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Global Casting Production 全球铸件产量

Also 还请关注: Industry News p. 11 行业新闻 p.11

MODERN

CASTING A PUBLICATION OF THE AMERICAN FOUNDRY SOCIETY

Casting Competence Across Three Continents


“We knew we were sending money out with every load, just unsure how much. Initially we estimated a one year payback. In reality we were blown away with a payback in less than 3 months. Reliability…check. Performance…check. Payback…check. Obviously we are thrilled!” Steve Starks, Olin Brass

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APRIL 2018

volume 8 number 1

P.53

P.43

P.11 FEATURES

专题文章

43 Methods and Measures to Reduce the Solder Defect of Die Casting Surface

43 改善压铸件表面粘模缺陷的方法和措施

Z. GAO

48 Global Casting Production Growth Stalls 53 Cutting Through the Challenges B. SANDALOW

59 Reclamation and Reuse of Shell Ceramics in Investment Casting V. OKHUYSEN, M. LANDEROS, H. SHAH

奎克化学

48 全球铸件产量增长乏力 53 克服困难 迎接挑战 B. SANDALOW

59 熔模铸造陶瓷壳型的再生与回用 V. OKHUYSEN, M. LANDEROS, H. SHAH

DEPARTMENTS

专栏

9 Editorial 11 Industry News 66 Product News

9 编者的话 11 行业新闻 66 产品新闻

April 2018 FOUNDRY-PLANET.COM | MODERN CASTI NG | CHINA FOUNDRY ASSOCIATION |

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STAFF/工作人員

STAFF/工作人员 MODERN CASTING

FOUNDRY-PLANET.COM

Managing Editor SHANNON WETZEL, swetzel@afsinc.org

Publisher/Editor THOMAS FRITSCH, tf@foundry-planet.com

Associate Editor BRIAN SANDALOW, bsandalow@afsinc.org

Senior Editor/ International Sales ADRIANA WEISENBACH, aw@foundry-planet.com

Advertising Sales JIM BECKWITH, jbeckwith@afsinc.org JOE MURPHY, AdSales25@aol.com FABIO CAVALIERI, fabio@afsinc.org

Advertising Sales OANH LARSEN, ons@foundry-planet.com THERESA NEUMANN, tn@foundry-planet.com

Art Director MICHAEL J. BERRAFATO, mberrafato@afsinc.org

MODERN

CASTING CHINA FOUNDRY ASSOCIATION 中国铸造协会 Publisher/Executive Vice President & Secretary General/ 出品人 ZHANG LIBO/ 张立波 Senior Editor/ 主编 WEN PING/ 温平 Deputy Editor/ 副主编 HUANG TIANYOU/ 黄天佑 FAN QI/ 范琦, fanqi@foundry.com.cn Editor/编辑 GAO WEI/高巍, gaowei@foundry.com.cn Li Mengmeng/李 蒙蒙, limengmeng@foundry.com.cn Advertising Sales Manager/ 广告销售主管 GAO WEI/ 高巍, gaowei@foundry.com.cn

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editorial/编者的话

Big Challenges and Positive Signs in Many Markets 市场释放积极信号、机遇与挑战并存

W

idespread is the discussion in the industry, amongst engineers, consumers and politicians, about the future of our mobility. This involves new forms of drive technology, as well as the further development of combustion engines and completely new mobility concepts. Our foundry industry seems unimpressed at the moment and is stable in Europe, on track in China in the pursuit of more product quality than quantity, and North America is doing well. The scene in India is optimistic, as the Indian foundries have climbed to second place in world production. The biggest event of the year will bring together thousands of trade visitors, casting buyers, and experts from around the world to discuss industrial challenges in Beijing at Metal & Metallurgy in May. Most will agree that the foundry industry of today does much more than just make castings. Today, foundries are involved in process and solution specifications for entire components. This underlines the high esteem for our industry and sets the standards at a high level. Glück auf from Germany! ■

工程师、消费者和政治家中间广泛讨论

的一个话题就是未来的电动车技术。其中,涉及到驱 动系统的新技术,内燃机的发展趋势及全新的电动技 术理念。目前看来,欧洲铸造业并未受此影响、依然 保持着平稳发展,中国正处于重质量而非产量的改革 中,北美市场发展势头良好。印度的铸件产量已成为 全球第二,市场前景乐观。 今年全球铸造业最重要的行业盛会是5月举办的中 国国际铸造博览会,届时,将有数万名专业观众、铸 件采购商以及铸造专家相聚北京,探讨行业发展面临 的挑战。现今,铸造行业已不仅仅是生产铸件,这是 大多数人的共识。铸造厂参与了零部件生产的全过 程,包括生产工艺和解决方案等环节。这些变化不仅 体现出铸造行业具有的重要地位,而且为行业发展制 定了较高的标准。

Thomas Fritsch Foundry-Planet Ltd. www.foundry-planet.com

Glück auf from Germany! Thomas Fritsch Foundry-Planet Ltd. www.foundry-planet.com

张立波 出品人 中国铸造协会

Shannon Wetzel Managing Editor MODERN CASTING

Thomas Fritsch Publisher/Editor-in-Chief Foundry-Planet.com

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

Industry News Contents 行业新闻目录

Yadelin Adds 20 Diecasting Machines 亚德林新增20台压铸机 Suzhou Mingzhi Technology Purchase DISA Core Machine business 苏州明志科技收购迪砂射芯机业务 Sinomach Casting & Forging Company Win Bids 国机铸锻连续中标多个项目

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FCRI attended IFEX 2018 in India 金刚团队出征第14届印度国际铸造展

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Indometal 2018 bullish alongside upbeat infrastructure demand and positive growth in the Indonesian metal and steel sectors 19 随印尼钢铁市场和基础设施建设的蓬勃发 展,Indometal 2018前景乐观 National Smart Foundry Light Alloy Innovation Center Established in Daya Bay 19 国家智能铸造产业轻合金创新中心创立大会在广东大亚 湾成功召开 TIANRUN CRANKSHAFT Innovation Product Triggers Engine’s Revolution 23 天润股份QT900-5曲轴 引发汽车发动机“心脏革命 China’s Casting Production Expects a Slight Growth in 2017 25 预计2017年铸件总产量“小阳”收官 KOCEL Receives the Individual Champion Product Award of MIIT 27 共享铸钢一产品获工信部单项冠军产品  YMT Opens New Plant 29 悦马特压铸机新工厂开工 

Victaulic to build new facility. 35 Victaulic公司将建新厂 Danko Arlington invests in 3-D sand printing 37 Danko Arlington公司投资3D砂型打印 Busche Performance Group and MetalX reach agreement 39 Busche Performance集团与MetalX公 司达成合作协议 Waupaca works with local technical college to educate employees 39 校企合作:沃帕卡铸造厂与本地技术学校开展培训项目 Lodge Manufacturing opens second Tennessee foundry 41 Lodge Manufacturing田纳西州第二家工厂投产 Bremen announces agreement to use 3-D printing technology 41 Bremen宣布在3D打印技术领域开展合作 Advanced Cast Products wins safety award 42 Advanced Cast Products公司荣获安全生产奖

Wuxi Create Analytical Instruments: Direct-reading Spectrometer Leader 29 国产直读光谱仪引领者——创想仪器 Focus on Metal China 2018 31 聚焦Metal China 2018 Elkem to exhibit at Metal China 2018. 35 埃肯将参展Metal China 2018

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

Yadelin Adds 20 Diecasting Machines 亚德林新增20台压铸机 Yadelin Machinery (Suzhou) Co., Ltd will add 20 diecasting machines to its second phase plant, including 10 sets of 1650-3000t large-scale machines from Buhler. The company planned to start commissioning and production after the Chinese Spring Festival on Feb. 16, 2018. These new machines will be mainly used to produce automobile parts including engine cylinder block, gearbox and structural parts. Yadelin Machinery (Suzhou) Co., Ltd., founded in 2012, is a president member of China Foundry Association and one of the top 50 Chinese diecasting enterprises, with 60 sets of diecasting machines ranging from 350-3000t. In 2017, the automobile production and sale in China reached 29.015 million tons and 28.879 million tons respectively, which is a 3.2% and 3% increase year on year. The stable development of automobile industry in China is strongly promoting the growth of Chinese diecasting industry. Many diecasting enterprises like Yadelin are growing rapidly now in China. ■

苏州亚德林股份有限公司二期工厂将增加20台压铸 机,其中进口布勒等1650 ~3000t大型压铸机10台。 这批压铸机将在2018年春节后逐步开始安装调试,并 陆续投产。这些新设备将主要生产发动机缸体、变速 箱体、结构件等汽车零部件。苏州亚德林股份有限公 司成立于2012年,是中国铸造协会压铸分会理事长单 位,中国压铸50强企业,已经拥有350~3000t压铸机 60台。 2017年中国汽车产销量分别达到2901.5万辆和 2887.9万辆,比2016年同比增长3.2%和3%。预计 2018年中国汽车产销量增幅将达到3%。汽车业的稳 定发展对压铸业形成了强有力的拉动。在今天的中 国,许多优秀的压铸企业正在像“亚德林”一样在迅 速扩大产能。 ■

Suzhou Mingzhi Technology Purchases DISA Core Machine Business 苏州明志科技收购迪砂射芯机业务 Suzhou Mingzhi Technology Co Ltd. announced the signing of a binding agreement whereby Suzhou Mingzhi Technology Co Ltd. has purchased the assets of the DISA Core product business, based in Leipzig, and has registered a new company named Mingzhi Technology Leipzig GmbH, as known as MTL. The acquisition is the result of dialogue between the parties, exploring potential cooperation within complementary business areas, to better serve customers. DISA has been offering core solutions to the foundry industry for 20-plus years from its facility in Leipzig, Germany. The acquisition offers an opportunity to expand and secure the continuation of the quality products offered by the Leipzig team, combining it with the strength and experience of the Mingzhi Technology organization. All employees working with the core product offering in Leipzig have been transferred to the newly established Mingzhi Technology Leipzig GmbH entity and will continue their work as part of the Mingzhi Technology organization. Any current DISA Core product contracts will be fulfilled by the Norican Group in collaboration with Mingzhi Technology Leipzig. ■

苏州明志科技有限公司宣布已签署有效协议,正式 收购诺瑞肯集团迪砂公司位于莱比锡的射芯机业务, 并注册成立明志科技莱比锡有限公司(MTL)。 此次收购经双方密切磋商而达成,旨在互补的商业 领域探索潜在的合作,以更好地服务客户。 迪砂公司莱比锡团队的射芯机业务已为铸造行业提 供20多年的砂芯解决方案。因此,结合明志科技的实 力与经验,此次收购必将扩大并保证莱比锡团队在明 志科技莱比锡这个新的平台上继续更好地提供优质的 产品与服务。 所有受雇于莱比锡射芯机业务的员工都将转入新成 立的明志科技莱比锡公司,并将作为明志科技集团所 属的一部分继续其工作。任何当前迪砂射芯业务所承 接的合同都会在诺 瑞肯集团和明志科 技莱比锡的合作下 继续履行。 ■

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻 CASTING TECHNOLOGY BEYOND TOMORROW

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

Sinomach Casting & Forging Company Win Bids 国机铸锻连续中标多个项目 From May 2017 to early 2018, Sinomach Casting & Forging Machinery Co., Ltd. has won a series of bids in the foundry equipment general contract projects, such as Honsin and YTO Group. The contracts awarded amount to 160 million RMB. Sinomach Casting & Forging Machinery Co., Ltd., founded on April 18, 2017, is jointly organized by two Sinomach subsidiaries, Automotive Engineering Corporation and Jinan Foundry and Metalforming Machinery Research Institute Co., Ltd. It now has more than 120 employees with intermediate and senior professional technical personnel certificate. Sinomach Casting & Forging Machinery is capable of providing general contract services of complete sets of foundry equipment to customers and maintains a leading role in the foundry technology. General Manager Pang Luoming said, “The intelligent equipment control platform of FMFMES system introduced in 2017 is the latest achievement of ‘industrialization and informatization’+ ‘internet’, providing a total solution of digitalization foundry workshop to customers and promoting the Chinese foundry equipment to a new level." ■

2017年5月份至2018年初,国机铸锻公司连续中标 中国浩信集团、中国一拖集团等多个铸造设备总承包项 目,累计中标合同金额已达1.6亿元。 国机铸锻机械有限公司(国机铸锻)成立于 2017年 4月18日,是世界500强的中国机械工业集团有限公司 旗下的两家子公司中国汽车工业工程有限公司与济南铸 造锻压机械研究所共同组建而成。现拥有中高级职称专 业技术人员120余人。 “国机铸锻具有向客户提供成套铸造装备工程总承 包的能力,保持着铸造行业技术领先的地位。”国机铸 锻总经理庞洛明说,“2017年推出的法曼福FMF-MES 系统智能设备管控平台,是国机铸锻‘两化融合’+‘ 互联网技术’在铸造行业的最新成果,为客户提供了数 字化铸造车间的整体解决方案,使国内铸造装备水平跃 上了一个崭新的平台。”

FCRI Attended IFEX 2018 in India 金刚团队出征第14届印度国际铸造展 On Jan 10, 2018, FCRI attended IFEX 2018 in Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India for three days. In recent years, the Indian foundry industry devel-

2018年1月10日,金刚集团国际事业部参加了在印度古吉 拉特邦甘地讷格尔举办为期3天的第14届印度国际铸造展。

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Hawkeye Borescopes INDUSTRY ® NEWS/行业新闻

Hawkeye管道探視器

沙子

Sand visible with a Hawkeye Pro Slim 12” Rigid Borescope

無效

Void in casting, after machining, seen with a Hawkeye Pro Hardy 7”

閃光

Flash as seen with a Hawkeye V2 Video Borescope

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻 oped rapidly and became the second most casting producing nations in the world with soaring production capacity growth. According to the relevant data, the annual output of the Indian foundry industry has been increasing more than 10% year by year. The exhibitors in this exhibition were up to 300, respectively from India, China, Germany, Italy, USA and other manufacturing countries. The number of professional visitors reached more than 10,000. FCRI has been working hard to develop the Indian market for many years. The ceramic filters were the main exhibits, including alumina, zirconia ceramic foam filters, extruded ceramic filters. For the purpose of this exhibition, FCRI would like to create an international brand, develop local foundry needs and timely find out the breakthrough in Indian market. FCRI has been listening to the needs of customers, combining product features and offering professional technical services. With professional products, nice service and strict attitude, FCRI won the praise from the domestic and foreign customers in the exhibition. ■

近几年,印度的铸造产业发展一路高歌猛进, 产能的暴涨性增长让印度成为名副其实的世界第二 大铸件生产国。据相关数据显示,印度铸造业的 年产量以大于10%的增长率逐年递增。第14届印 度国际铸造展,参展企业高达300家,分别来自中 国、德国、意大利、美国、土耳其等制造业大国, 专业观众人数达到10000多名。 印度市场是金刚集团多年来,一直潜心耕耘的 一线阵地。本次参展产品主要是泡沫陶瓷整个系列 产品,包括:氧化铝、碳化硅、氧化锆泡沫陶瓷 过滤器、直孔陶瓷过滤片。利用展会的“踏板”作 用,打造金刚过滤器国际品牌,深入了解当地铸造 需求的变化趋势,及时找到印度市场的突破口,是 本次金刚出征的主要目的。 金刚集团一直聆听客户的需求,结合产品特 性,用专业的技术服务为客户提供解决问题的方 案。金刚用专业的产品、贴心的服务和严谨的态度 赢得了国外客户的称赞。

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

Indometal 2018 Bullish Alongside Upbeat Infrastructure Demand and Positive Growth in Metal and Steel Sectors 随印尼钢铁市场和基础设施建设的蓬勃发展,Indometal 2018前景乐观 The outlook is strong for Indometal, the international metal and steel trade fair for Southeast Asia scheduled to take place in Jakarta from October 17-19 at JI Expo, Kemayoran. More than 75% of exhibitors to Indometal are expected to come from beyond Indonesia, together with international representation from national pavilions and country groups including China, Germany, Italy, and Taiwan. Upwards of an expected 6,000 qualified trade visitors will also be attending this biennial exhibition. Indonesia is a growing hotspot for the export market as steel production is shifting from mature to emerging economies. The Indonesian government aims to see domestic steel production capacity rise to 12 million tons by 2019, followed by 17 million tons by 2024, and to 25 million tons by 2035. This target—set in the National Industry Development Masterplan by Indonesia’s Ministry of Industry—will require private investor involvement. This is a good opportunity for companies to leverage on the rising demand and grow their businesses in the booming Southeast Asian country. Jointly organized by Messe Düsseldorf Asia and PT, Wahana Kemalaniaga Makmur (WAKENI), Indometal has gained momentum and recognition as a world-class quality exhibition focused on the synergistic interrelations of foundry technology, casting products, metallurgy and thermoprocess technology. Indometal 2018 is the region’s preferred exhibition of its kind and also features free business matching services, as well as a stream of quality trade visitors. Not only is the exhibition the best platform to showcase the latest innovations, it is also the platform to network and forge strong business ties with an international pool of visitors. ■ For more information on spacing booking and information on Indometal 2018, visit www.indometal.net.

2018印尼国际铸造冶金展Indometal将于今年10月 17-19日在雅加达国际展览中心举办,本届展会前景乐 观。预计超过75%的参展商将来自印尼以外的国家和 地区,包括中国、中国台湾、德国和意大利在内的国际 展团。6000多名高质量的专业观众将参加两年一届的 Indometal展会。 随着钢铁生产逐渐从成熟市场向新兴市场转移,印 度尼西亚成为钢铁产品出口的热点地区。印尼政府预期 国内钢铁产量将在2019年前增至1200万t,2024年前 增至1700万t,2035年前增至2500万t。该目标发布在 印尼工业部制定的国家工业发展总体规划中,目标的实 现需要个人投资者的参与。 对于希望在蓬勃发展的东南亚市场开辟市场的企业 来说,这是一个好的平台和机会。 由杜塞尔多夫亚洲展览公司和PT. Wahana Kemalaniaga Makmur (WAKENI)公司联合主办,Indometal 已发展成为包含铸造技术、铸件、冶金和热处理工艺在 内的世界知名展会。 Indometal 2018是东南亚地区重要的行业展览,将 推出行业对接活动,迎来众多高质量的专业观众。该展 会不仅是企业展示创新技术的最佳平台,也是一个建立 和加强国际商业联系的平台。 ■ 更多预定展位及展会信息,请登录www.indometal.net

National Smart Foundry Light Alloy Innovation Center Established in Daya Bay 国家智能铸造产业轻合金创新中心创立大会在广东大亚湾成功召开 On November 29, 2017, the founding conference of the National Smart Foundry Light Alloy Innovation Center (Light Alloy Innovation Center) was held in Daya Bay, Guangdong Province. Huang Zhijun, member of the Standing Committee of Daya Bay Economic and Technological Development Zone in Huizhou, Zhang Libo, vice chairman of China Machinery Industry Federation and standing vice president of China Foundry Association attended and witnessed the signing ceremony. Peng Fan, chief supervisor of China Foundry Association and chairman of National Smart Foundry Industry Innovation Center, Li Yuanfa,

2017年11月29日,国家智能铸造产业轻合金创新中 心(以下简称:轻合金创新中心)创立大会在广东大亚 湾召开。惠州大亚湾经济技术开发区区委常委黄志军, 中国机械工业联合会副会长、中国铸造协会常务副会长 张立波等领导出席签约仪式并见证,中国铸造协会监事 长、国家智能铸造产业创新中心董事长彭凡,中国铸造 协会常务理事单位-嘉瑞国际控股有限公司董事局主席

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

The Bright World of Metals 25– 29 JUNE

2019 DÜSSELDORF/GERMANY

worldwide

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻 the executive director of China Foundry Association and Chairman of Kashui International Holdings Limited, and Deng Chao, the Deputy General Manager of Foundry Ecommerce Technology (Beijing) Co., Ltd. signed "National Smart Foundry Light Alloy Innovation Center Investment Agreement." Light Alloy Innovation Center is an important component of the national smart foundry industry innovation center. On December 1, 2016, the National Development and Reform Commission released the "Letter of Consent to Establish a National Innovation Center for Foundry Industry," and agreed KOCEL Group to take the lead in building the first national industrial innovation center. The National Smart Foundry Industry Innovation Center was established in Yinchuan on May 19, 2017 and will establish "standard + demonstration" intelligent transformation promotion model, set up a number of sub-centers in the industry concentration areas and establish a number of digital intelligent demonstration plants and demonstration industrial parks. The Light Alloy Innovation Center will build an intelligent manufacturing research institute, new light alloy material research and development center, end product research and development center, startup space and startup workshop, shared industry cloud and remote operation and maintenance center, industrial display services, shared college, which will aggregate industry-related resources and actively apply for innovative platforms such as national incubators, startup spaces, National Engineering Research Center, and National Technology Innovation Center. By promoting big data analysis of light alloys, the industrial integration and application of intelligent equipment technologies such as green manufacturing, new materials, 3-D printing and robots, it will provide services to the light alloy manufacturing industry and promote the industry toward the high-end, green, intelligent, service-oriented development. The Light Alloy Innovation Center is settled in the Pearl River Delta region, and it will be built into a world-class platform for the world-class light alloy industry, driving the development of the industrial chain with upstream and downstream, enhancing regional manufacturing capacity, promoting the development of new materials and industrial restructuring and upgrading to accelerate the dream of foundry power nation. ■

李远发,中国铸造协会两化融合服务中心主任、 中铸云商网络科技(北京)有限公司常务副总经 理邓超共同签署了《国家智能铸造产业轻合金创 新中心投资协议书》。 轻合金创新中心建设是国家智能铸造产业创新 中心的重要组成部分之一。2016年12月1日,国 家发改委发布了《关于同意设立国家智能铸造产 业创新中心的复函》,同意共享装备牵头组建首 个国家产业创新中心。国家智能铸造产业创新中 心于2017年5月19日在银川成立,将建立“标准 +示范”的智能转型推广模式,在行业集中区建 立若干分中心,打造若干个数字化智能化示范工 厂和示范园区。 轻合金创新中心将建设智能制造研究院、轻合 金新材料研发中心、终端产品研发中心、创客空 间、创客工坊、共享工业云及远程运维中心、工 业展示服务、共享学院等,聚合行业相关资源, 积极申报国家级孵化器、众创空间、国家工程研 究中心、国家技术创新中心等创新平台,通过推 动轻合金大数据分析、绿色制造、新材料、3D 打印、机器人等智能装备技术与产业的融合及应 用,服务轻合金制造产业,推进产业向高端化、 绿色化、智能化、服务化发展。 轻合金创新中心落户珠三角地区,将建设成 为世界一流平台,打造国际级的轻合金产业,带 动产业链上下游发展,增强区域制造业的配套能 力,推进新型材料发展和产业转型升级,加速实 现铸造强国之梦! ■

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Tianrun Crankshaft Innovation Product Triggers Engine’s Revolution 天润股份QT900-5曲轴 引发汽车发动机“心脏革命" Tianrun Crankshaft Co., LTD.’s products attracted a large number of visitors’ attention during METAL CHINA 2017, which was held in June, Shanghai. Tianrun is the first to use QT900-5 as the main material in the production of crankshaft and continues with innovation, till now, it has tackled key technological problem and filled the gap in several areas home and abroad. Tianrun Crankshaft has now become the leading crankshaft company in China, which provides products to Weichai Power, FAWDE, Cummins, Caterpillar, Daimler, etc.. The QT900-5 crankshaft has many advantages such as excellent mechanical properties, low production cost and relatively low weight. Its research & development and application is pioneering at home and abroad, providing a cost-effective option for high-power high-speed supercharged engines and will inevitably lead to "heart revolution" in the field of automobile engines. Tianrun uses scraps that easily obtained on the market to melt high-quality steel, and has developed QT900-5 ductile iron with tensile strength ≥ 900MPa, elongation ≥ 5%. Compared with the same high-strength ductile iron of its kind, its plasticity index increases by 150%, toughness increases by about 70%, fatigue limit increases by about 28%. Based on this material, Tianrun has developed a series of Steyr ductile cast iron crankshafts for Weichai, which increased the fatigue strength by about 38% and 14% respectively compared with the originally designed 45# steel and 42CrMo nitrided forged steel crankshafts. Compared with the traditional production of ductile iron, the production of QT900-5 not only save a lot of steel, but also save the cost of processing, so it can save costs of more than 30%; moreover, QT900-5 crankshaft need not to quench or nitriding, avoiding waste water and exhaust emissions. Tianrun has now formed the production capacity of 40,000 tons per year of QT900-5 crankshaft, and it has achieved sales revenue of 1.016 billion yuan and a profit of 152 million yuan in the past three years. For the first time, Tianrun has replaced steel with iron in the production of high-power high-speed supercharged engine crankshaft, helping the purchase price of main engine plant reduce about 30%, reducing the cost of more than 40 million yuan per year, saving more than 20,000 tons of steel, saving electricity of more than 400,000 degrees. Strong technical R&D and innovation ability not only win an absolute voice for the company in the industry, but also win the favor of domestic and foreign famous companies, helping the company to realize the goal of supporting the high-end market. ■

在2017年中国国际铸造博览会上,天润曲轴股份有 限公司(以下简称“天润股份”)的曲轴展品吸引了 众多参观者的目光。 在球墨铸铁曲轴的研制中,天润股份率先采用 QT900-5材料,坚持自主创新,攻克的核心技术填补 了国内外多项空白,成为我国曲轴行业的领军者,并 持续为潍柴、锡柴、康明斯、卡特彼勒、戴姆勒等国 内外著名发动机厂配套。   QT900-5曲轴具有力学性能优异、生产成本低、 质量相对较轻等诸多优点,它的研发及应用属于国内外 首创,为大功率高速增压发动机提供了一种高性价比的 选择,必将引发一场汽车发动机领域的“心脏革命”。 天润股份使用社会上广泛存在的废杂钢熔炼高品 质铸铁,研发出的QT900-5球墨铸铁本体抗拉强度 ≥900MPa,伸长率≥5%,与传统同类最高强度球墨 铸铁相比,其塑性指标提高150%、韧性提高约70%, 疲劳极限提高约28%。以此材质,天润股份为潍柴研 发了斯太尔系列球墨铸铁曲轴,与原设计的45#钢及 42CrMo氮化锻钢曲轴相比,其疲劳强度分别提高约 38%和14%。与传统球墨铸铁生产相比,生产QT900 -5既节省了大量钢材,也节省了产品加工费用,所以 能节约成本30%以上;同时,QT900-5曲轴无需淬 火或氮化处理,避免了废水和废气排放。 天润股份目前已形成4万吨/年QT900-5曲轴的生产 能力,近三年实现销售收入10.16亿元,利润1.52亿 元。在行业内,天润股份则首次实现了大功率高速增 压发动机曲轴以铁代钢,主机厂采购价格降低约30% ,降低成本4000多万元/年,年节约钢材2万多吨、 节约用电40多万度。除此之外,天润股份自主研发 的“以锡代钼高强韧性球墨铸铁曲轴制造系统工程开 发与应用”项目获中国机械工业科学技术进步奖一等 奖,“节能环保型球铁曲轴制造技术开发与应用”项 目获山东省科学技术发明奖一等奖,《微锡高强韧性 球墨铸铁关键技术及动力机械核心部件产业化》荣获 国家科技进步奖二等奖。 强大的技术研发创新能力,不仅为公司在行业中赢 得了绝对话语权,也获得了国内外名企的青睐,实现 了配套高端市场的目标。

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China’s Casting Production Expects a Slight Growth in 2017 预计2017年铸件总产量“小阳”收官 Since 2016, a considerable number of outdated foundry plants have been shut down due to strict environmental protection policies and other factors. Since June 2017, a nationwide environmental inspection has raised higher requirements for many foundries. Because of the heating season in North China in winter, many foundry business need to implement the peak production, and overcapacity has been greatly alleviated, especially casting enterprises in non-peak production area have had a substantial increase in orders. It is estimated that the total output of castings in China in 2017 will increase slightly from 47.2 million tons of 2016. Among different sectors of the industry, the automobile castings accounts for nearly one-third of all kinds of castings. In 2017, China's automobile industry is still the most important contributor to the growth of castings, especially the explosive growth of heavy trucks. Meanwhile, the development trend of lightweight and non-ferrous castings such as aluminum and magnesium alloy for the automobile industry has been maintained a strong growth momentum which has laid the development foundation. In addition, excavators, loaders and other products in the engineering machinery industry have shown a more substantial recovery growth, so the engineering machinery casting production also has a very significant growth; the demand for machine tool castings has increased slightly; centrifugal cast iron pipe accounts for more than 16% of all kinds of castings in China. With the rapid development of cities and towns construction, the output of centrifugal cast iron pipes is expected to increase by about 10% in 2017; the castings of agricultural machinery and vessels have a slight decline.

The comprehensive competitiveness of the industry continues to improve Equipment manufacturing industry is the main section of the national industrial restructuring. In order to guide the foundry industry to focus on promoting the transformation of scientific and technological achievements, speeding up the structural adjustment, upgrading and innovation-driven development, promoting intelligent transformation of enterprises and enhancing the overall competitiveness of the foundry industry, China Foundry Association has carried out and completed a lot of work in consulting services, quality and technology, international communication, digital and intelligent development, association standard-setting, personnel training and so on.

Take measures to promote industry restructuring and upgrading Compared with developed and industrialized countries, China’s foundry industry is still lagging behind, especially in industrial structure, quality and efficiency, independent innovation ability, technology and equipment, energy and resource utilization efficiency, and environmental protection. The task of transform and upgrading is urgent and difficult: first, the problem

从2016年开始,受环保等各方面因素的影响,有 相当数量散、乱、差铸造企业被关停。2017年6月以 后,全国范围的环保督查,对很多铸造企业提出了更 高的治理要求。进入采暖季,不少地区铸造企业需要 执行错峰生产,产能过剩有了很大缓解,特别是非 错峰生产地区铸造企业的订单有大幅度增长。预计 2017年我国铸件总产量较2016年的4720万吨有小幅 增长。 从各分行业的情况来看,汽车铸件占我国各类铸 件产量近三分之一。2017年我国汽车工业的增长仍 是带动铸件增长的最主要贡献者,特别是重卡的爆发 式增长;同时,轻量化的发展趋势,也为汽车工业配 套的铝、镁合金等有色铸造企业一直保持强劲增长势 头奠定了基础。 除此之外,工程机械行业挖掘机、装载机等各种 产品都呈现较大幅度恢复性增长态势,因而工程机械 用铸件产量也有非常大的增长;机床工具用铸件的需 求略有增长;离心铸铁管占我国各类铸件的比例超过 16%,城镇建设的快速发展,预计2017年离心铸铁 管产量将会有10%左右的增长幅度;农机、船舶用铸 件则有小幅下滑。 行业综合竞争力不断提升 装备制造业是国家产业结构调整的主战场,互联 网+铸造将加速我国铸造业实现由大到强的进程。一 年来,为引导铸造行业重视促进科技成果转化,加快 推进铸造行业结构调整、转型升级和创新驱动发展, 推动企业智能化改造,提升铸造行业企业市场的综合 竞争力,中国铸造协会在政策研究、咨询服务、科技 质量、国际交流、数字化智能化发展、团体标准制 定、人才培养等方面做了大量的工作。 多措并举促进行业转型升级 尽管如此,与工业发达国家相比,我国铸造业仍 然大而不强,在产业结构、质量效益、自主创新能 力、工艺装备、能源资源利用效率、环保排放等方面 差距明显,转型升级任务紧迫而艰巨:一是结构性 产能过剩问题突出,存在相当数量的落后产能,关键

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻 of structural overcapacity is prominent, there is a considerable number of backward production capacity and the consistency and stability of the key castings are in poor quality; second, the ability of independent innovation is weak, some high-end key castings still cannot meet the requirements of domestic major technical equipments, thirdly, the consumption of energy and resources and discharge of pollutants is high, the high investment, low output and low efficiency is still outstanding.

Castings will have a slight growth in 2018 In 2018, the biggest pressure on the foundry industry is still environmental protection and safety. Entrusted by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the "Foundry Industrial Air Pollutant Emission Standards" made by China Foundry Association will be released the next year, which will provide the basis for a foundry company’s environmental governance. With the local government strengthening the supervision of the foundry industry, a number of imperfect environmental protection facilities and pollutant foundries will exit or will be upgraded according to the environmental norms. Due to the decrease of foundry enterprises and the peak shifting production, it is estimated that the market recovery in various fields at home and abroad will be better than that of this year. The casting order in China will continue to increase and the total output of castings will still increase slightly. ■

铸件质量的一致性和稳定性较差;二是自主创新能力薄 弱,一些高端关键铸件仍不能满足国内主机和重大技术 装备的发展要求;三是能源资源消耗和污染物排放高, 高投入、高消耗、高排放、低产出、低效益仍较为突 出。这些问题很大程度上迟滞了我国铸造行业由大变强 进程,必须尽快加以解决。 预计2018年铸件总产量将小幅增长 展望未来,2018年,铸造行业面临最大的压力仍是环 保和安全。受环保部委托,由中国铸造协会组织编制的 《铸造工业大气污染物排放标准》明年将发布实施,这 将为企业环保治理提供依据。随着地方政府强化铸造行 业的监管,铸造企业将加速向两极分化,一批环保设施 不完善、排放不达标的铸造企业退出,同时也将引导环 保规范的铸造企业进一步提升。由于企业数量的减少以 及环保错峰生产,预计明年国内外各领域市场复苏好于 今年,我国能够正常生产的铸造企业订单情况会持续增 加,铸件总产量仍将小幅增长。

KOCEL Receives the Individual Champion Product Award of MIIT 共享铸钢一产品获工信部单项冠军产品 Recently, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the China Federation of Industrial Economics jointly announced the second batch of individual champion manufacturing enterprises and individual champion product lists. KOCEL’s heavy cast steel gas turbine recommended by Yinchuan Economic and Technological Development Zone has won the national individual champion product award, which marks that Ningxia has achieved a breakthrough in this field. It is reported that the steel casting product applied by KOCEL Group includes turbine cylinder, exhaust vane retaining ring and other castings, which are supporting steel castings for heavy gas turbine thermal generator set. The product uses resin sand molding technology: in order to optimize the casting process and shorten the development cycle, the casting process design adopts virtual simulation technology (MAGMA application), the casting filling and solidification process simulation has been completed in advance; modeling uses wood-like real sample method, mold making employs five-axis CNC machining technology; melting process uses computer-controlled liquid steel refining technology and rapid detection and analysis; heat treatment uses large natural gas furnace, temperature difference controlled at ± 10 oC; applying high-precision spectral analysis, gas analyzer and non-destructive testing technology. To this end, KOCEL relies on state-level enterprise technology center to set up the Institute of Steel Technology with production technology leading in China and even in the world. ■

近日,国家工业和信息化部、中国工业经济联合会联 合公布第二批制造业单项冠军企业和单项冠军产品名单。 银川经济技术开发区推荐上报的共享铸钢重型燃气轮机铸 钢件产品成功荣获国家单项冠军产品,这一荣誉的确立标 志着宁夏在国家制造业单项冠军产品方面实现零的突破。 据悉,共享铸钢所申报的产品重型燃气轮机铸钢件, 主要包括透平缸、排气缸导叶持环等铸件,为重型燃 气轮机火力发电机组配套的铸钢件。其产品采用树脂 砂成型技术:铸造工艺设计采用虚拟模拟技术(应用 MAGMA),对铸造充型、凝固过程进行预先模拟,以 达到优化铸造工艺、缩短研发周期的目的;造型采用木 模实样法,模具制作方面应用五轴数控加工技术;熔炼 工艺采用计算机控制钢液精炼技术,熔炼过程应用快速 检测分析;热处理方面采用大型天然气炉,温差控制在 ±10℃;应用高精度的光谱分析议、气体分析仪及无损 检测技术。为此,共享铸钢公司依托国家级企业技术中 心成立了铸钢技术研究所,生产技术在国内乃至全球范 围内领先。 ■

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YMT Opens New Plant 悦马特压铸机新工厂开工 Recently, the opening ceremony of Jiangsu YMT Machinery Technology Co., Ltd. production base was held in Jintan district, Changzhou, Jiangsu Province . Jiangsu YMT is invested by Changzhou YMT Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd. with 50 million yuan, it will produce 400 sets of cold chamber die-casting machines per year and alleviate the inadequate production capacity. “In the past six years, our company grew rapidly and achieved excellent performance," said the general manager of Changzhou YMT, Li Qiqing. "We have sold 200 diecasting machines in 2017, 25% increase over last year.” According to Mr. Li, the new plant covers an area of 22,660 square meters, which is two times larger than the factory in Wujin. Changzhou YMT Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd. which is located in Wujin district, Changzhou, Jiangsu province was founded in 2012. It is a high-tech company specializing in the R&D, manufacture and sales of cold chamber die-casting machines, including the cold chamber aluminum and magnesium die-casting machines with clamping force between 160-3,000 tons as well as energysaving servo machines. After years of development, Changzhou YMT is widely well-recognized by its customers and YMT has become a new prominent brand in the die-casting machine industry. ■

近日,江苏悦马特机械科技有限公司(“江苏悦马 特”)生产基地开工典礼在常州市金坛区隆重举行。据 悉,江苏悦马特由常州悦马特机械制造有限公司(“常 州悦马特”)投资建设,总投资5000万元人民币,将 建成年产400台(套)冷室压铸机的规模。 常州悦马特总经理李启庆表示:“近6年来,公司快 速发展,取得优异的经营业绩,2017年全年压铸机销 量突破200台,同比增长25%。” 据李启庆先生介绍,江苏悦马特新工厂占地面积 22660平方米,是现有10000平方米武进工厂的两倍 多,项目总投资5000万元人民币,预计明年6月正式建 成投产。 常州悦马特机械制造有限公司成立于2012年,位 于江苏省常州市武进区,系一家从事冷室压铸机研 发、制造和销售的高新技术企业,主要研制锁模力从 160—3000吨冷室铝、镁合金压铸机,以及伺服节能 压铸机。经过多年的发展,公司的MT系列冷室压铸机 得到用户的广泛认可,悦马特也因此成为压铸机行业的 新锐企业。 ■

Wuxi Create Analytical Instruments: Direct-reading Spectrometer Leader 国产直读光谱仪引领者——创想仪器 Wuxi Create Analytical Instruments Co., Ltd. is an innovative high-tech enterprise with dozens of independent intellectual property rights. It is also an excellent supplier of large-scale analytical instrument and equipment manu-

无锡创想分析仪器有限公司是具有自主知识产权的 高科技企业,也是国内优秀的规模化分析仪器制造商。 专业从事分析仪器的研制开发、生产和销售。产品有直

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻 facturing in China. The company combines the fields of optics, computer, software development, analytical chemistry, machinery manufacturing, electronic engineering, materials, a large number of professional disciplines outstanding backbones of talent. The company is mainly engaged in research and development, production and marketing of analytical instruments. Products include a series of full-spectrum direct-reading spectrometer, a series of infrared carbon and sulfur analyzer, a series of intelligent multi-element analyzer; have an international leading level, widely used in various industries of industrial materials. The company passed ISO9001: 2008 quality management system certification, and have the implementation of CRM management which provides a strong guarantee to product quality and long-term development of enterprise. The company owns four invention patents, five appearance patents, 14 utility model patents, 2 software copyrights, and two high-tech products. The company is Jiangsu private technology enterprises and Jiangsu high-tech enterprise and is successfully listed in 2014 in Shanghai stock exchange Center. Wuxi established a regional marketing center and maintenance service department all over the country, and formed a strong and perfect marketing service network, providing customers with timely, convenient and thoughtful pre-sale, sale, after-sale service. Wuxi is at booth W3T36 at the 16th China International Foundry Expo (METAL CHINA 2018), May 16-19, CIEC(new venue), Beijing. ■ For more information, please visit: http://www.chxyq.com

读光谱仪、直读光谱分析仪、移动式光谱仪、X荧光手 持式光谱仪、便携式光谱仪、红外碳硫分析仪、多元素 分析仪等。是国内少数具有国际领先技术水平的光谱仪 厂家之一。 无锡创想分析仪器有限公司是具有自主知识产权的高 科技上市企业,也是国内优秀的规模化分析仪器设备制 造供应商。公司荟萃了光学、计算机、软件开发、分析 化学、机械制造、电子工程、材料等专业的一大批学科 优秀骨干人才。专业从事分析实验仪器的研制开发、生 产和销售。产品有系列全谱直读光谱仪、系列移动式直 读光谱仪、系列红外碳硫分析仪、系列多元素分析仪, 均具有国际领先的技术水平,广泛应用于各行业的工业 材料分析。 创想仪器公司在提供众多优质分析仪器的同时,以参 股、合作、代理的形式同国内机械性能、无损检测、金 相分析等设备厂商紧密合作,为顾客提供更为完善的实 验室整体解决方案。 欢迎参加将于5月16-19日在北京中国国际展览中心 (新馆)举办的“第十六届中国国际铸造博览会”,展 位号:W3T36。 ■ 更多公司信息,请登录网站http://www.chxyq.com了解。

Focus on Metal China 2018 聚焦Metal China 2018 Looking back in 2017, a lot of Chinese foundry companies were facing great difficulties under the pressure of environmental protection and safe production, however, the industry was still keeping a positive momentum. Green, intelligent and innovative development will be the theme in 2018. Metal China 2018 (the 16th China International Foundry Expo), sponsored by China Foundry Association, will be held from May 16-19, 2018 in CIEC (New venue), Beijing, China. The exhibition area will reach 108,000 square meters and it will attract more than 1000 exhibitors from over 20 countries and regions as well as more than 100,000 trade visitors attending the event. Metal China 2018 will provide a lot of trade platforms to exhibitors and visitors, such as brand promotion, marketing, new product release, business connection, and also build a bridge for the world foundrymen to communicate, share experiences and resources, and establish relationships. Metal China will be the world's largest foundry event in 2018. It is devoted to improving exhibition quality, creating customer value, and leading industry’s development. Metal China 2018 will show you the cutting-edge technologies of robots, 3D printing, online inspection and precision machining, intelligent foundry, total solution to energy-saving and

回顾2017年的中国铸造行业,环保与安全生产的严 格要求使部分企业的发展面临困境,但其整体发展趋 势良好。展望2018年,绿色发展、智能创新成为主旋 律。 由中国铸造协会主办的第十六届中国国际铸造博览 会(Metal China)将于2018年5月16-19日在中国国 际展览中心(顺义新馆)举办。本届展会的展示面积将 达到10.8万平方米,预计将有10余万专业观众参观展 会,来自海内外20多个国家和地区的千余家企业参展。 通过展览规模的扩大、专业服务的升级、宣传力度的加 大、展会活动内涵的丰富、观众体验与收获的提升等方 面,本届展会将为参展商和专业观众提供更广阔的品牌 推广、市场开拓、新品发布、商务洽谈的专业化商贸平 台,也将是铸造行业同仁沟通交流、资源共享、建立合 作的坚实桥梁。 本届博览会将是2018年全球范围内最大规模的国际 性铸造展会,着力创造客户价值、提升展会品质、引领 行业发展。在这里,您将看到全球机器人、3D打印、 在线监测及精密加工等前沿技术、智能铸造、节能环保

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻 eco-friendly safe production, advanced equipment, green materials and various high-quality castings. The innovations and Best-in-Class castings will once again challenge the impossible in the foundry industry, which will refresh your knowledge to the foundry industry. Metal China 2018 will provide you the access to experiences of foundry industry’s transform and upgrade as well as the “Belt and Road” new opportunities. Moreover, you will get the first-hand knowledge about the foundry industry’s development trend to keep pace with the times by attending a variety of supporting programs during the exhibition, in which well-known experts and professionals will share their deep sights, release new products and technologies. Metal China 2018 will be held during the same period with the 3rd China Foundry Festival. The 3rd China Foundry Festival will keep the grand scale as the last two sessions to display the new image and new accomplishments of Chinese foundry industry. Among the 100 supporting programs, the main activities include: the 8th General Meeting, the 14th Annual Congress, Belt and Road International Foundry Capacity Forum, the Founding of China Foundry Standards Alliance, the 3rd Award Ceremony for Top 100 Overall Comprehensive Enterprises, Pacesetter Enterprises, and “Specialized, fine, peculiar and new” Enterprises, Specialty Industry Cluster and Production Base Awarding ceremony, Awards for Best-in-class Castings, Innovation Award for Foundry Equipment and Materials.

和安全生产的整体解决方案、先进铸造设备、绿色铸 造材料及各类优质铸件;组委会评出的创新成果与特 别金奖铸件将再一次挑战铸造业的不可能,刷新您的 认知极限;在这里,您将分享到铸造行业转型升级的 成熟经验和“一带一路”带来的新机遇;在这里,您 也可以通过百余项系列配套活动,聆听知名专家学者 的深邃见解和行业最新各类成果发布信息,体悟到未 来铸造的发展趋势,在企业发展的新征程中,做出与 时俱进的战略规划…… 本届展会恰逢“第三届中国铸造节”,本次活动将 秉承前两届铸造节的“两会一展”、百余项活动的盛 大规模,集中展示中国铸造业强劲发展的新成就、新 形象。同期举办的主要活动有中国铸造协会第八届会 员代表大会、中国铸造协会年会、“一带一路”国际 铸造产能合作发展论坛、中国铸造业标准联盟成立大 会、第三届中国铸造行业综合百强、排头兵、专精特 新企业评选,特色产业集群、特色生产基地荣誉称号 授牌,优质铸件金奖、铸造装备创新奖、铸造材料金 鼎奖评选,权威行业专家现场咨询等百余项行业系列 活动。 同时,2018铸博会将更广泛地与媒体进行深入合 作。在宣传展会的同时,将为参展商提供更多宣传机

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻 Metal China 2018 will cooperate with media more extensively and deeply to attract more and more trade visitors from home and abroad to visit the exhibition, which will bring more benefits to the exhibitors. How to understand the international foundry market and what kind of new products will be launched in 2018? Metal China will guide you to witness the new pattern of the international foundry industry. See you on 16-19 May 2018, CIEC (new venue), Beijing. ■ For more information about Metal China 2018, please visit: www.expochina.cn or

会。打造强势媒体宣传阵营,吸引更多国内外的专业买 家前来参观,为参展商营造出更好的商贸氛围,扩大展 商的投入回报率。 2018年国际铸造行业企业有着怎样的市场布局?又 有什么新品推出?2018年5月16-19日在中国国际展览 中心(顺义新馆),Metal China 2018与您一同见证 国际铸造行业发展新格局。 ■ 更多信息敬请登陆展会官网www.expochina.cn, http://en.expochina.cn/

http://en.expochina.cn/

Elkem to Exhibit at Metal China 2018 埃肯将参展Metal China 2018 Elkem China has announced it will exhibit at Metal China 2018, which will be held May 16–19 in Beijing, China. Elkem will exhibit in booth E1N16, showcasing its latest technology solutions for metal treatment in iron foundries based on high quality MgFeSi and inoculants. Some of this information includes: • The new Elkem production plant in Ningxia is a stateof-the-art facility which produces MgFeSi alloys of high quality and in specifications designed especially for the China market. • Ultraseed® Bi inoculant that is more potent than conventional ferrosilicon based inoculants, gives high nodule count, has powerful chill reduction and reduces shrinkage tendency more than other inoculants. • Superseed® L inoculant that is extremely effective for grey iron casting and promotes less shrinkage. The product has a low melting point and is therefore good for low pouring temperature situations. Superseed is well known as a clean inoculant with absolute minimum of reactive elements. Visitors are invited to visit the booth to brainstorm ideas for their next foundry projects and hold discussions with members of Elkem’s Global Technical Service Team who will be available during the exhibition. "The Metal China is an excellent venue for both sharing and gathering information about our industry," said Mr. He LIU, Elkem China General Manager. "We are able to build awareness about exciting new Elkem technologies and their value in the Foundry industry. We look forward to discuss with booth visitors how our latest solutions and expertise can bring value to our customers' brands and product performance." ■

埃肯中国宣布将参加于5月16-19日在北京举办的“ 第十六届中国国际铸造博览会”(Metal China 2018 ),展位号是E1N16。埃肯公司将展示以高质量镁硅 铁和孕育剂为基础的最新的金属处理技术解决方案。相 关信息如下: • 埃肯公司在宁夏的新工厂是最先进的工厂,生产高 质量的镁硅铁合金,尤其专门为中国市场供应符合 要求的产品。 • Ultraseed® Bi孕育剂比传统的硅铁合金基孕育剂更 强大,具有更高的球墨数、有更强的冷却效果,减 少缩松。 • Superseed® L孕育剂对灰铸铁更有效且有助于 减少缩松。该产品的熔点更低,更适用于低温浇 注。Superseed是知名的清洁孕育剂,具有极少的 活性元素。 观众可在参观公司展位时,与埃肯的全球技术服务 团队进行探讨,为下一个铸造项目的合作展开头脑风 暴。 “Metal China是分享和收集行业信息的绝佳平 台,”埃肯中国总经理刘和先生表示,“通过参加该 展会,我们能够展示埃肯公司的新技术以及对于铸造行 业的价值体现。我们希望观众能够更加了解公司的最新 产品和技术,让他们了解埃肯公司的品牌价值和产品性 能。” ■

Victaulic to Build New Facility Victaulic公司将建新厂 AFS Corporate Member Victaulic (Easton, Pennsylvania), a manufacturer of mechanical pipe joining solutions, has unveiled a plan to build an additional state-of-the-art manufacturing center in Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania. The 400,000 sq. ft. facility is the result of increased domestic demand for the company’s products. The facility is expected to break ground later this year and

美国铸造协会会员企业Victaulic(宾夕法尼亚州伊 斯顿)是一家机械化管道连接设备的生产企业。为了满 足国内市场对于公司产品的需求,Victaulic公司宣布将 在宾夕法尼亚州理海谷新建一个占地400,000平方英尺 的先进制造中心。

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻 be fully operational in 2019. Along with the expansion, Victaulic anticipates adding 40-50 new jobs by the end of 2018. It is expected that many of the new positions will be filled by local talent from the area’s workforce. New hires will join the current Victaulic team of 3,600 employees globally. Victaulic has been a part of the Lehigh Valley business community for nearly 40 years. The new facility will be located on 28 acres of land located in Lower Nazareth Township, Pennsylvania. “This new facility will play an important role in meeting increased customer demand, while also producing the highest quality products in the industry—something our customers have come to expect from us since our first innovation nearly 100 years ago,” said John F. Malloy, CEO, Victaulic. “A major aspect of our business strategy has always been to manufacture products in close proximity to our customers. While we already manufacture 80% of domestically sold products in the United States, this facility will further enhance our product delivery capabilities, making our U.S. operations even more competitive.” In addition to housing the company’s current light assembly operation, which has been conducted in partnership with Cast-Pac Inc. for 20 years, the new facility will include several millions of dollars in new equipment to modernize its manufacturing operations. Robotic and optical technology in Victaulic’s new facility will advance the limits of quality control for the company’s castings and finished products through automated assembly operations. ■

工厂建设将于今年下半年动工并预计于2019年全面 投入使用。此外,Victaulic公司计划在2018年底前增 加40-50个就业岗位。很多新岗位将由本地劳动力补 充,新雇员将加入到公司在全球的3600名员工队伍。 Victaulic公司在理海谷商业界已有近40年历史,新 厂将建于宾夕法尼亚州下拿撒勒地区的28英亩土地上。 “新工厂将为满足客户需求起到重要的作用,为客 户提供质量最好的产品——公司将继续履行在近100年 前进行首次技术创新时对客户的承诺,”Victaulic公司 CEO约翰·F·马洛伊说,“公司的一项主要发展战略是就 近为客户提供产品。目前,公司80%的产品在美国国内 销售,新工厂将进一步提高产品供应能力,使公司在美 国市场更具竞争力。” 除容纳现有的轻量化产品组装线外,Victaulic公司与 Cast-Pac公司在该组装线上已合作了20年,新厂还将安 装数百元美元的现代化生产设备。Victaulic新厂的机器 人和光学技术将通过自动化组装线提高铸件和成品的质 量控制技术。 ■

Danko Arlington Invests in 3-D Sand Printing Danko Arlington公司投资3D砂型打印 Danko Arlington (Baltimore) recently installed its first 3-D sand printer, a Voxeljet VX1000-PDB which uses phenolic direct binding. The company has renovated and dedicated approximately 5,000 sq. ft of its original pattern shop (first constructed in 1945) to house the new equipment. According to a news release, the new additive manufacturing center also will house Danko Arlington’s two Stratasys Fortus 900mc 3-D printers which have been producing polycarbonate patterns and core boxes since 2010. President John Danko stressed the importance of the addition. He said the lead times will shrink from weeks or months to days, new national and international markets will open for the company and the facility is planning to create more jobs in sales, CAD, engineering, inspection, grinding, and machining. “The new 3-D sand printing allows our 98-year-old company to make complex molds and cores during nights and weekends—unattended,” Danko said. “The precision, accuracy, and reliability of the printer will enable our foundry to produce nearinvestment-like, x-ray grade castings in sand. Jobs that my father and grandfather ‘no-quoted’ because of their complexity can be molded overnight without human involvement.” Per the release, the company “looks forward” to inviting commercial and military customers, founders, manufacturers, educators, and local legislators to formally view its new additive manufacturing center in the spring of 2018. ■

最近,位于美国巴尔的摩的Danko Arlington公司安 装了Voxeljet公司的VX1000-PDB酚醛树脂打印设备, 这是Danko Arlington公司安装的首台3D砂型打印设 备。 Danko Arlington公司是由Modern Casting杂志 评选的2017年优秀铸件生产企业。公司翻新改造了建 于1945年占地约5000平方英尺(约465平方米)的 造型车间用于安装新设备。据报道,新的增材制造中 心还将容纳2台Stratasys Fortus 900mc型号3D打印 机,Danko Arlington公司早在2010年就使用这2台设 备生产聚碳酸酯模型和芯盒。 Danko Arlington公司称,“即将成立的新一代增材 制造中心将是巴尔的摩西北部地区的首个铸造行业增材 制造中心,公司客户、工程师、艺术家和学生将有机会 近距离接触这项了不起的新技术。” 据报道,Danko Arlington公司计划于2018年春季 邀请商业和军工领域的客户、创办人、制造商、教培人 员以及地方行政管理人员参观增材制造中心

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

Busche Performance Group and MetalX Reach Agreement Busche Performance集团与MetalX公司达成合作协议 AFS Corporate Member Busche Performance Group and MetalX announced they have reached an agreement in which MetalX will be responsible for managing the activities related to sourcing all aluminum raw materials for Busche foundry operations. MetalX assumed responsibility for management of all activities related to the sourcing, procurement, delivery, and administration associated with aluminum scrap and refined aluminum products consumed and generated by Busche’s aluminum foundries. The Busche foundries will maintain direct responsibility for payment to suppliers, establishment of material specifications, and governing terms and conditions. “This agreement will allow the foundry division to be better connected to the aluminum markets and gain significant benefits from the MetalX team’s expertise with buying and selling of aluminum raw materials in the metals marketplace,” said Daniel D. Dressler, vice president of procurement and business development, Busche. “This will also allow Busche foundries to focus on growing their foundry operations and partner with a highly regarded metals recycling and trading company that already has demonstrated performance with managing scrap for all of our US machining facilities.” MetalX will be sourcing approximately 70 million lbs. per year of high-purity low-Fe A356 alloy aluminum, and seeking to develop additional suppliers that will include scrap processors, secondary producers, and industrial generators. ■

美国铸造协会会员企业Busche Performance 集团 和MetalX公司宣布双方已达成合作协议,MetalX公 司将负责Busche铸造厂与铝合金原材料采购有关的业 务。 MetalX公司将负责Busche铸造厂铝合金铸造业务方 面与铝合金原材料及铝合金制品的采购、运输、管理等 有关的所有业务。Busche铸造厂将继续负责供应商的 结算、材料规格要求的制定以及管理合同条款。 “该合作将使公司的铸造业务更好地与铝合金市场 对接,并且从MetalX公司团队的专业采购和销售铝合 金原材料服务中获得巨大的利益,”Busche铸造厂采 购和业务开发副总裁Daniel D. Dressler说,“这也将 使Busche铸造厂更加专注于铸造业务的发展,并且与 这家全美知名的机加工行业的金属回收和贸易公司合 作。” MetalX公司每年将采购近7000万英镑的高纯低铁 A356合金铝,并继续开发更多的供应商,包含废钢铁 加工企业、二级生产商以及工业发电企业。 ■

Waupaca Works With Local Technical College Waupaca与当地的技术学院合作 AFS Corporate Member Waupaca Foundry, a Hitachi Metals company, has partnered with Fox Valley Technical College to educate, train and develop employees. According to a report from WaupacaNow.com, seven Waupaca employees recently earned associate’s degrees from FVTC’s Quality Engineering Technology program. They studied for almost three years before earning their degrees. “This immersion included a leadership element while developing a critical skill set for our growing company,” said Kirk Kallio, human resources manager, Waupaca Foundry, according to the report. “The education was provided at Fox Valley Tech’s Waupaca Regional Center. It’s uplifting to see how these employees grew as people, not just as workers.” Scott Bailey, a graduate of the program, told WaupacaNow.com that “the foundry cares about its employees.” “We are now more confident than when we started our journey,” he said. ■

美国铸造协会会员企业、日立金属集团子公司沃帕卡 铸造厂,与福克斯谷技术学院合作开展教育培训项目。 据WaupacaNow.com报道,沃帕卡铸造厂的7名员 工经过近3年的学习,最近获得了福克斯谷技术学院质 量工程技术项目授予的大专学位。 “在为公司发展培训关键技能的同时,这种浸入式的 学习还包括领导力课程,”沃帕卡铸造厂的人力资源经 理Kirk Kallio说,“培训项目在福克斯谷技术学院的沃 帕卡中心授课,我们非常高兴地看到我们的员工不仅接 受了业务方面的培训,还进行了全面的素质培训。” 该项目的毕业生Scott Bailey对WaupacaNow.com 说:“公司非常关注员工的成长,我们现在比刚参加工 作时更加自信了。”

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

Lodge Manufacturing Opens Second Tennessee Foundry Lodge Manufacturing田纳西州第二家工厂投产 AFS Corporate Member Lodge Manufacturing Co. (South Pittsburg, Tennessee) has begun operations at its second metalcasting facility in Tennessee. The 127,000 sq. ft. facility is located blocks from the company’s original foundry, which is still in production. Lodge broke ground on the new plant in the middle of 2016 and production began in November 2017. This facility, nicknamed the 3rd Street Foundry, has a melt center with two induction furnaces, a sand system and a pair of sand molding machines. With the new addition, Lodge has increased its manufacturing capacity by 75%. “We made the pour from our new foundry on Nov. 20 and, while we continue to calibrate the new equipment and gear up operations, we’re still able to process cookware in the Sixth Street facility for seasoning, finishing and packing,” Mark Kelly, public relations manager, Lodge, said according to the Times Free Press. “But we’re up and running in our new facility now and eager to have the additional capacity for both our current product line and for new additions in the future.” ■

美国铸造协会会员企业Lodge Manufacturing公司(田 纳西州南匹兹堡)在田纳西州的第二家工厂已投入生产。 新厂距离仍在生产中的老厂有几个街区的距离,占 地127000 sq. ft.(约11800平方米)。新厂于2016年 中旬开始动工,并于2017年11月投产。 新工厂被人们称为第三街铸造厂,拥有熔炼中心、 安装有2台感应炉,1套砂处理系统以及2台造型设备。 新厂的建成,使Lodge公司的生产能力提高75%。 “11月20日,新厂完成首次浇注后,我们继续调试 新设备,做好正式生产准备。我们仍能在第六街工厂 加工厨具,例如干燥、表面处理和包装,”Lodge公 司的公关经理Mark Kelly在Times Free Press的采访中 说,“我们现在已做好准备,希望今后老厂和新厂都能 继续增加现有产品和新产品的生产能力。” ■

Bremen Announces Agreement to Use 3-D Printing Technology Bremen宣布在3D打印技术领域开展合作 AFS Corporate Member Bremen Castings Inc. (Bremen, Indiana) and Eaton (Dublin, Ireland) entered into an agreement to accelerate product development for hydraulics customers by using 3-D printing technology. BCI and Eaton will use a 3-D printer from AFS Corporate Member ExOne in the foundry and machine shop at BCI. This technology will give both companies access to print 3-D sand molds and cores used in the iron casting process. “Utilizing 3-D printing in this way lays the groundwork for both companies to save time in material, tooling, engineering, inventory, transportation, and startup cost for new projects,” JB Brown, president, BCI, said in a news release. “The addition of this 3-D printer allows BCI to produce cores and molds for low-volume work and prototypes without producing expensive and timeconsuming tooling for customers.” “Along with our foundry and machine shop, BCI can supply a true, machined-complete prototype casting to customers before final approval, adding value to our customers by shortening the timeline of bringing new product to market,” the company said in a news release. “BCI looks forward to this new relationship with Eaton and continuing to bring jobs of the future to the Bremen area.” ■

美国铸造协会会员企业Bremen铸造厂(印第安纳州 不莱梅)和Eaton公司(爱尔兰都柏林)达成了合作协 议,将采用3D打印技术为液压设备客户加速产品研发 的步伐。Bremen铸造厂和Eaton公司将在Bremen铸造 厂的铸造和机加工中心使用美国铸造协会会员企业ExOne 的3D打印设备,将为铸铁件打印3D砂型和砂芯。 “采用3D打印技术,将节约两家公司在材 料、模具、加工、储存、运输以及投产方面的成 本,”Bremen铸造厂董事长JB Brown在报道中表 示,“3D打印设备的使用,使Bremen铸造厂可以为小 批量和原型生产需求提供砂芯和砂型,而无需为制作模 具耗费时间付出高成本。” 公司表示,“与铸造和加工车间一起,Bremen铸 造厂还可以在最终确认之前为客户提供准确的、完全 机加工的原型铸件,缩减了新产品面市的周期,为客 户提供了增值服务。Bremen铸造厂希望与Eaton公司 建立新的合作关系,并且为Bremen提供充满前景的 工作岗位。”

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INDUSTRY NEWS/行业新闻

Advanced Cast Products Wins Safety Award ACP公司荣获安全生产奖 AFS Corporate Member Advanced Cast Products Inc. (Meadville, Pennsylvania) has won the 2017 Governor’s Award for Safety Excellence. “Our mindfulness toward the health and wellness of the Advanced Cast Products team is the result of a company’s team effort, and we are proud to share the honor of this award with our community,” the company said in a news release. “We thank you for your support and look forward to continuing our excellence standards to provide our customers with an unparalleled product derived from the highest safety practice standards possible.” ACP was one of 57 applicants reviewed and was chosen among the top six for an onsite visit. Only three of those companies earned the honor. ACP was presented the award on Oct. 30, and there was an onsite presentation from the state’s department of labor and industry on Nov. 15. ACP is a ductile iron foundry with a programmed Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI) heat-treating line. ACP’s primary markets include heavy truck, construction equipment, railroad and mining parts. ■

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美国铸造协会会员企业Advanced Cast Products Inc.(宾夕法尼亚州米德维尔)荣获2017年安全生产管 理者奖。 公司表示,“我们对于公司团队健康安全的密切关注 是全体公司成员努力的结果,我们非常高兴与我们的团 队分享这一荣誉。非常感谢你们的支持,我们将继续保 持良好的安全表现,为我们的客户提供具有最高安全生 产水准的无可比拟的产品。” ACP公司是进入评比的57个申请企业之一,并且被 选为6个现场参观的企业之一。仅有3个同类企业获此殊 荣。ACP公司在10月30日接受颁奖,11月15日,劳工 部的代表团现场参观了公司。 ACP是一家具备奥氏体(ADI)球墨铸铁热处理线的 球墨铸铁生产企业,公司的主要用户是重卡、建筑工程 设备、铁路和采矿设备零部件。 ■

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Methods and Measures to Reduce the Solder Defect of Die Casting Surface zhengyu gao, quakerchem (china) co. ltd., shanghai

改善压铸件表面粘模缺陷的方法和措施 奎克化学(中国)有限公司 高正宇

T

he solder defect in diecasting affects surface quality and strength, especially in castings with a high seal requirement. The defect could lead to leakage that would mean more wasted cost (Fig 1.). Four aspects of soldering was analyzed, including chemical principle, mold structure, release agent and die casting process. For example, JAC die casting company in Suzhou, China, supplies parts to customers that don’t allow solder to be visible to the naked eye. For a German company in Shandong, China, which produces automobile parts, the solder defect area can be no more than 20 x 20 mm. Another company which produces parts with thin walls and high temperature pouring, have found it is at higher risk for solder defects. What factors cause the solder defect? What’s the physical or chemical change between the liquid aluminum and hot iron mold? This article will share the results of a study on this defect based on the chemical principle, mold structure, release agent and die casting process. Interfacial reaction is a series of chemical interactions that occur between the interface of two phases, according to chemical type, content, status and properties. Solder defect is started by the chemical and physic reaction due to the strong affinity in Fe-Al. A new compound is created when the mold and liquid Al connect closely. The higher the temperature, the more intense the thermal vibration of the atoms, causing the solder ratio to rise and the corrosion of the mold to increase, until finally, it causes the solder area. When polished, the surface containing a thin nitride layer will be destroyed, causing worse cycle. Some data in the study showed that the affinity of Fe-Al will become more serious as the Fe element is decreased, bringing more solder.

Mold Design The external source The solder defect was caused by unreasonable mold design and heat treatment. The purpose of nitriding that get high hardness and abrasion performance of moil surface. It will get 950~1200HV of surface hardness, and not decreased when the temperature raise 560˜600°C it will produce an oxidation film that Fig. 1.

铸件粘模缺陷直接影响着产品的外观和强度, 尤其是有密封要求的铸件,粘模严重会导致 局部泄漏,造成不必要的浪费,本文针对压铸 件出现粘模的原因,从化学原理、模具结构、脱模剂成 分、压铸工艺参数等四个方面进行进行分析,并采取相 应的措施,大大降低了不良率。 随着市场竞争的不断加大,很多主机厂商向零部件商 提出了高规格要求,仅从铸件结构强度上合格很难满足 客户需求,铸件表面质量至关重要,它不仅影响零件外 观,过多的表面缺陷更直接影响铸件气密问题(图1所示) 。在走访多家压铸厂时发现,许多厂商因为铸件表面粘 模导致无法交货。如苏州一家生产汽车阀盖类产品的日 企,客户对其铸件表面质量要求很高,不仅整个铸件无 黑斑,而且不允许有轻微粘模。这使得该公司投入大部 分精力去解决该问题;山东一家生产汽车变速器壳体等 的德资企业,尽管铸件重量在10~15kg,但对铸件粘模 缺陷要求也十分苛刻,因为终端客户对铸件表面质量要 求很高,局部粘模面积不允许超过20mm×20mm;广东 一家做3C产品的薄壁压铸厂,对产品的要求更是十分严 格,整个铸件表面不允许有肉眼可见的粘模缺陷…… 作者简介:高正宇(1984-),男,汉族,铸造工程师, 本科,主要研究方向:压铸工艺,压铸脱模剂 电话:021-39201666,电子信箱:scybgzy@163.com 粘模成因:粘模现象由哪些因素导致的,铝液和铁模 具是否产生一些物理和化学上的变化导致粘模,以下从 金属界面反应、模具的设计、脱模剂的影响以及设备和 工艺参数分析成因。 界面反应: 界面反应是根据两相之间接触表面的特性及表面上的 各种化学物质种类、含量、存在状态及性质,且在一定 的条件下发生的各种化学反应。 粘模是通过化学反应和机械粘接造成的,由于铝合 金对铁有很强的亲和力, 铝液在和模具接触时,会 产生一种铝合金和模具材 料的化合物,导致模具和 合金紧紧包在一起,铝液 或模具温度越高,原子的 热振动就越激烈,原子被 激活而进行迁移的几率就 越大【1】,铝液对模具 的腐蚀变得越来越大,最 终在模具表面形成了粘模 图1 高温粘模缺陷 Fig. 1

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图2:因粘模问 题造成的铸件 和模具缺陷

Fig. 2.

has good property of resistant to corrosion, it will cause rough surface if poor heat treatment that caused thin nitride layer; the small draft angle of mold or inverse draft with core or wall; the unreasonable gating system, which can lead to scour core and wall directly (Fig. 2).

The internal source Due to the dead zone of the cool channel, when designing the mold, some walls are made thick, but this can lead to a high temperature area, and therefore result in the solder defect. The high temperature at the ingate would cause it to be seriously scoured (Fig. 3).

Release Agent Performance The release agent properties The release agent interacts with the mold directly, producing an isolation layer that can help the casting depanning. The agent contains water, wax, mineral oil, grease, silicon and some emulsifier The water can cool the mold cool, and wax can be a carrier that spreads the lubrication throughout the mold, decreasing the wetting angle, reducing the Leidenfrost effect (meaning the liquid can’t wet the high temperature surface, merely producing a steam layer), and helping the components to link. As a lubrication, silicon is very important. Different styles achieve different performances. The emulsifier can promote the components to mix uniformly and reduce the surface tension, which is important in water-base release agents. The emulsifiers disperses, moistens, solubilizes, and when stirring, it can make those organic solvents become minute particles suspended in water before finally becoming an O/W stable emulgator (Fig. 4) The isolating layer produces some chemical and physical reactions when the liquid becomes solid, so the release agent’s performance reducing the solder defect is important if other processes are the same. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG or TGA) is a technology that analyzes the relationship of sample weight and temperature variation. It is used for heat stability of material and components. Figure 5 displays three material curves of the effect on component weight when the temperature rises. As the temperature rises, the slope of the curve is the largest. When the range is 200-400, the loss of the mold component is the most serious. As the temperature continues to rise, the curve region slows down; this is the heat exchange interval between the mold and the metal liquid. The high temperature resistance of the release agent is represented by the red dotted line in Fig. 5. According to the figure, the red dotted line has the best result. TGA curves indicate the best mold temperature range is 200-300, where the metal liquid has good fluidity and the property of lubricating is best. The Fig. 3.

区,出现粘模后,工人用打磨工具清理,这样模具上的 的氮化层极易遭到破坏,模具腐蚀更快,粘模现象更为 激烈;有资料显示,若铝合金铁含量越低,金属液与型 腔的亲和力越大,化学粘模现象越明显【2】。有些公司 为了提高模具表面耐腐蚀性,防止粘模,在模具上镀上 一些稀有金属如钼合金、钨合金、钛合金或者非金属的 特种氮化物等等。

模具设计: 外部结构引起粘模 铸件粘模大多是由于模具结构设计原因或后续处理 不当造成的。模具表面渗氮或碳氮共渗热处理目的是 获得更高的表面硬度和耐磨性,氮化后的表面硬度可达 950~1200HV,它的高硬度和高耐磨性可保持到560 ~600℃而不降低【1】,其表面形成致密氧化膜,具 有良好的抗腐蚀性能,如果热处理不充分导致氮化层过 薄或不均,或人为打磨导致氮化层破坏造成型壁表面粗 糙;另外,模具拔模斜度过小;型芯或者型壁出现反斜 度现象;浇注系统设计不合理,铝液直接冲刷型壁或者 型芯,如图2所示。1内部结构引起的粘模 由于模具设计过程中冷却水道有盲区,出现模仁 局部过厚现象, 通常自来水压力(≤4bar)无法冷却 >25mm的模厚,因此出现局部高温,产生粘模现象; 高温铝水对浇口的冲刷最严重,该处若得不到及时冷 却,很容易造成分流锥或浇口附近本体腐蚀,造成严重 粘模,图3所示。

脱模剂的作用 脱模剂原理 脱模剂与模具直接接触,它在金属液和模具之间形成 一层致密的隔离层,保证金属液冷却后能顺利脱模。脱 模剂一般由水、蜡、矿物油、酯、硅油以及一些表面活 性剂组成,其中水主要起到冷却模具和载体作用;蜡可 以作为载体并将脱模剂有效成分铺展在模具上,减小浸 润角,降低Leidenfrost效应【3】(液体不会润湿炙热 的表面,而仅仅在其上形成一个蒸汽层的现象),并且 保证各组成分之间有一定的粘度结合;硅油在脱模剂里 面起到至关重要作用,主要的润滑性来自它,不同质量 的硅油对铸件脱模起到的作用区别较大,表面活性剂则 保证各种成分的均匀混合,起到如乳化作用,用以降低 液体的表面张力,增加乳液的乳 化效果,乳化剂对水基脱模剂体系 的稳定至关重要,有乳化、分散、 增湿及增溶等功能,在搅拌的作用 下,可将有机溶剂以极细致的颗 粒状均匀分散并悬浮在连续的水相 中,形成水包油O/W型稳定的乳 液[4],如图4所示: 在液相变成固相的过程中,

图3:浇口附近高温区域粘模

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Water valve style

Mold temperature (after opening mold)

Product describe

Closed

390~400°C

Serious solder and drop pieces often

水阀状态

红外温度(开模)

关闭

370~380°C Semi open

半开

Full open

全开

320~330°C

Solder degree

产品描述

粘模等级 1

粘模严重,常伴随缺肉现象

Serious solder and drop pieces sometimes

2

粘模严重,偶尔有粘缺肉现象 Solder little and drop pieces hardly

3

粘模降低,几乎无粘缺肉现象

Definition: The solder degree is 1~4, 4 is the best, and the 1 is the worst. the press of water is 0.4Mpa

备注:粘模等级1~4级,4级最好,1级最差,水压0.4Mpa

图4:脱模剂的基本组成成

Fig. 4.

high-quality release agent can make the water-based diluent evaporate very quickly. By not increasing the gas in the cavity, there is no accumulation, the mold is coated evenly; no corrosion occurs, the demulsifying effect is good, there is low COD, and pollution sources are reduced.

Die casting equipment and process parameters High speed injection can improve the filling capacity of a casting. Even some of the aggregated stomatal defects can be scattered. Gas defects are easy to avoid. Similarly, high pressure diecast can make achieve optimal density and good surface quality while reducing porosity or shrinkage defects. However, disadvantages include a propensity for the joint flash defect to occur, difficulties when polishing, going beyond the specified range size, and difficulty in cleaning the mold. Additionally, the bonding force between the metal liquid and mold will increase, producing the solder defect and greatly reducing the lift of the diecasting machine.

Solution of the solder After analyzing some solder sources from diecasting process and chemical principles (metal liquid characteristics, mold structure, release agent performance and other aspects) in production, according to the characteristics of the castings, the following conclusions were made.

Reduce aluminum temperature reasonably The higher the temperature, the stronger the affinity of the Fe-Al, and the more obvious the solder of the mold. Figure 7 displays the temperature field by infrared thermometer in a foundry that produces cylinder blocks The five points of icons are higher in temperature, and the corresponding solder defect are more serious. The temperature from SP1 to SP5 is from high to low, and the Fig. 5.

该层界面会产生一系列的物理和 化学反应,若要降低铸件粘模缺 陷,在其他工艺条件都一致的前 提下,脱模剂质量好坏就显得尤 为重要。 热重分析(Thermogravimetric Analysis,TG或TGA)是指在程序 控制温度下测量待测样品的质量与 温度变化关系的一种热分析技术, 用来研究材料的热稳定性和组分。 图5是三种脱模剂在随着温度上升 过程中,残留在模具表面的有效成 分逐渐减少的曲线,这是通过热重 分析法得出的曲线图。 当温度在200℃~400℃范围 时,随着温度的升高,曲线斜率最 大,这时候脱模剂成分损失最严重,随着温度继续升高, 曲线区域缓慢降低,这段区间正是模具和金属液进行热交 换区间,从图5可以看出,脱模剂耐高温性依次为红色点画 线、绿色实线、蓝色虚线。说明红色点画线对应的脱模剂 性能最好。 TGA曲线图充分说明模温最佳温度范围在200℃ ~300℃,既保证金属液有较好的流动性,又充分发挥了 脱模剂的润滑性能。 优质的脱模剂需要保证水基溶液里的稀释剂能很快地挥 发掉,不增加型腔内气体; 与模具亲和力强,并不产生堆 积,保证涂覆均匀;对模具及铸件不产生腐蚀作用; 破乳 效果良好,COD排放值抵,降低环境污染源…… 压铸设备及工艺参数 高速压射可以大大提高铸件充型能力,甚至有时候还 能打散一些聚集性气孔缺陷,很容易解决一些缺陷问题; 高压原理也一样,铸件致密度高,表面质量良好,而且 气孔或缩孔缺陷可以因为高 压而缩小直径至工艺要求范 围,但往往带来更多不利缺 陷,飞边是最明显的一类缺 陷,如图6所示,这样的飞 边往往不仅造成铸件清理 困难,衍生出铸件表面分层 造成加工掉肉,铸件尺寸超 出规定范围,模具滑块进铝 导致清理困难等问题,同时 加剧了金属液与模具的结合 力,加大了粘模现象,大大 图5 TGA曲线图

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图6:高速高压造成铸件飞边

Fig. 6.

degree of solder is reduced, the five points are thicker, and the water cooling effect is relatively poor. Figure 8 is the degree which the SP1 temperature is the highest point of the casting. After adjusting the position of spraying and the time of spraying, the solder has been reduced greatly. In the test, which pointed cooling of the mold at the same process, the water valve corresponding to the position of the solder near the ingate was tested when closed, semi open and fully open. The results are in Table 1. After the normal mold cycle, the temperature reached 200, which was too low to affect the coating performance of the release agent. Therefore, the cooling water pipe was opened as much as possible, which reduced the surface temperature of the mold, the reaction of Fe-Al interface, and thus the solder defect.

Selection of release agent and spraying method The release agent is the main aspect causing the solder defect. It produces a film between the liquid metal and the mold. The performance of the film (extensibility, lubricity, high temperature resistance) directly determines the solder of the casting. After long-term production, the mold’s surface is impregnated and the corrosion of the mold is reduced. When a poor quality release agent is sprayed, the 10% surface spots will appear in the shortterm, which reduces the surface quality of the mold greatly. In order to improve the cycle, some manufacturers use a fixed spray; when the mold open, it is sprayed immediately with large atomization. At this time, the mold temperature is very high (above 350), which is when the mold surface temperature exceeds the Leidenfrost temperature (the wall temperature corresponding to the minimum heat flux in the droplet boiling curve). The solid liquid can’t be directly contacted, and the vapor film is formed between the solid and liquid so the heat transfer coefficient is much lower than that in the core boiling. In this way, a lot of release agents are wasted. When the mold temperature is down to 200-250, a large number of effective components of release agent can be coated on the surface of the mold. The best spraying method is the phase spraying from left to right and back. It can give the release agent sufficient time to attach to the surface of the mold. Excessive or longer spraying doesn’t effectively coat the surface of the mold. On the contrary, the unattached components in the front were washed away by the spray behind in the study. Dilution ratio and spraying volume should be appropriate because if the release agent has a high ratio or spraying is poor, the mold is more susceptible to solder.

Reducing the high speed and pressure reasonably In order to make the casting achieve good surface and quality, many diecasters often use high speed and high pressure to reduce the defect, especially when shrinkage holes and blowholes are present. However, only increasing the pressure will produce the solder defect and reduce the life of the mold and equipment. When the shrinkage cavity Fig. 7.

缩短了模具和压铸机的寿命。 粘模的解决办法 以上从压铸工艺和化学原理(金属液 特性、模具结构、脱模剂性能等方面) 分析粘模形成的原因,在实际生产中, 结合铸件的自身特点,扬长避短,从以 下几个方面说明: 合理降低模具温度 从粘模成因1可以看出温度越高, 铝液和模具亲和力越强,粘模现象越明显,图7是红外测 温仪对某厂缸体模具开模检测的温度场,图标识的5个点 温度较高,对应的粘模程度也较严重,而且从sp1~sp5 点的温度由高到低,粘模程度也对应降低,这五个点模具 壁较厚,水冷却效果相对较差,图8是SP1温度最高点对 应的铸件粘模程度,通过调整喷涂位置及喷涂时间后,粘 模现象降低了很多。 笔者在模具点冷时做过试验,统一喷涂、工艺参数不变 前提下,将浇口附近易粘模位置对应的水阀采取关闭、半 开、全开3种状态各生产50件去试验,得出结果如下表: 模具正常生产后,温度很快就达到200℃以上,不必担 心模具温度过低导致脱模剂涂覆性能,因此尽量开启冷却 水管,降低模具温度,进而降低铝-铁界面反应和提高脱 模剂附着力。 脱模剂的选取和喷涂方式 降低铸件粘模缺陷另一重要的辅料就是脱模剂,它在 金属液和模具之间产生一层隔膜,这层隔膜的性能(铺展 性、润滑性、耐高温性)直接决定铸件粘模程度,因此在 选择脱模剂时,尽量选取知名公司产品,既可以保证脱模 剂成分的稳定性,也可以起到保护模具的作用,良好的脱 模剂不仅有较好的脱模作用,而且还能在模具上形成一层 保护层,长期生产后浸渗模具表面,降低金属液的浸蚀。 对于表面质量要求相对较高的3C产品,如手机壳或灯罩 类,一旦劣质脱模剂喷涂后,模具表面短期内就能形成一 成腐蚀斑点,大大降低模具表面质量。 喷涂方式对产品粘模也非常重要,有些厂家为了提高生 产周期,在模具开模取件后即可进行喷涂,而且雾化量很 大,这时候模具温度很高(350℃以上),当传热面温度 超过leidenfrost温度(液滴沸腾曲线中最小热通量所对应 的壁温)后固液完全不能直接接触,固液间形成蒸汽膜,换 热系数较核沸腾时大为降低[5]。这样其实浪费了大量的脱 模剂,因为这样的温度并不利于脱模剂的铺展,更多的用 脱模剂去降温。待模具温度降低至200℃~250℃时,大 量的脱模剂有效成分才能涂覆在模具表面。脱模剂最好的 喷涂方式就是最佳的雾化方式实现 来回喷涂,这样保证脱模剂有充分 的时间附着模具表面。过多或过量 的喷涂方式并不能有效地将脱模剂 涂覆在模具表面,相反,前面未附 牢固的成分被后面的喷涂给冲刷掉 了; 脱模剂的稀释和喷涂量应适 量,如果脱模剂用水稀释过高或喷 涂量过少,容易产生较薄皮膜及局 部油膜断裂,压铸件出现拉伤,粘 模等现象[5]。

图7:影响粘模缺陷的模具温度场

46

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图8:sp1点高温区对应的粘模缺陷

Fig. 8.

occurs, maybe it is caused by poor pressure. check whether the nitrogen cylinder pressure gauge is suitable, whether the aluminum liquid spectrum and density are in the process requirement range and so on.

Maintenance of mold For nitriding molds, the polishing should be done carefully to prevent the surface breaking, and avoid more polish and solder. The tungsten carbide rod coating machine can be used for pouring parts or core of the ingate, on the surface of the mold, for EDM type metallurgical spraying tungsten carbide particle layer, tungsten particles and matrix metal binding. It can improve the resistant solder performance on the mold surface, such as a coating die surface layer deposited in 2~4μm. The hardness can get HV4000 ~ 4500, and max resistant temperature can reach 800C. Solder has a great influence on the production and quality of die castings. Good gate system design can improve the quality of casting. Using low mold temperature as far as the quality of the product is guaranteed (the mold temperature can’t be too low, otherwise it will increase the tightening force and product cold lap defect) is also recommended. Low aluminum temperature, low speed and low pressure to produce, will require less solder to polish or low hardness in the metal, preventing the mold nitrided layer from being destroyed. A good release agent and reasonable spraying process also can increase the quality. ■

保证质量前提下,降低高速和铸 造压力 为了使铸件达到光洁的表面和 良好的内部质量,不少厂家常使用 高速、高压生产铸件,尤其是出现 缩孔和气孔缺陷的时候。铸件的缩 孔、气孔等缺陷不一定只有增加压 力或速度才能解决,一味的加大压 力不仅会增加粘模几率,而且将大 大降低模具和设备寿命,出现缩孔时,查找原因,是否是 铸造压力不够造成的,检查氮气瓶压力表是否合适,铝液 光谱和密度当量是否在工艺要求范围等……。 模具的维护保养: 对已氮化过的模具,抛光要慎重,防止破坏表面的氮化 层,防止越抛光越粘模的情况;对于内浇道冲击部位或型 芯,可以使用碳化钨棒涂覆机,对模具表面以电火花型冶 金方式喷涂碳化钨微颗粒层,金属钨微粒与基体金属结合 不会脱落,能提高模具表面的抗粘模性,如压铸模具表面 层内沉积2~4μm厚的涂层,其硬度可达HV4000~4500 ,使用温度可达800℃[6]。 粘模对生产和质量都有着很大的影响,合理的浇道设 计,保证产品质量前提下尽量低模温(模温也不能太低, 否则会增大抱紧力和出现产品冷隔缺陷)、低铝温、低高 速、低高压生产,局部粘模需要铝抛光磨头打磨或硬度较 低的金属铲除,防止模具氮化层破坏;选择良好的脱模剂 性能和合理的喷涂工艺等才能保证质量。■

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Global Casting Production Growth Stalls Worldwide casting production grew by less than half a percent for the second year in a row in 2016.

全球铸件产量增长乏力 2016年全球铸件产量低速增长,连续两年增速低于0.5%。

I

n 2016, worldwide casting production was 104.4 million metric tons, a near match to 2015’s reported 104.1 million metric tons, according to this year’s Census of World Casting Production conducted by Metal Casting Design & Purchasing’s sister publication Modern Casting. Casting growth from 2014 to 2015 was 0.4%, and from 2015-2016, it was 0.2%. This year’s census includes 36 nations from four continents. Of the 32 countries with data for the last two years, 14 reported an uptick in production. The information in this census comes from surveys collected from various country’s metalcasting associations and organizations. The data reflects casting shipments for the year 2016, the latest year in which all data is available. The world’s top 10 casting producing nations produced 91.6 million metric tons of the total 104.4 million metric tons. The China Foundry Association reported a 5.4% increase since 2015, putting its total production at 47.2 million metric tons—45% of total world casting production. The Institute of Indian Foundrymen reported a 5.4% increase in production in India, to 11.35 million metric tons, gaining space ahead of the U.S., which has seen lower tonnage shipped in 2015 and 2016 compared to 2014 due to flagging production for iron-heavy industries such as agriculture, oil and mining. The U.S. is expecting growth of 2.8% in tonnage and 4.7% in casting sales in 2018. The remaining 2016 top 10 casting nations by tonnage are Japan at 5.2 million, Germany at 5.2 million, Russia at 3.9 million, Republic of Korea at 2.6 million, Mexico at 2.56 million (2015 data), Brazil at 2.1 million, and Italy at 2.1 million. Worldwide, the production of ferrous castings, including gray iron, ductile iron, malleable iron, and steel, was down by 1%. Considering ferrous casting makes up nearly 80% of total tonnage, the impact of was felt by many nations. However, nonferrous production grew by 5.7%, highlighting the continued trend of using lighter metals in what had been typically ferrous applications. ■ 48

今年Modern Casting的全球铸件产量统计 报告,2016年,全球铸件产量为1.044

亿吨,与2015年1.041亿吨的产量接近。全球铸件产量 2014-2015年增长了0.4%,2015-2016年的增速为0.2%。 今年的统计包含了4大洲的36个国家和地区的数据。 其中,32个国家和地区包含了近两年的数据,14个国 家和地区的产量增长。本报告中的数据均来自于各国和 地区铸造行业协会和行业组织。统计全面反映了2016 年的铸件产量,也是近年来各项数据最全的一次。 全球十大铸件生产国的铸件总产量为9160万吨。 据中国铸造协会统计,中国2016年的铸件产量达 4720万吨,同比增长5.4%,占全球总产量的45%。印 度铸造协会提供的数据表明,印度2016年的总产量为 1135万吨,同比增长5.4%,发展速度超过美国。由于 农机、石油开采及采矿机械等铸铁重工业的衰退,美国 2015和2016年的铸件产量均低于2014年。2018年, 美国的铸件产量预计将增长2.8%,铸件销售收入将增 长4.7%。 十大铸件生产国中的其他国家及其产 量分别是:日本520万吨,德国520 万吨,俄罗斯390万吨,韩国260 万吨,墨西哥256万吨(2015年 数据),巴西210万吨,意大利 210万吨。 全球范围内,包括灰铁、球 墨铸铁、可锻铸铁、铸钢件等 黑色铸件的产量下降1%。由于 黑色铸件几乎占铸件总产量的 80%,很多国家已经注意到产量 减少的影响。同时,有色铸件产量 增长5.7%,突出表明轻量化的有色铸 件代替黑色铸件的发展趋势。 ■

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World Totals (metric tons) Gray Iron 灰铸铁件

Ductile Iron Malleable Iron 球墨铸铁件 可锻铸铁件

46,241,871

25,467,378

817,620

Steel 铸钢件 10,652,260

Copper Base Aluminum Magnesium Zinc Other Nonferrous 铜合金铸件 铝合金铸件 镁合金铸件 锌合金铸件 其他 1,872,213

17,876,299

317,578

1,005,656

128,056

Total 总计 104,378,931

Individual Countries (metric tons) Country 国家

Gray Iron Ductile Iron Malleable Iron 灰铸铁件 球墨铸铁件 可锻铸铁件

Steel 铸钢件

Copper Base Aluminum Magnesium Zinc Other Nonferrous 铜合金铸件 铝合金铸件 镁合金铸件 锌合金铸件 其他

Total 总计

Austria 奥地利

42,362

101,770

-

11,284

-

140,840

6,256

-

12,347

314,859

Belgium 比利时

26,900

7,200

-

17,400

-

783

-

-

-

52,283

Bosnia & Herzegovina 波黑

17,500

9,100

-

1,350

-

10,500

-

-

-

38,450

Brazil 巴西

1,257,825

515,875

-

164,200

21,900

136,000

5,800

1,400

-

2,103,000

Canada* 加拿大*

330,841

-

-

90,091

14237

216189

-

-

-

651,358

China 中国

20,350,000

13,200,000

600,000

5,100,000

800,000

6,900,000

-

250,000

-

47,200,000

Croatia 克罗地亚

31,100

11,800

-

50

221

25,174

-

25

15

68,385

Czech Republic 捷克

158,000

51,800

-

61,000

20,000

98,000

-

1,000

Denmark 丹麦

20,400

52,500

-

-

779

3,117

-

-

128

76,924

Finland 芬兰

15,300

33,500

-

8,400

2,630

2,114

-

86

-

62,030

France 法国

531,500

675,200

-

57,000

17,724

324,102

-

20,329

2,340

1,628,195

Germany 德国

2,234,900

1,509,900

-

174,200

78,471

1,096,707

17,398

56,247

1

5,167,824

3,800

1,681

118,246

391

2,985

123

206,826

50,000

1,010,000

-

1,220,000

-

-

-

11,350,000

Hungary 匈牙利

21,700

57,900

India 印度

7890000

1,180,000

389,800

Italy 意大利

714,200

381,200

-

57,000

66,081

782,691

7,384

70,474

654

2,079,684

Japan+ 日本*

2,224,000

1,301,300

41,000

150,100

77,400

1,380,570

-

23,530

5,400

5,203,300

Korea 韩国

1,073,500

707,800

3,000

163,100

26,300

623,200

13,100

-

-

2,610,000

Mexico** 墨西哥**

815,500

375,800

-

330,790

217,200

735,300

-

85,600

-

2,560,190

Norway 挪威

10,900

19,200

-

-

-

6,373

-

-

-

36,473

Pakistan 巴基斯坦

142,000

24,540

-

42,600

12,400

16,300

-

-

2,200

240,040

Poland 波兰

484,000

166,200

-

50,500

6,100

331,500

-

7,600

2,900

1,048,800

Portugal 葡萄牙

39,400

93,400

-

7,800

16,000

32,400

-

-

-

189,000

Romania 罗马尼亚

20,565

4,306

505

6,893

3,590

82,057

5,000

115

137

123,168

Russia 俄罗斯

2,000,000

380,000

20,000

800,000

100,000

450,000

100,000

50,000

-

3,900,000

Serbia 塞尔维亚

26,368

8,220

-

12,125

2,010

10,120

1

42

-

58,886

Slovenia 斯洛文尼亚

74,235

30,986

3,100

31,344

947

47,584

26

3,494

65

191,781

South Africa 南非

145,000

163,200++

-

85,000

7,000

24,000

-

500

-

424,700

Spain 西班牙

379,900

671,400

-

65,600

15,098

138,591

-

9,079

706

1,280,374

Sweden 瑞典

159,600

49,500

-

21,215

6,934

43,089

1,482

8,531

Switzerland 瑞士

35,400

22,800

-

1,100

2,308

12,902

-

989

Taiwan 中国台湾

510,425

187,711

-

66,028

32,662

303,020

-

Thailand** 泰国*

72,400

28,800

29,500

29,800

26,100

105,400

-

Turkey 土耳其

650,000

655,000

-

166,000

22,500

370,000

-

Ukraine** 乌克兰

400,000

120,000

30,000

580,000

60,000

280,000

U.K. 英国

125,800

178,500

-

40,700

8,500

123,200

U.S. Metric 美国

3,210,350

2,490,970

40,515

1,245,790

205,440

1,686,230

* 2014 Results 注:* 2014年数据 ** 2015 Results * *2015年数据 ***2013 Results ***2013年数据

75,499

-

-

1,099,846

24,400

-

316,400

35,000

-

1,898,500

15,000

25,000

50,000

1,560,000

3,000

7,000

-

486,700

142,740

322,230

51,040

9,395,305

Includes cast iron pipe +包含铸铁管件

+

290,351 -

Includes white iron ++包含白口铁

++

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Alloy Trends of a Half Century The picture of alloy production has changed much in the last 50 years. As shown in the pie graphs below, gray iron (blue), while still the highest produced alloy (by tonnage) has decreased from over three-quarters of the pie to less than half. Meanwhile, ductile iron (orange) and aluminum (yellow) has grown considerably.

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近50年有色铸件的发展趋势 有色铸件产量在过去的50年发生了很大变化。如饼 图所示,灰铸铁件(蓝色)虽仍是产量最多的铸件,但 其比例已从过去的3/4降低到不到一半。同时,球墨铸 铁件(桔色)和铝合金铸件(黄色)产量增长显著。

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Shifts in casting concentrations With more than 50 years of worldwide casting production data now accumulated through Modern Casting’s Census of Casting Production, comparing how casting production has expanded and shifted across the globe is illuminating. Below, we share how casting production has changed for a handful of historically major casting producing nations for which we had data. In the line chart, China and India’s 10-year trends are compared to U.S. and Russia during the past 50 years. The bar chart on the right reflects the 20-year time period when both China and India’s production shifted from a negligible to a considerable stake.

铸件产量集聚区的改变 Modern Casting已进行了50多年的全球铸件产量 统计,可以分析对比出全球铸件产量的增长趋势和区域 的转移。如下图所示,我们分析了几个铸件生产大国在 近50多年的产量变化趋势。从折线图可以看出,中国 和印度近10年的发展趋势与过去50年美国和俄罗斯的 趋势形成了鲜明对比。柱状图表明,中国和印度两国在 1976-1996的20年间的铸件产量发生了巨变,从小到可 以忽略的比例上升到相当大的比例。

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Metalcasting Plants by Nation & Trends Country 国家 Austria 奥地利 Belgium 比利时 Bosnia & Herzegovina 波黑 Brazil 巴西 Canada* 加拿大* China 中国 Croatia 克罗地亚 Czech Republic 捷克 Denmark 丹麦 Finland 芬兰 France 法国 Germany 德国 Hungary 匈牙利 India 印度 Italy 意大利 Japan** 日本** Korea 韩国 Mexico** 墨西哥** Norway 挪威 Pakistan 巴基斯坦 Poland 波兰 Portugal 葡萄牙 Romania 罗马尼亚 Russia 俄罗斯 Serbia 塞尔维亚 Slovenia 斯洛文尼亚 South Africa 南非 Spain 西班牙 Sweden 瑞典 Switzerland 瑞士 Taiwan 中国台湾 Thailand* 泰国* Turkey 土耳其 Ukraine 乌克兰 U.K. 英国 U.S. 美国 TOTAL 总计 *2014 Results 注:*2014年数据

Iron 铸铁

Steel 铸钢

Nonferrous 有色金属

2016 Total 2016年总数

20 10 5 408

3 5 2 153

35 6 4 484

14,000 26 71 8 11 86 195 28

4,000 5

8,000

7 34 46 9

37 7 13 291 340 87

140

37

878

523

141

235

6 1,580 185 23 35

3 55 36 8 20

6 170 240 57 50

11

8

17

45 27 15

79 29 12 2

86 52 59 30

280 439 270 216 625

40 105 280 349

260 383 290 204 987

58 21 11 1,045 175 26,000 31 108 15 31 411 581 124 4,600 1,055 1,612 899 681 15 1,805 461 88 105 1,140 36 46 165 126 98 47 580 927 840 420 1,961

19,288

5,468

14,494

46,318

**2015 Results

**2015年数据

World casting production per plant The number of metalcasting facilities in the world declined in 2016, following a trend of the last decade of fewer metalcasting facilities making an increasing tonnage of castings. Casting businesses worldwide are consolidating and becoming more efficient. Germany continues to be the highest casting producer per plant, with an average of 8,895 metric tons annually. The U.S. averaged 4,791 metric tons per plant in 2016.

全球铸件企业生产效率 2016年,全球铸件企业数量继续减少。过去10年 的发展趋势是铸件企业生产集中度持续上升。随着全球 铸造行业的不断整合,企业的生产效率不断提高。德国 铸件企业的平均产量为8895吨,继续在铸件企业生产效 率方面处于世界最高水平,美国为4791吨。

-1.4% 2,216 2,253

The total reduction of metalcasting facilities worldwide from 2016 to 2015. 2015-2016年,全球铸件企业数量减少 1.4%。

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Average world casting production per plant in 2015 in metric tons. 2015年,全球铸件企业的平均产量为2216 吨。

Average world casting production per plant in 2016 in metric tons. 2016年,全球铸件企业的平均产量为2253 吨。

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Cutting Through the Challenges AAM’s Columbiana lost foam casting facility tackled a difficult project thanks to ingenuity and teamwork with its customer. brian sandalow, associate editor

克服困难 迎接挑战 Brian Sandalow,副主编

T

he Columbiana, Alabama, lost foam casting facility that’s currently owned by AFS Corporate Member American Axle & Manufacturing was handed a difficult challenge in 2015. They had to produce a chainroll, and one that was incredibly complex. It was a test, and one the facility ultimately passed. This ductile iron casting for agricultural producer 360 Yield Center (Morton, Illinois) works in pairs and utilizes complex intermeshing tooth and blade geometries to precisely crimp and cut corn-stalk residue into the desired final size during harvesting. The numerous crimp sites exposed for microbial breakdown help accelerate decomposition and nitrogen release into the soil, which improves the next year’s crop. The chainroll is meant to help create the right conditions for healthy emergence, healthy soil and healthy yields. It does this by cutting stalks precisely, crimping and scoring stalks to expose the interiors to microbes, and sizing them for faster decomposition and microbial breakdown. The units themselves are built to create specific lacerations in each stalk.

The specifically designed teeth of the chainroll crimp the stalk for increased breakdown and sizes it to 7-in. pieces.

于阿拉巴马州哥伦比亚纳的美国铸 造协会会员企业American Axle & Manufacturing(AAM 公司),是一家

消失模铸造企业,在2015年经历了巨大的挑战。公

司需要生产一款结构异常复杂的滚刀。 最终,公司通过了试验。 这种用于农业机械制造商360 Yield Center(伊利诺 伊州莫顿)的球墨铸铁件成对工作,并利用复杂的啮合 齿和刀片的几何形状在收割时精确地卷曲,将玉米秸秆 残余物切割成期望的最终尺寸。那些将进行微生物降解 的无数卷曲点有助于加速分解和加速氮释放到土壤中, 从而改善作物来年的生长。 滚刀是为健康出苗、改良土壤和提高产量创造适宜的 条件。它通过准确地切割茎秆,扭曲并在秸秆上刻痕将 秸秆暴露于微生物环境,并精确它们的尺寸以加快微生

特别设计的滚刀片切 割秸秆,增强分解, 将其切割成为7英寸长 的段。 Courtesy of 360 Yield Center.

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The rolls have both cutting and chaining flutes that work to pull out the cut, bringing a chainlike pattern that leaves areas exposed for microbes to enter. And the hardened surfaces get sharper with more acres, bringing a durability that’s similar to standard rolls. The lost-foam tooling was designed to produce multiple part configurations and part numbers with a single tool by utilizing interchangeable inserts to facilitate a family of chainrolls to fit a variety of corn head models. Obviously, it’s a complicated product, and to produce it correctly meant dealing with many unique challenges. It meant figuring out how to handle difficult geometries and challenging tooling. To succeed, the project required a strong working relationship with the customer that needed to be trusting and consistent. “If I were to give some advice, it would be to develop that customer relationship with that common understanding,” said Jim Gilchrist, process engineering manager, AAM Columbiana. “If you just throw that design over the wall and you just work on it by yourself and you present them with a sample submission, at some point in the future you’re probably

物分解。这些过程本身是为了在每根秸秆上留下特定的

The castings work in pairs and use complex intermeshing tooth and blade geometries to precisely crimp and cut corn-stalk residue into the desired final size during harvesting.

铸件成对工作,利用复杂的啮合齿和刀片的几何形状在收割期间 精确地卷曲并将玉米秸秆残余物切割成期望的最终尺寸。

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裂缝。滚刀有切割槽和链槽,可用于拉出切口,形成链 状图案,留出使微生物进入的区域。而硬化后的滚刀表 面更加锐利,可以处理更大的面积,其耐用性与标准辊 相似。 这款采用消失模工艺设计的模具适用于可互换的刀 片,使用单一工具生产多种零件配置和数量,以便于滚 刀适用于各种系列的玉米头模型。 显然,这是个复杂的产品,正确的生产它需要应对许 多独特的挑战。这意味着要弄清楚如何应对复杂的几何 形状和具有挑战性的模具。为了成功应对挑战,该项目 需要与客户建立牢固、相互信任的合作关系。 “我的建议是,要用相互理解的态度来建立客户关 系,”AAM 公司工艺经理Jim Gilchrist说。“如果你 只是将这种设计方案挂在墙上,只是一个人去研究,然 后向他们展示样本,如果没有进行密切的沟通互动,那 么在将来的某个时候,你可能注定失败。”

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该部件是精密加工 而成,有严格的公 差和“混合的出屑 槽” 设计,在恶劣 的环境中可以有一 致的良好表现。

The part is precision engineered with tight tolerances and a “mixed flute” design for consistent performance in tough conditions.

Courtesy of 360 Yield Center.

doomed to failure without that extra interaction with something of this magnitude.”

Starting the Process In the summer of 2015, AAM Columbiana began working on how it would cast this product. By the time the design got to AAM Columbiana, 360 Yield Center already had worked through design and prototyping. The product had been prototyped in printed sand, which resulted in a casting that looked somewhat similar to what was wanted, but in reality was not quite what was desired. The first time AAM Columbiana saw anything, the plans just had the teeth area in it, which at first glance was daunting. This part was designed to work with the rolls already made, which intrigued AAM Columbiana. The team figured if this product took off and did as well as 360 was saying it could, it might be a higher volume part than AAM Columbiana was expecting. And it could be an aftermarket part that farmers would choose over the current design. Fortunately, when AAM Columbiana was awarded the project, the basic design was in place. Now it had to tell the

设计启动 2015年夏天,AAM公司开始研究如何生产这种产 品。 在设计方案送达AAM 公司时,360 Yield Center已 经完成了设计和原型制作。该产品已经通过砂型打印进 行了原型制作,结果是,这样的铸件已接近要求,但 实际上并不完全符合要求。 AAM 公司最开始发现问题 时,设计方案中只有齿状区域,令人望而生畏。 这个部件将与已经生产好的滚刀配合使用,这引起了 AAM公司的兴趣。 设计团队猜想,如果这个产品生产成功并且跟360 Yield Center所说的一样表现良好,它将成为一个高产 量的部件,超出AAM公司的想象。而且,它也将成为 售后市场现有设计方案中农民朋友愿意选择的产品。 幸运的是,AAM公司获得该项目时,基本设计已经 完成。现在,公司需要告诉客户在消失模生产中需要什 么,使它模具化并且可以铸造。

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经切割刀切割或打压 后,秸秆暴露于微生 物环境的面积更大, 可保留在原地进行分 解而不会被吹走。

The chainroll creates crimped or perforated residue pieces, which contain more surface area for increased breakdown and stay put in the field rather than blowing.

Courtesy of 360 Yield Center.

customer what was needed to make it in lost foam, to make it toolable, and to be able to cast it.

优化设计

Optimization

研究如何使用消失模工艺生产铸件。

The first thing AAM Columbiana did when it received the original models was to look at how the product would be cast in lost foam. Figuring out where they were going to split the foam was one challenge. This part was considerably different than the current stock rolls the metalcaster makes, and posed multiple challenges with the teeth and internal parts that are inside the product. At least knowing the component had to be cast via lost foam provided some clarity, because without it, there would have been difficulties assembling a core. “We knew our final design was going to be difficult to cast,” said Phil Russell, buyer, 360. “Due to the geom-

The 7-in. residue pieces created with the chainroll are the perfect size for the row cleaner to sweep away from the trench, reducing the risk of seedling blight and increasing the chances of emergence.

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AAM 公司在收到最初的模型时做的第一件事就是 搞清楚分型的位置是一个挑战。这个部件与当前铸 造企业生产的辊相比有很大不同,并且对产品内部的 齿状和内部零件提出了多重挑战。 至少知道组件必须采用消失模铸造工艺,为我们提 供了一些确定性,否则,组装砂芯会遇到困难。 “我们知道我们的最终设计方案将很难实 现,”360 采购员Phil Russell说,“由于几何形状 的原因,消失模工艺是唯一的选择。AAM 公司早早 地给予了指导,帮助解决可能会遇到的问题。”

切割后的7英寸 长残余秸秆是机 器从田间沟壕中 清理剩余秸秆的 理想尺寸,从而 减少麦苗患枯萎 病的风险,助苗 生长。 Courtesy of 360 Yield Center.

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etry, lost foam was the only option. (AAM Columbiana) was brought in early to provide guidance and direction on what would be possible and also to help with the tolerances that would be able to be met.” With lost foam an automatic choice, AAM Columbiana set out to tackle this challenge. Though the facility was ready and eager, many challenges were ahead. The biggest one was the teeth at the end of the roll, which are round with intervals. The teeth are all backdrafted, plus they come out to a little tiny point, which doesn’t make them favorable for casting. AAM Columbiana was heavily concerned about carbides and other similar issues. The team had to figure out if it could even create a tool to make those little teeth. The teeth also have a small cup under the backside. The facility made prototypes using a cut foam process where had it had foams and patterns machined out of billet and used for test castings just to prove they could cast the product. Everybody involved was pleased with the resulting accuracy of the model, and that was what pushed the design and program into production. AAM Columbiana contacted three outside vendors about the project. Only one of them, a tooling shop in Michigan, responded with a quote after seeing the com-

The chainroll is meant to help create the right conditions for healthy emergence, healthy soil and healthy yields.

由于消失模工艺成为必然选择,AAM 公司开始着 手应对这一挑战。 尽管工厂已经做好准备并且充满期待,但仍然面临 着许多挑战。最大的难题是滚刀末端有间距的齿。 这些齿都是反向拔模的,再加上它们会凸出一点 点,因此不利于铸造。AAM 公司非常关注碳化物和 其他类似问题。团队必须弄清楚是否可以设计一个工 具来制作这些小小的齿。齿的背面还有一个杯状物。 工厂采用消失模工艺生产原型,其中模型由坯料机加 工而成,用于测试件的生产,以证明它们是可铸造 的。参与项目的每个人都对该模型的精确度感到满 意,这就是设计和项目快速投入生产的原因。 AAM公司联系了3家供应商。其中只有位于密歇根 的一家模具公司在了解了任务的复杂性和难度后做了报 价。

沟通合作 Gilchrist和AAM公司团队的其他成员对已完成的

切割刀有助于为作物的健康出苗、改良土壤和增加产量创造适 宜的条件。

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plexity and difficulty of the task at hand.

Working Together Gilchrist and the rest of the AAM Columbiana team can look back on this project with pride. They built a complex product that is good for everybody’s business, and they did it via good foundry practices. It wouldn’t have been accomplished if not for how well their facility worked with the customer’s engineers, the team said. The employees from 360 were open to what AAM Columbiana had to say and were interested. They visited numerous times to understand the process and were clearly engaged. Gilchrist praised 360 for being at the foundry at crucial moments of the project, something that helped it succeed. “In fact, they were on site when the tool was delivered and when the first patterns were manufactured and delivered to the foundry,” Gilchrist said. “They actually helped us prepare the first mold. They were really excited about that.” The customer was also understanding of how difficult and complex the project was. “That was a stipulation from the start that we would have to develop an acceptance criteria for these features because they were so delicate. You could imagine a piece of foam with a little featherish tooth out there,” Gilchrist said. “You can just touch it and knock the edge off of it. We told them up front ‘Hey, we’re going to have to say you can have so many teeth with a defect in it’ or something along those lines so that we would be able to make a part with an acceptable scrap amount. “They were very open to that and understanding.” For Gilchrist, that’s the lesson he would teach other foundries about this kind of project. “From a perspective of having to go back and relaunch this there’s always lessons to be learned. I would say probably the biggest thing I learned was that I actually liked the customer involvement in not only the part design but our process design,” Gilchrist said. “The process design for this part from the casting perspective had as much to do to make or break the project than the part design from the customer’s side of things. Having them onboard with the recognition that they knew this was a difficult project was key. “They knew that this has never been done before. They knew this was the first time for everybody just to have that pulling in the same direction with a common goal to get this done knowing they might have to make accommodations for something. The level of cooperation has to be there.” ■

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项目充满了自豪。他们设计生产的产品对所有人的业 务有利,而且这是非常好的铸造工艺的实践项目。 如果公司与客户的工程师没有建立完美的合作关 系,那么,他们将不能生产出这样的产品。360公司 的员工非常愿意倾听AAM公司的意见并且对他们的 观点感兴趣。他们时不时地进行拜访,以了解项目的 进展并且保证信息畅通。 Gilchrist对360公司在关键时刻能够在场表示赞 扬,这也有助于项目取得成功。 “事实上,模具到位的时候以及第一个模型生产 并运送到铸造厂的时候,他们都在现场,”Gilchrist 说,“他们实际上帮助我们制备了第一个模具。他们 是非常激动的。” 客户也理解项目的难度和复杂程度。 “从一开始,我们就有一些规定,因为部件 是非常精致的,我们必须为它的特点确定验收标 准。你可以想象一下一片附有羽毛状齿状物的消失 模,”Gilchrist说,“你可能碰一碰它,就能将齿状 物敲掉。我们在最开始就告诉他们‘伙伴,我们必须 告诉你,我们允许这么多的齿状物里面存在缺陷’或 者存在其他问题,因此,我们可以在可接受的废品率 范围内生产产品”。 他们对此是非常开明的,而且对此表示理解。 对Gilchrist来说,这是他想告诉其他铸造企业的经 验。 “如果回头重新看这个项目的话,总能总结出一些 经验。我想说,我从中学习到的最主要的经验是,我 认为客户的参与不仅应该是在部件的设计阶段,还有 工艺设计阶段,”Gilchrist说,“从铸造的角度看, 这个项目的工艺设计比部件的设计有更多需要考虑和 突破的方面。让我们的客户参与进来并且认识到这是 一个困难的项目,这是问题的关键。” “他们知道这是一个前所未有的项目,对大家都是 第一次,因此,大家必须朝着同一个方向努力,有共 同的目标,做出相应的调整。合作必须达到这样的层 次。”■

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Reclamation and Reuse of Shell Ceramics in Investment Casting For many investment casters, the disposal of spent ceramic shell is one of their largest sources of waste. Eliminating or significantly reducing this waste would help foundries meet regulations. victor okhuysen, michael landeros, hiten shah, cal poly pomona university (pomona, california)

熔模铸造陶瓷壳型的再生与回用 加州州立波莫纳理工大学Victor Okhuysen, Michael Landeros, Hiten Shah

T

he reuse of ceramics, specifically stucco and flour in investing casting, would reduce expenses in the purchase of raw materials and in the disposal of the spent shell. Some companies sell their spent shell material, but typically the only savings here are in the disposal side. Thus, reusing the material as a substitute for virgin materials would incur the greatest economic benefit. Throughout the world zero waste or waste reduction regulations are increasingly in place. For many investment casters, the disposal of spent ceramic shell is one of their largest sources of waste. Eliminating or significantly reducing this waste would help meet these regulations.

Fig 1. Shown is the mesh size distribution of the alumino silicate flour (200 IC) and stucco (22S) used in the experiment.

用熔模铸造的陶瓷壳型,特别是耐火涂料和 砂粉,能减少原材料采购和废弃壳型处理的 费用。有些公司出售他们用过的壳型,但这

样做,唯一节省的是废弃物处理的费用。因此,重复使 用该材料并将它作为原材料的替代品将会产生最大的经 济效益。 在全球零排放或减少排放的规定越来越普遍的今天, 对许多熔模铸件生产企业来说,使用过的陶瓷壳型是其 最大的需要处理的废弃材料之一。消除或显著减少这种

图1:实验中使用的 硅铝粉(200 IC)和 耐火材料(22S)的 筛分尺寸分布。

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图2:蓝色柱是混合, 烧制和破碎的铝硅酸盐 的筛分分布。红色柱是 用于生产壳型材料混合 物的理论值。

Fig 2. The blue columns are the sieve distribution of the mixed, fired and crushed aluminosilicate. The red columns are the theoretical value of the blend used to produce the shell material.

图3:在球磨机中连 续10次击穿之后显示 的筛分尺寸分布。筛 目100中的峰值,4小 时,是记录错误。再 生的颗粒大小一般可 对比原始颗粒大小。

Fig 3. Sieve size distribution of batch 10 is shown after sequential breakdown in a ball mill. The spike in sieve 100, 4hr, is a clerical error. The reclaimed particles sizes generally track well to the original particle sizes.

With these points in mind, the reclamation and reuse of shell ceramics was investigated. This is AFS-sponsored research that is ongoing, and more work is planned for the future. Bars of ceramic (6x3/4x3/8 inches [150x18x9 mm]) were mixed using recipes based on fused silica and alumino silicates common to investment casting. The bars were tested for green strength and hot strength at 1400F and 2012F (760C and 1100C). All heated specimens were then crushed manually and then broken down in a ball mill. The sieve size distribution of the milled material was compared to that of the virgin material. Then, the reclaimed material was remixed and retested, and the results were compared to the virgin mixes. The more promising mixes were run for several cycles. The alumino-silicates were successfully reclaimed at the highest temperature while the fused silica materials were not successful at any temperature except for partial reclamation of flour at 2012F (760C) aluminum processing temperatures.

Results The first breakdown attempt was to ball mill 60

废弃物将有助于企业符合这些规定。 考虑到这些要求,科研人员对陶瓷壳型的回收和再利 用进行了研究。这项正在进行中的研究项目由美国铸造 协会支持,并且计划在未来开展更多的工作。 混合熔模铸造常用的使用过的石英和铝硅酸盐的陶 瓷棒(6x3/4x3/8英寸[150x18x9 mm])。 测试在 1400℉和2012℉(760℃和1100℃)时陶瓷棒的湿强 度和高温强度。然后将所有加热的样本手动破碎,然后 在球磨机中研磨。将研磨后材料的筛分尺寸分布与初始 材料的筛分尺寸分布进行比较。然后,将再生材料再次 混合并重新测试,将结果与初始混合材料进行比较。多 进行几个循环,混合材料的数据将更有效。 铝硅酸盐在最高温度下成功回收,而用过的石英材料 在任何温度下都不成功,仅在2012℉(760℃)的铝浇 注温度下可以回收部分砂粉。

结论 第一次破碎尝试是直接将较大的部件(〜0.98 x

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图4:粗黑线代表初始 混合分布。实线表示的 混合物追踪原始分布。 虚线表示由于球磨机在 击穿期间具有较少材 料而被过度研磨的混 合物。

Fig 4. The thick black line represents the original blend distribution. The mixes represented by solid lines somewhat track the original distribution. The dashed lines represent mixes that were over milled due to having less material in the ball mill during breakdown.

the larger parts (~0.98 x 1.96 x 0.39 in [~25 mm x 50 mm x 10 mm]) directly. This was unsuccessful. So, in all subsequent breakdown processes the spent ceramic was reduced by manually hammering until the largest size was approximately 0.3 in. (8 mm). Then they were tumble-ball milled for five hours. For comparison purposes, virgin flour and stucco were sieved. The results are shown in Figure 1. Comparisons of reclaimed particles were made against this virgin particle blend. In Figure 2, the distribution of one reclaimed mix is compared with the original particle distribution. One of the mixes was ball milled for five hours, but a sieving analysis was performed each hour to see the progressive breakdown of the ceramic and potential degradation of the ceramic particles. The results of this experiment can be seen in Figure 3. The ceramic breaks down slowly and there is little degradation of the original particles. Particle sizes of mesh 50, 70 and 100 were essentially zero in the original materials. The particles in these sieves were largely degraded stucco particles. The breakdown of the shell materials can be done in such a way that the particle size distribution is similar to the original distribution. However, care must be taken as it is possible

1.96 x 0.39 in [〜25 mm x 50 mm x 10 mm])进行 球磨处理,但是没有成功。因此,在随后的破碎试验 中,通过手动锤击将用过的陶瓷型壳破碎到最大尺寸约 为0.3英寸(8毫米)。然后,进行了5个小时的球磨研 磨。 为了进行比较,将未使用过的砂粉和耐火材料过筛。 结果如图1所示。再生颗粒与未使用过颗粒混合物进行 比较。在图2中,将一种回收混合物的分布与原始颗粒 分布进行比较。将其中一种混合物球磨5小时,但每小 时进行一次筛分分析以观察陶瓷的逐渐分解和陶瓷颗粒 的潜在降解。这个实验的结果可以在图3中看到。陶瓷 颗粒缓慢地粉碎并且未使用过的颗粒几乎没有粉碎。筛 子细度为50,70和100目颗粒在初始材料中基本为零。这 些筛中的颗粒主要是耐火涂料颗粒的降解物。 壳型材料的破碎可以通过粒度分布与未使用材料粒度 分布比较的方式完成。但是,必须注意,因为可能会过

CONCLUSIONS 结论 • • •

Reclamation seems feasible for alumino silicates (with alumina at 60% or greater). Particle size distribution and properties are generally retained. Very few compound grains remained after the milling process. The material was successfully reused. Fused silica has very limited reclamation potential: it was only partially successfully reused as flour and only at aluminum processing temperatures, and only at a fraction of the original amount. Process control of the shell breakdown process is imperative. While the process is relatively simple, it is possible to overgrind the material. ■

• 对于铝硅酸盐(氧化铝含量为60%或更高),再 生似乎是可行的。通常保留粒度分布和性质。 • 研磨过程后,残留的化合物颗粒很少。 该材料 已成功重新使用。 • 用过的砂粉的回收潜力非常有限:它只能部分成 功地作为砂粉重复使用,并且仅在铝加工温度下 使用,并且只有原始数量的一小部分。 • 壳体破碎的过程控制势在必行。虽然这个过程相 对简单,但可能会过度研磨。 ■

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图5:原始混合物的平均强度值设 定为100%,涵盖湿摩尔和高温摩 尔强度。可以看出,平均湿强度 降至90%。另一方面,高温摩尔 显著增至原始值的141%。

Fig 5. The average of the virgin mixes is set as 100% of the strength, both for green and hot MOR strengths. It can be seen that the average green MOR dipped to 90%. The hot MOR, on the other hand, increased significantly to 141% of the virgin value.

to overgrind the particles. In Figure 4, most batches that were broken down track the original blend (thick black line). These batches are represented by solid lines. The batches represented by the dashed lines were over-milled and resulted in significant degradation of the stucco particles. This occurred because the milling process was a batch process and these mixes had smaller amounts of material in the ball mill. Thus, while it is possible to recover the original particles of the shell material, care must be taken in the process. At the end of the milling process, very few compound grains were within the stucco size range or smaller. Whether this is a material characteristic (that is, it tends to break apart easily) or it is in the nature of the specific secondary breakdown process (batch ball milling) is unclear.

Mullite-Strength The strength results for each batch are summarized in Table 1. These batches have been classified into V-100% virgin flour and stucco and R-Reclaim where the amount of reclamation was the maximum amount possible with the available materials. As can be seen in several batches, it was necessary to introduce virgin material to complete the mix. It is anticipated that due to losses in the breakdown process this will be necessary on a regular basis. In Figure 5 the strength values are normalized by the type of mix (virgin or reclaim). The virgin mixes are considered to be the standard. Thus, the reclaimed mixes are compared

Fig 6. Progressive ball milling of fused silica bars heated to 2,012F (1,100C). Note that the broken-down material does not break down to the original size of the stucco.

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度磨损颗粒。在图4中,大多数已经分解的批次追踪原 始混合(粗黑线)。 这些批次用实线表示。 由虚线表 示的批次被过度研磨并导致耐火颗粒的显著减少。这是 因为碾磨过程是一个批处理过程,这些混合物在球磨机 中的材料量较少。因此,虽然有可能从壳材料中回收再 生颗粒,但在该过程中必须注意。 在研磨过程结束时,极少化合物的颗粒在耐火涂料 尺寸范围内或更小。无论这是材料特性(即它容易分 裂)还是具体的二次击穿过程(间歇球磨)的性质尚不 清楚。

莫来石强度 每批的强度结果总结在表1中。这些批次已被分类为 V-100%原砂粉和耐火涂料和多次再生的材料,其中回 收量是可用材料的最大量。从几个批次可以看出,有必 要加入未使用过的材料来完成混合。预计由于破碎过程 中的损失,需要定期加入这些材料。 图5中,强度值按混合类型(未使用或再生)标准 化。未使用的混合物被认定为标准。因此,再生的混合 物与之进行比较。图中的数值表明再生混合料的平均 湿强度下降了10%。高温强度大大提高了40%以上。

图6:加热到 2,012°F(1100℃ )的用过的砂粉棒 的逐级球磨。请注 意,破碎的材料不 会分解为耐火材料 的原始尺寸。

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图7 :研磨初次使用 的硅砂和耐火材料 (RancoSil B 30/50) ,有一些退化,但与加 热到2012°F(1100°C) 的材料相比,退化程度 很小。

Fig 7. Ball milling of virgin fused silica stucco (RancoSil B 30/50). There is some degradation, but it is small compared to that of the material heated to 2,012F to (1,100C).

to these. The values in this figure indicate that the average green strength from the reclaim mixes dipped by 10%. The hot strength greatly increased over 40%. One likely explanation is the increase of fines in the flour after milling. This would dilute the effect of the binder in the green strength but provide more sintering points for the hot strength. In summary, alumino-silicates (mullite) of 60% alumina content may be feasible to reclaim. The particles, stucco and flour, maintain geometric integrity during breakdown and the reclaim mixes have comparable or superior properties to the virgin materials. As with the mullite, the fused silica was heated to 2,012F (1,100C) and broken down with a hammer. Then it was milled in the ball mill and the sieve size of the progressive breakdown was taken each hour. The stucco particles were not preserved, as compared to the distribution of the original blend (Fig. 6.). As the larger particles (larger than mesh 6) are broken down they do not become the size of stucco particles, but rather appear to shatter into smaller particles. Based on this, a batch of virgin fused silica stucco was milled following the same procedures to see what degradation occurred. The results in Figure 7 show the degradation of particles occurs much more slowly than that seen in Figure 6. After seeing these results, specimens then were produced and heated to aluminum processing temperatures (1,400F/760C) to avoid the fast cristobalite formation temperature range (above 1,652F/900C). The stucco degradation also occurs at these processing temperatures, not as aggressively as at the higher temperatures, but sufficiently to significantly change the particle size distribution of the stucco fraction if reintroduced to the process.

可能的解释是研磨后砂粉中的细粉增加,这会降低粘

Fused Silica-Strength

V-100%未使用硅砂和耐火涂料和多次再生到100%

The strength results for each batch are summarized in Table 2. These batches have been classified into V-100% virgin flour and stucco and RF-Reclaim 100% flour, and RF50-Reclaim 50% flour. No stucco reclamation was possible. Only materials processed at a given temperature were used in the reclaimed mixes destined for those same temperatures. The hot strengths decrease significantly for the 2,012F

合剂在湿强度中的作用,但为热强度提供更多的烧结 点。 总之,60%氧化铝中的铝硅酸盐(莫来石)可能 是可行的再生比例。这些颗粒、耐火涂料和砂粉在破 碎过程中保持几何完整性,并且再生混合物具有与未 使用材料相当或优异的性能。 与莫来石一样,使用过的型壳被加热到 2012°F(1100℃)后锤击破碎。然后在球磨机中研 磨,并且每小时记录逐步破碎的筛分尺寸。与未使用 混合物的分布相比,耐火涂料颗粒未被保留(图6)。 由于较大的颗粒(大于6mm网筛)被破坏,它们不会 变成耐火颗粒的大小,而是看起来碎成较小的颗粒。 基于此,按照相同的程序研磨一批初次使用的砂粒和 耐火涂料以查看发生了何种破碎。图7中的结果显示, 颗粒的破碎比图6中的破碎要慢得多。 得到这些结果后,生产样品并加热到铝浇注温度 (1400°F / 760℃)以避免快速形成方石英的温度范 围(高于1652°F / 900℃)。在此处理温度下,耐火 涂料的粉碎也会发生,但不会像在较高的温度下那样 积极地进行,但是如果重新引入该过程中,足以显著 改变耐火涂料部分的粒度分布。

用过的硅砂强度 每批的强度结果总结在表2中。这些批次已经分为 砂粉,以及RF50-回收50%砂粉。没有回收到耐火涂 料是可能的。只有在给定温度下作业的材料才能用于 相同温度下的回收混合物。 在任何砂粉回收比例下,2012℉(1100℃)混合 物的高温强度显著下降。湿强度也呈下降趋势,但初 始到50%再生率没有统计学差异,而再生率在50%

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(1,100C) mixes at any level of flour reclamation. The green strength also sees a decreasing pattern, but there is no statistical difference between virgin and 50% reclaim, while there is a statistical difference between 50% and 100% reclaim. As the amount of reclaimed flour is increased the result worsens. Where material processed at 1,400F (760C) is reclaimed, the results are more promising. The green Modulus of Rupture remains stable and there is no statistical difference between reclamation quantities. The hot MOR swings up and then drops as the reclaimed flour content is increased. Why the swing in hot strength occurs is unclear. The 50% level of reclamation was not statistically different from either the 100% virgin or 100% reclaim formulations. However, there was a statistical difference between the 100% virgin and the 100% reclaimed hot strengths. These results are much better than the results for the 2,012F (1,100C). In summary, fused silica systems have limited reclaiming potential. First, the stucco is not reclaimable, and at either steel or copper base processing

到100%之间有统计学差异。随着再生的砂粉数量增 加,结果变差。 如果在1400℉(760℃)下再生处理的材料,结 果更具前景。生坯断裂模量保持稳定,再生量之间没 有统计学差异。随着回收的砂粉含量增加,高温摩尔 增加并随后下降。发生热力冲击的原因尚不清楚。50 %的回用率与100%回用率的配方没有统计学差异。 然而,100%未使用和100%再生之间的高温强度有 统计学差异。这些结果比2012℉(1100℃)要好得 多。 综上所述,用过的硅砂系统具有有限的回收潜力。 首先,耐火涂料不可回收,并且在钢或铜基处理温度 下,砂粉不可回收。在铝浇注温度下,有可能在有限 的基础上回收砂粉。

Table 1. Strength Results for Alumino Silicate Specimens

表1:铝硅酸盐试样的强度结果 Batch 批次

Stucco Reclamation (%)

Temp. (oC)

Green MOR (PSI/MPa)

Hot MOR (PSI/MPa)

0 66 0

1,100 1,100 1,100

NA 188/1.29 206/1.42

193/1/33* 671/4.63 703/4.84

13 V 0 0 1,100 259/1.78 14 R 100 50 1,100 228/1.57 15 V 0 0 1,100 308/2.12 16 R 100 100 1,100 206/1.42 17 R 100 100 1,100 202/1.39 18 V 0 0 1,100 174/1.19 19 R 100 100 1,100 199/1.37 20 R 100 85 1,100 209/1.44 * This value was not included in analysis as problems are suspected with the strength measurement system that yielded lower values than should have been recorded.

481/3.31 830/5.72 383/2.64 868/5.98 613/4.22 524/3.61 872/6.01 713/4.91

10 11 12

Type 类型 V R V

Flour Reclamation (%) 砂粉 再生率 0 66 0

耐火涂料 再生率

温度

湿摩尔

高温摩尔

Table 2. Strength Results for Fused Silica Specimens

表2:用过的石英样品的强度 Batch 批次

Flour Reclamation (%) 砂粉 再生率 0 0 50

Stucco Reclamation (%)

Temp. (oC)

Green MOR (PSI/MPa)

Hot MOR (PSI/MPa)

50 51 52

Type 类型 V V RF50%

0 0 0

1,100/2,012 760/1,400 760/1,400

NA 86/0.59 156/1.08

880/6.07 340/2.34 268/1.85

53 54 55 56 57

V RF50% RF RF50% RF

0 50 100 50 100

0 0 0 0 0

760/1,400 760/1,400 1,100/2,012 1,100/2,012 760/1,400

400/2.76 341/2.35 156/1.08 209/1.44 244/1.68

497/3.43 823/5.67 132/0.91 329/2.27 331/2.28

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耐火涂料 再生率

温度

湿摩尔

高温摩尔

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temperatures the flour is not reclaimable. At aluminum processing temperatures, it may be possible to reclaim flour on a limited basis.

Industrial Equipment Appropriate for Use in Industrial Scale Reclamation In the study, several types of equipment were investigated and conversations with representatives of this equipment were held to identify equipment that could be suitable for investment casting reclamation. Generally, most suppliers would approach the problem by crushing the shell material to about ½-in. (12mm) particles and then milling using self-abrasion or media such as ball milling. To minimize iron contamination, two methods were mentioned. The first is to use ceramic-lined and grinding media. The second consisted of using magnets to remove the iron. There are important considerations for foundries that use water blasting, since the spent ceramic is wet and in smaller pieces, for this application the ceramic would need to be dried but would likely not need a precrushing step. For segregation by sieve size, generally mechanical sieves would be used for stucco sizes. For flour, both mechanical sieves and air separators were recommended. Multiple companies have crushing, milling, and size separation experience. An alternate method reviewed would consist of using acoustic energy to break the ceramic into particles. In this system, it may be possible to place the cast tree in a tank prior to shell removal, apply acoustic energy and in the process, shakeout the castings, break the ceramic and possibly segregate the ceramic by grain size. There is the possibility that this may also help with core removal. Only one supplier of this technology was found, and testing would be necessary.

Quality Control Photographs of Stucco and Flour The virgin and reclaimed stucco and flour were separated by sieve size and photographed with the goal of developing quality control reference standards. Then these standards could be used with visual examination with the use of 10X to 100X pocket microscopes. The image collection was unsuccessful because the quality of the images obtained was too poor to use in this capacity. However, the surface and shape of the grains in stucco could be assessed with optical microscopes by changing the focus, but because of the depth of field could not be effectively photographed. Thus, it could be possible to save reference samples to use as side by side comparison standards for quality control purposes. ■

适用于规模再生的工业设备 在这项研究中,对几种设备进行了调研并与设备 的供应商进行了交流,以确定适合进行熔模铸造的 再生设备。一般来说,大多数供应商会通过将壳体材 料粉碎至约1/2英寸(12mm)的颗粒,然后通过自 磨或介质如磨球进行研磨。为了尽量减少残留铁屑的 污染,提到了两种方法。首先是使用陶瓷衬里和研磨 介质,使用磁选去除铁屑。对于使用水洗的铸造厂来 说,有一些重要的考虑因素,因为水洗后的砂粉是湿 的并且尺寸较小,对于这种应用,砂粉需要干燥,但 可能不需要预粉碎步骤。对于通过筛尺寸分离,通常 机械筛将用于耐火材料尺寸。对于砂粉,建议使用机 械筛和空气分离器。多家公司拥有破碎、铣削和按尺 寸分离的经验。 可选的另一种方法是使用声能将陶瓷型壳粉碎成 颗粒。在这个系统中,可以在去壳之前将铸造树放入 工作釜中并施加声能,在此过程中振荡铸件分离陶瓷 型壳,并破碎陶瓷型壳到晶粒大小。 这也可能有助 于去除芯子。只有一家供应商能够提供这种技术,并 且需要进行测试。

通过照片控制耐火材料和砂粉质量 未使用的和再生的耐火材料和砂粉按筛分大小分 开并拍照,目的是制定质量控制的参考标准。 然后 这些标准可以与10X到100X袖珍显微镜的视觉检查 一起使用。图像采集不成功,因为所获图像的质量太 差而无法采用此功能。然而,通过改变焦点可以用光 学显微镜评估灰分中的颗粒表面和形状,但是由于景 深不能被有效地拍摄。因此,为了达到质量控制的目 的,可以将参考样品作为比对的标准。 ■ 本文基于2017年美国铸造大会上发表的第17-104号论 文。

This article is based on paper 17-104 that was presented at the 2017 Metalcasting Congress.

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product news/产品新闻

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Imerys Metalcasting – Innovation and Sustainability production 77 Imerys Metalcasting公司提供砂型添加剂 和定制的混合材料

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Kurtz Unveils New Low-Pressure Casting Machine 库尔茨公司推出新型低压铸造机 The new AL 28-18-18 FSC extends the portfolio of the Kurtz low-pressure casting machines with more clamping area and hydraulic power. It relies on proven Kurtz low-pressure die casting technology in order to achieve greater benefits for users through newly optimized assemblies and components. Thanks to the innovative trapezoidal arrangement of the guide columns, tool formats with maximum 2,800 mm width and 2,000 mm depth can be clamped in place. The optional hydraulic clamping system allows a faster die setup without aids. A stroke of 1,800 mm with 2,600 mm clear width at the closing unit permit simple removal of the components by means of the added removal unit and also provides excellent preconditions for robot automation. An optional tilting moving plate allows best accessibility for coating and cleaning. Milestone and highlight is without doubt the die gap detection function, which prevents aluminium leaking if the casting die is not completely closed and avoids production downtime. The completely new hydraulic system of the AL 28-18-18 FSC makes even faster machine movements possible with higher forces. With this system, greater clamping forces are achieved during casting, the part ejecting forces can be up to 100 tonnes. The low-noise hydraulic pumps can be switched on individually in order to achieve the necessary pressures and flows – with increased energy efficiency. Up to eight additional ejector cylinders which can be positioned flexibly on the movable clamping plate support the central ejector cylinder with up to twelve additional guiding columns. The cooling system of the AL 28-18-18 FSC has 96 mixing (air/water) circuits available which can be connected to the die through smooth multi-couplings. An extension to 128 mixing circuits is possible. In order to guarantee high availability of the Kurtz casting machine AL 28-18-18 FSC, the “condition monitoring” option allows the condition of the casting machine to be monitored at all times, enabling to detect possible stoppages or downtimes early and any resulting maintenance work to be planned. ■

新的AL 28-18-18 FSC型低压铸造机具有更大的夹紧 面积和液压动力,扩展了库尔茨公司的产品组合。它凭 借库尔茨公司公认的低压铸造技术,通过最新优化的零 部件和装配为用户带来更大的利益。 由于导向柱具有创新的梯形布置,模具装配尺寸最 大宽度2800 mm,深度2000 mm,非常方便固定。可 选的液压夹紧系统允许在没有辅助的情况下更快地安装 模具。行程为1800mm,在关闭单元处有2600mm的 净宽度,通过附加的拆卸装置可以简单地拆卸部件,同 时也为机器人自动化提供了良好的先决条件。可选的倾 斜移动板可以很好地进行涂布和清洁。里程碑和亮点毫 无疑问是模具间隙检测功能,可以检测铸模是否完全关 闭,可防止铝液泄漏并避免生产停机时间。 AL 28-18-18 FSC型低压铸造机全新的液压系统,能 够使机器在更大的力下更快地移动。该系统在铸造过程 中实现了更大的夹紧力,部分喷射力可达100吨。低噪 声液压泵可单独开启,以获得必要的压力和流量--提高 能源效率。在可移动夹紧板上灵活地定位,支持中心引 射缸,并附加多达12个导向柱。 AL 28-18-18 FSC型低压铸造机的冷却系统有96条 混合电路(空气/水),通过平滑的多耦合连接到模具上, 也可扩展到128条混合电路。为了保证AL 28-18-18 FSC型低压铸造机的高可用性,“状态监测”选项允许 随时监测设备运行的状况,从而能够检测到可能的暂停 或停机时间。可计划性的提前或延后维修工作。 ■

The new ASCOJET 1208–dry ice blasting 新型干冰喷射设备ASCOJET 1208 The dry ice blasting unit ASCOJET 1208 has a new modern frame design and self-explanatory pictograms. According to ASCO, the 107-lb unit is easily carried to any place, thanks to the two large fixed rear wheels, as well as two lockable small front wheels. Housing and frame are made of robust powder coated steel. The newly integrated grounding roll and the pellet hopper’s protective grating help guarantee even safer handling during the dry ice blasting process. Consumption rates for average dry ice volume and blasting pressure can be adjusted manually. “This high-performance machine is characterized by its

瑞士ASCO CARBON DIOXIDE公司宣布开发出适 用于工业,紧凑且易于操作的干冰喷射设备ASCOJET 1208。 干冰喷射设备ASCOJET 1208拥有全新的现代化框架 设计和不言自明的功能图标。据ASCO公司介绍,由于 有两个大的固定后轮以及两个可锁定的小前轮,107磅 重的设备可被轻松携带到任何地方。外壳和框架由强韧 的粉末涂层钢制成。新集成的接地辊和颗粒料斗的保护 格栅有助于保证在干冰喷射过程中的安全操作。平均的

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product news/产品新闻 lightness,” said ASCO Managing Director Marco Pellegrino. “Thanks to the compact design, the ASCOJET 1208 is also suitable for more delicate cleaning work. Since dry ice blasting is a corrosion-free and non-abrasive process, even sensitive surfaces can be cleaned easily. The combination of high cleaning performance and relatively low compressed air consumption is an additional bonus.” The ASCO dry ice blasting technology has been successfully used in various industries for decades. Molds, tools, and machines can be cleaned by using ASCO dry ice blasting machines. In most cases, it is not necessary to dismantle the parts to be cleaned, which ensures shorter downtime and increased productivity during operation. “At ASCO we are always striving to optimize our portfolio of dry ice blasting machines for our customers. This allows us to offer the right blasting machine for every application. The market introduction of the ASCOJET 1208 is a further step towards completion of supply,” Pellegrino said. ■

干冰消耗量和喷射压力可以手动调整。 ASCO公司总经理马可•佩莱格里诺说:“这款高性 能机器的特点是轻便,由于设计紧凑,ASCOJET 1208 也适用于更细致的清洁工作,因为干冰喷射是无腐蚀、 非研磨的工艺,即使敏感的表面也可以轻松清洁,其 他的好处还有:高清洁性能和相对较低的压缩空气消 耗。” 几十年来,ASCO公司干冰喷射技术已成功应用于各 个行业。模具、工具和机器设备都可以使用ASCO干冰 喷射设备进行清洁。在大多数情况下,不需要拆卸要清 洁的部件,可缩短停机时间、提高生产效率。 “ASCO公司始终致力于为客户提供优化干冰喷射设 备组合,这使我们能够为各种应用提供正确的喷射设 备。ASCOJET 1208的面市是公司向完善的设备供应迈 出的又一步,”佩莱格里诺说。 ■

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First sand 3-D printer with self-produced print head to accelerate globalization and commercialization of 3-D printing 中国首台自产喷头的砂型3D打印机 加快3D打印的全球 商业化 In recent years, 3D printing has become the international development focus. Throughout the global 3D printing market, the ones who dominate the market are still America, Japan and Germany and the 3D printing technology is slowly developed, for the reason that the problems of core technology monopoly, over high cost, limited printing media and low printing accuracy of 3D printing still exist, though it has been developed for over ten years, which limits the popularity and commercial application of 3D printing. No high-quality and costeffective 3D printing device is the most serious problem for users all over the world. Although 3D printing in China starts late, it has a great potential in term of device cost control, research and development of core technology. Comparing with global average level, the acceleration of the 3D market

3D打印是近年来国际上的发展热点,纵观全球3D打 印市场,占市场主导地位的依旧是美国、日本和德国, 且存在一定的发展缓慢。究其原因,是因为目前的全 球3D打印虽发展十几年,却依然存在核心技术垄断、 成本较高、打印材料局限、打印精度较低等问题,这为 3D打印的普及和商业化应用带来了一定的局限,而没 有高性价比的3D打印设备也一直是全球使用者最头疼 的问题。 中国3D打印虽然起步晚,但就设备成本控制、核心 技术研究方面而言却是后劲十足,相比全球平均水平, 我国的3D行业的市场规模增速更加惊人。为打破国外 核心技术垄断地位,广州市爱司凯科技股份有限公司(

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product news/产品新闻 scale in China is more astonishing. To break up the monopoly of core technology from abroad, Guangzhou Amsky Technology., Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Amsky) firstly makes a breakthrough on 3D core part-industrial ink-jet print head. Amsky, with years of technical research and development, has broken through the technical barrier since the establishment of “Piezoelectric ink-jet print head and its application” project in 2012 and has successfully applied Amsky-developed industrial ink-jet print head to Sandstorm S800 3D printer which will be firstly unveiled on China Foundry Festival in May, 2018.It means that Amsky becomes the first domestic brand who holds the piezoelectric ink-jet printing technology with proprietary intellectual property rights and really makes it possible to achieve 3D printing in commercial use. It is known that Amsky Sandstorm S800 3D printer which will make its first appearance on China Foundry Festival in May is the first sand type 3D printer with Amskydeveloped and produced print head and core technology in China. It is the device with 90%self-produced from backbone hardware, mechanical design, drive program to host system, the device with convenient one-button operation supported and the device with 25-60L/h building speed and 600DPI print resolution. By adopting ONE-PASS technology, sand type 3D printer can achieve high-speed printing even in high resolution and greatly reduce the device cost, as well as the service cost of core parts. Amsky says that Amsky Sandstorm S800 printer will be applied in the research and development of high-end castings and the small-lot production of complex singleton, and is expected to gradually replace the traditional casting technology for 500-1000 piece small-lot production and boost industrial upgrade, thus promoting the industrial 4.0 process of casting device in the next 5-8 years. ■

以下简称“爱司凯”)首先从3D打印最核心的部位工业 喷墨打印头进行突破,从2012年开始立项研究压电式喷 墨打印头及其应用,经过多年技术研发,爱司凯突破技 术壁垒,于2017年,将自主研发的工业喷墨打印头成功 运用在风暴S800砂型3D打印机上,并将5月首次亮相中 国铸造节,这也意味着爱司凯成为中国首个拥有自主知 识产权的压电式喷墨打印技术的国产品牌,也真正让中 国的3D打印设备在全球范围内商业运用成为可能。 据了解,即将于5月亮相中国铸造节的AMSKY爱司凯 风暴S800,是中国首台掌握核心技术拥有自主研发生产 喷头的砂型3D打印机,是一台从底层硬件开始,到机 械,到驱动程序,到上位机系统,自产程度已达90%以 上的机器,它支持一键式便捷操作,设备打印建造速度 达25~60L/h,打印解析力达600DPI,采用的one-pass 技术,让砂型3D打印机在高分辨率情况下仍能实现高 速打印,并大大降低设备成本,降低核心部件的服务成 本。 爱司凯表示,在未来AMSKY爱司凯风暴S800将会应 用于高端铸造产品的研发和复杂单件的小批量生产,并 有希望在5-8年内,在500-1000件中小批量逐渐的生产 中,逐渐代替传统砂铸工艺,助推工业升级从而推动铸 造装备的工业4.0进程。 ■

3-D sand printing pumps up profit. 3D砂型打印提高泵企业收益 For cast pump components, and especially for the core and impeller, 3-D printing of the sand casting molds now eliminates the need for an entire post-processing step. The industry puts the post-processing time per impeller at an average of 10 to 15 minutes and this is exactly where clever companies from the pump industry and their foundries are pivoting and relying on the savings potential of industrial 3-D printing for their casting needs. The time-consuming post-processing work on the blade fins and above all on the blade tips, resulting from the casts in the traditional manufacturing processes, is now completely eliminated with 3-D printing. The finished cast part can be transferred immediately from the foundry to quality assurance without an intermediate step. In a traditionally shot core, complex geometries require cores to be constructed as individual parts or without undercutting. If this were not the case, trying to remove a core 72

对于铸造的泵零部件来说,尤其是砂芯和叶 轮,3D打印的砂型无需后处理作业。每个叶轮的后 处理平均需要10-15分钟,如何节约时间,无疑是明 智的泵企业和铸造企业密切关注并且希望3D打印技 术解决的问题。 在传统的生产工艺中,叶片和叶轮零部件的后处理 作业非常费时,然而,使用3D打印技术则完全不需 要这些业作。成品铸件可以从铸造厂迅速转移到质检 中心,中间无需其他步骤。 传统的射芯生产,复杂的几何形状需要将砂芯分成 几个独立的部分或不能有凹槽。如果不是这样的话, 如果从芯盒中取出砂芯,有可能使砂芯折断从而导致

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product news/产品新闻 from the core box would tilt the core and result in a blockage. With 3-D printing, the printed part matches the design perfectly. Nothing has to be removed from a core box. The ExOne Binder Jetting process builds the core of the impeller with such precision that the beauty of the elegant propeller is already visible in the printed negative mold and becomes reality, using layer-by-layer 3-D printing, with a layer height of 0.28 mm to 0.38 mm. The negative mold of the impeller is therefore exactly the same at the blade tips as it should look like with the final cast. The cost benefits already begin in the prototype phase where any changes in the CAD data can be easily transferred to the 3-D printing process and immediately implemented at the touch of a button, This not only maximizes productivity, but also saves on consumables, tool costs, personnel costs, storage costs, etc. and significantly speeds up the processing time. Pump castings are popular sales items in the spare parts business and in the post-production of industrial unique products. 3-D printing is already causing a strong pull and high pressure in the pump manufacturing market. Therefore, local barons of the foundry industry can neither escape the increasing competitive pressure, nor stick their heads in the sand in light of the expectations of the modern pump industry. 3-D printing simply pumps more profit into the company’s balance sheet - for everyone involved. ■

堵塞。然而,3D打印的砂芯可以与设计完全吻合,不 再需要从芯盒中取芯。 采用ExOne 公司Binder Jetting工艺生产出了精度极 高的叶轮砂芯,从3D打印的凹模中看到完美的叶轮机 形态变成了现实。3D打印是层层打印,每一层的厚度 为0.28mm-0.38mm。因此,叶轮的凹模与最终铸件的 尺寸也完全一致。 成本效益已经从原型准备阶段开始,CAD数据的任 何变化都可以轻松传输到3D打印过程,并且只需轻触 按钮即可实现。这不仅可以最大限度地提高生产力,而 且还可以节省耗材、工具、人工、仓储等成本,并显著 加快处理时间。泵铸件是备件业务和工业独特产品后期 制作中的热销产品。 3D打印已经对泵制造市场产生了强大的拉力也带来 了压力。因此,根据现代泵行业的期望,铸造行业的地 区龙头企业既能摆脱日益增加的竞争压力,也无需将自 己埋头砂中。3D打印只是为公司的资产负债表带来更 多利润——对每个参与者都是如此。 ■

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Dynamic Dosing System Automates Ductile Iron Treatment 动态定量系统使球墨铸铁生产实现自动化 ■ ■

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Material properties and requirements for inorganic core production 无机制芯的原料特性和工艺要求 The inorganic binder technology INOTEC from ASK Chemicals has established itself over the past 10 years as a productive and alternative core manufacturing procedure in serial casting production processes, especially in the segments of aluminium cylinder heads, crankcases and suspension parts by low pressure die casting and gravity casting applications. This odourless and emission-free core production is also characterised by very low cleaning and maintenance efforts for machines and tools. These ecological advantages are strongly linked to economic and technological benefits as an increased permanent mould availability leads to a general increase in productivity and increased mechanical component strength as permanent mould temperatures are reduced. In order to profitably deploy this technology and its ecological, economic and technological advantages, expertise and specialised knowledge of materials and processes are required. “INOTEC technology has established itself as a productive core manufacturing procedure for the serial production of lightmetal castings by low-pressure die casting and gravity casting applications”, explains Dr. Christian Appelt, Global Incubator Business Manager Inorganics at ASK Chemicals. The initial motivation for the introduction of inorganic binder systems into the foundry industrie was themed by “emission-free casting processes” and is based on the absence of harmful volatile compounds and emissions during the core production, core storage and casting processes, which ultimately results in the elimination of air treatment systems. The drastically reduced cleaning and maintenance effort for the permanent moulds is based on the inorganic nature of the INOTEC technology, since the formation of condensates and pyrolysis products during the casting processes is not observed. The absence of these condensates also allows a faster casting solidification due to reduced permanent mould temperatures, which in turn contributes to the mechanical strength of the metallurgical structures. Thus, the ecological advantages of this technology are in line with economic and technological factors. The INOTEC technology is described as a two-component binder system: Component 1 forms the liquid INOTEC binder, which can be described as a modified alkali silicate solution and influences specific sand core properties during the production (final strength, flowability); Component 2 is the powdered INOTEC promoter, which is a mixture of synthetic and natural raw materials based on a completely inorganic product composition. Through the use of the INOTEC promoter, primarily mechanical and thermophysical parameters of the sand core are influenced during the production process (immediate strength, flowability), but in particular during the casting processes, resulting in castings of high dimensional accuracy and best surface quality. The INOTEC binder contains an active solids content between 35 and 55 percent on the basis of an aqueous solution. The macroscopic parameter “viscosity” is thereby influenced by this active solid content as well as by its adjusted reactivity, whereby the viscosity meets all requirements during the mixing

在过去十年间,亚世科化学的无机粘合剂技术INOTECTM已证明为批量铸造生产工艺中一种高产且可行的 型芯生产工艺,尤其是在铝制气缸盖、曲轴箱和低压模 铸及重力铸造悬架部件等领域的应用。这种无臭气无排 放的制芯工艺同时还具有机器和工具清洁、维护成本低 的优势。这些生态上的优势与经济和技术上的利益息息 相关,因为永久模实用性的提高可在降低永久模温度的 同时有效提升产量,并提升机械零件强度。要想有效运 用这种技术及其在生态、经济和技术上的优势,我们需 要对原料和工艺具有详细和专业的认知。 “在过去十年间,INOTEC技术已确定是运用低压模 铸及重力铸造轻金属铸件批量生产工艺中一种高产的型 芯制造工艺。” 亚世科学全球无机业务经理Christian Appelt博士解释说。 最初将无机粘合剂体系引入铸造工业的动机是因其 为“无排放铸造工艺”,且在制芯、型芯储存和铸造过 程中都不会产生有害的挥发性物质和排放,进而可不再 使用空气处理系统。金属模清洁和维护成本的大大降低 得益于INOTEC的无机属性,因为使用该技术后,铸造 工艺中不再出现凝固物和热解物。排除凝固物的影响 后,由于金属模温度降低,也可加速铸件的凝固,同时 提升冶金结构的机械强度。从而将这种技术的生态优势 与经济和技术因素紧密结合起来。 INOTEC技术是一种双组分粘合剂体系:组分1组成液 态的INOTEC粘合剂,可称为改良的碱性硅酸盐溶液, 在生产过程中对砂芯的特定性能产生影响(最终强度、 流动性);组分2是粉状的INOTEC促进剂,是纯无机组 分的合成材料和天然原材料的混合体 使用INOTECTM促进剂后,砂芯重要的机械参数和 热物性参数会在生产工艺中受到影响(直接强度,流动 性),在铸造工艺中影响更加明显,进而实现铸件的高 尺寸精度和高表面质量。 以水性溶剂为基础,INOTECTM粘合剂含有35%到 55%的活性固态成分。因此,“黏度”这个宏观参数 就受到这种活性固态成分及其调整反应的影响,从而 使其能满足混合和制芯工艺中的各项要求,如砂粒表 面的润湿行为和包涂,以及在生产循环周期中的流动 性。INOTECTM促进剂含有99.8%的固态成分。促进剂 的微粒结构,即粉状结构主要是为了实现成网组分的合 并,并充当填充剂,提高造型混合物的流动性,提高砂

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product news/产品新闻 and core production processes, e.g. wetting behaviour/coating of the sand grain surface and flowability at productive cycle times. The INOTEC promoter contains over 99.8 percent solids. The particulate, i.e. powdery, structure of the promoter is essential to enable the incorporation of network-forming constituents and to act as filler for increasing the flowability of the moulding mixture and increasing the sand core packing density. The core production is characterised by a physical-chemical curing mechanism. The introduction and supply of thermal energy from heated steel tools and dehumidified, heated compressed air leads to the evaporation of the free solvent water and simultaneously initiates a chemical polycondensation reaction with the formation of a three-dimensional silicate network which characterises the actual strength composite in the sand core. Simultaneously, specific raw materials of the INOTEC promoter are linked to the free, non-condensed, OH groups of the three-dimensional silicate structure via a surface reaction and can thus specifically influence the mechanical and thermal properties of the sand core. The binder bridge formed after core production has a gel structure and, depending on the cross-section and volume of the sand core and energy input during core manufacture, contains a defined amount of residual water. If this residual water is expelled by further introducing thermal energy, the binder bridge loses its binding gel structure and embrittles, resulting in sandy core surfaces and core fracture. The material properties of the INOTEC technology thus define the process windows and the technical prerequisites for production: robust and productive process flows can be effectively ensured by suitable control and quality assurance measures. In addition to casting surface roughness requirements, the silica sand qualities commonly used for inorganic core production have to fulfil specific chemical and physical properties: a high chemical purity of > 99 % SiO2 ensures a high binder compatibility, whereby impurities such as clay or lime lead to reduced strength properties of the sand cores; the particle size and the fine-grain fraction significantly alter the gas permeability of the sand cores, so that cycle time extensions or productivity losses occur with fine silica sand qualities and voluminous core geometries. Above all, acidic silica sands with a pH value < 6.5 generally lead to shortened sand benchlife. For this reason, the definition of relevant specification limits and areas of action for non-specification-compliant analytical data of the incoming goods control of the base mould material as well as the documentation of the results for statistical evaluation (depth of experience) are of paramount importance. The compatibility of the INOTEC binder system with the specific sand supplies is practically tested by determining the 3-point bending strength according to prescribed quality procedures (location and time of sampling, technical equipment, reproducibility). In the preparation of the moulding mixture, the dosing accuracy of the technical systems and the feed sequence of the binder system components are decisive as a prerequisite for a homogeneous moulding composition. Factors such as batch size, time, speed of rotation and the horizontal and vertical arrangement of the mixing unit influence the homogeneity of the moulding mixture. Maintaining a cleaning matrix for dosing and mixing units is essential to operate a productive inorganic core production. 76

芯组的密度。 制芯工艺主要是一种物理化学固化机制。由加热的钢 铁工具和除湿加热的压缩空气引入的热能可使独立的溶 剂水蒸发,同时激发化学聚缩反应,形成三维的硅酸盐 网络,即砂芯中决定其实际强度的成分。同时,通过表 面反应,INOTEC促进剂中的特定原材料与三维硅酸盐 结构中不发生凝固的羟基自由基紧密关联,从而影响砂 芯的机械性能和热性能。在制芯后形成的粘结桥为凝胶 结构,视砂芯的横截面和体积不同,以及在制芯过程中 吸收的能量,该凝胶结构含有一定量的残留水。如果继 续吸收热能,则粘结桥将失去凝胶结构并变脆,从而导 致型芯表面砂化和芯裂。因此,INOTEC技术的原料性 能决定了生产的工艺窗口和技术储备:可通过适当的管 控和品质保证措施确保强健且高产的工序流程。 除了对铸件表面粗糙度的要求,通常用于无机制芯的 硅砂还需要具备特定的化学和物理属性(图4):SiO2 含量高于99%的高化学纯度可确保粘合剂的高兼容性, 而诸如黏土或石灰的杂质则会降低砂芯的强度;粒度和 微粒占比可明显改变砂芯的透气性,因此硅砂品质精细 且型芯几何结构较大也会导致循环时间延长或生产力损 失。此外,pH值低于6.5的酸性硅砂通常会导致型砂使 用寿命降低。 因此,对基础造型原料进货产品控制的相关规格限制 和尺寸不兼容分析数据的有效区间的定义,以及对统计 计算结果的记录(体验深度)至关重要。INOTECTM粘 合剂体系与特定型砂的兼容性通常根据规定的质量程序 (取样地点和时间,技术装备,再现性)决定3点弯曲 强度来测定。在准备造型混合物时,技术体系的配料精 确性和粘合剂体系组分的补缩顺序对于实现均匀的造型 合成物起着决定性的作用。诸如批量大小、时间、旋转 速度和混合单元的横向和纵向排列都会影响造型混合物 的均匀性。为配料和混合单元提供一个清洁的基体对于 实现高产的无机制芯工艺非常重要。 芯盒的充型过程主要由技术条件(喷嘴和通气管系 统的直径和排列,射砂压力)和造型混合物的流动性决 定,后者可通过选择特定的INOTEC粘合剂体系改变。 由于INOTEC技术的物理化学固化机制,作为粘合剂第 三种组分的热能供给物在制芯和固化过程中都非常重 要。建议在进入芯盒时对芯盒的轮廓温度和压缩空气指 数(压力、温度)持续进行工艺控制,因为这会直接影 响边缘外壳的形成(“机械支撑套”)和造型混合物的 完全硬化。在此过程中,INOTECTM技术的潜在固化机 制会实现由横截面和容积决定的强度增加以及由容积决 定的循环时间。

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product news/产品新闻 The cavity filling processes of the core box are essentially ensured by technical prerequisites (diameter and arrangement of the shooting nozzles and venting systems, shooting pressure) and by the flowability of the moulding mixture which can be influenced selecting specific INOTEC binder systems. Due to the physical-chemical curing mechanism of the INOTEC technology, the provision of thermal energy as a third binder system component is crucial during core fabrication and curing. Continuous process control of the contour temperature of the core box and of the compressed air parameters (pressure, temperature) when entering the core box is recommended, since the edge husk formation (“mechanical support stocking”) and the complete hardening of the moulding mixture is directly influenced. In the process, the underlying curing mechanism of INOTEC technology results in a cross-section and volume-dependent strength development and volume-dependent cycle times. The storage stability of inorganic-bonded sand cores is limited due to the reversibility of the binder bridge formation in the case of high temperatures and high absolute humidity, so that usually climate-controlled core storage facilities are deployed. The equilibrium between the temperature and humidity (moisture content) of the sand core and the ambient air is the driving force of the moisture absorption (Figs. 5 and 6). Here too, the selection of specific INOTEC binder systems can ensure sufficient and stable storage stability even at high absolutely humidity. The filling of the liquid aluminium melt during the casting process produces a thermal energy input and causes an equilibrium shift in the inorganic-bonded sand core with the release of free residual solvent water and chemically bound water of the free Si-OH groups of the 3D silicate network. Therefore, the gas permeability of the sand cores and the geometry and position of the sand core in the permanent mould and the orientation of the core prints ensure a successful core gas venting. Finally, the breadth of the process window of inorganic core production has been significantly reduced compared to organic core production processes. Suitable technical measures, taking into account the INOTEC material properties, and specific control and quality measures can accompany and ensure stable and productive processes of inorganic core production. ■

由于粘结桥结构在高温和高绝对湿度条件下的可逆 性,无机粘合砂芯的存储稳定性有一定的限制,因此通 常会使用能控制气候影响的型芯储存设备。砂芯和环境 空气温度和湿度(含水量)之间的均衡性是吸湿性的驱 动力(图5和6)。在此,同样,选择特定的INOTECTM 粘合剂体系可在高绝对湿度的条件下保证有充分稳定的 存储稳定性。 在铸造过程中填入液态铝融液会注入热量,释放自由 的残留溶剂水和三维硅酸盐网络结构中自由Si-OH 基团 的化学结合水,导致无机粘合砂芯中均衡性发生转移。 因此,砂芯的透气性和砂芯在永久模中的几何结构和位 置,以及型芯座的朝向可确保型芯拥有出色的排气孔。 最后,相较于有机制芯工艺,无机制芯的工艺窗口宽 度大大减小。考虑到INOTECTM原料特性的恰当的技术 措施,以及特定的品控措施可实现并确保无机制芯稳定 且高产的工艺。■

Imerys Metalcasting – Innovation and Sustainability production Imerys Metalcasting公司提供砂型添加剂和定制的混合材料 Imerys Metalcasting offers green moulding sand additives and customized blends based on bentonites, lustrous carbon formers and other selected high quality raw materials as well as technical expertise to the foundry industry. Imerys has a tradition as a supplier of foundry-grade bentonites from our renowned reserves along with its deep technical knowhow through the strategic combination of the two European companies S&B and IKO. They expanded over the years the global focus of the company through the extensive network of 14 locations in Europe, North

Imerys Metalcasting公司提供湿型砂添加剂和基于 膨润土、光亮碳前体和其他精选优质原材料的定制混合 物,提供专业的技术服务。 作为储备铸造级膨润土的供应商,公司具有悠久的 传统,通过战略组合两家欧洲公司S&B和IKO,具备了 更深厚的技术知识。Imerys公司通过遍布欧洲,北美和 亚洲的14个分支机构的广泛网络扩展了公司在全球的业 务,为铸造行业的国际客户群提供服务。其客户主要是

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product news/产品新闻 America and Asia, serving international customer groups in the foundry industry. Its customers are mainly automated foundries who produce high quality castings for the automotive industry (Cars and trucks). S&B Bentonite (Chaoyang) is a member of the Imerys Metalcasting family based in China, offering the whole portfolio of products and services to the Chinese and Asian foundry markets. The plant is located in Shahai, Jianping, Liaoning province and owns high thermal durability foundry-grade bentonite reserves. They monitor all the stages starting with the raw materials up to the individually aligned end products. Special manufacturing and treatment processes provide various products for a wide range of different applications. Since 2015, S&B/IKO belongs to Imerys, the world leader in mineral-based specialties for the industry. The French Imerys Group is present on five continents with 270 industrial sites and has around 18.500 employees worldwide. With the acquisition, Imerys Metalcasting has gained access to the vast portfolio of over 30 minerals, dedicated R&D infrastructure and the broad technical knowhow of the Group. Imerys Group focuses on innovation to deliver substantial and measurable improvements for customers. Ten years ago, they launched ENVIBOND® into the foundry industry. This pioneering “green“ moulding sand technology reduces significantly the emissions during pouring and improves the working environment in the foundry. ENVIBOND® is continuously developed further in order to provide the market with new solutions. ■

为汽车行业(汽车和卡车)生产高品质铸件的自动化铸 造厂。 S&B膨润土(朝阳)公司是Imerys Metalcasting公 司大家庭的成员,为中国和亚洲的铸造市场提供全套产 品和服务。工厂位于辽宁省建平市沙海,那里有高耐热 铸造级膨润土储量。从原材料开始直至独特应用的最终 产品公司监控全部流程。特殊的制造和处理工艺为各种 不同的应用提供不同的产品。 自2015年以来,S&B 和 IKO一直属于Imerys,该行 业是矿物基专业领域的全球领先企业。法国Imerys集团 在五大洲拥有270个工业基地,在全球拥有约18,500名 员工。通过此次收购,Imerys Metalcasting公司获得 了30多种矿产的庞大投资组合,专门的研发基础设施和 集团广泛的技术知识。Imerys 集团专注于创新,为客 户提供实质性和可衡量的改进。 10年前,该公司将ENVIBOND®推向铸造行业。这 种开创性的“绿色”型砂技术大大减少了浇注过程中的 排放,并改善了铸造厂的工作环境。ENVIBOND®不断 进一步发展,为市场提供新的解决方案。 ■

China Diecasting—Follow the rhythm of the rapid development of global diecasting industry 中国压铸展——跟随全球压铸行业的快速发展节奏 China has become the most rapidly developing country in the global alternative drives and electric vehicle industry. In 2015, China surpassed the United States as the largest market for alternative drives and electric vehicles. 517,000 vehicles were produced in China in 2016 with alternative drives, with a year-on-year growth of 62.07%. And the number of sold new energy vehicles was 5.07 million, with an increase of 53.13%. With the continuous improvement of global environment requirements for energy conservation and emissions reduction, automobile lightweight trend becomes a path for saving energy and emissions, and structure parts are becoming a hot spot of die casting industry. Besides automobile, the trend has also a decisive influence on electronics, machinery, lighting and other application fields. The huge die casting market potential has an enormous influence on CHINA DIECASTING as well. Together with the industry, the exhibition has led and witnessed the rapid development of China’s die casting industry for 20 years. As one of the most professional die casting exhibitions around the world, it will be held from July 18 to 20, 2018 in Shanghai. 78

中国已成为全球替代驱动和电动汽车行业中发展最快 的国家。2015年,中国超越美国成为替代驱动和电动汽 车的最大市场。2016年,中国生产的采用替代驱动技术 的汽车达51.7万辆,同比增长62.07%。销售新能源汽 车507万辆,同比增长53.13%。 随着全球节能环保要求的不断提高,汽车轻量化趋势 成为节能减排的途径,结构件成为压铸行业的热点。除 汽车行业外,这一趋势对电子、机械、照明和其他应用 领域也有决定性的影响。 巨大的压铸市场潜力对中国压铸展有着巨大的影响。 此次展会与行业一起引领并见证了中国压铸行业20年来 的快速发展。作为全球专业压铸展之一,本届展会将于 2018年7月18-20日在上海举办。预计展会将吸引超过 400家参展商和18,000名专业观众。 蓬勃发展的中国压铸市场吸引了世界的关注,中 国压铸展被认为是国际企业进入中国市场的最佳平

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product news/产品新闻 The exhibition is expected to attract more than 400 exhibitors and 18,000 trade visitors. China’s booming die casting market attracts the intention from the world and CHINA DIECASTING is supposed to be the best platform for foreign enterprises to enter the Chinese market. Leading companies from Europe like BUHLER, FRECH, IDRA, KUKA, ABB, Dynacast, Preccast, BÖHMER, MAGMA, FLOW-3D, FONDAREX, MARPOSS, Carl Zeiss, Schmolz-Bickenbach, BÖHLER, Oerlikon Balzers, Wollin, Henkel, Petrofer, Chem-Trend, Geiger, KMA Environmental Technology, Absolent and etc. have already confirmed their appearance in Shanghai.

台。来自欧洲的布勒、富来、意德拉、库卡、ABB、 奈那卡斯、Prec-cast、BÖHMER、迈格码、FLOW3D、方达瑞、MARPOSS、Carl Zeiss、SchmolzBickenbach、BÖHLER、Oerlikon Balzers、Wollin、 汉高、Petrofer、肯天、Geiger、客明环境、Absolent 等企业已确定参展。

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Global Casting Magazine Volume 8 Issue 1  
Global Casting Magazine Volume 8 Issue 1