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SPECIAL REPORT

Innovations in Motion Control Solutions for Military Vehicle Platforms Innovative Solutions in Motion Control on Tactical Wheeled Vehicles The End of the Era of Persistent Irregular Warfare Fresh Designs for Motion Control Engineering The Market for Motion Control Engineering The Future: Innovative Technologies and Robotics

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media


SPECIAL REPORT

Innovations in Motion Control Solutions for Military Vehicle Platforms Innovative Solutions in Motion Control on Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Contents

The End of the Era of Persistent Irregular Warfare Fresh Designs for Motion Control Engineering The Market for Motion Control Engineering The Future: Innovative Technologies and Robotics

Foreword

2

Mary Dub, Editor

Innovative Solutions in Motion Control on Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

3

Nick Scholtes, VP of Business Development, Control Solutions LLC

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Published by Global Business Media Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor Mary Dub Senior Project Manager Steve Banks Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes Production Manager Paul Davies For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated. Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles. © 2015. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

Controlling Gun Turrets on Tactical Wheeled Vehicles History of Manned Gun Turrets on Tactical Wheeled Vehicles Motorizing Manned Gun Turrets Slip Rings Eliminate Batteries, Provide Data/Video to Turret Gunner Enhanced Situational Awareness Weapon-Mounted Turret Controls Light Weight Turrets Need Power Too Powered Door Systems on Tactical Wheeled Vehicles History of Powered Door Systems Powering Up-Armored Doors Smoothness/Speed/Usability (Operational Effectiveness) Safety Survivability System Diagnostics Technology Development and Enhancement

The End of the Era of Persistent Irregular Warfare 7 Don McBarnet, International Security Correspondent

The Historic Dominance of Turreted Armored Fighting Vehicles in Iraq and Afghanistan Survivability and Force Protection Was Top of the Agenda Not ‘Never Again’ but Nearly

Fresh Designs for Motion Control Engineering

9

Mary Dub, Editor

Lessons Learned From Afghanistan and Iraq NATO Countries Looking To Update Their Turreted Close Contact Vehicles The Future of the Main Battle Tank The Current Crisis in the Ukraine

The Market for Motion Control Engineering

11

Don McBarnet, International Security Correspondent

The Global Market for Turreted Armored Fighting Vehicles Rheinmetall Offers Boxer IFV Variant Turkish Variants on the Battle Tank The Turkish Altay

The Future: Innovative Technologies and Robotics

13

Mary Dub, Editor

The Rise and Rise of Robotics Motion Control Systems on Aircraft Motion Control Systems and Hybrid Drives DARPA’s Glass Turret Visualization System Profound Reassessment of the Value of the Campaigns Waged in Iraq and Afghanistan

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SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Foreword I

N CONFLICT in the 21st century today’s armored

With an unswerving eye on the vital importance of

fighting vehicles (AFVs), wheeled or tracked, have

gunner survivability, the third piece looks at the lessons

to be able to move, shoot and communicate in a

learned in Iraq and Afghanistan. The high level of

very hostile environment. They face the uncertainty

early casualties of soldiers in early Humvees led to a

of threat in high intensity conventional combat, or

series of Rapid Fielding Initiatives providing vital force

post-conflict peacekeeping missions as well as the

protection for allied soldiers in transport on the ground.

constant risk of new forms of asymmetric attack.

In the face of sequestration to defense budgets in

These risks demand that the highest level of force

the US, many contractors have looked to the more

protection is provided to AFVs to protect soldiers

buoyant demand for motion control equipment and

and their commanders in these vehicles.

upgraded AFVs on the borders of NATO and Asia.

This Special Report opens with an article that

These countries having different global perspectives

looks at gun turrets on tactical wheeled vehicles. It

place different demands on the technology needed

traces the history of gun turrets and points out the

for their new fighting vehicles.

disadvantages and dangers of the early manned

The final piece, as always, reviews innovations. It

rotatable turrets, which were either free-swiveling

also risks peering over the horizon to assess short

or hand cranked. However, due to the nature of

to medium term trends. The writer has, of course,

insurgency warfare in recent wars, it became apparent

looked at the drive towards robotics, and also the

that tactical wheeled vehicles needed increased armor

move to place motion control turrets on manned

protection and this resulted in increased weight, which

and unmanned aircraft. DARPA (Defense Advanced

meant that gun turrets needed a different method of

Research Projects Agency) always has been the

control. This was provided by Control Solutions LLC

nursery of advanced innovations - whether they will

which, with its technical expertise in motion control,

move from prototype to production is a matter of

has been instrumental in the development, design,

guesswork. Nevertheless, the thrust of the argument of

manufacturing and fielding of motorized manual turrets

this Report is that, although the United States is going

for the US and allied armed forces. The article ends

through a stringent period of cuts to AFV budgets and

with an overview of powered door systems on tactical

this obviously rolls through to contractors, there is little

vehicles, their history and a view of the future.

doubt that, in the medium to long term, the place of the

The second article assesses the likelihood for much

well armored and engineered turreted AFV is assured.

needed spending on retrofitting and upgrading motion control equipment on America’s tactical wheeled vehicles, the familiar Humvee and the other ground combat vehicles, given the impact of recent Obama administration policy changes.

Mary Dub Editor

Mary Dub is the editor of this Special Report. She has covered the defence field in the United States and the UK as a television broadcaster, journalist and conference manager.

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SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Innovative Solutions in Motion Control on Tactical Wheeled Vehicles Nick Scholtes, VP of Business Development, Control Solutions LLC

Controlling Gun Turrets on Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

this causes an extra step (additional delay) in target engagement.

History of Manned Gun Turrets on Tactical Wheeled Vehicles

Motorizing Manned Gun Turrets

Rotatable manned gun turrets on tactical wheeled vehicles have been around for a long time. Due to the light weight of early manned turrets, manual operation was sufficient. These turrets were either free-swiveling, which meant that the gunner maneuvered the turret in a manner similar to how one would operate a swivel chair, or they were hand-cranked, which meant that the gunner had to focus on the task of cranking rather than gunning. Turrets were also difficult to handle when driving; one aspect of turret design is that the gun is usually mounted out at the circumference of the turret circle; sometimes the gun is mounted well outside of the turret circle on an A-frame assembly that is mounted to the turret. This “non-centered” load of the gun, where the weight of the gun is far offset from the center of the turret, makes the turret want to spin on its own when the vehicle goes around corners or is on a slope. This spinning while driving makes the typical manual turret virtually useless, and sometimes quite dangerous, any time the vehicle is in motion. To combat the issues with manual turrets spinning freely, the manual turret has to have a mechanical brake to lock it into place so that it doesn’t spin freely with the vehicle momentum or from weapon force/recoil. Dealing with

SOLDIER USING OUR TCS

The recent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq revealed vulnerabilities in tactical wheeled vehicles and in their turrets. Due to the nature of the insurgency warfare waged by enemy forces it became apparent that the tactical wheeled vehicles needed increased armor protection for embarked soldiers. Gunner Protection Kit (GPK) armor was added to protect the gunner in the manned turrets, and due to the increased weight of the added GPK armor, the turrets needed a different method of control. Control Solutions LLC, with its technical expertise in motion control, was instrumental in the development, design, manufacturing, and fielding of motorized manned turrets for the US and allied armed forces. Between 2005 and 2012, in parallel with the rapid fielding of Mine Resistant Ambush Proof (MRAP) tactical wheeled vehicles and uparmored HMMWVs, Control Solutions LLC (CS) provided over 70,000 Turret Drive Systems (TDS) and Turret Control Systems (TCS) for US and coalition forces. The TDS and TCS systems provide proportional speed control of the motor used to traverse the turrets, enabling the gunner to control the speed of traverse and the position of the turret. The system incorporates an electromagnetic

TCS-OGPK (NOTIONAL) TURRET

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SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Control Solutions LLC, with its technical expertise in motion control, was instrumental in the development, design, manufacturing, and fielding of motorized

brake that holds the turret in its desired position, holding fast around corners or on slopes. The system also includes a manual over-ride for manual/emergency ops, and has sufficient power to operate while loaded with the heaviest gunner protection kits (GPK). To allow unlimited rotation, protect against draining the vehicle batteries and to allow turret operation while operating all of the other vehicle equipment, separate batteries are used to power the system, and a charging control system was developed to ensure the batteries are charged when needed without overloading the already taxed vehicle alternator or draining the vehicle’s starting batteries. Soldier feedback has been overwhelmingly positive with these initial versions of systems, and new suggestions to increase operational effectiveness have continued to drive system improvements.

manned turrets for

vehicle’s CG, and eliminates the maintenance required by the batteries. It also significantly improves storage and transportation logistics for turrets in retrofit applications.

SLIPRING INTEGRATED WITH ITDS

the US and allied

As suggestions continued to come in, CS realized that the slip ring technology it developed could be used to add additional capability. Capabilities were added in the design to carry full motion analog video, packetized data with ruggedized RJ45 interfaces, as well as audio communications and firing control.

armed forces

Enhanced Situational Awareness

TCS MOTOR, CONTROL AND DRIVE ASSEMBLY

Slip Rings Eliminate Batteries, Provide Data/ Video to Turret Gunner One of the most significant areas of feedback involves the batteries used to power the system. The batteries used are heavy, expensive, need to be charged, and have a limited lifespan. To operate without batteries, a method was needed to deliver power across the rotating turret ring, and the vehicle power system needed to be up-sized for the on-demand power needs of the turret. As new vehicles and vehicle upgrades were deployed, requests starting coming in for a large diameter slip ring that could survive a hostile and dirty environment, with a hole in the middle for the gunner. Early attempts at development failed environmental and operational testing. CS responded by combining commercial slip ring technology with our knowledge of the electrical, environmental, and operational factors involved to create a new type of slip ring to power manned turrets. When used on a vehicle with available power budget, the new slip ring removes the need for batteries, reduces overall turret weight, lowers the 4 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

Now, with a slip-ring to provide continuous power to the motor, and the ability to provide continuous, streaming data above and below the hatch, dramatic improvements can be made in situational awareness for the gunner and other vehicle occupants. Auxiliary power for weapon-mounted devices can be provided and fed through the slip-ring. Visible and IR lighting can dramatically improve night ops. A wide array of communications capabilities, from intercom to full-motion video, can connect the gunner, as he’s traversing the turret, to the rest of the vehicle and the rest of the battle. 360 degree camera options can be made available to allow vehicle soldiers to assess a current threat while staying out of harm’s way.

Weapon-Mounted Turret Controls New developments and technologies have provided an array of new tools for the gunner and vehicle occupants. However, one of the gunner’s primary capabilities remains the same: put as many rounds as possible on target when called upon to do so. To satisfy that need, Weapon Mounted Turret Controls (WMTC) were developed to enable the gunner to control the turret without taking his hands off the weapon. These controls allow the gunner to control the turret in both traverse and elevation, simultaneously or independently, while firing or while simply scanning


SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

the area. Now, not only can a turret be used while the vehicle is moving, it can be precisely rotated or held in place while moving, without the gunner ever taking his finger off the trigger. Developments like these increase operational effectiveness by allowing the gunner to keep his eyes focused downrange, and increase lethality by allowing more rounds to be placed on target.

WEAPON-MOUNTED TURRET CONTROLS

and that issue particularly affected the vehicles’ doors. Eventually, the doors became so heavy that they were impossible to manipulate manually by a soldier when not on level ground, and mechanical assistance was required.

Powering Up-Armored Doors The first vehicle to be retrofitted with a Powered Door System (PDS, also known as a Door Assist System or DAS) was the HMMWV. This retrofit was a significant challenge, as there simply was no room in which to add a PDS and its associated control system. After significant development, Control Solutions, along with development partners, produced a system that could open/close an up-armored HMMWV door (up to FRAG-6 Protection Level) on a 30% slope. This system included a manual over-ride, local batteries for each door, door-perimeter safety bump strips, and the system could be retrofitted onto existing HMMWVs without the need for welding, drilling, or tapping, which would compromise the integrity of the armor.

Light Weight Turrets Need Power Too There is a clear and obvious advantage to having motorized turrets that have heavy gunner protection kits. In fact, it is essential due to the extra weight. However, several combat forces are looking to go to smaller/faster/lighter vehicles. Most of these vehicles have turrets without a GPK to save on weight and most of these turrets are manual. These turrets are difficult to operate efficiently and safely due to the same challenges that are highlighted early in the first section of this article. Therefore, even light weight turrets without GPKs can benefit tremendously when motorized. A motorized turret will allow the gunner to more quickly identify a target and more quickly engage a target while expending fewer rounds. Therefore, a motorized turret with increase lethality, increase survivability, and decrease collateral damage. These advantages are evident whether or not there is a GPK installed on the TWV.

Powered Door Systems on Tactical Wheeled Vehicles History of Powered Door Systems The recent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq created situations for TWVs that have never been seen before. IEDs, as well as RPGs and EFPs, caused soldiers to begin placing “homemade” armor on their vehicles before going on a mission. Vehicle manufacturers began “up-armoring” vehicles, starting with HMMWVs and eventually evolving into MRAPs. As the capability of the armor progressed, weight became an issue,

POWERED DOOR SYSTEM FOR CAIMAN MRAP

Smoothness/Speed/Usability (Operational Effectiveness) The development of the MRAP produced even heavier doors. The Caiman MRAP, as an example, when fully armored has doors weighing in excess of 2000 lbs. These doors are so heavy that if they were opened or closed too quickly, the entire truck would shake. To open and close the doors smoothly, Control Solutions used technology similar to which is used to control turrets: proportional motor controllers that could smoothly and gently accelerate and decelerate the massive doors, enabling the doors to open/ close smoothly and still do it fast enough to egress an occupant in less than 6 seconds. One feature of this system that enabled the smooth operation was position sensing. Basically, the controller needs to know exactly where the door is at all times, and at what speed it is traveling, so that the opening/closing acceleration/ WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 5


SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

A motorized turret will allow the gunner to more quickly identify a target and more quickly engage a target while expending fewer rounds

deceleration profile can be optimized. Custom hydraulic cylinders are required that can open the 2000 lb doors, while incorporating a position sensor to know the door’s position at all times.

Safety Control Solutions has developed dozens of PDS systems for military vehicles, and has developed or invented a large number of features that enhance safety and survivability for the soldier. Some of these features include autorun mode, which allows the user to touch the open/close switch and the controller will then operate the door through the entire cycle automatically, or “dead-man” mode, which requires the operator to operate manually the switch at all times during the cycle. Managing and operating combat latches such that the combat latches are always latched whenever the door is in the close position is another safety feature that protects soldiers who may at times leave the combat latches unlatched. Manual override allows occupants to disengage the power-assist aspect of the door and operate the door manually, either in an emergency or for maintenance purposes. Perimeter safety bump strips are placed around the perimeter of the door and can detect the slightest pressure such as when the door is inadvertently closed against a soldier’s arm or leg. Upon detecting this pressure, the controller then immediately stops the door and opens it slightly, enabling the soldier to avoid entrapment. Because the PDS is so safetycritical, the entire system is designed with safety and reliability in mind, and as such, no singlepoint failure anywhere in the system can cause “unwanted motion” of the door.

Survivability Enhancing survivability is what the PDS is all about. In the event of an accident, soldiers MUST be able to egress. All Powered Door Systems by Control Solutions provide the ability to egress in a number of accident scenarios. For example, the heaviest of doors can still be operated normally when on fore/ aft or side slopes of up to 30%. Egress is still capable in a complete roll-over situation, where the “high-side” doors will operate and are held open to allow the soldiers to egress. Underwater operation is provided on certain vehicles, opening the door against hydrostatic pressure while completely submerged. Commander operation of all doors provides the commander with the ability to open/close all doors from his position. And each door has its own “local” battery which is mounted on the door, next to the controller, and allows the door to operate even in the event of a complete failure of the vehicle’s electrical system. These batteries are charged and maintained by the door controller. 6 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

System Diagnostics Each motion control system that Control Solutions produces, whether it be a turret system, a powered door system, an antenna control system, a hatch controller, gun mount controller, or whatever it may be, comes with complete system diagnostic capability. This diagnostic capability allows the user to know that the system is completely mission-ready before committing to a mission. If a problem is detected, the system helps the maintenance technician by isolating the faulty component, speeding repair and getting the vehicle back in the fight.

Technology Development and Enhancement Each of the control system features and technology advancements outlined above needed to be conceived, developed, prototyped, enhanced, and produced. One company, Control Solutions, has been involved with motion control on tactical wheeled vehicles since 2005 and continues to provide new capabilities and features to the military community, from development of the original controls for the BPMTU (Battery Powered Motorized Traversing Unit) that is now available on more than 70,000 vehicles in the US fleet, through upgrades with the ITDS (Improved Turret Drive System) that is currently being fielded. Control Solutions has also developed Powered Door Systems for dozens of different tactical wheeled vehicle models, and fielded over 7000 units. Control Solutions has continued to advance in these areas and currently offers small/lightweight all-aluminum turrets where size/weight really matters, large diameter centerless slip-rings to provide continuous power and data to the gunner, auxiliary power distribution panels, spot lights, WMTCs, and an array of other turret accessories. Control Solutions also provides all components and complete systems for Powered Door Systems, antenna controls, hatch controls, gun-mount controls, and anything else that moves on a TWV. Control Solutions is happy to customize any of these items to fit your needs, or to support you in development of new motion control products, especially in areas that enhance soldier safety, survivability, and effectiveness.

Contact Controls Solutions LLC 2520 Diehl Drive Aurora, IL 60502 USA Tel: 1-630-806-7062 Fax: 1-630-806-7065 www.controls.com


SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

The End of the Era of Persistent Irregular Warfare Don McBarnet, International Security Correspondent

“Instead of Americans patrolling the valleys of Afghanistan, we’ve trained their security forces, who’ve now taken the lead, and we’ve honored our troops’ sacrifice by supporting that country’s first democratic transition. Instead of sending large ground forces overseas, we’re partnering with nations from South Asia to North Africa to deny safe haven to terrorists who threaten America. In Iraq and Syria, American leadership –  including our military power –  is stopping ISIL’s advance. Instead of getting dragged into another ground war in the Middle East, we are leading a broad coalition, including Arab nations, to degrade and ultimately destroy this terrorist group.” President Obama’s State of the Union Address, January 2015

T

HE END of the era for American engagement on the ground in persistent irregular warfare has great significance for manufacturers of armored fighting vehicles and their contractors. There is no doubt that armed and turreted, tactical wheeled or tracked vehicles will have an assured role in modern warfare. No land army can foresee a land operation without the force protection, mobility over all terrains and the fire power they offer. However, in an age of disruptive technology and gridlocked politics on America’s Capitol Hill, it is global markets in Asia, the Middle East and Latin America that may provide the more buoyant future demand.

The Historic Dominance of Turreted Armored Fighting Vehicles in Iraq and Afghanistan The tactical wheeled vehicle force that engaged in operations in first Iraq and then Afghanistan was initially an under-resourced capability. Secretary of Defense, Robert M. Gates admitted just how great the shortfall was. “America’s ground forces have borne the brunt of underfunding in the past and the bulk of the costs – both human and material – of the wars of the present. By one count, investment in Army equipment and other essentials was underfunded by more than $50 Billion before we invaded Iraq. By another estimate, the Army’s share of total defense investments between 1990 and 2005 was about 15%.”1 The result of this underfunding was a series of rapid fielding initiatives to up armor and protect war fighters on the ground who were

vulnerable to the lethal effects of improvised explosive devices and high intensity conflict. In 2007 the armed forces had 125,000 Humvees of various types, more than any other kind of vehicle. But though exact figures are classified, more U.S. troops have died in Humvees since 2001 than in any other vehicle.2 There was an important force protection issue. “We started out with pretty much nothing,” said Sgt. Jason Sanders, US Marines. “Unit began its tour in Iraq in February 2004 with only unarmored Humvees. The troops put sandbags on the floorboards, and they eventually received a trickle of Humvees with add-on armor, but “it didn’t really matter,” Sanders said. “If whatever [the insurgents] were building at the time didn’t blow up the damn up-armored Humvee, they’d build it three times as big the next time.”

Survivability and Force Protection Was Top of the Agenda But despite the drive to protect the soldiers in tanks and armored fighting vehicles, there was the ever-present engineering dilemma to offset the need to protect soldiers and deflect incoming or explosive charges below the vehicle. With maneuverability and agility on the field of operation a necessity against an adaptive and cunning counter-insurgent enemy, improvements in engineering and armor were urgent. Persistent conflict with counter-insurgents had changed priorities for armored vehicle design, with protection becoming the all-important dimension. However, for any high-intensity state-on-state WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 7


SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

But high intensity conflict not only led to casualties from IEDs, but also to casualties for gunners in turreted armored fighting vehicles (AFVs) with insufficient protection from ambush and sniper fire

MRAPS

conflict, the retention of a reasonable balance between the weight of new armor versus mobility, firepower and protection remained a constant.3 The engineers responded and Capitol Hill provided funding for a long list of Rapid Fielding Initiatives to improve body armor for soldiers and to upgrade armor and engineering for tactical wheeled vehicles (Humvees). There was also a rush program to provide Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) vehicles for troops in Iraq and Afghanistan. But high intensity conflict not only led to casualties from IEDs, but also to casualties for gunners in turreted armored fighting vehicles (AFVs) with insufficient protection from ambush and sniper fire. Important improvements to the swivel ring of the turret and its management by the gunner or the commander in the vehicle led to retrofitting of engineering improvements to AFVs and the re-design of turrets and doors.

Not ‘Never Again’ but Nearly But the drawdown from Afghanistan and the sea change in political attitudes towards defense spending has created a very different climate for spending on changes to improve, retrofit and

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replace tactical wheeled vehicles and AFVs. First, there has been a rebalancing of priorities: the Obama administration has a policy to avoid prolonged, large-scale stability operations like the messy counter-insurgencies carried out in Afghanistan and Iraq over the past decade. The new strategy claims that the military will no longer maintain a size necessary for these missions.4 This is expressed in a new strategy to step down from the capability to fight two simultaneous conventional conflicts, to one. The essence of the policy is the emphasis on prevention. The 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review embraced a shift in focus to the AsiaPacific and an increased emphasis on special operations forces (SOF). In President Obama’s address at West Point on 28 May 2014, he proposed an additional $5 billion explicitly for multilateral counterterrorism engagements. This long-term effort will require building the capacity of various regional partners in the hope that they can maintain security on their own, without external assistance or the need for major US or multilateral intervention.5 The change in emphasis away from developing the US Army and its land capability could not be more marked.


SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Fresh Designs for Motion Control Engineering Mary Dub, Editor

T

O MAINTAIN readiness the US Army needs to continually update and, if necessary, retrofit its fleet of tactical wheeled vehicles and Armored Fighting Vehicles. But while this was agreed and funded during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, it is now much more controversial. Spending programs or appropriations for tactical wheeled vehicles are now faced with very strong competition from not just the US Navy and Air Force, but from UAVs and helicopters from the Army appropriation. The Republican led Capitol Hill committees want military capabilities without “boots on the ground”, or wheels or tracks. One estimate for future cuts to army funds, manpower and capability illustrates the figures6. In FY15 Army force structure has been the primary target of cuts, with an end strength at or possibly below 450,000 soldiers on active duty, 335,000 in the National Guard, and 195,000 in the Reserve. Sequester through FY19 would bring the active end strength down to 420,000 troops.7 This is not a reduction that US Army commanders welcome. The US Army has a coveted program to replace the Humvee, the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle (JLTV). The intention was to manufacture an armored combat and scout vehicle with improved survivability and payload. However, in 2015 the JLTV is looking at Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) of only 176 vehicles – Paladin Integrated Management.8 The M109A7, is the latest howitzer in the BAE Systems M109 family of vehicles. It is the primary indirect fire support system for the ABCTs (Armored Brigade Combat Team) and has LRIP funds of $688 million from the U.S. Army to begin Low-Rate Initial Production (LRIP) for BAE Systems.

Lessons Learned From Afghanistan and Iraq The desert plains of Iraq and the mountainous terrain of Afghanistan proved to be a tough testing ground for armored fighting vehicles between 2003 and drawdown from Afghanistan in 2014. Among the coalition of countries who partnered within ISAF there was a constant

debate between military strategists and military engineers about the merits of armored and fighting tracked versus wheeled vehicles.9 Wheeled vehicles are generally less expensive to buy and operate, but their tracked counterparts have the advantage in mobility and thus tactical abilities, or so it was thought.10 Afghanistan saw a resurgence in the wheeled camp, with large numbers of mine-resistant ambush protected (MRAP) vehicles being purchased by nations trying to cope with the Taliban’s ability to source seemingly limitless quantities of explosives and to utilize them in improvised explosive devices (IEDs) of ever-increasing power. A wheeled vehicle, however, no matter how capable, is still more liable to become bogged down in difficult terrain such as soft ground or in snow, when compared with a tracked one. The trend in Afghanistan for wheeled vehicles to become taller and ever more heavily armored exacerbated their relative lack of maneuverability.11 The height of wheeled vehicles on mountainous terrain increased the risk of rollover and therefore the need for guaranteed exit from the vehicle by reinforced doors. Assured exit from fighting vehicles pitched at an angle, during high intensity operations became vital to save infantry lives.

NATO Countries Looking To Update Their Turreted Close Contact Vehicles The United States is the dominant force within the market for AFVs. However, other NATO countries like Canada and Denmark have been looking to upgrade their close combat vehicles. For Canada, the new CCV needs to keep up with the Canadian Forces’ Leopard 2 main battle tanks, operating in support, and in combat with enemy forces. The choice has been between General Dynamics Land Systems, Canada’s Piranha 5, Nexter Systems’ VBCI 25 and BAE Systems’ CV9035. Denmark has also been in the market to replace an IFV, Infantry Fighting Vehicle, to replace the aged (although frequently upgraded) M113. By far the biggest current AFV competition, however, WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 9


SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

MRAP ARMORED VEHICLE

The desert plains of Iraq and the mountainous terrain of Afghanistan proved to be a tough LWT-DISPLAY

testing ground for armored fighting vehicles between 2003 and drawdown from Afghanistan in 2014

was the US Army’s ground combat vehicle (GCV) to replace the M2 Bradley. General Dynamics Land Systems and BAE Systems/ Northrop Grumman were working on the technology-development phase of their respective entries, with early prototypes due to be ready by mid-2014 and ‘full-up’ prototypes by early 2016, with service entry slated for 2019. The prize was 1,874 GCVs – and that is only the initial contract. However, this was cancelled in April 2014.12

The Future of the Main Battle Tank This article so far has skirted around, but not addressed the issue of the future of the turreted Main Battle Tank. After 2030, the current generation of ‘modern’ Western main battle tanks (MBTs) will be retired. They are hardly

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modern. Both the German-built Leopard 2 and British Challenger 2, though upgraded numerous times, will have been in-service for more than half a century by 2030. The French Leclerc and the Italian Ariete are relatively younger vehicles, but suffer from flaws inherent in their original designs and hence are unlikely to be of significant relevance in the future. Europe’s MBT numbers have been in sharp decline in recent decades. Larger European states have reduced significantly their armored arsenals, with Germany cutting the numbers of its MBTs from around 5,000 in 1985 to 225 in 2014. Many smaller states, like the Netherlands, have abandoned national MBT capabilities altogether, opting to rely on their allies.13

The Current Crisis in the Ukraine The dramatic reduction in numbers of turreted tanks in Europe may not be a wise decision given land warfare over the last 18 months in the Ukraine. However there is little appetite in NATO countries to pay the development costs for a new one. As Dr Ferdi Akaltin, a Colonel in the German Army puts in: ”which European states would be willing to fund the development, production and maintenance of a new MBT? The answer is simple – none!” That leaves the issue of close support for infantry on the ground, to close air support, including unmanned aerial systems.14


SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

The Market for Motion Control Engineering Don McBarnet, International Security Correspondent

“The key capability challenge today is striking the optimal balance among protection, payload, performance, and affordability for the LTV fleet… the Army of the next 15 years must adapt its TWV fleet to meet the threats of today and tomorrow, with reduced funding as compared to the past seven years.”15 The US Army Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Strategy, Lt Gen Robert P Lennox, Deputy Chief of Staff, G-8 (2010)

T

HE M2, Bradley or Bradley IFV has been the mainstay of the US Army’s reconnaissance and maneuver capability. The Bradley is also designed to transport a squad of infantry, providing them protection from small arms fire, while also providing firepower to both suppress and eliminate most threats. The M2 can hold a crew of three: a commander, a gunner and a driver; as well as six fully equipped soldiers. The long planned replacement to the Bradley, the Ground Combat Vehicle (GCV), has also hit severe financial constraints and been cancelled. One of the new aspects of its design was a side placement of the turret. The turret was offset to the right to maximize the room in the passenger compartment. Six infantry soldiers for dismounted fighting were held in the passenger compartment. Vision for the troops was provided through three periscopes placed between the rear ramp and the cargo hatch just behind the turret, as well as two periscopes on each side of the hull above the side firing ports.

The Global Market for Turreted Armored Fighting Vehicles The Asian market for turreted tanks has been led by India, which has bought the latest iteration of the Russian battle tank the T-90. The T-90 was developed by the Kartsev-Venediktov Design Bureau at the Uralvagonzavod factory in Nizhny Tagil. The production model is based on the T-72BM, with some added features from the T-80 series. With force protection also being a critical design feature of the tank, it has a triple protection system. The first tier is the composite armor in the turret; the second tier is third generation Kontakt-5 ERA and the third tier is a Shtora-1

countermeasures suite. France has worked with Russia to adapt a tank specifically for the Indian market. The tanks are equipped with the French Thales built Catherine-FC thermal sights and utilizes Russian Kontakt-5 K-5 explosive reactive armored plates. Semi-active baffle plates and ceramic layers with high tensile proprieties are employed in T-90 base armor. However, one of the most important selling point for the T-90 was the advanced armor composition included in the welded turrets of domestic T-90s and on the export T-90 Bhishmau tanks for India. In several tests conducted in front of an Indian delegation, the latest foreign M829A2/ KEW-A2 APFSDS ammunitions were fired from 250 meters against a T-90S lacking the normal built-in explosive reactive armor (ERA) Kontakt-5 (K-5). The turret design and armor proved completely impenetrable, which was decisive in clinching the deal in India.

Rheinmetall Offers Boxer IFV Variant The Boxer IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle) variant, produced by Rheinmetall is equipped with the LANCE 30mm two-man turret. This combines the Boxer’s high level of force protection with high mobility and some of the latest turret technology. The Boxer has a modular design concept and the turret follows this. The IFV variant can transport up to 8 soldiers in addition to the driver. A variety of individual modules allows for either a two-man or a remotely controlled turret design – one concept with two configurations.16 A key conceptual factor of the design of the latest models of turreted armored vehicles is the uncertainty in the current political environment about the way they may be used on operation. In WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 11


SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

The turret design and armor proved completely impenetrable, which was decisive in clinching the deal in India

PDS-DISPLAY

deployed operations, today’s armed forces have to be able to move, shoot and communicate in a variety of very tough environments, posing major challenges to modern military vehicle systems. A whole host of threat scenarios, ranging from high-intensity conventional combat to post-conflict peacekeeping missions and the constant, incalculable risk of asymmetric attack, make it imperative to have adequate force protection measures in place.

Turkish Variants on the Battle Tank Reflecting the strategic importance of Turkey’s position within NATO, and the importance of protecting its borders, Turkey has relied on the Leopard 2 tank built in Germany and have added modular design amendments of its own. The Turkish company Aselsan has masterminded its electronic components replacing all of the electronic, electro-optical, electro-mechanical

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and electro-hydraulic systems of the Leopard 2A4 MBTs with newly developed state of the art systems. By using nationally produced electronic components, the replacement of spare parts is easier. The Leopard 2 NG is equipped with Electrical Gun Turret Drives. This enables a higher hit probability on ‘moving tank moving target’ scenarios. It also provides better gun/ turret control. Improved stabilization is achieved through the gunner and commander’s periscopes mediated through electric drives.17

The Turkish Altay The Turkish Ministry of Defense has allocated a budget of $1 billion for the development of the Altay - a Turkish battle tank. Once the prototypes are produced and tested, the plan is for a separate order for the first lot of 250 tanks. A total of 1000 MBTs is scheduled in four separate lots of 250 units. The Altay will incorporate Turkish systems and the armor technology of the South Korean K2 Black Panther, under an agreement. The tank will invove contractors from across the market: the engine may be the German MTU Friedrichshafen or a new South Korean engine. The Altay will have a re-designed Turkish turret and Aselsan’s Volkan-III modular fire control system. The tank will be fielded with a NATO STANAG 4579 compatible battlefield target identification system that ensures interoperability among small tank units. There are seven wheels, which supports a longer hull, heavier armor and increased survivability.18


SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

The Future: Innovative Technologies and Robotics Mary Dub, Editor

TCS-OGPK TURRET

I

T IS one of the ironies of writing about new technology in the defense arena that manufacturers are not in a hurry to reveal their latest feats of engineering. New capabilities are often marketed at large technology fairs throughout the world, but the exact details of how the effect is achieved remain obscured in classified documents and commercial secrecy. It is therefore not at all straightforward to predict, even in the short term, what may or may not be over the horizon in the field of motion control solutions for turreted vehicles or other tactical armored vehicles. It would be repetitive given the themes of other articles in this report to restate the financial difficulties in the American and European market. The area of growth is undoubtedly in Asia, the Middle East and Latin America.

The Rise and Rise of Robotics One technological development that has an assured future in a multitude of different functions in defense technology and motion control is robotics. For example, the Stryker variant developed by General Dynamics is looking to create a low profile, fully stabilized “shoot on the move” turret. Its armor protects the threesoldier crew from machine gun bullets, mortar, and artillery fragments on the battlefield. The Stryker Mobile Gun System can fire 18 rounds of 105-mm main gun ammunition; 400 rounds of .50-caliber ammunition; and 3,400 rounds

of 7.62-mm ammunition. It operates with the latest C4ISR equipment as well as detectors for nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. The AHS (Ammunition Handling System) enables the MGS gunner to select any type of round at the touch of a button while maintaining a rate of fire of 6 rounds per minute. The AHS consists of three Line Replaceable Units (LRUs): the Carousel and Rammer, which are mounted in the turret and spin with the main gun, and the Replenisher, which is mounted in the lower hull and feeds the Carousel when the main gun is at 0 degree azimuth.

Motion Control Systems on Aircraft While the traditional association of motion control systems is with ground combat vehicles, they are obviously of value on a wide range of differing applications which, unlike tactical wheeled vehicles, are not hampered by such stringent financial restraints. At the end of 2014 Lockheed Martin in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the University of Notre Dame, demonstrated the airworthiness of a new beam control turret being developed for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and AFRL to give 360-degree coverage for high-energy laser weapons operating on military aircraft. A research aircraft equipped with the Aeroadaptive Aero-optic Beam Control (ABC) turret conducted eight flights in Michigan. “These initial flight tests validate the performance of our ABC turret design, which is an enabler for integrating high energy lasers on military aircraft,” said Doug Graham, vice president of advanced programs, Strategic and Missile Defense Systems, Lockheed Martin Space Systems. The ABC turret system is designed to allow high-energy lasers to engage enemy aircraft and missiles above, below and behind the aircraft. Lockheed Martin’s flow control and optical compensation technologies counteract the effects of turbulence caused by the protrusion of a turret from an aircraft’s fuselage.19

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SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

One technological development that has an assured future in a multitude of different TCS ACCESSORIES

functions in defense technology and motion control is robotics

Motion Control Systems and Hybrid Drives While hybrid systems have become familiar on the streets of cities worldwide, they are less well known in defense. BAE Systems is bidding a hybrid system for its future Ground Combat Vehicle. Hybrid drives can also handle the power-hungry equipment increasingly installed on AFVs.20 A further likely trend will be the use of active suspension. This was developed initially for racing cars. Active suspension uses sensors to scan the ground immediately ahead of the vehicle and adjust the suspension accordingly in order to take account of contours. This both allows the vehicle to travel faster (especially across country) and gives a more stable platform for firing.21

DARPA’s Glass Turret Visualization System DARPA’s mission is to find the next generation of technologies that may offer the United States a critical edge in conflict in the future. One such is their glass turret augmented reality system. Glass Turret Visualization System (GTVS) for military platforms employs the basic GTVS technology to use Augmented Reality to inject computergenerated entities into real-world, real-time

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user views. For example, the U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) has used the technology to begin to explore the use of Augmented Reality (AR) to support dismounted soldier training. In this application, AR is used to integrate virtual friendly and opposing force (OPFOR) entities into soldier views to support training and mission rehearsal. The same technique can be used to inject real-time Command and Control (C2) information into soldier views to support the execution of cooperative tasks and enhance/ expedite military decision-making.22 Making judgments about the value of such systems is near impossible without seeing that the innovative technique could save money in labor intensive training or some other process.

Profound Reassessment of the Value of the Campaigns Waged in Iraq and Afghanistan There are strong historical precedents in the 20th century of periods of ‘disarmament’ and low levels of spending after periods of prolonged violent conflict, such as the two World Wars in 1914-18 and 1939-45. Even at the end of the Cold War in 1989 there was a search for ‘a peace dividend’. However, with hindsight, the periods of cutback have almost always been followed by periods of enhanced spending on new equipment. That new era has not yet arrived, but no doubt the strategists in the Defense Ministries of the United States and elsewhere will be preparing for it, if not by buying equipment now, but by planning to do so in the future. And there is little doubt that motion control engineering for armored fighting vehicles will be on the agenda.


SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

References: Land Capability for persistent Conflict FEBRUARY 2008 RUSI DEFENCE SYSTEMS

1

https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/Modernising_American_Army_42-44.pdf 2

3

http://www.govexec.com/defense/2007/03/new-style-of-war-key-to-success-in-iraq/24036/ Sydney J Freedberg March 26 2007

Land Capability for persistent Conflict FEBRUARY 2008 RUSI DEFENCE SYSTEMS

https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/Modernising_American_Army_42-44.pdf 4

5

Author: 02 September 2014 Janine Davidson, Senior Fellow for Defense Policy, Council on Foreign Relations

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http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/fy2015-dod-budget-attempts-to-steer-congress-towards-sequestration-fy16-relief-021966/ Continuing Resolution Relieves Pressure But Maintains Suspense Until Mid Terms Sep 22, 2014 16:50 UTC by Defense Industry Daily staff

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http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/fy2015-dod-budget-attempts-to-steer-congress-towards-sequestration-fy16-relief-021966/ Continuing Resolution Relieves Pressure But Maintains Suspense Until Mid Terms Sep 22, 2014 16:50 UTC by Defense Industry Daily staff

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Chatham House See more at: http://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/retrench-or-rebalance#sthash.yMAXu4Xk.dpuf Author: 02 September 2014 Janine Davidson, Senior Fellow for Defense Policy, Council on Foreign Relations

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Chatham House See more at: http://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/retrench-or-rebalance#sthash.yMAXu4Xk.dpuf

http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/fy2015-dod-budget-attempts-to-steer-congress-towards-sequestration-fy16-relief-021966/ Continuing Resolution Relieves Pressure But Maintains Suspense Until Mid Terms Sep 22, 2014 16:50 UTC by Defense Industry Daily staff

The Royal United Services Institute: The Future of MBT https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/RDS_2013_Dron.pdf

10

The Royal United Services Institute: The Future of MBT https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/RDS_2013_Dron.pdf

11

The Royal United Services Institute: The Future of MBT https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/RDS_2013_Dron.pdf

12

The Royal United Services Institute: The Future of MBT https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/RDS_2013_Dron.pdf

13

https://www.rusi.org/publications/defencesystems/ref:A541ABF304984F/#.VMEHjEuN71p

Rusted till the Last Bolt: Europe’s Future Main Battle Tank RUSI Defence Systems, 18 Sep 2014

Dr Ferdi Akaltin,
Colonel (GS) is a Department Head in the German Army Command.

14

https://www.rusi.org/publications/defencesystems/ref:A541ABF304984F/#.VMEHjEuN71p

Rusted till the Last Bolt: Europe’s Future Main Battle Tank RUSI Defence Systems, 18 Sep 2014

Dr Ferdi Akaltin,
Colonel (GS) is a Department Head in the German Army Command.

15

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The Army Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Strategy http://www.g8.army.mil/pdf/The_Army_TWV_Strategy.pdf Lt Gen Robert P Lennox, Deputy Chief of Staff, G-8 Boxer IFV – Infantry fighting vehicle Rhein Metall http://www.rheinmetall-defence.com/en/rheinmetall_defence/systems_and_products/vehicle_systems/armoured_wheeled_vehicles/boxer/index.php

17

http://www.aselsan.com.tr/en-us/capabilities/electro-optic-systems/mbt-upgrade-solution-next-generation

18

http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/news/press-releases/2014/september/0915-ss-laser.html

19

20

Innovative Design Promises to Expand Laser Weapon Effectiveness on Fighter Aircraft http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/news/press-releases/2014/september/0915-ss-laser.html Innovative Design Promises to Expand Laser Weapon Effectiveness on Fighter Aircraft The Future of the Main Battle Tank

https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/RDS_2013_Dron.pdf 21

The Future of the Main Battle Tank

https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/RDS_2013_Dron.pdf 22

DARPA Success Stories

http://tiny.cc/tllftx WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 15


SPECIAL REPORT: INNOVATIONS IN MOTION CONTROL SOLUTIONS FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Notes:

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Defence Industry Reports – Innovations in Motion Control Solutions for Military Vehicle Platforms  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Innovations in Motion Control Solutions for Military Vehicle Platforms

Defence Industry Reports – Innovations in Motion Control Solutions for Military Vehicle Platforms  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Innovations in Motion Control Solutions for Military Vehicle Platforms