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SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation Remote Access Under Vehicle Technology

Next Generation Remote Access Under Vehicle Technology Reducing the Risk of Vehicle Borne IEDs (VBIEDs) 21st Century Security in an Age of Budget Cuts and Emerging Threats Technology Advances in Under Vehicle Inspection Systems Inspecting the Future

Published by Global Business Media


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation Remote Access Under Vehicle Technology

Next Generation Remote Access Under Vehicle Technology Reducing the Risk of Vehicle Borne IEDs (VBIEDs) 21st Century Security in an Age of Budget Cuts and Emerging Threats Technology Advances in Under Vehicle Inspection Systems Inspecting the Future

Published by Global Business Media

Published by Global Business Media Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor Mary Dub Senior Project Manager Steve Banks Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes Production Manager Paul Davies For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated. Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles. © 2014. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

Contents Foreword

2

Mary Dub, Editor

Next Generation Remote Access Under Vehicle Technology

3

Christopher Millar: CEO Gatekeeper, Inc.

If You Are Not Inspecting the Undercarriage of Vehicles Automatically – Why Bother? Automatic vs. Manual Inspection Systems The New Generation Under Vehicle Inspection System is Fully Automatic Patented and Unique Technology Environmental and Driver Challenges Networking and Integration

Reducing the Risk of Vehicle Borne IEDs (VBIEDs) 8 Mary Dub, Editor

Protecting Civilians The Rapid Development of UVIS Technology Training to Use UVIS

21st Century Security in an Age of Budget Cuts and Emerging Threats

10

Don McBarnet, International Security Correspondent

The Threat Within the United States Historic Spending on Countering IEDs The ‘Evolving Threat’ Case for Continuing Research and Spending The Risk to Transport Hubs and Rail Transportation Why Does Boko Haram Present a Current and Potential Threat? Boko Haram Uses Copycat Tactics

Technology Advances in Under Vehicle Inspection Systems

12

Don McBarnet, International Security Correspondent

The Advantages of Portability Static Scanning vs. Real-Time Video Weighing the Importance of Clarity of Vision Speed of Operation of Under Vehicle Surveillance Security Personnel Operator Training

Inspecting the Future

14

Mary Dub, Editor

The Future Global Market for Under Vehicle Inspection Systems Robots May Have a Greater Role The Future Market for UVIS is Competitive The Growing Value of Algorithms

References 16

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

Foreword T

HIS SPECIAL Report on remote access under

in Europe and the United States should lead to lower

vehicle inspection systems (UVIS) covers the

levels of spending on deterrent and surveillance

vital area of ensuring security for civilians and

devices like UVIS. Instability and uncertainty, it can be

military installations from the threat of concealed

argued, heighten the need for surveillance products.

vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices.

Combatting the threat, UVIS manufacturers are

The Report opens with an article that looks at

responding by using available technology to increase

how Artificial Intelligence (AI) has changed the role

the effectiveness of the product. The recent advances

of a guard from a sensor to a decision maker. It

in technology are discussed in the fourth article.

describes how the development and application

The potentially disruptive effect of innovation on

of AI to the world of under vehicle inspection by

the market means that no one can afford not to search

Gatekeeper Inc. has been a breakthrough for the

the horizon for what is coming next. This final section

security industry worldwide, by removing, to a great

of the report looks at how new research and the

extent, the challenges involved in manually inspecting

use of new algorithms mining the data that surveillance

the undercarriage of vehicles. Additionally, the article

cameras from UVIS deliver, can improve on the

looks at past technologies and, in particular, compares

effectiveness of products.

scanned images produced by line scanners, with those achieved using Gatekeeper technology. The second article looks at the critical role UVIS systems have in identifying explosive devices in

In an age of austerity, where international insurgency leads to uncertainty, the case for spending on screening against explosive devices to protect critical installations and civilian populations is powerful.

the undercarriage of all types of vehicles and trains. The devices are built and placed by a resilient and inventive network and new devices are an integral part of the threat. The third piece challenges the prevailing view that the end of the war in Afghanistan and economic austerity

Mary Dub Editor

Mary Dub is the editor of this Special Report. She has covered the defence field in the United States and the UK as a television broadcaster, journalist and conference manager.

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

Next Generation Remote Access Under Vehicle Technology Christopher Millar: CEO Gatekeeper, Inc.

If You Are Not Inspecting the Undercarriage of Vehicles Automatically – Why Bother?

T

HIS IS not only Gatekeeper’s position on undercarriage inspection but now a rapidly growing number of concerned and experienced security professionals across the globe as vehicles have rapidly become the weapon of choice and preferred means of transporting contraband of all descriptions, both inside and under motor vehicles. These same concerned security professionals, in the main, were the first to embrace the significant benefits of video analytics. Video analytics or video content analysis is a subset of computer vision and is a true representation of Artificial Intelligence (AI). When AI is applied to the world of security technology a number of inherent challenges within the various technologies are mitigated. The main challenge being that of the limitations of the human mind, an impediment to security personnel (guards) working at their optimal level, or put another way providing the standard of security we all seek. In order to meet the stated Security Function, security personnel must perform their tasks meticulously, efficiently and tirelessly. Sounds great as a stated aim for security personnel, however all three are individually, and/or collectively almost impossible to achieve without the assistance of AI. Picture 24 monitors lined in 3 rows with similar images on each screen – do you think it’s possible to detect every security breach? Even the most trained of eyes are bound to overlook something and why not? We’re only human. That’s where video analytics play a vital role in quality security. Unlike the world before video analytics, security guards can now monitor security breaches both accurately and timely through the deployment of AI, contained within most modern security CCTV systems. These systems automatically alert guards to the very issues they have been tasked to monitor, their Security Function, thus allowing the guards to act accordingly and provide the level of security required. The human mind is

a wonderful thing. However, numerous studies show that humans can only really concentrate on a single task for a maximum of twenty minutes before zoning out – drifting off to another place in our mind. This is where the issues begin as you are asking a guard (a human) to resist human failings and be an eight hour fully focused security sensor - not possible. What AI has done both in the CCTV world and within the Gatekeeper technology is to change a guard from a sensor to a decision maker. A role that guards, with the correct amount of training, can perform almost to perfection.

Automatic vs. Manual Inspection Systems Gatekeeper’s development and application of AI to the world of under vehicle inspection has been a breakthrough for the security industry worldwide. AI has removed, to a greater part, the challenges associated with manually inspecting the undercarriage of vehicles. Some of these challenges include: 1. Providing a comprehensive search of a vehicle’s undercarriage in an efficient and timely manner. 2. Personnel conducting a search with little if any knowledge of the mechanical layout of a vehicle undercarriage. 3. The ability of guards to concentrate and conduct comprehensive searches for many hours at a time in varying work environments. Past technologies or systems used to inspect the undercarriage of motor vehicles have all required guards to deal with these challenges in combination with other issues related to the particular manual system deployed. For example: 1. Sticks and mirrors or cameras on sticks provide an extremely limited view of an undercarriage. You still see a number of sticks and mirrors leaning up against walls of guard rooms as a reminder of days gone by. That said there are still some security personnel out there where WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 3


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

When AI is applied to the world of security technology a number of inherent challenges within the various technologies are mitigated

IMAGE FROM AN ADVANCE DETECTION TECHNOLOGY POWER POINT PRESENTATION DEMONSTRATING THE TECHNOLOGY

this is their only form of inspection technology. 2. Running video systems (typically speed humps with little video cameras) produce moving, unrelated video streams that are virtually impossible for the human mind to decipher or understand let alone spot an anomaly. There are no reference images or video strips for the operator to try and compare, just a series of videos moving at the speed of the vehicle in a blind hope that the operator knows what the vehicle undercarriage looks like and is looking when the vehicle, with the anomaly, runs over the video system. There are several, mainly Chinese companies, that still offer this type of inspection device. However, most of the earlier manufactures of the running video style systems have gone out of business, as very few, if any, end users purchase such equipment nowadays. 3. Running video Plus: these are systems that have the same issues as standard running video systems accept they use an IP camera to capture frames and lay them on top of each other to form a rough view of the undercarriage as shown below. However, as shown these really are of no use as the images are poor and often show double views of the same part of the undercarriage (refer to the spare wheel and drive shaft for example). 4. Line scan/Linear scan systems. Whatever manufacturers call this technology it is essentially a photocopier with no control over its output, but has proven to be a large source of new business for Gatekeeper for the reasons expressed below. Before Gatekeeper, the line/linear scanner were the main form of undercarriage imaging. However, regardless of the manufacturer, they all suffer a significant technological impediment in that they are extremely speed sensitive so no two line scan images are alike . With slightly slower vehicle speed than the scan rate of the camera, it produces an elongated image. Slightly faster vehicle speed than the scan rate creates a short compressed image – illustrated below. This

dissimilarity in images makes any form of automatic comparison virtually impossible, despite what the manufactures’ brochures say/show. This disimilarity creates an enormous challenge for security guards, affecting their ability to manually spot the difference between two completely different images of the same vehicle, all because they were scanned at slightly different speeds. This limitation/absolute impediment to the line scan technology was confirmed by Chemring (Ex BDL a line scan undercarriage inspection manufacturer) recently in a document provided to a prospective Middle East customer saying “For accurate image reconstruction, the line rate of the scanning camera needs to be driven at a speed synchronised to the movement but often, constant speed is assumed, which in most cases gives acceptable results (but can give distortions in the direction of travel).” In reality, virtually all line scan images of vehicle undercarriages are distorted in one way or another. Directly below is a color line scan image of a 30 seat bus when it crossed a line scanner slightly faster than the scan rate of the camera. Compare this with the Gatekeeper scanned image below of an almost identical 30 seat bus (compare features of air-conditioner, drive shaft, tires, exhaust system etc.)

COLOR LINE SCAN IMAGE OF A 30 SEAT BUS WHEN IT CROSSED A LINE SCANNER SLIGHTLY FASTER THAN THE SCAN RATE OF THE CAMERA

GATEKEEPER SCAN OF 30 SEAT BUS

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

EXAMPLE OF A LINE SCAN IMAGE OF A CAR WHEN IT STOPS ON TOP OF A LINE SCANNER

The image above is an example of a line scan image of a car when it stops on top of a line scanner. A line scanner designed to scan vehicle undercarriages simply has no ability to stop recording lines or rows of pixels when a vehicle stops. It continues recording, placing each consecutive row alongside the next to form an image until the recorder (line scanner) is switched off. You can see from the above examples how it is virtually impossible for a line scanner to perform an automatic comparison of the same vehicle undercarriage image as they are only as accurate as their relative speed to the scan rate of the camera. Over the past years much has been attempted to correct this limitation, which is only made worse with high resolution – a claimed advantage of a line scan camera. In a machine vision environment where speed can be controlled very accurately, for example a conveyor belt, a line scanner can be deployed very successfully but not in situations where the object’s speed (a vehicle) cannot be meticulously controlled.

The New Generation Under Vehicle Inspection System is Fully Automatic As referenced above, all “manual” systems essentially suffer from the same challenges i.e. reliance on the guard to spot the difference. In most cases, as a result of poorly scanned images, guards are required to have specific knowledge of the mechanical layout of almost any vehicle. They must be able to look on top of cross beams and axels in order to properly perform daily inspections for hours on end. Countries like Iraq have seen first-hand how Gatekeeper technology can detect mechanical changes of a vehicle’s undercarriage that look normal to the human eye. For example, removing a vehicle’s spare tire and replacing it with a metal plate creates a storage pocket that can be accessible through the vehicle’s trunk. The Gatekeeper automatic under vehicle inspection system (AUVIS), is able to find such anomalies

purely because the system/computer knows what a vehicle’s undercarriage should look like and can detect when it is altered depending on the sensitivity setting, down to small wires. The difference is then automatically highlighted on the screen which alerts the operator/guard to the anomaly.

Patented and Unique Technology Gatekeeper has numerous US and international patents awarded and pending surrounding its technologies. One of these patents relates to the “fingerprinting” or vehicle printing of a vehicle’s undercarriage. Just as the police can identify a criminal by their unique fingerprint, AUVIS can recall similar vehicles, if not the exact vehicle, from a system database purely by its undercarriage image (pattern). In this way the Gatekeeper AUVIS does not rely nor require a vehicle identifier (license plate, RFID tag etc.) to recall an image for automatic comparison. The AUVIS can run in either a one to one mode through the use of a specific vehicle identifier or on a one to many mode by searching the system database for the vehicle based on the vehicle fingerprint. This dual ability is extremely valuable as the system does not have to see every vehicle before it can perform its automatic searches. Instead, if the AUVIS has seen a similar vehicle in the past, its undercarriage image will be stored and used as a reference image for automatic comparison. The AUVIS search algorithms are so accurate that they can, with >96% tested accuracy1, inform an operator of a vehicles make, model, year of manufacture, engine size, transmission type and style of vehicle. All of this information gathered with just one fingerprint.

Environmental and Driver Challenges In almost all cases, vehicle inspections are required to be conducted out in the open and with tolerance for normal driver behavior. These requirements are another area where the Gatekeeper AUVIS excels as the technology has

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

Just as the police can identify a criminal by their unique fingerprint, AUVIS can recall similar vehicles, if not the exact vehicle, from a system database purely by its undercarriage image

been designed with an IP68 (Ingress Protection) certification which has the proven capability of handling the following challenges: 1. Withstanding harsh environmental conditions proven by systems installed from the North of Russia to Asia and the Middle East for over nine years. 2. Ambient lighting conditions are dealt with by matching the wavelength of the illumination with the optimal wavelength of the scanner’s sensor – dramatically reducing the effects of ambient light. Under any and all light conditions (day/night, cloudy/sunny) images remain the same due to the illumination technology used. The use of monochrome array provides greater contrast within the grey scale as it is the computer that is providing the image analysis. This capacity is enhanced by the strict control over illumination wavelength versus the scanner’s optimal sensitivity at 650 nm. Optical filters within the scanner controls the ambient light outside of the 650nm wavelength and blocks these from the sensor array. 3. Challenges of normal driver behavior i.e. stopping and starting during the scanning process are not a problem for Gatekeeper AUVIS. The intelligence within the algorithms

recognizes when a vehicle has stopped and only restarts the stitching process when new/ different pixels are detected, ensuring the same high quality images regardless of a vehicle’s behavior during the scan process. 4. Variation in speed of vehicles being scanned is also a strength of the AUVIS, as a driver can drive very slowly or accelerate up to speeds of 35kph without affecting image quality or the system’s ability to automatically search and compare vehicle images. The same cannot be said of other technologies/systems referred to above. 5. High vehicle throughput at pressure times of the day is achieved by the systems “Hands Off” function which allows the system to work fully without the guard’s involvement by automatically inspecting one vehicle every 4 seconds. 6. Watch lists and alerts are features of the modern under vehicle inspection system. However, the Gatekeeper system takes this to another level by deploying its fingerprint technology. For example, if a license plate is removed from one vehicle and placed on another, the system will alarm as the AUVIS will compare the fingerprint of the vehicle with the registered license plate in the database.

The Advantage of the Dual View (Virtual 3D Image):

SCANNED IMAGE LOOKING BACK AT 600

SCANNED IMAGE LOOKING FORWARD AT 600

The Gatekeeper system finds the difference and automatically highlights them on screen for the operator.

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

GATEKEEPER’S DUAL VIEW ADVANTAGE

Networking and Integration The world of security has moved from a series of disparate, non-integrated systems to a series of integrated technologies, each providing a layer of security designed to provide a current overall threat condition viewed in a central control room. Systems are sharing data and comparing results, looking for an indication of a potential threat. Gatekeeper is involved in a number of high profile installations worldwide where the company’s participation in large networked and complex security systems is required. In fact, as much as Gatekeeper has developed the automatic undercarriage inspection technologies, Gatekeeper has also paved the way for large system integration of undercarriage scanning via the use of a central database configuration. All scanners retrieve reference images and report all vehicle activity to a central database. They also integrate with other access control technologies separately or through various PSIMs.

For the past nine years, in response to this ongoing issue, Gatekeeper has offered to manufacturers, end users and consultants the ability to video tape a side by side test of the various claims made by the associated manufacturers against those of Gatekeeper with the video tape being available on an unrestricted basis for marketing purposes by either party. To date not one manufacturer has agreed to demonstrate their claimed capabilities. As a result, Gatekeeper is now offering USD100,000 and unrestricted video rights to a party judged by an independent party to be superior to the Gatekeeper technology. Let’s see who will step forward. 1

Tested as part of a DARPA project in 2006.

Misrepresentations of Manufacturers Capabilities – Gatekeeper Offers USD100,000 plus unlimited video rights of the test to any party who can prove they can beat Gatekeeper’s AUVIS. As much as under vehicle inspection technology has advanced in order to provide and meet a higher Security Function, many under vehicle inspection technology manufactures have chosen to misrepresent their technology’s capabilities to the detriment of the end user.

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

Reducing the Risk of Vehicle Borne IEDs (VBIEDs) Mary Dub, Editor

“Today’s transnational extremist networks that employ IEDs have proven to be resilient, adaptive, interconnected, and violent. Globalization, the Internet, and social media have extended the reach of these organizations – providing platforms for recruiting, technical exchanges, training, planning, funding, and social interaction. Their ability to seamlessly communicate and share explosive device recipes; tactics, techniques and procedures; and migrate back and forth – it’s really a huge strategic advantage for these threat networks and something that will continue in the future.” Lieutenant General Michael D. Barbero, Director, Joint IED Defeat Organization1

Screening and deterring VBIEDs by under vehicle inspection systems is a long established and increasingly sophisticated practice to protect soldiers, civilians, critical national infrastructure, transport hubs and events

S

CREENING AND deterring VBIEDs by under vehicle inspection systems is a long established and increasingly sophisticated practice to protect soldiers, civilians, critical national infrastructure, transport hubs and events. In response to the raised threat from the use of VBIEDs there has been a strong and vigorous growth in vehicle surveillance systems that can deter the user of this lethal and highly effective weapon. This is a threat that is not confined to Europe, or the United States, but is extant throughout the world, thus representing a strong market for the latest generation of inspection systems. Lt Gen Michael Barbero, Director of JIEDDO, the US based Department of Defense organization with the brief to confront the IED threat, expands on the global reach of his job: we’ve also seen IED tactics and techniques used by insurgents increase in sophistication and proliferate globally. Take, for example, the explosively formed projectile that we saw in Iraq, which has made its way to the Gaza Strip, and recently to Somalia – all tracking back to Iran and Iran-supported organizations. Vehicle-borne IEDs that we’ve seen in the Middle East, we’re now seeing in Mexico. And the use of female suicide bombers – pioneered by the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka – has spread throughout the Middle East, worked its way to Southeast Europe, and most recently has been employed in Somalia and Nigeria. Also, ammonium nitrate-based IEDs – one of our greatest challenges in Afghanistan – are now being employed more frequently in Syria2. The need to protect civilian and military populations against the threat of IEDs is global.

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Protecting Civilians Countering the use of cheaply made IEDs is what General John Allen, commander of ISAF described as “very tough mission against an intelligent, resourceful and resilient enemy with patience and little regard for human life” who use the IED as the weapon of choice3. There are numerous different types of IED, many of them in or attached to vehicles. There is a list: CWIEDs (Command Wire Improvised Explosive Devices), RCIEDs (Radio-Controlled Improvised Explosive Devices), VBIEDs (Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Devices), VCIEDs (Vehicle-Concealed Improvised Explosive Devices), VOIEDs (VictimOperated, or booby traps)4. The task of detecting and identifying their use without risking the life of the security inspector has been a critical White House research priority5 since 2008.

The Rapid Development of UVIS Technology Targeted specifically at the need to survey the under side of vehicles which may conceal IEDs, there has been research into ways of improving under vehicle inspection systems. Angled hand held mirrors are still used to view under cars, but they do not reveal devices that may have been concealed. What is worse, they create the risk that the security officer at the checkpoint may be injured by the device that he himself may trigger. Surveillance pits have and are also used to allow easy access to the underside of vehicles but these are expensive to make and carry the same dangers of proximity as hand held mirrors. Recently developed under vehicle inspection units can be permanent or semi permanent.


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

The semi permanent ones are placed on the surface; the permanent products are flush with the ground. Many UVIS systems have integrated license plate recognition (LPR) software that can identify stolen or suspect vehicles. Two dominant technologies have emerged: static scanning and real-time video. Static scanning involves capturing a succession of high-speed still images of the undercarriage as it passes over the camera. There is also real-time video, which is used in products such as those from Advanced Technology.

Training to Use UVIS Any system is only as good as the people operating it. Many UVIS systems have an accessible Graphic User Interface (GUI), automatic alerts for unusual items on the underside of the vehicle and are developed to be rugged for all weather conditions in extreme climates, as well as being usable by technicians with 30 minutes of training. Some of the premium products also boast automated motionactivated imaging, on-screen image control for detailed analysis, and automatic silent alerts for suspect vehicles.

Targeted specifically at the need to survey the under side of vehicles which may conceal IEDs, there has been research into ways of improving under vehicle inspection systems

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

21st Century Security in an Age of Budget Cuts and Emerging Threats Don McBarnet, International Security Correspondent

“When it comes to how we think about IEDs, we need to face facts – threats evolve – even improvised ones.” Peter Singer, Brookings Institution6

The second half of the second decade of the 21st century may well make future vigilance and research on new more effective technologies an essential for the continuation of normal life in modern cities

I

T IS this constant evolution of the threat from IEDs and VBIEDs in the United States, the Middle East and Africa that is the greatest source of challenge and opportunity to UVIS system manufacturers. While threats evolve, the many different groups who use terrorism frequently use the Internet to post YouTube videos about their latest jihads or training. The New York Times has reported that Terrogence, a company formed by former members of Israeli intelligence, is monitoring many new and inventive ways of placing IEDs in among both civilian populations and military installations. Islamic insurgents were of course, successful in organising a series of murderous vehicle based suicide attacks against the American Embassy in Beirut and against the Americanled multilateral force in the Lebanon.

The Threat Within the United States 9/11, Middle Eastern insurgencies and American foreign policy have had the effect of triggering a domestic awareness of the emerging risks to prevent and deter VBIEDs within the United States. On the day after a car bomb was defused in Times Square in New York City on May 2, 2010, a retired New York police officer published a letter in the New York Times. He offered an analysis of the number of VBIEDs found in New York City. Terrorists apparently tried to use IEDs more than 50 times in New York City in the last quarter of the 20th century. Quoting the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism in Maryland, for the period 1970 through 2007: “Of all terrorist IED cases in the United States, 10 are known to have been vehicleborne IEDs (VBIEDs), or car bombs. More than half of these VBID attacks – 6 of 10 – occurred in New York.” 7 And it is because of this kind of

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experience there is a frequently articulated need in the United States to maintain both vigilance and deterrence against this domestic threat.

Historic Spending on Countering IEDs Calculating the appropriate level of budget spending on countering IEDs by the armed forces in Iraq and Afghanistan and within the United States by the Department of Homeland Security and local and city based police forces is difficult. In the last decade, vast sums of money have been spent. However, in the last 5 years these budgets have come under stringent attack through sequestration. In 2012, a writer in the Armed Forces Journal thought the spending countering IEDs was disproportionate: The U.S. has spent roughly $17 billion on various anti-IED gear over the last decade. We have to figure out how to alter the investment ratio. This is not just a budgeting issue. It is unsustainable to keep throwing billions of dollars to fight a technology that costs the other side tens of dollars. In this argument it is clear that it is the asymmetry of the cost of the research, development and training to counter IEDs compared to the cost of the homemade device used by the insurgents that he found most troubling. However, this argument must be weighed against the potentially more powerful argument that it is the cost to civilians and domestic infrastructure of not being vigilant and using the latest products to deter and detect IEDs, that exacts the highest price.

The ‘Evolving Threat’ Case for Continuing Research and Spending As the writer in the Armed Forces Journal puts it: much of our effort has gone toward the IEDs


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

of yesterday and today, rather than where they are headed tomorrow. We have spent billions of dollars to develop and buy gear that deals with relatively simple IEDs. We have, for example, made great advances in standoff metal detection and can now spot a single piece of metal along a dirt road in Afghanistan. However, the second half of the second decade of the 21st century may well make future vigilance and research on new more effective technologies an essential for the continuation of normal life in modern cities.

36 billion barrels of oil, the 10th largest in the world. And it is the wealth brought by this oil to the predominantly Christian southern states of Nigeria, in the face of the biting poverty of the residents of the predominantly Islamic North of Nigeria that is fuelling the insurgents, despite their violence. Nigeria is now the largest oil producer in Africa and the fourth largest supplier of oil to the United States.

The Risk to Transport Hubs and Rail Transportation

In 2006, al Qaeda struck the Abqaiq oil facility in eastern Saudi Arabia. Abqaiq is one of the largest oil fields in the world with a capacity of seven million barrels per day. According to open source intelligence, on February 24, 2006, two suicide bombers attempted to drive two cars loaded with explosives into the compound. This operation, and others, mirror recently adopted Boko Haram tactics, including the use of suicide bombers and multiple VBIED attacks. In September 2011, threats made by Boko Haram to bomb Lagos Airport prompted security officials to search all vehicles approaching the airport, causing major disruption. The kidnapping of girls in May 2014 has highlighted the active menace that Boko Haram presents. American Secretary of State, John Kerry underlined the potential threat that he thought Boko Haram presented to the United States and its interests: “We are also going to do everything possible to counter the menace of Boko Haram� 9

Two terrorist events in Europe have had left an imprint on the memory of those responsible for the security of public transportation by bus or train. The Madrid train bombs in 2004 killed 191 people and wounded 1,841 as quoted by the BBC.8 According to the reporter on the ground at the time, Stephen Sackur, bombs had been left on the track and in carriages. Similarly, the horror at the death toll and injury caused on the London Underground and bus system brought about by terrorists on 7 July 2007, popularly called 7/7, have reinforced the need for vigilance on public transportation systems throughout the world. For those with short memories these events may cease to have salience. However, the strong and growing profile of groups like Boko Haram in Nigeria should prevent any relaxation of security measures.

Why Does Boko Haram Present a Current and Potential Threat?

Boko Haram Uses Copycat Tactics

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

Technology Advances in Under Vehicle Inspection Systems Don McBarnet, International Security Correspondent

“Threat networks ‘march to the signs of insecurity...and take the IED with them.’ We see this in Colombia, Pakistan, Syria, Nigeria, and Somalia among others. Wherever we see turmoil or insecurity, we see the spread of these networks and the spread of IEDs — now and in the future” Lieutenant General Michael D. Barbero, Director, Joint IED Defeat Organization10

While traditional handheld mirrors are among the least expensive and oldest technologies, they have limited applications and place security personnel in close proximity to potential danger

I

N RESPONSE to the need to reduce the probability of attack by VBIEDs in insecure areas, manufacturers of screening products for IEDs have had to improve their use of the latest available technologies. The most effective product for the task must have a long list of important features. One of the most important is stand off capability. The operator of the vehicle surveillance system must be shielded from the risk of either triggering the device or being close enough to be killed in a vehicle borne booby trap. The need for remote access and stand off capability is critical. So while traditional handheld mirrors are among the least expensive and oldest technologies, they have limited applications and place security personnel in close proximity to potential danger.

The Advantages of Portability While needs for some under vehicle checks can be met by vehicle inspection pits, these are laborious to build and expensive, and worse they are not portable. Imaging units in modern UVIS must either be portable (not attached to the road surface), semi-permanent (affixed to the road surface) or permanent (embedded in the ground so that they are flush with the road surface). This allows UVIS products to be moved to respond to immediate demand at one-off events, high prestige hospitality centres or offices, or the response to a threat to critical infrastructure. Many UVIS systems also have integrated license plate recognition (LPR) software that can identify stolen or suspect vehicles, and help security personnel monitor suspect changes to the undercarriage of a returning vehicle. This can be important where trusted vehicles pass a checkpoint regularly.

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UVIS product designers have also developed a variety of security add-ons such as external scene cameras to help personnel better detect, deter and communicate potential VBIED threats. Many systems also integrate within a network system offering data access from records and other facilities.11

Static Scanning vs. Real-Time Video To survey the underside of the vehicle in a stand off remote access product, two dominant technologies have emerged. These are static scanning and real-time video. Static scanning involves capturing a succession of high-speed still images of the undercarriage as it passes over the camera. The images are sent to a processor that aligns them creating a composite view of the entire underside of the vehicle. Images can be composed of a single line of pixels taken with a line-scan camera, or a block of multiple pixel lines captured using an area scan camera. Some companies like, Advanced Detection have introduced an alternative technology using real-time video instead of static scanning. The technology uses developments in the video surveillance market to offer a different style of product.12

Weighing the Importance of Clarity of Vision Some manufacturers put the case for static scanning technology. They claim its key capability is to deliver very high resolution with little distortion. As the focal width narrows, the resolution improves so that line-scan cameras are able to deliver significantly higher resolutions than area scan cameras or real-time video. Current line-scan


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

cameras offer resolutions of 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192 and 12288 pixels per line with speeds up to 300 lines per second. However, video resolution is measured in terms of horizontal lines. So the more vertical lines that can fit in a defined horizontal space, the higher the resolution. 
When used for UVIS inspection, today’s real-time video cameras offer 640 x 480 resolution, similar to that of a high quality DVD. The temporal resolution, or speed at which the video is captured and displayed, is 30 frames per second. As a result, the on-screen view is identical to the three-dimensional perspective the operator might have if positioned beneath the vehicle. In choosing between the two technologies security officials need to ask the question whether the increased resolution of a static scanned image is necessary to identify potential threats?

an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automatic silent alerts for suspect vehicles. Also to combat operator boredom and human error the training needs to be brief and straightforward to assimilate. Many systems aim training to take less than 30 minutes.

Speed of Operation of Under Vehicle Surveillance The rate of vehicles passing through a mass choke point surveillance area is critical. Real time video offers speed of operation. Some UVIS solutions using real-time video are able to process and present streaming video of the vehicle undercarriage as soon as the front bumper passes over the imaging unit. If the travel speed of the vehicle is less than ten miles per hour, which is typical for a well-maintained perimeter chokepoint, security personnel are able to analyze the footage while the car is in motion. From start to finish, an average inspection can take about 25 seconds.

Security Personnel Operator Training Any security surveillance system is only as good as its operators. An effective system needs WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 13


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

Inspecting the Future Mary Dub, Editor

“In the future, (IED) devices will likely adopt more sophisticated technology. Future bomb makers will incorporate such enhancements as ultra-thin and flexible electronics; advanced communications mechanisms such as bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and broadband; optical initiators; and highly energetic materials. In addition to more sophisticated technology, threat networks will develop enhanced IED concealment techniques and may even combine IED use with concurrent cyber attacks.” Lieutenant General Michael D. Barbero, Director, Joint IED Defeat Organization13

In the coming decade, analogue cameras are expected to be replaced by higher resolution megapixel cameras due to the availability of Video Management Software (VMS), with the ease of integration and use of intelligent video analytics

W

RITING IN the summer of 2014, with violent conflict in Iraq, Syria, the Middle East and Africa combined with the recent use of kinetic weapons in the Ukraine close to the Russian Federation border, it is indeed realistic to predict a future with high levels of uncertainty and moderate levels of linked violent activity in Europe and the United States. This is a context where the case for reducing the amount of security offered to military installations, air transportation, critical national infrastructure, embassies, events and ports seems very difficult to justify indeed. There is a cogent argument for the deterrent effect of the visible presence of vehicle inspection units adding to security. And the deterrent effect is increased by the effectiveness of recent changes in UVIS technology.

The Future Global Market for Under Vehicle Inspection Systems This realistic, but pessimistic view of the level of uncertainty is reflected in future market studies. The Video Surveillance Systems and Services Market Analysis and Forecast published in September 2013, highlights a positive growth forecast. By 2016, the Internet protocol (IP)based video surveillance market is expected to reach 15.89 billion dollars (US), an increase of more than 200 percent compared to 2011. The growth is driving significant innovation with regards to the capabilities and cost-efficiency of IP video cameras. This, in turn, is driving new applications across a variety of industries, including perimeter security. 14 Taking a slightly wider perspective looking at the video surveillance market as a whole, there are also

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strong technology trend lines. The report notes that, in the coming decade, analogue cameras are expected to be replaced by higher resolution megapixel cameras due to the availability of Video Management Software (VMS), with the ease of integration and use of intelligent video analytics. According to this report, the analogue camera recorded the highest market share of 54% in 2012; however, the IP cameras are expected to have a higher market share by 2018. Another major trend is the use of video analytics…Video Surveillance as a Service (VSaaS) is another emerging trend in this surveillance market. The benefit of VSaaS is the fact that it is fully web based and easy to deploy. The video recordings can be stored off-site.15

Robots May Have a Greater Role While UVIS will always have a role, there are other ways of looking at the issue of the threat of VBIEDs and the US Army is undoubtedly thinking radically about other means of dealing with the issue. Wide area persistent surveillance is now being provided in some conflict areas by tethered aerostats, which can provide consistent monitoring of activity leading to VBIED placement. The single and dual-configurable Persistent Ground Surveillance System is a suite of sensors, mounted on a tethered aerostat capable of operating at 4,000 to 6,000 feet. More than 65 aerostats have been deployed to Afghanistan to meet the urgent need for persistent surveillance.16 There is also the Mini EOD, which is specifically designed to locate, identify and disarm explosive and combustible mechanisms, to neutralize roadside bombs, car bombs and other improvised explosive devices. Using rechargeable batteries, the Mini-EOD can travel


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

for 45 minutes at a top speed of six mph. It is more than two feet in length and stands less than a foot tall. The Mini-EOD can navigate over various types of terrain, including rocky, sandy and uneven surfaces, and its low-light capabilities enable it to perform during both day and night settings.17 DARPA always has programs looking for new technologies and is looking at some potentially relevant research areas including ultra-wide-band thermo-acoustic imaging, phase-contrast methods, non-linear acoustics and mixed modality mechanisms.18

The Future Market for UVIS is Competitive There are several large and small UVIS manufacturers who are working in the market like MANTA with a portable ramp that offers surveillance of 5-6 cars per minute. Others offer remote surveillance of a range of chemical substances including narcotics, chemical weapons, toxic industrial materials as well as explosives. This product is called StreetLab. The advantage of such a product is that it doesn’t assume that the searched-for material is only on the underside and can alert the security personnel with sophisticated algorithms analysing the chemicals detected.

can be blocked from view in the undercarriage of a vehicle. The mosaic generation techniques in UVIS were first developed for environmental monitoring, where the mosaics provide a compact representation of large amounts of aerial video data of forest canopies. The techniques were further refined and generalized for use in stereo mosaic construction from a predominantly translating camera. Mosaic generation techniques can be useful as they respond to erratic shifts in speed and horizontal motion. In UVIS this robustness allows the system to compensate for a driver who cannot manage a steady speed and direction. The primary focus of these methods was to build stereo mosaics from the data to generate 3D information from a given scene. These stereo techniques were used in the UVIS environment to generate the perspective views that handle issues of occlusion.19

The Growing Value of Algorithms Mining the data provided by cameras and using the appropriate analysis to deliver insight into the material being viewed is a critical capability. Academic literature in computer science is looking at new ways of using the data obtained to provide revealing information. The critical issue addressed by mosaic generation is that of occlusion in UVIS whereby an item WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 15


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION REMOTE ACCESS UNDER VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY

References:

Lieutenant General Michael D. Barbero Director, Joint IED Defeat Organization Delivered at Office of Naval Research Sciences Addressing Asymmetric Explosive Threats Program Technical Review August 14, 2012 https://www.jieddo.mil/content/docs/20120814_LTG_Barbero_Remarks_ONR_asPrepared.pdf

1

2 Lieutenant General Michael D. Barbero Director, Joint IED Defeat Organization Delivered at Office of Naval Research Sciences Addressing Asymmetric Explosive Threats Program Technical Review August 14, 2012 https://www.jieddo.mil/content/docs/20120814_LTG_Barbero_Remarks_ONR_asPrepared.pdf

3

Lieutenant General Michael D. Barbero Director, Joint IED Defeat Organization Delivered at Office of Naval Research Sciences Addressing Asymmetric Explosive Threats Program Technical Review August 14, 2012 https://www.jieddo.mil/content/docs/20120814_LTG_Barbero_Remarks_ONR_asPrepared.pdf

A House of Cards By THE NEW YORK TIMES AUGUST 21, 2008 1:23 AM http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/08/21/a-house-of-cards/?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3Ar%2C%5B%22RI%3A6%22%2C%22RI%3A18%22%5D

4

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/nstc-domestic-ied-2008.pdf Research Challenges in Combating Terrorist Use of Explosives in the United States Subcommittee on Domestic Improvised Explosive Devices December 2008

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Peter W. Singer is the director of the Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence and a senior fellow in the Foreign Policy program. Singer’s research focuses on three core issues: current U.S. defense needs and future priorities, the future of war and the future of the U.S. defense system. This quote is used by Lt Gen Michael Barbero

7

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/04/opinion/l04bomb.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3Aw%2C%5B%22RI%3A11%22%2C%22RI%3A15%22%5D

Victor Kerlow: The Shudders From Times Square Published: May 3, 2010

8

BBC http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-14666717

9

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/may/09/boko-haram-us-security-policy-nigeria-kidnap Nigeria kidnapping: why Boko Haram is a top security priority for the US Insurgent groups’ abduction of more than 200 schoolgirls has thrust the violence in Nigeria onto the world stage, but the group has been high on Washington’s African agenda for several years Chris McGreal theguardian.com, Friday 9 May 2014

10

Lieutenant General Michael D. Barbero Director, Joint IED Defeat Organization Delivered at Office of Naval Research Sciences Addressing Asymmetric Explosive Threats Program Technical Review August 14, 2012

11

www.advanced-detection.com White Paper

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www.advanced-detection.com White Paper

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Lieutenant General Michael D. Barbero Director, Joint IED Defeat Organization Delivered at Office of Naval Research Sciences Addressing Asymmetric Explosive Threats Program Technical Review August 14, 2012

14

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www.advanced-detection.com White Paper quoting http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/video-surveillance-market-645.html Video Surveillance Systems & Services Market - (Analog, IP), Components (Hardware [Cameras, Monitors, Storage], Software [Video Analytics, VMS], Service (VSaaS - Hosted, Managed, Hybrid) - Analysis & Forecast (2013 - 2018) By: marketsandmarkets.com
 Publishing Date: September2013
Report Code: SE 2108 http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/video-surveillance-market-645.html Video Surveillance Systems & Services Market - (Analog, IP), Components (Hardware [Cameras, Monitors, Storage], Software [Video Analytics, VMS], Service (VSaaS - Hosted, Managed, Hybrid) - Analysis & Forecast (2013 - 2018) By: marketsandmarkets.com
 Publishing Date: September 2013
Report Code: SE 2108 JIEDDO.com

JIEDDO.com

18

http://www.darpa.mil/NewsEvents/Releases/2012/10/16.aspx

19

http://www-cs.engr.ccny.cuny.edu/~zhu/WACV02.pdf Mosaic Generation for Under Vehicle Inspection Paul Dickson, James Li, Zhigang Zhu, Allen R. Hanson, Edward M. Riseman, Howard Sabrin1, Howard Schultz, Gary Whitten Computer Vision Lab, Department of Computer Science University of Massachusetts at Amherst, MA 01003, U.S.A.

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