十五届中国国际铸造博览会(Metal China 2017)”、“第十二届中国国际压铸工业展览会 (CIDC 2017)”,以及“第十七届中国国际冶金工 业展览会”、“第十五届中国国际工业炉展览会”于 2017年6月13-16日在上海浦东新国际博览中心圆满落 下帷幕。本届展会共有来自16个国家和地区的1263家 企业参展;有来自全球28 个国家和地区的97422人次 专业观众莅临展会。 本届展会由中国铸造协会、中国钢铁工业协会、中 国国际贸易促进委员会冶金行业分会、中国机械工程学 会工业炉分会以及汉诺威米兰展览(上海)有限公司共 同举办。展览面积达到9万平米。

压铸业一枝独秀,绚丽绽放 2017年“第十二届中国国际压铸工业展览会”与“ 第十五届中国国际铸造博览会”同期举办,名企云集: 长春一汽、中信戴卡、德盛镁、嘉瑞国际、苏州春兴、 亚德林、大连亚明、重庆大江美利信、广东鸿图、广东 鸿泰等百余家压铸件生产企业与瑞士布勒、德国富来、 香港力劲、广东伊之密、苏州三基、意德拉、广东仁 兴、捷迅科技、佛山文杰、济南海德热工等海内外知名 压铸机及周边设备生产企业集聚一堂。 “中国压铸件企业50强”“中国压铸模具20强”“ 优质压铸件金奖”的评选结果揭晓并举办了隆重的颁奖 仪式,为行业树立学习榜样。

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行業新聞 To set examples for the die casting industry, the results of “Top 50 Die Casting Enterprises,”, “Top 20 Die Manufacturers” and “Best-in-class Die Casting” appraising activities were released and the grand award ceremony was held during the reception dinner.

Foundry equipment becomes more efficient and intelligent The Foundry sector focuses on the high-efficiency and intelligence of the foundry equipment. Both domestic and international exhibitors including ABB, ABP, Changzhou Fondarc, MAGMA, STRIKOWESTOFEN, Sinto, Inductotherm, Baoding Well, Changzhou Hidea, Hebei Ounai, LIST, Tianjin Ziheng, Wuxi Xinan, Qinhuangdao Chunguang, Zhejiang Wanfeng, Beijing Tinder, Shandong Kaitai, Suzhou Mingzhi, Suzhou Hawk, and Guangdong Zosan, displayed their latest equipment and technology at the show. Intelligent die casting island, semi-solid die casting machine, high-efficient moulding line, energy-saving melting equipment, online inspection equipment, sand reclamation equipment and other new equipment marked the achievements of Chinese foundry industry’s transformation.

Digital foundry is accelerating its steps MAGMA, Anycasting and Huazhong University of Science and Technology showed the latest digital and simulation technology in the foundry industry. The Advanced Manufacture Technology Center of China Academy of Machinery Science and Technology, Beijing TenYoun 3D Technology Co., Ltd showed the advanced 3-D printing and rapid prototyping technologies. Furthermore, the exhibitors also demonstrated how to print various complex sand cores and samples with unbelievable speed on the show place. Digital simulation technology, rapid prototyping technology, robot and bid data are four magic weapons for the digitalized workshop. KUKA, ABB, Grenzebach, Reis Robotics, Fanuc Robotics, Zhejiang Wanfeng, Logen Robotics and Wolong SIR Robot brought their advanced products to the show: handling robot, grinding robot, feeding robot, extractor, cleaning machine, and others. Visitors were excited at the precision of digital simulation technology and the speed of 3-D printing. The China National Intelligent Foundry Center displayed itself to all visitors. The big data service-based Foundry E-Commerce (Beijing) Network Co., Ltd. opened the era of “IT+foundry.”

Environmental and safety are hot topics In recent years, environmental protection and safety has become hot topics for the foundry industry. To increase environmental and safety awareness of foundry enterprises and help enterprises to avoid detours in the facilities upgrading, a special area was set up in hall W5 to allow visitors to know more about the dust handling system, explosion protection system, noise reduction system, waste water treatment system and other products. ■

铸造装备向高效、智能方向发展 本届展会上展示的铸造装备以高效、智能为特 色,ABB、ABP、常州法迪尔克、迈格码、史杰克 西、新东工业株式会社、应达工业、济南铸造锻压 研究所、保定维尔、常州好迪、河北欧耐、上海 红雀、天津致恒、无锡锡南、秦皇岛春光、浙江万 丰、北京天哲、山东开泰、苏州明志、苏州小鹰、 广州铸星、临沂市卓杰机械、福建省德林机械等众 多海内外著名公司携精品参展。智能压铸岛、半固 态压铸机、高效率造型线、高效节能熔炼设备、在 线检查仪器、旧砂再生设备等各路装备大显神通, 炫彩展会,助力中国铸造转型升级。

数字化铸造厂方兴未艾 以迈格码、华中科技大学等为代表的铸造数字模 拟领域“老将”和济南艾尼凯斯特软件有限公司等 新兴企业同台竞技,展示精准到足以让观众惊呼的 绝妙铸造数字模拟技术。 以机械科学研究总院先进制造技术研究中心、北 京天远三维科技有限公司等为代表的展商集中展示 先进的3D打印和以减材法为核心的快速原型技术, 现场演示如何以难以置信的速度打印出各类复杂砂 芯和金属样件。 建设数字化工厂需要数字模拟技术、快速原型 技术、机器人和大数据四个基础,本届展会系统展 示了这“四样法宝”。以库卡机器人、ABB、格林 策巴赫、徕斯机器人、发那科机器人、浙江万丰、 罗庚机器人、浙江卧龙希尔机器人等为代表的展商 带来各自的看家法宝。搬运机器人、打磨机器人、 压铸机给汤机器人、取件机器人、专用清理机器人 等。 铸造数字模拟展品精准到足以让观众惊呼,3D 打 印以难以置信的速度打印出各类复杂砂芯和金属样 件。国家智能铸造中心展区将4.0时代的智能铸造工 厂一览无余地呈现在观众面前,而以大数据服务平 台为根基的中铸云商则宣告了“互联网+铸造”时代 的开启。

环保、安全成为行业新热点 在“第十二届中国国际压铸工业展览会”W5号 馆特别设立了“环保、安全设备”展区。其目的是 强化铸造行业环保、安全意识,同时帮助企业在环 保、安全设施改造方面少走弯路。在这个区域里 集中展示先进的车间除尘系统、防爆系统、降噪系 统、废水处理系统等,并介绍针对不同基础铸造厂 的环保、安全改造方案。有效指导铸造企业做好环 保和安全防护工作。 ■

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Status and Vision of the Japan Foundry Industry JAPAN FOUNDRY SOCIETY EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR YOSHIHIRO KAKUTA

日本铸造产业的现状和未来展望 日本铸造协会 专务理事 角田悦啟

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The status of the Japan foundry industry In 2015, the total output of the Japan foundry industry was 5.4 million tons, which was the fourth largest production volume in the world. The production value was 1,951.2 billion yen. Looking at the trend in the production value, with peaks at about 2.5 trillion yen in 1990, it turned to a decline until 2002. After that, it recovered to about 2.5 trillion yen in 2008, but it fell to 1.6 trillion yen due to the financial crisis and the Lehman shock in 2009. Although it recovered again from 2010, it has been at a level of about 2 trillion yen or less. Similarly, the production volume turned to a peak at 8.2 million tons in 1990 and decreased to 5.75 million tons in 2002. After that, it recovered to 6.71 million tons in 2008, but it fell to 4.38 million tons due to the Lehman shock in 2009. The number of factories decreased 55% in 25 years from 4,241 in 1990 to 1,888 in 2014. In particular, it has decreased by about 30% in the decade since 1990. In particular, it has decreased by about 30% in the decade since 1990. This is proportional to the 30% decrease in

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日本铸造产业的现状 2015年日本铸造业产量是540万吨,位居全 球第四位。生产金额1兆9,512亿日元。从生产

金额的变化来看,以1990年约2.5兆日元为最高点,到 2002年一直处于下降的趋势。到2008年生产金额虽然 重新恢复到2.5兆日元,但到了2009年,由于金融危机 和雷曼事件一度降到1.6兆日元。2010年之后,虽然有 所恢复,但只是以不到2兆日元的水平逐年推移。生产 量方面也是同样的情况,在1990年达到820万吨的顶峰 之后,就开始下降,2002年减少至575万吨。虽然在 2008年恢复到了671万吨,但是随后的2009年由于雷 曼事件又回落到了438万吨。 从工厂数量方面来看,1990年到2014年的25年间, 数量从4,241家减少到了1,888家,约减少了55%。尤 其是自1990年开始的10年,工厂数量约减少了30%。 这一现象正好跟同期生产量减少了30%形成了正比。从

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production volume during this period. Looking at the scale of the factories that have declined, most small business with nine or fewer employees. Casting parts for automobile account for about 70% of casting demand structure in Japan. In particular, more than 90% of aluminum castings and die castings are cast parts for automobiles. In regional production, Aichi prefecture in the Tokai region has a production volume exceeding 1 million tons. The quantity of import or export of castings is no more than 200,000 tons. Statistically, many castings are imported or exported as mechanical parts. As 80% of the total casting production is for automobiles, machine tools and construction machinery, therefore many castings are indirectly exported from Japan as demand parts of these products.

2. The economic environment surrounding the Japan foundry industry Domestic demand is on a downward trend as the current economic environment surrounding Japan. This is caused by the decline in GDP growth rate, and the decrease of population, coupled with the increase in the overseas production ratio of the automobile industry, the electric industry and others. The automobile industry as the biggest demand destination had a production ratio of 6 to 4 in 1999, which is 9.9 million units in domestic production volume and 5.78 million units in overseas production volume. In 2012, the domestic production volume is still 9.9 million units, but the overseas production volume is 15.83 million units, which is an increase of about 10 million units in 12 years, the production ratio was reversed to 4:6.

减少的工厂规模来看,都是从业员不足9人的小型工 厂。 从日本铸件需求的构成方面来看,汽车铸件约占 70%。尤其是铝铸件和压铸件占到了汽车用铸件的 90%。分地区来看,东海地区的爱知县产量最高, 超过了100万吨。 从铸件的进出口数量来看,只有不到20万吨。 从统计上来看,许多铸件都是作为机械设备的零部 件进出口的。从汽车、加工机械、建筑机械用铸件 产量约占整体的80%这一点能看出,这些产品所需 的零部件很多都是由日本间接出口的。

2、日本铸造产业所处的经济大环境 作为现在的日本所处的经济环境,国内需求有减 少的趋势。这是由实际GDP增长率的下降,人口的 减少,再加上汽车产业、电力产业等在海外生产率的 增加而引起的。例如铸造产业最大的需求者——汽 车产业,1999年在日本的生产台数是990万辆,海外 生产台数578万辆,生产比例6:4。而这一数值到了 2012年,日本国内的生产台数仍然是990万辆,而 海外生产台数达到了1,583万辆,12年间约增长了1 千万辆,将生产比率逆转成4:6。

3、日本铸造产业的特征和愿景 作为日本的铸造产业的特征,其优势是铸造 产品的高品质,供应稳定,能应对短交货期,对从

3. The characteristics and vision of Japan foundry industry

业员的多能工教育,以及铸造厂充实的维护体制等

As characteristics of the Japan foundry industry, its strengths are high quality of casting products, stable supply, response to short delivery times, employees’ multi task education, and a fulfilling factory maintenance system, etc. As a weakness, since the ratio of small and medium-sized enterprises is high, their products proposal ability is weak, and factory productivity is low. The lack of capital and talent is also weakness. Although Japan has the world’s fourth largest market, it is a challenge to cope with the rise in the electricity cost during recent years. To deal with these issues, Japan Foundry Society has created a foundry industry vision, will focus on the following aspects: (1) improving technical capabilities, (2) improving trading practices, (3) strengthening cooperation within the industry, (4) promote the overseas development, (5) human resource development, (6) Strengthening environmental and energy countermeasures. ■

品的提案能力比较弱,工厂的生产效率比较低,以

等。其劣势是,中小企业所占比例较高,对用户商 及资本和人才的缺乏等等。日本国内具有世界第四 位的市场规模,但应对电力成本的上升成了近年来的 课题。因此,日本铸造协会制定了铸造产业展望,将 致力于以下几个方面:①技术能力的提高;②改善 交易惯例;③加强同业者之间的合作;④推进海外 拓展;⑤人才培养;⑥强化环境和能源对策。 ■

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Busche Builds Its Platform Busche Performance Group, seeking to become a competitive Tier-1 automotive supplier, acquired an aluminum casting operation as its first order of business. shannon wetzel, managing editor

Busche在创建属于自己的平台 作为Shipston控股责任有限公司的一部分,Busche运行集团(Busche)有着清 晰的发展目标:填补汽车一级供应商市场的空白。该公司的创始人,首席执行官 兼总裁Nick A. Busche称之为“长期以客户和员工为中心去开拓业务。”。 总编辑Shannon Wetzel

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usche Performance Group (Busche), part of Shipston Equity Holdings LLC, is crystal clear in its goal: position itself to fill a void in the automotive Tier-1 supplier marketplace with what Busche founder, CEO and president Nick A. Busche calls a “long-term, customer- and employee-centric approach to building a business.” Busche is doing so by looking to acquire strong businesses in casting and machining, investing in existing plants, and packaging itself as a partner that can provide parts from design to casting to machining and assembly. In October 2015, part of this plan was fulfilled with the purchase of an aluminum VRC/PRC casting operation in Fruitport, Michigan, and a squeeze cast facility in Franklin, Indiana, known collectively as Compass Automotive Group, now called Busche Aluminum Technologies (BAT). Since Shipston’s purchase, BAT has hired more than 125 employees and invested more than $20 million into the two plants, improving the plants’ operational capacities, including

Busche Aluminum Technologies produces aluminum structural automotive components.

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usche目前正在寻求铸造和机加工领域的业务, 同时投资现有工厂,让自己成为其中的合作伙 伴,以此能够通过从设计到铸造到机加工再到

装配这一制造流程来供应零件。2015年10月,Busche 公司实施了该计划的一部分,收购了密歇根州弗鲁特波 特的铝VRC/PRC铸造生产线和印第安纳州富兰克林的挤 压铸造设备厂,这两者被合并为指南针汽车公司,现在 叫做Busche铝业技术公司(BAT)。 自被Shipston收购以来,BAT已雇佣了超过125名员 工,并且在两家工厂投资超过2000万美元,从而提高了 工厂的运营能力,包括在密歇根州的工厂增加了第三条 铸造生产线。这条新生产线是专门为适应主要汽车客户 提出的新业务而建立的。 “我们的客户希望加入机加工和铸造作业业务中 来,”Shipston的副总裁Brett Tremain如是说。“自

Busche铝业技术公 司生产铝的汽车结 构件。

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The new casting line at Busche Aluminum Technologies in Fruitport, Michigan, was mainly designed and built by employees.

位于密歇根弗鲁特波特的Busche铝业技术公司的新生产线主要 由公司的员工进行设计和建造。

adding a third casting line in the Michigan facility. The new line was built specifically to accommodate the launch of a new job for a major automotive customer. “There was a desire from our customers to join forces of machining and foundry operations,” Shipston vice president Brett Tremain said. “Since we’ve done that, the feedback has been tremendous as we continue to increase our operational capacity and geographic reach.” Busche Performance Group, a privately-owned operating company, was the first acquisition of Shipston, which is backed by long-term, generational shareholders. Busche attracted the attention of Shipston because of its reputation as a foundationally solid and disciplined machining operation. “We were looking for a business with first-rate management and operations—a platform that had a great foundation for growth and that could bring stability and consolidation to a fragmented industry,” Tremain said. Nick Busche has been steering his company for decades on the principles of being the best in class in quality, delivery and safety. “We are a performance-based company with a rich history of delivering world class products to our customers with some of the lowest PPMs in the industry,” Busche said. “We have been consistently surpassing our goals by investing in our workforce and building something dynamic here, which the industry is dying for.”

从我们那样做以来,随着我们继续提升运营能力和扩大 地域覆盖面,外界的反响非常强烈。” Busche 集团是一家私营公司,也是Shipston收购的 第一家公司,其由长期的代股东支持。Busche之所以 能够引起Shipston的注意,在于其坚实的业务基础和机 加工操作严格规范方面的声誉。 “我们正在寻找具有一流管理和运营模式的业务,这 是一个为发展打下坚实基础的平台,这能够为零散的行 业带来稳定和整合,”Tremain说道。 Nick Busche 几十年来一直以在质量、交付和安全 方面做到最佳为原则来运作他的公司。 “我们是一家以性能为基础的公司,在为客户提供 世界一流且在行业中具有最低缺陷率的产品方面有着悠 久的历史,”Busche说道。“我们一直致力于通过投 资我们的员工团队和注入一些具有新鲜活力的东西来不 断超越我们已设定的目标,而这正是该行业所渴望实现 的。”

整体包装 Busche计划继续建立一个加工平台,以作为国际市 场的一级供应商提供经加工、装配和测试后的铸件。其

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在检测室由机器人 对铸件进行操作。

A robot manipulates a casting in an inspection cell.

Total Package Busche plans to continue building a machining platform that serves international markets as a Tier-1 supplier, offering machined, assembled, and tested cast parts. Its two casting facilities in Michigan and Indiana were the first step. Busche is also looking to acquire machining facilities located in foundry-heavy regions to take advantage of the proximity to that key part of the supply chain. Thousands of machine shops remain in the U.S., but Busche predicts a large portion will close or consolidate as current owners retire without succession plans in place. “The industry is highly fragmented and we foresee a lot of consolidation in the coming years. This isn’t just our insight—

Robotic trimming and finishing cells were added along with the new casting line at Busche Aluminum Technologies.

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在密歇根州和印第安纳州的两套铸造设备只是计划的第 一步。Busche还希望获得位于铸造厂密集地区的加工 设备,以此接近供应链的关键部分,并将此优势利用起 来。 “这个行业目前是高度分散的,我们预计接下来的数 年会出现大量的整合。这个情况不单单是那些具有洞察 力的最终用户告诉我们的,”Busche说道。“所以这 里存在巨大的机遇,通过建立一个加工平台来为我们的 客户提供高档的成品。” 今年三月,Shipston收购了3PMI,即现在称作的 Busche Southfield,它是一家位于密歇根州绍斯菲尔

在Busche铝业技术公 司新的铸造生产线上 增加了机器人整修和 精加工室。

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An employee inspects aluminum castings.

员工对铝铸件进行 检查。

end users are telling us the exact same thing,” Busche said. “So there’s a huge opportunity to build a machining platform to supply high-end finished products to our customers.” In March, Shipston acquired 3PMI, which is now called Busche Southfield, an automotive machining company located in Southfield, Michigan. OEMs are driving the direction and growth of Busche. “Customers want someone to step up and handle parts from cradle to grave,” said Corey Ryner, vice president engineering, Busche Development Automotive Group. “We machine a full casting range, including iron and aluminum. We have our two aluminum foundries, but we machine and design both aluminum and iron.” BAT’s plant in Fruitport produces aluminum castings via the vacuum riserless casting/pressure riserless casting (VRC/ PRC) process. In this somewhat unique process, aluminum enters the bottom of a metal mold as a vacuum from the top draws air out. This results in a controlled filling that creates sound castings with high mechanical properties. “It’s an excellent process,” said Craig Conaty, BAT president, but the team isn’t selling the process to customers. Instead it focuses on the end result. “We are looking for applications that need very high strength in a tight space,” Conaty said. “We focus on the

德的汽车加工公司。 原始设备制造商(OEMs)正在引导Busche的发展 方向。 “客户希望有人能够始终进行全程的零件加工服 务,”Busche旗下的汽车开发集团副总裁Corey Ryner 说到。“我们可以加工一个完整的铸件系列,包括铁和 铝。我们拥有两家铝铸造厂,但是它们可以加工和设计 铝和铁两类铸件” BAT位于弗鲁特波特的工厂通过真空无冒口铸造/压 力无冒口铸造(VRC/PRC)工艺生产铝铸件。在这种 稍显独特的工艺中,通过从顶部抽出空气是金属模变为 真空,铝液从金属模的底部浇入。通过对铝液填充的控 制能够制造出具有高机械性能且缺陷少的铸件。 “这是一个相当不错的工艺,”BAT总裁Craig Conaty说道,但是该团队并没有向客户出售他们的工 艺,他们重点关注的是最终结果。 “我们正在寻找在狭小的空间里对超高强度有需求 的应用,”Conaty说。“我们专注于应用并提供解决 方案。你可以通过其他工艺完成与VRC/PRC工艺相同

Busche Performance Group instilled all of its employee training and retention practices and principles to Busche Aluminum Technologies. Turnover rate for the Busche group is under 3%.

Busche集团向Busche铝业技术公司输送了所有的员工培训项 目、人员留下来的实践项目和运营准则。Busche集团的人员流 失率低于3%。

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application and providing a solution. You can accomplish the same things as VRC/PRC with other processes, but we think that when it comes to providing a competitive solution that financially makes sense, it is one of the best processes out there.” Most of the products BAT casts are structural automotive components such as knuckles, control arms, nodes, and crossmembers. Busche sees an opportunity for its aluminum casting business to grow as vehicle markets continue to seek ways to lower fuel consumption by reducing weight. BAT was considering whether to bid for a new program launch when it was acquired by Busche. The influx of investment promised from the new parent company to add capacity to handle the new work was key to winning the program. “This new work wouldn’t have come without the financial backing of Busche and Shipston making the investment and the skill level of the people in this facility,” Conaty said. “The potential business was in the works, but we wouldn’t have been able to accept it (or probably win it) without the investment.” BAT and Busche had to work quickly to add the new line but it was necessary to take advantage of the opportunity. “The machining business of Busche had recently launched two high volume jobs flawlessly in 12 weeks, and that gave us some industry recognition,” Busche said. The new line at BAT was largely designed, constructed and installed by personnel in the company. It includes one reverberatory furnace and three casting machines. A new

的事情,但是我们认为就提供一种在经济上具有竞争力 的解决方案而言,VRC/PRC是最佳的工艺之一。” 绝大多数BAT铸造的产品均是汽车的结构件比如转向 节、操作杆、节点和叉形杆件。随着汽车市场在持续探 索借助减轻重量来降低油耗,Busche看到了其铸铝业 务的发展机会。 BAT当时正在考虑是否在被Busche收购时投标一个 新的项目。新的母公司所承诺的投资资金的注入,将提 高BAT运作新工作的能力,这是赢得该项目的关键。 “如果没有来自Busche和Shipston的资金作为支持 来进行投资和提升厂里员工的技能水平,这项新的工作 将无法开展,”Conaty说道。“潜在的业务还在计划 中,但是我们不会在没有投资的情况下去接受它(或者 有赢得它的可能)。” BAT和Busche必须尽快采取行动增加新的生产线, 但同时有必要利用这个机会。 “Busche的机加工业务最近在12个星期内开展了 两项高质量的工作,这使我们得到了一些同行业的认 可,”Busche说道。 BAT的新生产线主要由公司人员进行设计、建造和安 装。它包括一台反射炉和三台铸造机。在生产线附近增 添了附带X射线检测的新的自动精加工室。在这里还为 另一个反射炉预留了放置空间以备不时之需,同时目前 正在建造另外两台铸造机。

Busche Aluminum Technologies produces knuckles, control arms, cross beams and other safety-critical components.

Busche铝业技术公司生产转向节、操作杆、叉形杆件和其他的 关键性安全零件。

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Busche团队成员经由 Busche大学进行专门 的铝铸造技术培训。

Busche team members go through Busche University with training focused on aluminum casting technology.

robotic finishing cell was added near the line, along with X-ray inspection. There is room for another reverb furnace when needed, and two additional casting machines are currently being built. “We want to make sure we have capacity to fulfill any order,” Busche said. In July, Busche Performance Group officially opened its new technical center, Busche Technologies (Tech Center) in Southfield, Michigan. This unit manages program design, specification, timing and implementation of all automotive jobs and works with manufacturing engineering at the plants to ensure successful launches. Design work, including CAD, CAE, simulation and prototyping is done here for aluminum and iron. “We handle parts from start to finish,” Ryner said. “Design, casting, tool-build, machining and assembly, work holding and critical validations are all done within Busche.” After casting, product testing and validation is also performed at the Tech Center. “The parts we cast are safety-critical, so the validation and fatigue test requirements are very stringent,” Ryner said. “While there are options for external quality control testing, we have decided to undertake validations that can sometimes takes weeks and bring them in-house so that customers receive the parts they need exactly when they need them.” The Tech Center’s focus on engineering was important for Busche, which wants to be involved early in the design in order to set up both suppliers and customers to succeed. To earn the trust of its customers, Busche had to show it has the resources and capabilities to handle these early designs. “We want customers to know that, with us, they are in good hands,” Conaty said. “We make complex parts and like to start fresh with the design to reduce risk.”

“我们期望确保我们有能力完成任何客户的订 单,”Busche说道。 七月份,Busche集团在密歇根州南菲尔德市正式开 设了它的新技术中心,Busche Technologies(技术中 心)。该单位负责所有汽车业务方面的程序设计、规格 制定、进度安排和实施计划,并且结合工厂里的制造工 艺展开工作以确保业务的成功运行。针对铸铝件和铸铁 件的设计工作,包括CAD、CAE,模拟和原型设计均在 该单位进行。 “我们对零件进行全程的处理,”Ryner说。“设 计、铸造、模具制作、机加工和装配,对工况的把控和 关键的检验均在Busche完成。” 铸造之后,产品的相关测试和校验也在技术中心进 行。 “我们浇铸的零部件的安全性能是最为关键的,因此 检验和疲劳测试的要求是非常严格的,”Ryner说。“ 虽然我们可以委托外部进行质量控制测试,但是我们还 是决定进行检验,有时会花费数周的时间,并将它们投 入内部试用,这样做是为了让客户能够最终收到他们真 正所需要的零件。” 技术中心对于工程的关注对于Busche来说是非常重 要的,该公司希望能够提早参与设计,以使供应商和客 户双方均能取得成功。为了赢得客户的信任,Busche 必须表明其具有处理这些早期设计的资源和能力。 “我们希望客户明白,我们是他们的得力帮 手,”Conaty说。“我们制造复杂零件,喜欢在设计 中注入新的东西来降低风险。”

Training and Retention

培训与留住人员

Busche Performance Group brought more than money

Busche 集团为其在密歇根州与印第安纳州新收购的

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to its newly acquired aluminum casting operations in Michigan and Indiana. The company’s unique brand of operation principles and philosophy were brought over, as well, and implemented quickly. “One of the goals was to integrate the old company with Busche systems as fast as we could,” Conaty said. “We have enough acquisition experience to know where the pressure points are. Our priority was to align our goals and ensure that our employees felt part of the process.” Employees were given satisfaction surveys at the time of acquisition and again six months later. Wage corrections were implemented, the benefits package updated, and employees were supplied uniforms to wear. The wage system was changed from a skill-level scale to merit-based. “We want the best people, so we have to have the most competitive wages,” Busche said. “Winning people want to join a winning team, and this is a winning team.” All employees go through Busche University with training focused on aluminum casting technology and supplemented with training materials and courses from AFS. A mentoring program was launched where every salaried person is assigned to a cell on the shop floor and works with the operator in that area. “It forces engagement and gives another path for employees to provide feedback,” Conaty said. “Once we got the ball rolling, everybody loved it and it has been remarkably successful.” With 100 new employees hired in a six-month span, a training and employee development system was crucial to the success of BAT’s third line and new program launch. The Busche companies’ turnover rate is less than 3%. “People are starving for something new and they want to see that someone is investing in the company,” Busche said. “We’re building a performance base D.N.A. with an army of great employees.” Busche’s goal is to have every plant in the corporation reflect its parent company’s principles of performance, quality and safety. BAT was painted and new lights were installed to match the cleanliness and brightness of other Busche operations. It’s another reason employees wear uniforms. “When someone comes to our plant, they are going to see the same thing they see at other Busche plants,” Busche said. “We want to unify operations so the customer experience is the same from plant to plant. Our doors are always open for a visit. We don’t get ready for company; we are always ready.” With BAT’s aluminum casting facilities in full swing as Busche entities, the performance group continues to look for new opportunities to organically grow or expand. Wisconsin and its wealth of metal casting facilities is a probability. Customers are also asking Busche to consider looking toward Mexico and Asia. “We are at a size now where we can be a real full service supplier/partner.” Ryner said. “It’s a safe bet to keep adding capacity.” ■ 34

铸铝业带来了更多的资金。该公司基于运作原则和企业 理念的独特品牌得到了快速的推广和实施。 “其中一个目标是尽可能快地将旧公司与Busche整 合起来,”Conaty说。“我们有足够的收购经验,知 道这其中的压力在哪里。我们首先要考虑的是调整我们 的目标,并确保我们的员工能够感受到他们是这个过程 当中的一份子。” 员工在公司被收购时参与了满意度的调查,六个月 之后又参与了一次调查。修正后的薪酬制度开始实施, 一系列的福利也有所改变,并且公司向员工分发工作制 服。薪酬制度从以技术水平作为考核标准转变为了以绩 效作为考核标准。 “我们希望得到最优秀的人才,所以我们必须具备最 具竞争力的薪酬制度,”Busche说。“成功的人士希 望加入一个成功的团队,而这就是一个成功的团队。” 所有的员工经由Busche大学进行专门的铝铸造技术 的培训,同时辅以AFS(美国铸造协会)的培训材料和 课程。另外公司还启动了一个指导项目,在该项目里每 一位受薪员工被分配到了车间的一处,并与该区域的操 作员一起工作。 “这是强制参与的,而我们也为员工的反馈提供了另 一条路径,”Conaty说。“一旦我们开始实施这个项 目,每个人都喜欢它,这是非常成功的。” 随着六个月内雇用了100位新的员工,员工培训和员 工职业发展体制对BAT的第三条生产线的成功投产和新 项目的成功启动变得至关重要。Busche公司的人员流 失率低于3%。 “人们渴求新的事物,他们希望看到有人在投资这家 公司,”Busche说。“我们正在创建一个拥有一批伟 大员工的基地。” Busche的目标是让公司里的每一家工厂都能反映其 母公司在性能、质量和安全性方面的行事准则。BAT 公司进行了涂漆装修并且安装上了新的电灯,以呼应 Busche公司在其他业务操作中对清洁与明亮的要求。 这也是员工穿着制服的另一个原因。 “当有人来到我们的工厂,他们将看到在其他Busche工厂里看到的同样的东西,”Busche说。“我们希 望统一操作,以便使得客户在工厂与工厂之间的体验是 相同的。我们的大门对来访的客人总是保持开放的。我 们不是当客人来了才做准备;我们总是准备好了的。” 随着作为Busche实体产业的BAT铸铝设备业务的全 面展开,该集团将继续寻求发展或扩张的新机会。而威 斯康辛州及其富有各种铸造设备将是一种可能。客户还 要求Busche考虑将业务发展到墨西哥和亚洲。 “我们现在的规模使得我们能够成为一个真正的全方 位服务供应商/合作伙伴。”Ryner说。“保持能力的提 升是一个安全稳妥的选择。” ■

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Inclusions in Permanent Mold Cast Magnesium This research is part of an ongoing effort to increase the use of magnesium alloys to a significant level in the aerospace and automotive industries and to reduce vehicle weight, fuel consumption, and emission of harmful gases.

abdallah elsayed, ryerson university (toronto) currently at nemak canada corporation (windsor, canada); comondore ravindran and eli vandersluis, ryerson university (toronto); sophie lun sin, ryerson university (toronto) currently at inrs (quebec city, canada).

镁合金铸造模具中的夹杂物 这项研究是为了持续提高镁合金在航空航天和汽车工业的使用水平、降低汽车重 量、降低燃料消耗和有害气体排放。 Abdallah Elsayed,瑞尔森大学(多伦多),目前就职于加拿大温莎的尼玛克公司;Comondore Ravindran 和Eli Vandersluis,瑞尔森大学(多伦多);Sophie Lun Sin,瑞尔森大学(多伦多),目前就职于INRS(国家科学研究 院)(加拿大魁北克市)

M

gnesium alloys have been gaining consideration as possible alternatives to aluminum alloys to reduce vehicle weight in aerospace and automotive applications. Magnesium alloys are about 35% lighter than aluminum alloys. However, only 0.3% of the total automotive vehicular weight in North America is composed of magnesium alloys, while 8.3% is composed of aluminum alloys. In terms of total weight, each passenger car contains only 11.02 lbs. (5 kg) of magnesium, yet 264.5-308.6 lbs. (120–140 kg) of aluminum. The widespread use of magnesium alloys for aerospace and automotive applications is hindered by their high reactivity, which increases the probability of inclusion formation during casting processes. Inclusions in magnesium alloys compromise corrosion resistance, increase porosity, produce unfavorable surface finishes, and reduce mechanical properties, in particular ultimate tensile strength and elongation.

合金被认为可能替代铝合金在航空航天和汽 车上的应用来降低车重。镁合金比铝合金要 轻约35%。然而,在北美只有汽车总重量

的0.3%是镁合金,而8.3%是铝合金。从总重量来说, 每辆轿车只有11.02磅(5千克)的镁合金,但有264.5308.6磅(120 - 140千克)的铝合金。 镁合金的高反应活性阻碍了其在航空航天和汽车上的 广泛应用,该高活性增加了铸造过程中夹杂物的形成。 夹杂物降低了镁合金的耐蚀性,增加了孔隙度,不利于 表面质量,并降低力学性能,特别是极限抗拉强度和伸 长率。在镁合金里主要有两类夹杂物:金属间化合物

Table 1. Casting Parameters

表1 铸造参数 Foundry

Pouring temperature (°F/ °C)

Cover gas

铸造

浇注温度(°F /°C)

保护气体

ZE41A A

1436/780

CO2 + SF6

B

1332/722

CO2 + SF6

C

1470/798

CO2 + SF6

AZ91D A

1436/780

CO2 + SF6

B

1336/724

CO2 + SF6

D

1400/760

M-134 Flux

Other

其它 Refined using Mg–Zr master alloy, Ladle poured

精炼使用Mg-Zr合金,断裂试棒浇注浇包 Refined using Mg–Zr master alloy, Ladle poured

精炼使用Mg-Zr合金,断裂试棒浇注浇包 100% remelted metal, Refined using Mg–Zr master alloy, Ladle poured

再生金属冶炼、精炼用Mg-Zr合金,断裂试棒浇注浇包 Ladle poured

断裂试棒浇注浇包 Degassed using degassing tablet, Ladle poured

Samples obtained

样品获得

Fracture bars, Tensile bars

拉伸试棒

Fracture bars

拉伸试棒

Fracture bars, Tensile bars

拉伸试棒

Fracture bars, Tensile bars

拉伸试棒

Fracture bars,Tensile bars

使用除气剂除气,断裂试棒浇注浇包

拉伸试棒

100% virgin metal, Refined and degassed using C2Cl6 tablets, Poured directly from crucible

拉伸试棒

Fracture bars, Tensile bars

流量100%原金属,使用C2Cl6剂精炼和脱气,直 接从坩埚导入浇包

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Fig 1. Grain structures of ZE41A alloys (a) Foundry A start and (b) Foundry A end.

Two major types of inclusions in magnesium alloys occur: intermetallic and non-intermetallic. Intermetallic inclusions are almost always iron-rich phases, while non–intermetallic inclusions include sulfides, fluorides, sulfates, chlorides, nitrides, and oxides, with oxides being the most dominant. Avoiding inclusions in magnesium alloys is difficult due to the many sources from which they arise. Inclusions can arise from reactions with air where magnesium reacts with oxygen to form MgO, reactions with fluxes entrapping flux components (e.g., MgCl2, CaCl2) and flux reactions with oxygen to form MgO. Even with the use of protective atmospheres such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), reaction products of MgO and MgF2 can become entrapped in the melt. In addition, melt turbulence during melting, handling, and pouring can be a source of inclusions in magnesium castings. A wide variety of inclusion assessment techniques are available for magnesium and its alloys. These techniques vary from simple observational methods, such as metallographic and fracture bar examinations, to highly sophisticated online methods, such as liquid metal cleanliness analyzers. Since no industry standard for examining inclusions in magnesium alloys exists, the techniques employed are foundry-dependent, which complicates comparisons between facilities. This article aimed to characterize and examine the effects in ZE41A and AZ91D magnesium alloys and their influence on microstructure and mechanical properties. By better understanding and documenting metal handling, the resulting scrap reduction, casting quality enhancement, and associated cost reductions will improve foundry competitiveness. This research is part of an ongoing effort to increase the use of magnesium alloys to a significant level in the aerospace and automotive industries and to reduce vehicle weight, fuel consumption, and emission of harmful gases.

Fig 2. Grain structures of AZ91D alloys (a) Foundry B start and (b) Foundry B end.

图1 :AZ91D合金的 晶粒组织(a) B铸造厂 开始和结束(B)。

和非金属间化合物。金属间化合物夹杂物几乎总是富 含铁的,而非金属间化合物夹杂物包括硫化物、氰化 物、硫酸盐、氯化物、氮化物、氧化物,其中氧化物 是最为主要的。 由于夹杂物有许多来源,在镁合金中避免夹杂物是 困难的。夹杂物可能与空气反应形成,镁与氧气反应 生成氧化镁,与卷进去的熔渣反应(如氯化镁、氯化 钙)和熔渣与氧反应形成氧化镁。即使使用六氟化硫 (SF6)等保护气氛,反应产物氧化镁和氟化镁会残留在 熔液中。此外,熔化、浇包移动和浇注过程中的产生 紊流也是镁铸件中夹杂物的来源。 很多夹杂物评估技术都可用于镁及其合金,包括 简单的观测方法,如金相和断口检测,高度复杂的在 线方法,如液态金属纯净度分析。因为没有行业标准 研究镁合金中的夹杂物,各铸造厂使用的技术不尽相 同,使得难以进行对比。 本文旨在描述夹杂物对ZE41A和AZ91D镁合金及 其对组织和力学性能的影响。更好地理解和记录金属 处理过程可以减少废品、提高铸件质量、降低相关的 成本,这都将提高铸造厂的竞争力。通过这项研究是 为了增加镁合金在航空航天和汽车工业的使用量、汽 车减重、减少燃料消耗和排放的有害气体。

图2 :ZE41A断口拉 伸断裂(a) A铸造厂和 (b) C铸造厂相应的 扫描分析区域用箭头 表示。

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图3 :AZ91D断口金 相检测材料的拉伸断 裂 A铸造厂 (a)和B铸 造厂 (b)和相应的扫 描电镜图。

Fig 3. Fractography of ZE41A tensile fractures (a) Foundry A and (b) Foundry C with corresponding SEM analysis of areas indicated by arrows.

The general procedure was the same for both alloys and involved the production of permanent mold tensile castings and fracture bar castings from multiple foundries and characterizing them according to their mechanical properties, grain sizes, microstructures, and inclusion contents. The microstructures, inclusions, and grain sizes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. The mechanical properties were assessed using uniaxial tensile testing. For both ZE41A and AZ91D alloy castings, the average yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation decreased between the start and end of the production run. The results from examination of grain size, microstructure and inclusion analysis indicate that the loss in properties was predominately caused by the accumulation of oxides. For example, the AZ91D castings demonstrated a ~5-10% decrease in UTS and a ~20-30% decrease in elongation, with a smaller change in yield from start to end of production. For both alloys, an increase in grain size was observed between the start and end of the production run, but the reduction in mechanical properties was mainly attributed to particle-type Mg–Al–O inclusions in the AZ91D alloy and film-type Mg–O inclusions in the ZE41A alloy on the fracture surfaces of the tensile samples and fracture bars. The AZ91D castings had very 38

在很多铸造厂内,该两种合金的工序是相同的,都 采用金属型铸造拉伸试样和断裂试棒,采用它们的机 械性能、晶粒大小、微观组织和夹杂物含量来表征它 们。微观组织、夹杂物和晶粒大小使用扫描电子显微 镜(SEM)和光学显微镜观察。机械性能使用了单轴拉 伸试验进行测试。 ZE41A和AZ91D合金铸件的平均屈服强度、极限 抗拉强度、延伸率在生产的开始和结束之间降低了。 晶粒尺寸的检查结果、组织和夹杂物的分析表明,性 能损失主要是由氧化物的积累造成的。例如,铸件抗 拉强度下降了5 - 10% 和延伸率下降了20 - 30%,屈 服应力也略有变化。 对于该两种合金,都观察到了晶粒尺寸从开始到 结束出现了增大,但机械性能的降低主要是由于在 AZ91D中的粒状Mg-Al-O夹杂物和在ZE41A合金中 出现的薄膜状Mg-O夹杂物对拉伸试样的断口和断裂

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few inclusions, but they were much larger than those in the ZE41A castings. This research recognized extensive variability of the inclusion levels in the industry and is a precursor to developing industry standards for melt cleanliness in magnesium alloys. This will be a major step in enabling improved quality and enhanced use of magnesium alloys in aerospace and automotive industries.

Microstructure A representative micrograph from Foundry A of the grain structures of the ZE41A castings produced toward the start and end of a production run is shown in Figure 1. The samples were extracted from tensile mold castings. At the start of pouring, the average grain size of the castings from Foundry A was 22 ± 1 µm and increased to 38 ± 7 by the end of the production run. For Foundry C, at the start of pouring, the average grain size of castings was 27 ± 2 µm and increased to 32 ± 3 µm by the end of the production run. The grain structures in Figure 1 were very spherical in shape, especially near the start of the production runs. With the minor grain coarsening toward the end of the production run, the grain structure begins to deviate from its spherical shape. Such a coarsening and deviation from spherical grain structure during holding were expected due to zirconium losses, which may occur from reactions with iron crucibles or settling of zirconium particles over time. However, this coarsening is not expected to be significant in reducing mechanical properties. The grain structures of the AZ91D castings from Foundry B produced using the tensile mold are shown in Figure 2 with Foundries A, B, and D all having similar looking microstructures with just a variation in

试棒的影响。AZ91D合金铸件夹杂物很少,但是它们 比在ZE41A铸件中的夹杂物更大。本研究认识到在工业 生产中夹杂物的水平变化很大,启示要建立镁合金熔体 清洁处理的工业标准。这将是提高质量和加强镁合金在 航空航天和汽车工业中应用的主要手段。 具有代表性地从铸造开始到结束过程中ZE41A晶粒 组织的显微照片如图1所示。试样取自拉伸铸件。一开 始浇注时,铸件的平均晶粒尺寸是22±1µm,到最后浇 注时晶粒尺寸增加到38±7µm。对C铸造厂,在浇注开 始时,铸件的平均晶粒尺寸是27±2µm,结束时晶粒尺 寸增加到32±3µm。图1中的晶粒尺寸为球形,特别是 在开始的时候。结束时小晶粒粗化,晶粒组织开始偏离 球形。 在保温过程中,这样的粗化和偏离球形晶粒组织是 由于锆的损耗,这可能是锆与铁坩埚发生反应或锆颗粒 的沉降。然而,这种粗化可能不会显著地降低它的机械 性能。 AZ91D铸件的晶粒组织来自于B铸造厂,生产使用 拉伸金属型如图2所示,A、B和D铸造厂都有相似的 微观组织和晶粒尺寸变化。在开始浇注时,铸件的平 均晶粒尺寸在A、B和D铸造厂分别为77±4,49±8和 63±9µm。在浇注结束时, A、B和D铸造厂的平均晶

Fig 4. Fractography of AZ91D tensile fractures Foundry A (a) and Foundry B (b) with corresponding SEM micrographs. June 2017 FOUNDRY-PLANET.COM | MODERN CASTI NG | CHINA FOUNDRY ASSOCIATION |

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grain sizes. At the start of pouring, the average grain sizes of the castings from Foundries A, B, and D were 77 ± 4, 49 ± 8, and 63 ± 9 µm, respectively. At the end of pouring, the average grain size for Foundries A, B, and D increased to 112 ± 12, 58 ± 15, and 78 ± 20 µm, respectively. The variation in grain sizes is attributed in part to the range of pouring temperatures used at each foundry (Table 1). This coarsening of the grain structure can be attributed to the transformation of grain-refining Mn–Al particles to less potent Mn–Al–Fe compositions during holding, as observed in high-purity Mg–Al alloys. The increase in grain size over the course of the production run is more significant for the AZ91D alloys than for the ZE41A castings. In addition, the AZ91D castings from all foundries had grain structures that contained both small spherical grains and larger irregular grains. Both these phenomena are likely due to the relatively weaker and less abundant Mn–Al refining particles in AZ91D as compared to often excess zirconium added to ZE41A.

粒尺寸分别增加到112±12,58±15和78±20µm。晶 粒尺寸的变化可部分归因于每个铸造厂的浇注温度范 围。 晶粒组织的粗化可以归因于在保温过程中起晶粒 细化的Mn-Al颗粒向细化能力低的Mn-Al-Fe转变, 这在高纯度Mg-Al合金中可以观察到。AZ91D的晶 粒尺寸的增加比ZE41A合金更为显著。此外,从所有 铸造厂的AZ91D铸件看出,其晶粒组织较细,既包 含小的球形颗粒又包含较大的不规则颗粒。这些现象 都可能是由于在AZ91D中弱而少的Mn-Al精炼颗粒 添加较少,这是相对ZE41A合金中添加的过剩锆而言 的。

断口形貌学 夹杂物是已知的应力源,在断裂表面可以看到夹

Fractography Figure 3 shows optical macrographs of the fractured tensile samples of ZE41A cast by Foundries A and C with corresponding SEM micrographs of the observed inclusions (indicated by the arrows). Inclusions are known to act as stress risers, and their presence on a fracture surface can indicate their role in fracture initiation. Figure 3a shows an inclusion that likely initiated failure in a sample collected at the start of the experimental trials. Analysis of the inclusion using EDX indicated it was rich in magnesium, zinc, and oxygen. The inclusion is likely a Mg–Obased inclusion with zinc contributions from the alloy matrix. The lack of any iron in the analysis eliminates the possibility of the inclusion being an iron-based intermetallic. The inclusion in Figure 3a also has a fold or crack defect at its interface with the magnesium matrix. Similar results were observed with the samples from Foundry C, as shown in Figure 3b where a Mg–O-based inclusion (indicated by the arrow) was observed with poor interfaces with the magnesium matrix. The Mg–O inclusions appeared mainly as films sitting atop the fracture surfaces. These Mg–O films accumulate during the production run, becoming entrapped in the molten metal during sampling, pouring, and holding. This defect indicates that the observed Mg–O inclusion was weakly bonded to the magnesium matrix, making it a likely source of failure during tensile loading. Figure 4 shows optical macrographs of the fractured tensile samples of AZ91D cast by Foundry A and B, that was collected at the start of the experimental trials. The corresponding SEM micrographs are also shown in Figure 4. Figure 4a shows an inclusion-free fracture surface. The corresponding SEM image of the fracture surface depicts dimple-like features and confirms the absence of inclusions on the surface. These dimples usually indicate good casting ductility. Samples from 40

杂物说明它们在裂纹扩展中的作用。图3显示了一个 初期浇注试棒中的夹杂物,该夹杂物引发了裂纹。 使用EDX分析夹杂物表明其富含镁、锌和氧。夹杂物 可能是Mg-O-基,还有来自于基体中的锌。夹杂物 中没有铁元素说明其不是鉄基金属间化合物。图3a 中的夹杂物在和镁基体接触的地方也有褶皱或裂纹 缺陷。类似的结果与C铸造厂的试样一致,如图3b所 示。Mg-O-基夹杂物(箭头表示)与镁基体间存在较差 界面。在断裂表面Mg-O夹杂物主要成薄膜状。这些 Mg-O薄膜在生产过程中不断积累,在取样、浇注和 保温过程中被卷入熔融金属。这种缺陷表明,观察到 的Mg-O夹杂物和镁基体为弱连接,使其在拉伸加载 中成为可能的失效源。 相应的断裂表面的SEM图像呈现韧窝状特征,证 实了表面上没有夹杂物。这些韧窝通常表明材料良好 的延展性。B铸造厂试样的断裂表面和A铸造厂的相 似,都没有夹杂物,其微观组织不包含任何明显的解 理面。D铸造厂开始浇注的试样也无夹杂物。

夹杂物的评估 A和B铸造厂的一些断裂棒中看起来没有夹杂物, 而最大的夹杂物区低于2%。如果准备拉伸样品,B铸 造厂可能会产生非常类似于A铸造厂的铸件力学性。

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Foundry B were similar to those from Foundry A with no inclusions evident on the fracture surface, and their microstructure does not contain any noticeable cleavage planes. Samples from Foundry D from the start of the experimental trials were also free of inclusions.

Inclusion Assessment Some of the fracture bars from Foundries A and B were virtually inclusion free, while the maximum inclusion areas were under 2%. If tensile samples were prepared, Foundry B likely would produce castings with mechanical properties very similar to those of Foundry A. On the other hand, the castings from Foundry C contained the highest median inclusion area and had a maximum inclusion area of about 9%. This can be attributed to the fact that Foundry C was the only foundry to use 100% remelted metal and had the highest pouring temperature (Table 1), exacerbating oxidation. It appears that a melt cleaning measure using filtration or argon bubbling is necessary to enable use of 100% recycled metal. All of the foundries produced some castings that appeared completely inclusion free. For Foundries A and B, the median inclusion areas were 2–4 times higher for AZ91D than their ZE41A counterparts. Also, for Foundries A and B, the maximum areas of the inclusions in the AZ91D castings were 10 and 25%, whereas in the ZE41A castings they were only 1 and 1.5%. The inclusion assessment for Foundries A and B reveals that the AZ91D alloy tends toward a lesser quantity of inclusions, albeit of much larger sizes, than ZE41A alloy. A similar inclusion assessment for the fracture surfaces of tensile samples was also conducted. They show similar trends, with Foundry C having the largest inclusions for ZE41A and Foundry B for AZ91D. Foundry B did not provide any ZE41A tensile samples. It is interesting to note that the inclusion areas observed in the tensile samples are much lower than those of the fracture bars. Therefore, the tensile sample fracture surfaces also can be used as a representative means to determine the relative amounts of inclusions in samples but likely underestimates their maximum size. The particle-type Mg–Al–O inclusions in the AZ91D alloy also resulted in a higher measured inclusion area because they tend to be equiaxed in shape and cover a larger surface area than the film-shaped Mg–O inclusions in the ZE41A alloy.

Mechanical Properties Whereas the ZE41A alloy is much more susceptible to the accumulation of many film-type oxide inclusions throughout the production run, the AZ91D alloy tends to collect a few large particle-type inclusions. This difference in the accumulation of inclusions between the two alloys is likely a contribution of many factors, including oxidation tendencies of each alloy, melt density and viscosity which would influence how inclusions would agglomerate throughout the melts and alloy addition sources.

另一方面,C铸造厂的铸件包含最高中等大小的金 属夹杂物区,最大夹杂物面积约为9%。这可以归因 于这样一个事实:C铸造厂是唯一使用100%再生金 属冶炼的,并且浇注温度最高,这加剧了氧化。这 说明使用100%回收金属时采用清洁措施如使用过 滤或氩气泡是必要的。所有的铸造厂都生产一些完 全没有夹杂物的铸件。 在A和B铸造厂中,AZ91D合金中的金属间夹 杂物比ZE41A合金高出了2-4倍。A和B铸造厂的 AZ91D铸件中夹杂物的最大区域分别是10和25%, 而在ZE41A铸件中它们分布只有1和1.5%。A和B铸 造厂的夹杂物检测显示AZ91D合金倾向于较小数量 的夹杂物,但比ZE41A合金夹杂物尺寸大。 也进行了类似拉伸试样断口的夹杂物分析。它们 表现出类似的趋势,C铸造厂的ZE41A中夹杂物最 大和B铸造厂AZ91D的夹杂物最大。B铸造厂没有 提供任何ZE41A拉伸试样。有趣的是,拉伸试样中 观察到的夹杂物区比裂纹试棒要小得多。因此,拉 伸试样断口也可以用作代表意味着夹杂物的相对数 量,但可能低估了它们的最大尺寸。AZ91D合金中 的Mg-Al-O夹杂物颗粒也导致了测量出的夹杂物区 域偏大,因为它们呈现为等轴形状,其覆盖的表面 积比ZE41A合金中层片状的 Mg-O夹杂物覆盖的表 面积大。

机械性能 ZE41A合金对生产中许多薄膜氧化夹杂物的积累 非常敏感,然而AZ91D合金会形成大颗粒状夹杂 物。两个合金夹杂物的积累的这种差异可能导致许 多不同,包括合金氧化倾向、熔体密度和粘度,这 会影响夹杂物在熔化和合金添加时如何团聚。 ZE41A合金试样中薄膜状的夹杂物分布更均匀, 而AZ91D合金是颗粒状夹杂物团聚在试样表面。不 可能根据夹杂物的类型薄膜状还是颗粒状来确定机 械性能的降低,因为两种合金 (AZ91D或ZE41A) 类别不同。作者认为大颗粒类型的Mg-Al-O夹杂物 更有害,因为它们多面特征,表面积更大和团聚在

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The film-type inclusions in the ZE41A were more distributed in the samples, while the particle-type inclusions in the AZ91D appeared as agglomerates with a large surface area. It is not possible to relate the decrease in the mechanical properties according to inclusion type, whether it be film or particle type, because of the difference in alloy system (AZ91D or ZE41A) where each inclusion type was dominant. The authors reason the large particle-type Mg–Al–O inclusions are more detrimental because of their faceted nature, larger surface area, and appearance as agglomerates on fracture surfaces. Possible future avenues for research would be to induce inclusions of various sizes and shapes into magnesium alloy melts and measure changes in microstructure and mechanical properties.

Conclusions The types of inclusions observed in ZE41A and AZ91D magnesium alloy castings from multiple foundries were investigated. The following are the major results: Mechanical properties decreased in both alloys from the start to the end of the production run for all foundries. This principally depended on the increase in number and size of entrapped inclusions. Grain size increased in both alloys from the start to the end of the production run for all foundries, especially AZ91D. For ZE41A, a loss of grain-refining zirconium with holding time was the attributing cause, whereas for AZ91D a transformation of grain-refining manganese– aluminum particles to less potent compositions during holding was the reason for the increase in grain size. The fracture surfaces of tensile samples can be used as a representative means to determine the relative amounts of inclusions in samples but underestimates their potential maximum size. Fracture bars provide a better representation for the range of inclusion sizes in castings as compared to tensile samples because of the much larger sample size and increased number of sampling locations. The fracture surfaces of the ZE41A alloy contained film-type magnesium–oxygen-based inclusions, whose poor interface with the matrix was likely the source of fracture. The AZ91D alloy fracture surfaces contained mostly particle-type magnesium–aluminum–oxygen spinel inclusions, as well as few smaller iron- based intermetallic inclusions. Whereas ZE41A alloy was susceptible to many small inclusions, AZ91D alloy was more susceptible to few large inclusions. The film-type inclusions for ZE41A would tend not to agglomerate and are reasoned to be not as harmful as the agglomerated and faceted particletype inclusions with large surface area observed in the AZ91D alloy. ■

断裂表面。将来可能的研究要包括对镁合金熔体中 的各种尺寸形状的夹杂物的研究,并测量显微组织 和力学性能的变化。

结论 研究了多个铸造厂的ZE41A和AZ91D镁合金铸件 夹杂物的类型。主要结果如下: 所有铸造厂从开始生产到结束过程中两种合金的 机械性能都呈下降趋势,这主要取决于夹杂物数量 和尺寸的增加。 在所有铸造厂中这两种合金从生产开始到结束的 过程中晶粒尺寸逐渐增加,尤其是AZ91D合金。对 于ZE41A,起晶粒细化的锆随保持时间逐渐损失是 主要原因。而起晶粒细化的锰铝颗粒在保温中转变 为细化效果差的组成是导致AZ91D晶粒增大的原 因。 拉伸试样的断口可以用来确定的夹杂物的相对数 量,但低估了它们潜在的最大尺寸。与拉伸试样相 比,断裂试棒能更好地反应夹杂物的尺寸范围,这 是因为断裂试棒尺寸大,取样位置多。 ZE41A合金的断裂表面含有薄膜状锰氧基夹杂 物,与基体的结合较差,可能是裂纹源。AZ91D合 金断口表面包含大量颗粒状锰铝氧尖晶石夹杂物以 及一些较小的铁基金属间化合物夹杂物。而ZE41A 合金容易受到许多小型夹杂物的影响,AZ91D合金 中大型夹杂物更多一些。 ZE41A合金中的薄膜状夹杂物往往不会结块,所 以相对于AZ91D合金中观察到的团聚呈多面的颗粒 状夹杂物来说没有害处。 ■ 本文是发表在期刊International Journal of Metalcasting中的文章概要(Elsayed, A., Vandersluis, E., Lun Sin, S. et al. Inter Metalcast (2016))。要了解论文更多 信息,请联系美国铸造协会技术部门800-537-4237。

This article is a summary of a manuscript published in the International Journal of Metalcasting, Elsayed, A., Vandersluis, E., Lun Sin, S. et al. Inter Metalcast (2016). For more information on the manuscript, contact the AFS technical department at 800537-4237. 42

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product news/產品新聞

Product News Table of Contents 产品新闻目录 MOLD, CORE & SAND PREPARATION

MELTING, POURING & HEAT TREATMENT

Hand Molding: Quality and Environmental Advantages Thanks to Low-Sulphur Binder System 手工成型:质量和环保优势得益于 低硫粘合剂

Topseed Conditioner to Improve Nodularization 用于改善球化的Topseed调节剂 44

First Aluminum Integrated Casting Frame in China Developed by Anyang Qiang Ji 国内首件全铝整体铸造车架在 安阳强基成功落地 Cold Hardening Phenol: The New All-Rounder Among Binder Systems 冷固苯酚:粘结剂系统中的新型全能

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FCRI Ceramic Foam Filter Seizes Overseas Market 52 佛山金刚泡沫陶瓷产品成功抢滩国际市场

PLANT ENGINEERING 55

MATERIAL HANDLING Hewitt Robins Supply World’s Biggest Shakeout 50 Hewitt Robins公司交付世界最大 的落砂装置

Reducing Waste the Intelligent Way 减少浪费的智能方法 Yizumi Officially Ships HPM 4,500-ton Die Casting Machine 伊之密史上最大压铸机出机美国 Eco-Friendly “Foundry of the Future” 生态友好的“未来铸造”

Winoa Improves Total Cost of Blasting (TCB) 53 Winoa提高了喷丸的总成本

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51 54


product news/產品新聞

Topseed Conditioner to Improve Nodularization 用于改善球化的Topseed调节剂 A vast amount of literature and advice is written on the best ways to nodularize ductile iron with magnesium ferrosilicon–ladle design, pockets, alloy compositions and so on. However, little is said about the Mg alloy reactivity management to get the best magnesium recovery. Elkem has developed a family of specialized materials designed to: - Optimize the magnesium recovery and reduce reactivity. - Provide a better nucleation level in the iron. - Improve the cleansing of iron and change the slag condition to one that is easy to remove. Many foundries use steel coins often covered with oil, cast plates or even machining swarf as a cover for the MgFeSi in the ladle to try to delay the start of the Mg reaction and increase the ferrostatic head in the ladle to increase the Mg bubbles/iron contact and improve recovery of the magnesium. Many foundries use no cover at all. The Topseed Conditioner range is based on a high density FeSi containing a balanced amount of active elements like calcium, barium and aluminum. The active elements act as a deoxidant when added as support for the MgFeSi and also add nuclei to counter the negative effect on nucleation of adding magnesium. Even a small addition of Topseed will delay the onset of the reaction and provide measureable consistent improvements in the Mg recovery and metallurgical quality of the iron. The improved performance of MgFeSi has, in many foundries, led to either a reduction in the amount of MgFeSi added or a reduction in the magnesium content of the MgFeSi alloy, in itself a mechanism for improving the metallurgical quality of the iron, the Mg reactivity and recovery. Often, the reaction slag is liquid and difficult to remove, almost invariably involving the use of unexpanded perlite as a coagulant. The additions of a proper amount of balanced active elements through Topseed improve the cleaning of iron and transform the slag into a dry, “popcorn” type, which is very easy to skim. Some foundries have eliminated the use of the environmentally unfriendly coagulants through the use of Topseed. Three grades of Topseed Conditioner are available, each with different levels of active elements and this gives the opportunity to use Topseed in most operating conditions. ■

大量的文献以及建议提出从钢包设计、容器、合金成 分等方面入手促进含有MgFeSi的球墨铸铁球化的最佳 方法。然而,很少有涉及关于调控镁合金反应活性来得 到回收镁的最佳途径的研究。对此Elkem 设计了一系列 专门的材料用于如下方面: -对镁的回收进行优化改善以及降低其活性。 -在铁中提供更好的形核水平。 -提高铁的净化程度以及通过改变熔渣条件使熔渣的去 除更加容易。 许多铸造厂使用用油包覆的钢币,浇铸钢板或者由机 加工产生的金属切屑作为MgFeSi的盖板来尝试延迟Mg 反应的开始时间点并且通过增加浇包中铁水的静压以增 大Mg的气泡与铁水的接触面,改善对镁的回收。 而许多铸造厂根本没有采用盖板的处理方式。 Topseed 系列调节剂是以高密度的FeSi为基础的, 其包含有含量适度的多种活性元素如钙、钡以及铝。当 这些作用于MgFeSi的活性元素加入钢水中时,会起着 脱氧剂的效果,同时还增加了形核数量以改善由于镁的 加入而对形核产生的不利影响。即使少量的Topseed调 节剂的加入也会延迟反应的开始,对镁的回收以及铁的 冶金质量能起到可衡量的持续改善作用。 许多铸造厂已经证明,对MgFeSi性能的改善能够 降低MgFeSi的加入量或者降低MgFeSi合金中Mg的含 量。其本身就是一种提高铁的冶金质量、改善镁的反应 活性以及提高镁的回收率的机制。 反应的熔渣经常是呈液态且难以去除的,以前几乎总 是使用未膨胀的珍珠岩作凝结剂这种方法来处理熔渣。 而现在通过Topseed调节剂添加适量的平衡态活性元素 便可以改善对铁的净化,将熔渣转变成干燥的,类似“ 爆米花”状的形态,这样便能够很轻易地将其去除。一 些铸造厂已经通过使用Topseed调节剂来取代对环境影 响不利的凝结剂的使用。 有三种类别的Topseed调节剂可供使用,每一种含有 不同水平的活性元素,这样使得Topseed调节剂可以满 足大多数操作条件下的使用需求。 ■

This shows a reaction with steel coins.

Reaction with Topseed Conditioner

使用钢币的反应情况

使用Topseed调节剂的反 应情况

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product news/產品新聞

Hand Molding: Quality and Environmental Advantages Thanks to Low-Sulphur Binder System 手工成型:质量和环保优势得益于低硫粘合剂 Converting to a new binder system for mold and core production is a real challenge for any foundry. It involves a substantial change to an existing process and is only done with the promise of clear benefits. With the aim of expanding its position in the segment of highly-specialized castings, the Dorsten-based metal and iron foundry, Franz Kleinken GmbH, took up this challenge. In cooperation with the foundry chemicals company Hüttenes-Albertus, Kleinken launched a low-sulphur furan resin binder system, which delivers both quality and environmental gains. The company, Kleinken, produces highly-specialized cast parts for almost every industry sector. The portfolio ranges from precision parts for gas and steam turbines or pumps, to components for power plant construction and the food industry. Their specialties also include thermally resistant components, which are used in high temperature applications of 200-600C. All foundry products can be completely finished in-house, providing customers with ready-made products from a single source. Since 1921, Kleinken has continually developed its casting expertise. Today, the company, with 140 employees, produces and processes around 4,000 tons of casting, often for customers from all over the world who come to get exactly the “custom cast” required for their high-quality end products. Their cast parts made of gray, spheroidal graphite and vermicular cast iron weigh up to 30 tons, while meeting the strictest quality criteria. For their high-precision, high-quality castings, customers are increasingly demanding compliance with the ASTM-A standards. These standards set by the American Society for Testing and Materials include special methods for testing mechanical properties and surface finish, which must meet the highest requirements. For example, ultrasound is used to check the basic structure (matrix) for cavities or inclusions. Surface quality is assessed by magnetic particle inspection or dye penetrant testing.

Joint development of solutions In order to enable reliable production of up to 20,000 kg cast parts for the premium segment of spheroidal graphite cast iron (SGI), the Kleinken metalwork plant planned to switch to a new binder system for mould and core production. Renowned suppliers of foundry-chemical products were therefore invited to submit solution proposals. Thanks to expert consulting and intensive cooperation with the foundry, Hüttenes-Albertus succeeded in offering a suitable solution. The experts from Kleinken and Hüttenes-Albertus worked closely together to develop this solution. An analysis of the current process and the used sand levels in the foundry was followed by extensive testing in the HA laboratory, during which the bending strength of the moulding material was determined and compared. Due to the persuasive

对于任何铸造方式的砂型和砂芯生产,转换新的粘 结剂体系都是挑战。新的粘合剂会彻底改变现有的生产 过程,只有明显有利润可能时才会这么做。为了扩大 手工造型在高度专业化铸件领域的应用,位于Dorsten 的金属与钢铁铸造公司,Franz Kleinken GmbH公 司接受了这种挑战。与铸造化学材料公司HüttenesAlbertus合作,Kleinken公司研制除了一套低硫粘合剂 系统,在改善铸件质量的同时又能做到了绿色环保。 几乎每个工业部门都会委托Kleinken公司生产高度 专业化铸件。其业务范围覆盖从燃气和蒸汽涡轮机或水 泵的精密零件,到发电厂建设项目和食品工业的零件。 这些铸件包括用于200°C~ 600°C的耐热部件。所有铸 造产品都可以在公司内部完成,可以为客户提供来自单 一来源的现成产品。 从1921年建立至今,Kleinken公司不断改进其铸造 水平。现在,公司有140名员工,每年生产和处理将近 4000吨铸件,经常为来自世界各地的客户生产“定制 铸造”所需的高品质的终端产品。这些产品的材料覆盖 灰铸铁、球墨铸铁和蠕墨铸铁,有些最大铸件重达30 吨,同时还能满足苛刻的质量要求。 客户对满足ASTM-A标准的高精度、高质量铸件 的需求与日俱增。这些标准都是美国测试和材料协会 ASTM制定的,通过用特殊实验方法测试铸件力学性能 和表面粗糙度,用以检测铸件是否满足最高的性能要 求。例如,用超声波来检查孔洞或夹杂物。表面质量通 过磁粉探伤或着色渗透试验来评定。

联合开发解决方案 在为了提高高端市场中20吨球墨铸铁铸件的成品 率,Kleinken公司金属制造部门计划将新的粘结剂系统 应用在造型和砂芯生产中。因而著名的铸造化学产品 供应商应邀参与制定解决方案。经过专家咨询和与铸 造厂密切合作,Hüttenes成功地提供了一个合适的解 决方案。 Kleinken公司和Hüttenes-Albertus公司的专家密切 合作致力于制定解决方案。对铸造车间现行工艺和旧砂 的性能做了大量的实验分析,同时也对造型材料的弯曲 强度进行了测定和比较。基于这些令人信服的结果,迅

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product news/產品新聞 results, the changeover to the new binder system took place very quickly. The company Kleinken is a pure manual moulding foundry. They do not produce any large-series products, but only customised cast parts or small batches on customer order. Moulds and cores for castings, which are often difficult to model, are manufactured and assembled exclusively by skilled craftsmen – most of whom trained in-house. As a result of the cast part size and the customised production process, Kleinken has opted for a cold-curing process, also called no-bake process, during mould and core production. Core production processes involving gas or heat curing are not suitable for large and thick-walled castings for technical reasons. In the nobake process, the moulding base material is mixed in flow mixers with a binder and an acid, which acts as a catalyst or hardener. Hüttenes-Albertus, a leading producer of foundry resin binders, has, for decades, been offering cold-curing systems for mould and core production for large-scale and single cast parts. These products have been and will con-tinue to be developed in order to meet the growing demands of foundries and their custom-ers.

Modified furan resin helps to reduce sulphur content in hardeners The binder system chosen by Kleinken is a modified, extremely reactive furan resin in combination with an acid that requires less sulphur due to the binder’s high reactivity. The furfuryl alcohol, as an essential component of the furan resin, reacts with itself during acid catalysis, polymerizes and hardens. Special ingredients make the resin particularly reactive, which allows a reduction in the sulphur content in the acid catalyst. One of the disadvantages of an increased sulphur content is a potential reaction of the melt with the mould material. This leads to the formation of extensive pockmark-like roughening and recesses on the casting surface. This “orange peel” texture is often covered with a white-bluish film layer, which consists of fibrous SiO2. Spheroidal graphite cast iron is most prone to this defect. It occurs predominantly in thick-walled parts, i.e. in medium to heavy, but also in very compact cast part. The areas most strongly affected are the ones where the metal remains liquid for long periods of time and therefore is exposed to long reaction times and a high heating of the moulding material. In the area of the rim zone, graphite de-generation may also occur.

Surfaces clearly enhanced The low-sulphur HA furan resin system (consisting of cold resin series 8500 and series 7901, 7674 and 7809 activators), which is now used by the Kleinken foundry, provides significantly improved surfaces. At the same time, important parameters such as the processing time of the moulding material and the curing time have been optimally set. The newly introduced binder system also has a positive 46

速研发了新的粘合剂。kleinken公司是纯手工成型的 铸造公司。他们不生产任何大批量产品,但只定制铸 件或小批量客户订单。通常难以制作的砂型和砂芯一 般是由熟练的工匠专门制造和组装。由于铸件尺寸大 和定制生产的特征,Kleinken公司在砂型和砂芯生产 中选择了一个冷固化工艺,也叫自硬工艺。由于技术 原因,涉及气体或热固化的砂芯生产工艺不适用于大 厚壁铸件。 在自硬过程中,造型材料与粘合剂、酸在流动 混合器中进行混合,酸则起催化剂或固化剂的作 用。Hüttenes-Albertus公司几十年来一直都是大型 单个砂型和砂芯铸造树脂粘结剂主要供应商。 这些产 品将继续改进以满足铸造企业和他们的客户不断增长 的需求。

改性呋喃树脂固化剂有助于降低硫含量 Kleinken公司选择的粘结剂是一个快速反应改性呋 喃树脂,由于粘结剂的高反应活性,它使用的酸无需 很高的含硫量。糠醇呋喃树脂,作为一个必不可少的 组成部分,在酸催化、聚合和硬化的同时也不断与自 身发生反应。特殊成分使树脂快速反应,从而降低酸 催化剂中硫的含量。 提高硫的含量的一个主要问题是造型材料和金属 熔体的反应。这会导致铸件表面形成痘痕状粗糙和凹 槽。这种“桔皮”纹理通常覆盖着由纤维状二氧化硅 组成白色的蓝色薄膜层。球墨铸铁最容易出现这种缺 陷。它主要发生在厚壁部分,即厚度过渡区域,但 也会出现在铸件结构密实的部分。最受影响的区域是 金属最后凝固的区域,因为造型材料和熔体有充分的 的反应时间和温度。在边缘区域,也可能发生石墨变 性。

表面明显改性 Kleinken公司现在所用的低硫HA呋喃树脂(包括 冷树脂系列8500和系列7901, 7674和7809的活化 剂)能明显改善表面质量。同时,也优化了造型材料 的加工时间和固化时间等重要参数。 新引进的粘结剂也能降低成本:树脂的添加量可从 1%降低到0.9%,同时还能增加砂型和砂芯的强度( 见图1)。降低粘结剂的加入与减少铸造过程中的排

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product news/產品新聞 economic aspect: resin addition could be reduced from 1% to 0.9%, while at the same time increasing the strength of moulds and cores (see Figure 1). The lowered addition of binder goes hand in hand with a reduction in emissions during casting. This has benefits for both the working environment and the natural environment. In addition, another effect has been observed: due to the reduced amount of binder, the moulding material is more flowable and can be better compacted. Gas defects or mineralization occur less frequently

Environmental and cost benefits: less new sand required The topic of used sand plays an important role in environmental compatibility. Moulding materials solidified with furan nobake binders is very well suited for recycling and can be reused several times for the production of moulds and cores. However, care must be taken to ensure that the sulphur content, which accumulates over time in the moulding material, does not exceed a fixed threshold. If it does so, then some has to be replaced by new sand. With a low-sulphur binder system, this accumulation takes place more slowly; the recycled sand can remain in circulation longer and the addition of new sand can be reduced. Comparative analyses show that the sulphur content in recycled sand has almost been halved with the new binder system. This protects the environment and helps reduce landfill costs. “The new system, which we introduced in cooperation with Hüttenes-Albertus, offers a high level of process reliability,” said Frank Weber, foundry manager. “This means that we are able to meet the high requirements of our customers more easily in the segment of particu-larly high-quality castings while achieving better process control. At the same time, we are seeing positive economic and environmental effects, which bring us important advantages as a foundry.” ■

放量密切相关。粘结剂添加量的减少也能减少铸造 过程中的排放量。这对工作环境和自然环境都有好 处。此外,由于粘结剂的量降低,造型材料流动性 更好,可以更好地压实。气体引发的缺陷或矿化发 生率较低。

环境和成本效益:需要更少的新砂 废砂在环境相容性中起着重要作用。呋喃固化剂 固化的造型材料非常适合回收利用,并且可以多次 用于砂型和砂芯的生产。但是,必须注意确保造型 材料中累积的硫含量不会超过固定的阈值。否则必 须用新的砂子代替。在低硫粘结剂中,这种积累发 生得更慢,砂字可以保持较长的循环时间,可以减 少新砂的添加量。比较分析表明,采用新的粘合剂 后,再生砂中的硫含量已几乎减半。这样可以保护 环境,并有助于减少填埋费用。 “通过 与Hüttenes-Albertus公司合作,我们提 供了一个高水平可靠的新系统”, 铸造车间经理 Frank Weber提到,“这意味着,我们可以更容易 地满足客户的高要求,特别是高质量铸件的部分, 同时实现更好的过程控制。与此同时,我们看到了 积极的经济和环境影响,这给我们增加了在铸造业 中的优势。”

In this cross-member for a pressing machine made of GJS 400-18, the entire surface (100%) undergoes magnetic particle inspection.

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product news/產品新聞

Reducing Waste the Intelligent Way 减少浪费的智能方法 Waste management is no longer a “like to do” but rather a necessity, both in terms of a legal requirement, an environmental responsibility and a tool to control costs and improve efficiencies throughout the business. In foundries a reduction in waste sand is particularly rewarding minimising landfill costs. While numerous attention is paid to reclaiming a high percentage of sand, with much being documented about the methods and benefits of mechanical and thermal sand reclamation, a digitalised method of monitoring and controlling production is now being hailed as one solution to a very real problem faced by foundries on a daily basis. As foundries become increasingly automated the way in which data is gathered and used to improve systems should be prioritised said Chris Wilding of Omega Foundry Machinery Ltd. He said using a system that monitors and controls all operations in the foundry, including the sand plant, is an ideal way of helping to manage waste and ensure disposal costs are kept to a minimum. Omega developed IRIS (intelligent radio identification system) to answer the need for a monitoring system that was both reliable and long lasting. The system uses passive tags to hold data, which is recovered when the tag is activated by energy from the reader/antenna. This is considered more robust than a barcode system as the tags are encased in strong, durable plastic and can be easily fitted to patterns, coreboxes and other equipment. The tags require no maintenance and the data is held for long periods enabling the production process for particular parts to be identical every time the part goes into production, regardless of the time gap. The tags also identify the sand choice, e.g. silica or chromite, and specify the volume of sand required to help minimise waste. With the most automated facilities, IRIS is designed to integrate all processes involved in production. It will monitor and control the moulding operation, mould marshalling on the pouring lines, and even cooling times. Tagging items of plant helps the engineering team with planned maintenance, as the feedback to the server will trigger reports and alarms. In controlling sand feed, sand additions and mould numbers, material usage is monitored and stock control aided. This information can be used to carry out cost analysis of the moulds and cores and highlight possible areas for cost savings. A teach facility in programming the process operations enables the foundry to fine tune operations to achieve a consistency which in turn reduces the likelihood of generating scrap. Wilding told Foundry Trade Journal: “By using data to operate more efficiently waste can be reduced and profitability improved. It really is important that we understand the power of identifying possible problems and how our processes can respond to improve the overall efficiency of production. This is imperative to save costs and reduce lead times.” 48

无论是从法律规定、环境责任还是从控制成本,提高 整个企业的效率来说,废物管理不再是一个“想做”的 事情,而是必要的。在铸造厂节约废砂能对废物利用成 本上说最有益。 很多人关注高百分比的砂子回收,在机械法砂回收 和热法砂回收方法和好处方面多有记录。在日常中,数 字化的生产监控和控制方法正在成为解决铸造厂所面临 的现实问题的方案。 欧米茄铸造机械有限公司的克里斯•威尔丁说铸造厂 日益自动化的数据收集和用于改进系统方法应该受到重 视。他说,使用一个系统监测和控制铸造车间的所有操 作,包括砂处理车间,是一种理想的方式,帮助管理浪 费,确保处理问题的成本保持最低。 欧米茄发明虹膜(智能无线识别系统)来满足可靠 而持久的监控系统需要。系统采用被动标签数据保存数 据,当标签被读者/天线的能量激活时数据就能恢复出 来。这被认为比条形码系统更安全耐用的塑料可以很容 易地安装在模样、芯盒与其他设备上。标签不需要维护 和数据可以保存很长时间,这使某特定零件的生产过程 无论时间间隔多久都能保证每次的生产工艺是相同的。 标签也识别砂子的选择,如硅砂或铬铁矿砂,并确 定砂子用量来减少浪费。 采用最自动化的虹膜设备旨在整合生产过程的所有 工序。它将监视和控制造型操作、铸型在浇注线编组甚 至冷却时间。工厂标签化帮助工程团队的维护计划,反 馈到服务器将触发报告和警报。在控制砂子供给、砂子 加入量和造型数量中,监控材料用量,实行库存管理。 此信息可以用来进行铸型和芯盒的成本分析,最高限度 的节约成本。 在工序操作编程中教学设施允许铸造微调操作实现 一致性,进而降低产生废品的可能性。威尔丁对铸造行 业杂志说:“通过使用数据更高效的运作可以减少浪费 和提高盈利能力。它真的很重要,我们知道识别可能出 现的问题和我们的流程可以如何应对生产提高整体效率 的重要性。降低成本和缩短研发期是硬道理。” 在过程优化与自动控制中一旦实施令人满意的管 理,就有高产出和良好的产品一致性。虹膜系统可以回

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product news/產品新聞 Once having satisfied management that the process has been optimised then with automatic control, higher rates of output and good consistent product follow. The IRIS system can be retrofitted to plant and the in-built flexibility is such that it can be tailored to some extent to suit a foundry’s particular circumstances. IRIS is now installed in many foundries around the world and Omega has taken the next step by launching Omega Connect, which gives remote access to the system using WiFi via smart phone, tablet or PC from anywhere in the world. By having remote access to machine settings it is possible to act on information immediately to tweak settings thus addressing problems quickly before they can have a severe impact. It gives all the benefits of the IRIS system with the added advantage of access to real time information from anywhere. “Everyone understands the importance of collecting and analysing data these days,” Wilding said. “For our customers it is much more about ensuring that the system operates smoothly and with a consistency that enables production processes to be optimised. Waste management is an important aspect of this. If we can keep the costs of this down and use material more wisely it is a win/win for the foundry, their customers and the environment.” ■

馈工厂,其内置的灵活性使得它可以在某种程度上满足 铸造的特殊环境要求。 虹膜系统现在安装在世界各地许多铸造厂,欧米茄已 启动下一步的“欧米茄连接”,在世界各地通过智能手 机、平板电脑或者电脑使用WiFi系统进行远程访问。 通过远程访问机器设置可以立即作用于信息快速调 整设置从而避免产生严重的影响。这就是虹膜系统的优 势,从任何地方访问实时信息。 “每个人都知道收集和分析数据的重要性,”威尔丁 说。“为我们的客户确保系统顺利运作和一致性,使生 产流程优化。废物管理是一个重要方面。如果我们能降 低成本,更好地使用材料,对铸造企业及其顾客、环境 就是双赢的。”

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product news/產品新聞

First Aluminum Integrated Casting Frame in China Developed by Anyang Qiang Ji 国内首件全铝整体铸造车架在安阳强基成功落地 Anyang Qiang Ji Precision Manufacturing Base Co.,Ltd. is a new, high-technology enterprise which is established on the basis of Anyang Precision Manufacturing Industrial Park. Relying on the integrated investment casting technology, Anyang Qiang Ji develops oversized or super small sized, thin walled, complex precision castings and various castings by integrated design with the core of systematic eco-design technology. Anyang Qiang Ji has provided hundreds kinds of nearly impossible products in the fields of aviation, aerospace, weapon, automobile, energy, hydropower, ship, equipment and other civil and military fields successfully. The intelligent investment casting production line in the park is the first set at home and abroad. It will break the bottleneck that the precision casting can not be automated and mass produced. An electric lightweight passenger prospective car is developed by joint efforts with a famous domestic automobile company. Based on a conditional car, an all-aluminum independent frame is designed and trial produced subversively. The whole frame consists of only three parts: the front frame, the middle frame and the rear frame. The three parts are connected by bolts only with none of a weld. The weight of the whole structure is less than 94kg. Besides, the front sub-frame, the lower casing for battery and the instrument panel carrier in this car are also developed into aluminum castings. The weight of the car has been reduced significantly. Although the structures of front frame and rear frame are complex and large sized, the trial production succeeded right the first time. The frames have been completed loading at present. The car has been trail assembled. ■

安阳强基精密制造产业园股份有限公司是基于安阳 精密制造产业园而成立的高新技术企业,公司依托集成 精密成型技术,开发以系统生态设计技术为核心,制造 极限尺寸的、薄壁、复杂精密铸件以及各类一体化设计 成形组件,成功的为航空、航天、兵器、汽车、能源、 水电、轮船、装备等军民领域提供了数百种不可能的产 品。园内具有国内乃至国际首台套智能精密生产线,将 突破精密铸造无法大批量、自动化生产的瓶颈。 与国内著名汽车主机厂合作共同研发某电动轻量化乘 用前瞻车,以某传统车为基础车型,颠覆性的设计、试 制了全铸铝独立受力车架。整个车架仅分为三大件:前 部车架、中部车架、后部车架,彼此之间螺栓连接实现 零焊缝。车架结构总成重量不到94kg,此外还完成了该 车型全铝整铸前副车架、电池箱下箱体、仪表板骨架等 结构件,减重效果显著。前、后部车架虽结构复杂、尺 寸大,但均为一次试制成功。目前该车架已完成装车。 将整体铸造技术应用于汽车产业,可以系统性的实现 汽车结构轻量化,部件零件化、打破传统汽车制造的四 大工艺,降低成本、节约研发时间。 ■

Hewitt Robins Supplies World’s Biggest Shakeout Hewitt Robins公司交付世界最大的落砂装置 Hewitt Robins International Ltd has recently supplied a 2EV-13 7.0m x 4.0m Extra Heavy Duty Non-Discharging Shakeout, capable of handling a total deck load of 160 tons, to a foundry in Europe that has been using Hewitt Robins Shakeouts for over 25 years. The new shakeout was designed to replace a 30-year-old Hewitt Robins Shakeout, which had a combined deck load of 80 tons, giving the customer double the capacity and enabling them to increase the size and weight of their castings to continue to be the world's leading producers of wind turbine hubs and base frame castings. The shakeout consists of a fabricated frame, topped by a 50mm thick, welded mild steel deck plate with square 40mm x 40mm apertures. The side curbs are welded around the deck plate and square mild steel skid bars are welded to the top of the deck plate to raise load above deck for maximum sand through-put and minimum deck wear. The proven, heavy-duty design utilizes Hewitt Robins’ 70 years of experience in manufacturing foundry shakeouts, giving the customers reliable equipment with uninterrupted production. The vibrating mechanism for each shakeout has four shafts and is supplied with 110kw electric motors. The motors are driven by a 50

Hewitt Robins International Ltd为欧洲一家使用 其落砂装置25年之久的公司交付了一件2EV-13 7.0m x 4.0m超重型无排放的落砂装置,能够处理160吨的 总荷载。 新的落砂装置是用来取代服役超过30年的只有80吨 处理量的老装置,处理载荷增加一倍意味着这家公司 能够提高生产铸件的尺寸和重量,并继续成为世界领 先的风机轮毂铸件生产基地。 新装置包括一个装配框架,顶端厚度为50mm,并 用40mm×40mm的方孔焊接碳钢甲板。侧面约束焊接 在甲板上,方形软钢滑板焊接在甲板顶部,以提高甲 板上的载荷,用以最大限度地砂子通过并减小钢板磨 损。这台重型设备结合了Hewitt Robins的70年制造经 验,能保证该设备不间断安全生产。 落砂装置的振动机构是四轴结构,动力由110kW电 机提供。电机通过V带传动和万向节与轴台台驱动,组

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product news/產品新聞 V-belt & Cardan shaft drive with pillow blocks, and the shakeouts have rubber friction check assemblies to reduce bounce on start up and stop. In order to handle the 160-ton deck load, the shakeout sits on 80 main springs, half of which incorporate internal booster springs. Hewitt Robins also supplied the shakeout with heavy duty side skirts to prevent spillage of material into the customer’s pit. The Hewitt Robins 2EV-13 7.0m x 4.0m Extra Heavy Duty Non-Discharging Shakeout has now been in operation for over 12 months and, with Hewitt Robins’ excellent reliability and customer support, they expect to supply two further shakeouts to the same customer in 2018. Hewitt Robins International Ltd have been setting the standard in foundry equipment for over 70 years and are constantly developing their product range. Hewitt Robins currently offers nondischarging shakeouts, discharging shakeouts, vibrating conveyors, and foundry feeders. ■

件间用橡胶材料以阻碍启动 和停止的反跳。为了达到160 吨的载荷,该装置底部使用 了80个主弹簧,其中一半有 内部助力弹簧。 Hewitt Robins公司还交 付重型挡板防止散落的废物 进入操作者操作空间。 Hewitt Robins公司交付 的2EV-13 7.0m x 4.0m超重 型无排放的落砂装置已经服 役了12个月,该装置的良好 性能使得Hewitt Robins公司 有希望与老客户签下2018交 付两台的订单。 Hewitt Robins International Ltd在过去70多年里 一直在制定铸造设备的制造标准,同时它不断扩展其产 品供应范围Hewitt Robins公司目前供应无排砂落砂装 置、有排砂落砂装置、振动式传送带和铸造进料机。 ■

Yizumi Officially Ships HPM 4,500-ton Die Casting Machine 伊之密史上最大压铸机出机美国 In early May, the largest ever 4,500-ton HPM die casting machine jointly designed and produced by Yizumi and HPM officially got shipped to the U.S. From designs and purchase of components to assembly and acceptance, this project lasted 16 months and was scheduled to be delivered to Walker Die Casting, a well-known North American auto parts manufacturer, in mid-June. It is the first comprehensive collaboration between Chinese and American teams. Both Yizumi and HPM took the 4,500-ton die casting machine very seriously. After receiving the order from Walker Die Casting in September 2015, Yizumi and HPM R & D Department set up a project team and they completed the machine drawings within seven months. During the design process, Yizumi’s engineers even stayed in America for two and a half months to maintain close communication and cooperation with the HPM team. “It is the first time that Chinese and American engineers have conducted real comprehensive cooperation after Yizumi acquired HPM,” said Nicholas Zeng, Yizumi’s HPM Business Manager. In the process of cooperation, Yizumi and HPM not only stayed in close communicationon technical R&D, but also worked together on purchasing, assembly, customs declaration, transportation and other steps. Take purchasing for example, the mechanical parts were purchased in China while critical electrical and hydraulic components were bought in the UnitedStates. Thus the collaboration between two par-

5月初,伊之密HPM4500T压铸机正式出机。这是伊之 密和HPM有史以来联合设计生产的最大吨位压铸机,从图 纸设计、零件采购到装配、验收,历时16个月。预计将在6 月中旬交付北美知名汽配企业Walker Die Casting。 中美团队首次全面合作 对于这台4500T压铸机,伊之密和HPM非常重视。从 2015年9月拿到Walker Die Casting这个订单后,伊之密 和HPM研发部组建了项目组,用时7个月完成图纸设计, 其中伊之密工程师更在美国逗留长达两个半月,与HPM 团队维持紧密的沟通合作。 “这是伊之密收购HPM后,第一次真正意义上的中美 工程师全面合作,”HPM项目管理部经理曾正宇说,合 作过程中伊之密和HPM技术团队零距离沟通,不只是研 发,在采购、组装、报关、运输等环节上,双方团队都极 力配合。如在采购上,机械部分零部件在中国采购,电气 和液压部分的关键元器件则在美国,双方分工协作,缩短 整个采购周期。 据了解,HPM4500T压铸机完全按照美国标准打造, 延续HPM II系列压铸机特色,采用高标准高刚性的用料 和设计,以及多泵站独立控制。为了保证机器达到美国 标准,伊之密在全国重新寻找油制板、导柱、模板等供 应商,单件超过50吨重的三大板均采用锻钢制造,团队 不仅费尽心思找合适的供应商,还带客户到加工现场检

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product news/產品新聞 ties shortened the entire procurement cycle. The HPM 4,500T die casting machine was built completely in accordance with the U.S. standards and consistent with the features of HPM II series: high-standard, high-rigidity materials and design and independent multi-pump station control. To ensure the machine meets U.S. standards, three platens of the clamping unit, each of which weighs over 50 tons, are made from forged steel. Yizumi not only spent time finding the right new suppliers of hydraulic manifolds, tie bars and platens and other components nationwide, but also took customer to the workshop to check the quality, specifications and relevant certificates of components. The assembly of the 4,500-ton HPM die casting machine was completed in early April this year. Subsequent inspection performed by Walker Die Casting officials at Yizumi’s headquarters showed that the diecaster met the client’s requirements in terms of mold opening and closing, injection, pressure build-up, dry cycle and other relevant parameters and the machine got acknowledged. The 4,500-ton HPM die caster is the largest machine that Yizumi and HPM have ever built, and it is both teams’ breakthrough in super-heavy die casting machines, said Zeng. The 4,500-ton HPM die casting machine is expected to arrive at the plant of Walker Die Casting in mid-June and then be assembled under the guidance of engineers from Yizumi and HPM. HPM team will be in charge of maintenance and service for the machine after it is put into use. Located in Lewisburg, Tennessee, Walker Die Casting has three 3,500-ton and three 1,800-ton die casting machines manufactured by former HPM. The newly bought 4,500-ton machine will be used for producing aluminum transmission housings for trucks. ■

查零部件质量、规格和相关证书。 今年4月初,HPM4500T压铸机完成装配,WalkerDie Casting负责人再次来到伊之密中国总部检测机器性能, 机器开合模、压射、增压、干周期等相关参数均达到了 Walker Die Casting的要求,并获得了好评。 HPM4500T压铸机可以说是伊之密和HPM有史以来 生产的最大吨位压铸机,曾正宇表示,它的顺利完成代 表着伊之密和HPM在超重型压铸机的突破。 HPM4500T压铸机预计将在6月中旬抵达Walker Die Casting工厂,届时,伊之密和HPM团队将各派遣工程 师指导机器组装,成功交付客户后,机器的维护和服务 将主要由HPM团队负责。 Walker Die Casting公司位于美国田纳西州的刘易斯 堡,是北美压铸协会(NADCA)会员企业,公司总裁 John R Walker也是北美压铸协会副主席。该公司目前 已拥有原HPM 3台3500T和3台1800T压铸机。新采购 的这台4500T机器将用于生产卡车铝合金变速箱壳体。 考虑到未来汽车市场轻量化的趋势,以及美国强劲的经 济复苏势头,Walker Die Casting对美国汽配市场的发 展充满信心,因此在2015年决定由HPM北美公司打造 4500T压铸岛,以应对未来市场和公司的发展。 HPM北美公司总经理John Beary对未来美国汽车市 场的走向同样信心十足,“从HPM压铸机的签单和出 机量来看,均是来自美国汽配行业的需求,而且业务 正呈稳定增长的态势。”另外,John Beary介绍说, 今年HPM更名为YIZUMI-HPM,全面向双品牌战略迈 进,让YIZUMI-HPM成为北美业内综合机器性能、价 格和服务上性价最优的选择。 ■

FCRI Ceramic Foam Filter Seizes Overseas Market 佛山金刚泡沫陶瓷产品成功抢滩国际市场 FCRI Group was established in 1958 with the headquarters in Foshan, Guangdong. Based on the technological innovation, FCRI continuously adopts the modern management concepts, persisting diversity, collectivity and globalization in the development. Now FCRI has become a comprehensive high-tech enterprise in technology research, technical service, production and sales, economical trading and journal publishing. Ceramic rollers, roller coating, alumina products, refractory bricks, ceramic foam filters, special industrial ceramic and daily use products like ceramic knife, ceramic watch, jewelry and etc. are mainly products of FCRI Group. These products not only cover the big market share in the domestic market, but they are also exported to Italy, Spain, Turkey, India, Brazil, Thailand and other countries. ■

佛山金刚企业集团源自一九五八年成立的佛山市陶瓷 研究所。在五十多年的发展历程中,以科技创新为发展之 本,不断引进现代化管理理念,坚持多元化、集团化、国 际化发展,成为一家集科研开发、技术服务、生产营销、 经济贸易及科技期刊出版为一体的综合型高新技术企业。 金刚集团主要产品有陶瓷辊棒及辊棒涂料、氧化铝制 品、耐火砖系列、泡沫陶瓷系列、特种工业陶瓷以及陶 瓷刀具、手表、首饰等日用陶瓷,在国内市场占有巨大份 额,并成功抢滩国际市场,产品出口意大利、西班牙、土 耳其、印度、泰国等20多个国家和地区。 其中金刚牌泡沫陶瓷过滤器经过10多年不断发展与改 进,其耐火度高、过滤效果好、过滤效率高,具有独特的 三维连通曲孔网状骨架结构和80-90%开口通孔率。该产 品除了用于高温熔融金属过滤外,还适用于高温烟气处 理、催化剂载体、固体热交换器和特种填料等领域。 ■

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product news/產品新聞

Winoa Improves Total Cost of Blasting (TCB) Winoa提高了喷丸的总成本 Thanks to its 50 years of experience, Winoa is able to reduce its customers’ blasting costs by offering a full technical approach: specific ranges of products, technologies and services dedicated to its customer application. Linked with full technical support provided by 21 application experts, Winoa can provide technical service around the world as in China through its subsidiary Shanghai Murga Steel Abrasives or in Taiwan with its subsidiary, Winoa Taiwan. Winoa & W Abrasives technical teams demonstrate to customers that cost reduction is not a fantasy and become reality for them by developing WA COST technology in the field of blasting to validate and achieve global customer benefits. Major customers in the foundry market have already trust in the Winoa expertise, combining the use of a dedicated Premium product: HYBRID SHOT with technical expertise. By monitoring machine wear, Winoa helps to reduce maintenance costs while at the same time achieving remarkable performance in terms of cleaning: - Low machine wear. - Higher efficiency than shots. - Suitable for complex shape castings. Winoa’s technical expertise approach consists of seven steps: - Onsite technical expertise. - Trial at the test center. - Cost reduction offer. - Launching of the trial. - Training of the operators. - Monthly check-up and follow-up. - Balance sheet of the trial. The W Abrasives teams approached a cast iron foundry customer to propose him a customized solution and allow him blasting cost reduction. The customer, producing 800 tons per month of manholes and other miscellaneous parts for civil and road works, is running a 16 wheel continuous hanger machine which consumes 300 tons per year of S550. Initially, 65% of this volume was supplied by one of Winoa sister company, the rest by a local competition. The customer had too much re-blasting on some products which considerably increased its costs. Thus he needed a more efficient product to reduce his re-blasting rate, without increasing the maintenance cost. The Premium product Hybrid Shot, specially designed to reduce overall blasting cost through a combination of high cleaning efficiency and low machine wear has been introduced. Hybrid Shot introduction through the complete Premium approach: use the concept of the 7 steps In addition to the high performances of Hybrid Shot (better efficiency than S550 with limited impact on machine wear), technical support has allowed to:

归功于其50年的经验,Winoa能够通过基于客户的要 求提供一个完整的技术方案:特定范围的产品、技术和服 务,来降低客户的喷丸成本。 联合21位应用专家提供全方位的技术支持, Winoa可 以给全世界提供技术服务,在中国可以通过其附属子公 司上海莫加钢研磨剂,在台湾的子公司是Winoa台湾公 司。 Winoa & W磨料技术团队向客户证明,降低成本并不 是一个幻想,他们通过在喷丸领域开发WA成本技术验证 了这一点,这可以使得全球客户提升效益。 铸造市场主要客户相信Winoa的专业技术,结合使用 一个专用的高端产品:混合喷丸技术。 通过监测机器磨损,Winoa有助于减少维护成本,同 时实现卓越的清洁方面的成效。 低的机器磨损 高效性 复杂铸件的合适性 Winoa的专业技术包括以下七步: 现场专业技术 在测试中心试验 提供降低成本 进行试验 训练操作员 每月的检查与跟进 平衡资产负债表 W磨料磨具团队给铸铁铸造客户提出一个定制的解决 方案,可以降低喷丸成本。某客户每月生产800吨的检 修孔和各种各样的民事和道路施工工程,需要运转一 个16轮连续吊挂机,这需要每年消耗300吨的S550 磨料。最初,65%由一家Winoa姐妹公司完成,其余的 留给当地竞争公司。 客户有很多再喷丸产品,这大大增加了成本。因此他 需要一个更有效的产品以减少再喷丸率而不增加维护成 本。 优质的产品混合喷丸,专门设计来通过提高清理效率 和降低机械磨损率来降低全部的喷丸成本。 混合喷丸的完整方法:使用7步骤的观念 除了高性能混合喷丸(比S550效率更高而对机器磨损 影响不大),我们的技术支持还有: • 降低维护成本的想法: 热点(温度高的点)检查与WA CAM(创新技术能够 精确识别真正的涡轮机产生的热点位置,而且优先显示机 器磨损区)

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product news/產品新聞 - Reduce maintenance costs. -H ot spot check with WA CAM (innovative technology which allows visual and precise identification of the real position of hot points generated by the turbines, but also visualization of preferential wear zones on the machines) - Reduction of sand content in the operating mix - from 4 wt% to 0.5 wt% - through air separator fine tuning) - Increase efficiency of the machine (hot spot check with thermal camera + adjustment of operating mix size distribution - rejection size decreased from 0.85 mm to 0.6 mm through air separator fine tuning) - This approach allowed the following customer benefits: - 60% reduction of the reblasting rate. - 45% reduction of maintenance costs. - 30% reduction of the total blasting cost. Winoa and its W Abrasives teams have become the customer’s privileged supplier. ■

混合操作中减少含砂量-通过空气分离器从4wt%微 调到0.5wt%) • 提高机器的效率(用热像相机检查热点+调整混合大 小分布操作-分离颗粒的大小从0.85毫米降到0.6毫 米—通过空气分离器的微调) 这一方法实现如下的用户收益: - 60% 再喷丸率的降低。 - 45%减少维护成本。 - 30%喷丸总成本的降低。 Winoa及其W磨料磨具团队成为了客户的优先供应 商。 ■

Eco-Friendly “Foundry of the Future” 生态友好的“未来铸造” The “Foundry of the Future” is based on intelligent connectivity, allowing a system to automatically anticipate and avoid downtime, thus increasing production and giving it the flexibility to adapt to any new customer requirement. Individual mechatronic components combining mechanical, electrical and computer engineering have been used in production for years, but they have now taken on an entirely new dimension and role in plant production by interconnection and communication as a single entity. This is now practicable thanks to exponentially more powerful Cloud Computing that allows analysis of ever increasing and variable data volumes while still arriving at conclusions in real-time. Thanks to this new information management capacity to use effective and functional self-correction, predictive maintenance and energy use, the production process can be fully optimized to lower costs. Previously, the only method to maintain competitive costs 54

“未来铸造”是基于智能连接,允许系统进行自动预测 和避免停机,从而提高生产率并赋予其灵活性以适应任 何新客户的需求。 综合了机械、电气以及计算机工程的机电元器件用于生 产已经很多年了。但是,现在它们在工厂生产中呈现出 了全新的面貌和作用,借助相互联接以及通信形成了一 个整体。 现在这是可行的,因为云计算能力以呈指数方式增加, 变得更加强大,它允许分析不断增加和变化的数据量, 同时依然能够实时给出结论。由于这种新的信息管理能 力,使得工厂能够运用有效的自我修正功能,进行预测 性维护以及能源的使用,生产流程能够充分得到优化, 从而降低成本。而过去,维持竞争成本的唯一方法便是

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product news/產品新聞 was to physically push systems beyond their productive limits. The benefits of this approach are best seen in aluminum casting foundries where: • Long-term product quality can be guaranteed by using statistical analysis and control of the many parameters and process trends. • Statistical analysis and operating trends to monitor the severe service operating parameters of machinery and systems, guaranteeing their availability by anticipating breakdowns and optimizing their preventive and/or predictive maintenance. • Absolute traceability to guarantee the highest quality and component safety required in the automotive sector. FATA Aluminum has created a simple, self-configuring IT application tool (FATA FoF) that allows the benefits of this approach to be fully utilized. The power of this tool in system engineering and design phases can be optimized for the customer by melding mechanical, fluid dynamics and electrical design into a single technology. In highly technical process areas, an additional advantage consists in analytically controlling key parameters in real time. The system can automatically advise what corrective or proactive actions to take for process deviations, or someone with more expertise can act to avoid a remote location production crisis. In this way, the best process personnel with the most expertise can immediately interact and work as a team to technically support remote locations, exponentially multiplying synergies that would not be possible individually and locally. When optimizing foundry energy consumption, the environmental impact should not be neglected. Today, an environmental problem with foundries that use organic resins in core production is the dispersal of untreated air containing olfactory emissions into the atmosphere outside the foundry. These contain low amounts of air pollution and in terms of smell, the substances used in foundries have a very low olfactory threshold, but they constitute important emission levels when taken in the context of total volume diffused over time during production. ■

在物理层面上推动生产系统突破生产极限。 这种方法的效益在铝铸造厂中得到了充分的展现: 通过统计分析以及对众多参数和工艺流程趋势的调 控来保证产品的长期质量稳定。 统计分析以及操作流程用于监测操控机器和系统的 苛刻的工作参数,通过预测停机故障、优化预防和/ 或预测性维护来保证其实用性。 绝对的可追踪性确保汽车行业所需的高质量以及部 件的安全性。 FATA铝业公司创造出了一种简单的、自配置的IT应 用工具(FATA FoF),使得这一方法的效益能够被 充分地利用起来。该工具通过将机械、流体动力学 以及电气设计整合为一种单一技术来为客户实现系 统工程以及设计阶段的优化。 在高度技术化的加工领域,该方法的另一优势在于 对关键参数进行实时分析控制。系统可以自动建议 应该采取哪些纠正或预防性措施来处理加工过程中 出现的偏差,或者使用更多专业知识来避免异地的 生产危机。 在这种方式下,最专业的工艺人员能够立即展开互 动,并且以一个团队的形式为异地提供技术上的支 持,而这种以指数形式增加的协同效应,在以个体 和就地处理的方式下是不可能产生的。 当对铸造厂的能源消耗进行优化时,环境的影响是 不应该被忽视的。 如今,铸造厂在核心产品中使用有机树脂所产生的 环境问题是指将未处理的含有刺激性排放物的空气 排放到了厂外的大气之中。这些排放物含有低量的 空气污染物质,而且在气味方面,铸造厂所使用的 物质具有非常低的嗅觉阈值,但是考虑到在生产中 随着时间的推移排放的总量,这就成为重要的排放 指标。■

Cold Hardening Phenol: The New All-Rounder Among Binder Systems 冷固苯酚:新的全能型粘结剂 The ExOne development team has been testing the new binder CHP – cold hardening phenol - for several months. The CHP project manager, Dr. Martin Bednarz, explains the binder and its applications. What is special about CHP? The special aspects of CHP special can best be explained in comparison to our furan system. With the CHP binder it is possible to create moldings and cores with a higher heat resistance than those created using furan. In addition, the gas development during casting is considerably lower than what is found in furan parts and the resulting gas defects in

几个月以来,ExOne研发团队对其新粘结材料CHP( 冷固苯酚)进行了一系列测试。CHP项目经理Martin Bednarz博士介绍了这种材料及其应用可能。 CHP有什么特别之处? 通过与呋喃系粘结剂做比较,即可了解CHP的特性。 使用CHP粘结剂的砂芯与砂型的耐热性更高。此外,与 使用呋喃粘结剂的铸件相比,使用CHP粘结剂在铸造过 程中产生的气体显著减少,因此因气体而导致的铸件缺

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product news/產品新聞 the casting are significantly lower. The higher heat resistance also reduces the tendency to form sheet ribs in high-temperature casting. What does that mean for the casting and complexity of the core? Due to the higher cold and hot strength of CHP, even greater part complexity and delicate geometries can be realized. In fact, molds and cores printed with this binder are more suitable for iron and steel castings. CHP has the added benefit of being classified as safer to human health than furan. Odor issues that occur during printing, unpacking, and casting of furan molds and cores is significantly reduced when using CHP. This is especially important as workplace and environmental regulations become stricter. CHP Advantages at a Glance: • Saves time: cores and molds can be taken directly from the Jobbox and cured separately in an oven or microwave • Easy finishing: no migration of the cores and molds with unprinted sand • All-rounder: combines the advantages of all other binders • Reduced environmental impact • Strength: higher cold and hot strength • Better surface: reduced formation of veining • Geometry: production of more complex cores and molds. ■

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陷也相对少得多。通过提高热强度,也可以减少高温 铸造时脉纹形成的趋势。 这对砂芯的复杂度和铸造意味着什么? 由于CHP冷热强度更高,所以能实现更复杂更精致 的几何形状。此外,用这种粘结剂打印的砂型和砂芯 更适合铸铁和铸钢。因此CHP比呋喃的健康损害级别 更低,打印、取出砂型、铸造过程中与之相比气味更 小。在工作环境和环保要求日益严格的情况下,该课 题至关重要。 CHP优势一览 • 节省时间:砂芯和砂模可以直接从工作箱取出,然 后逐个放在烘箱或微波炉进一步固化 • 易处理:打印出的砂芯和砂模不残留未打印的砂粒 • 功能多样:集中了所有其它粘结剂的优势 • 环境污染更小 • 强度:冷、热强度更高 • 表面更好:减少脉纹的形成 • 几何特性:可完成更复杂、更精细的砂芯和砂型 ■

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product news/產品新聞

THE WORLD OF CASTING IN YOUR HAND Welcome to Metalcasting Newsstand! Modern Casting invites you to join us in the mobile world. The newly-developed Metalcasting Newsstand app for the iPad, iPhone and Android devices is now available for download at no charge. Along with the current issue of Modern Casting, you can browse these other publications: • Metal Casting Design & Purchasing offers solutions to the casting end-use community bimonthly. • Global Casting Magazine brings you news and information from three continents.

MODERN

CASTING June 2017 FOUNDRY-PLANET.COM | MODERN CASTI NG | CHINA FOUNDRY ASSOCIATION |

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product news/產品新聞

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product news/產品新聞

EXPLORE

Your Possibilities

with Binder Jetting 3D Printing

ExOne industrial-strength sand cores and mold packages and functional metal parts: cost-effective & precise.

exone.com

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Hawkeye Borescopes product news ® news/產品新聞

Hawkeye管道探視器

沙子

Sand visible with a Hawkeye Pro Slim 12” Rigid Borescope

無效

Void in casting, after machining, seen with a Hawkeye Pro Hardy 7”

閃光

Flash as seen with a Hawkeye V2 Video Borescope

我們提供嚴格,靈活和視頻管道探視器80個設計。 Manufacturers of complex castings now have a fast, affordable way to improve quality control in their visual inspection process with Hawkeye® Pro Borescopes. We stock over 80 models of rigid, flexible and video borescopes, and accessories, at prices far less than comparable instruments. Hawkeye Pro Borescopes provide detailed images of sand, voids, flash, surface-finish irregularities, and numerous other defects that can affect the quality of a wide range of mission-critical castings used in automotive, aviation, power generation, and more. Made in USA 60

gradientlens.com

1-585-235-2620

info@gradientlens.com

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Global Casting Vol 7 Issue 2  

Volume 7 Issue 2

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