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SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation High Grade Power Supplies and Power Conversion Equipment Is it Time to Give up Custom Design to COTS? Supplying Power Conversion Rules and Regulations‌ Market Surges for Power Converters Powering the Future

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation High Grade Power Supplies and Power Conversion Equipment Is it Time to Give up Custom Design to COTS? Supplying Power Conversion

Contents

Rules and Regulations… Market Surges for Power Converters Powering the Future

Foreword

2

Mary Dub, Editor

Is it Time to Give up Custom Design to COTS?

3

Mike Harvey, on-systems

Typical Power Supply Design Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Published by Global Business Media Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor Mary Dub Senior Project Manager Steve Banks Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes Production Manager Paul Davies For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated. Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles.

But What Exactly is COTS? Requirements of COTS Power Supplies on-systems COTS Products The Future

Supplying Power Conversion

6

Mary Dub, Editor

Speed of Innovation in Commerce Faster Than Defence Sector COTS and MOTS Products Designed for the Environment of Use Managing the EMC of MOTS and COTS

Rules and Regulations…

8

Don McBarnet, International Security Correspondent

Testing for Power Conversion for Equipment and Subsystems on Operation US Department of Defense Standards for Power Conversion Units Managing Spikes and Surges Polarity Reversal

Market Surges for Power Converters

10

Don McBarnet, International Security Correspondent

Year-To-Year Dollar Growth Rates for Ac-Dc Markets to Rise A Positive Outlook for Significant Growth Surge Protection Devices Smart Grid and Energy Efficiency Increased Trend up to 2015-20

Powering the Future

12

Mary Dub, Editor

Thermal Management Constraints Cooling Becomes a Critical Criterion for Equipment Acquisition An End to Moore’s ‘Law’ Due to the Emergence of Dennard’s Law Reliability versus Indication of Imminent Failure

© 2014. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

References 14

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

Foreword P

RODUCTS THAT can deliver high grade

engineers and manufacturers must confront to meet

power supplies and power conversion are

military requirements for reliability.The tangled web

the critical back up to the connectivity to every

of changing international rules and regulations for

soldier, technician or logistics commander in an

power converters for the various different wings of

armed force. In a connected fighting force at all

the armed forces is the theme of the third piece. The

levels reliable power conversion is key.

criteria of reliability and availability of spare parts is

The opening article in this Special Report looks

an embedded mantra in the complex process of

at COTS designed products and their application

acquisition.It is good news in the global market place

to the defence and aerospace sector. COTS

for power conversion products and surge protectors.

products are ready made and are designed to be

This is the message of the fourth article in the Report.

integrated easily into existing systems without the

The depth of demand in the North American market

need for customisation. As defence and aerospace

will be matched by the emerging force of the Asian

standards across land, sea, air and man-portable

Pacific field.Finally, we take a look at the future.

equipment have common features, it is possible for

The drive for innovation is still a constant feature,

a COTS power supply to meet all these features

but DARPA and others are confronting the issues

and, thus, pre-qualified circuits can be adapted

of computer density and thermal management. At

to meet a particular requirement for a base level

the moment new ways of working around thermal

power supply. The article goes on to describe

management are being researched. And in a wishful

various COTS systems designed and built by UK

moment for designers and manufacturers, there is

company On-Systems Limited and looks at the

a hope for harmonisation and simplification of the

future for COTS. The second article reviews new and

many and complex rules and regulations that bedevil

sustained trends in the market for power conversion

the industry.

equipment. It looks at patterns of innovation, the cost to the military of being early adopters of new technology for warfighters, and the complex web of standards, rules and regulations that designers,

Mary Dub Editor

Mary Dub has covered the defence field in the United States and the UK as a television broadcaster, journalist and conference manager.

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

Is it Time to Give up Custom Design to COTS? Mike Harvey, on-systems

M

AJOR CONTRACTORS to the defence and aerospace markets are successfully extending their product ranges to tap into more commercial market sectors in order to maximise their value added proposition. This, in turn, means the company has to be more flexible, adaptable and dynamic to respond to the different requirements of the new market sectors. The result is that a custom designed power supply sitting at the heart of a system carries an increased level of cost, and more often than not, a much longer lead time. This can be commercial suicide if not managed well, as cost and lead time are often key factors in the decision making process.

Typical Power Supply Design Prime defence contractors have been living in a world of custom designed power supplies for more than 50 years. Hence it has become standard practice within the defence and aerospace sectors for contractors to design power systems, develop power converters and integrate the resulting bespoke product into highly optimised systems. Changes introduced across the defence market over the past 10 years have resulted in some COTS adoption with limited movement of development efforts towards the use of militarised commercial power converter modules. However, migration toward COTS solutions remains painfully slow and there is continued dependence on modified systems despite the longer-term benefits of COTS design, namely; - Faster design cycles - Less expensive hardware - Lower maintenance costs - Lower risk to designs

But What Exactly is COTS? COTS (commercial off-the-shelf)products are ready made and available for purchase and are designed to be integrated easily into existing systems without the need for customisation. The complication with COTS in highly rugged environments such as that required for the

defence and aerospace sector, is that the product needs to meet some very specific requirement specifications and a volume order could be only 25 pieces supplied over a 3 year period with further support of 25 years. This resultant business model for manufacturers of COTS equipment is not attractive. There are numerous COTS power converter modules available on the market that address slightly different requirements common to the defence industry, e.g. - DEF-STAN 61-5, Mil Std 1275, EN60068, EN61000, DEF-STAN 59-411 and DO-160 to name just a few. However they all behave differently when placed into a system and hence require custom circuitry to work with specific filtering that addresses EMI, environmental and system specifications. The result is that designs can have a long gestation period as they develop over the course of a project cycle to deliver a compliant power supply to the system. COTS solutions for the complete power requirement are less available. After all, it’s easy to find a COTS power supply for a server, or a standard laptop. Yet if you want a rugged power supply for your toughbook, to work from AC or DC, where do you start?

Requirements of COTS Power Supplies Defence and aerospace standards across land, sea, air, and man-portable equipment have common elements. It is possible that a COTS power supply can meet all these common elements, and thus pre-qualified circuits should be readily available to adapt as a means of meeting a particular requirement for a base level power supply. This variant will be available as an off-the-shelf design. At on-systems we use qualified platforms to deliver a power supply off-the-shelf that achieves 90% of any requirement specification. We choose from our library of qualified design blocks to adapt our standard platform to accomplish the other 10%. Pre-qualified designs become the building blocks that we work with to deliver complex WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 3


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

It’s easy to find a COTS power supply for a server, or a standard laptop. Yet if you want a rugged power supply for your toughbook, to work from AC or DC, where do you start?

power supplies into theatre. This could be as part of a communications centre providing tempest power, into UAVs and both fixed and rotary winged aircraft, as power to comms systems, sensors, control equipment and guidance systems, as well as towed under and above water, and in tracked and wheeled vehicles, and many more applications.

We are working towards a release of the full product family in Q3 this year. Each of our products ‘does what it says on the tin’. If a datasheet states a 200W power supply with an input range of 9-36VDC; whatever the input, whatever the load, 200W is what you’ll get.

on-systems COTS Products Our library of COTS design building blocks enables on-systems to tackle power requirements across many different platforms. For example, an AC to DC power supply in a baseplate cooled chassis has a number of options that we can rapidly apply depending on the requirement. Housing can be in a 19” rack, with or without the requirement for forced air cooling, or in a standalone external chassis for powering toughbooks or desktop equipment, or in a bespoke chassis providing power for a satellite dish power amplifier. The same qualified design blocks can be used to provide DC power from an AC source from 150W to 6kW. Our design approach also encompasses DC to DC power. Whether you design your own power conversion or use COTS converter modules, EMI filtering is always part of the system that requires specialist attention. EMI filtering is addressed by our own Cobra design that complies with Mil-Std 1275 or for UK vehicles; DEF-STAN 61-5 part 6 issue 6; it is the smallest, most powerful filter available. Our product range reflects the requirements we come across in the market. Recently we have seen customers requesting both ACDC and DCDC power supplies for the same system. In response to increased frequency of this requirement, we will be releasing a new range of dual input power supplies. The design topology has been verified through the delivery of power supplies that has enabled our key customers to move into new market sectors which they couldn’t penetrate previously.

DEF-STAN 61 LOAD DUMP

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VIPER

ACDC power supplies on-systems Viper range of power supplies provide DC power from either a single phase or three phase supply, delivering power from 150W to 6kW. The Viper is designed to be modular and can be paralleled in blocks of 600W up to 6kW comfortably. We have provided Viper as standalone ruggedised laptop power supplies complying with DEF-STAN 59-411 land class A, to water cooled 19” rack systems for above decks requirements. DCDC power supplies all of our standard products are baseplate cooled to suit requirements from 50W to 350W in a single unit, but our power supplies can easily be

BOA 100W


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

Over time, increased adoption of COTS can bring the market more COBRA 230M

paralleled to provide up to 2kW. Our BOA DCDC products are packaged in a simple baseplate cooled footprint for cold wall mounting, or in a VPX style for VME rack mounting. EMI Filtering Our filter solution is packaged as a PCB module to use within your current in-house designs to compliment the COTS DCDC modules available. It is sized to be smaller than any other brick filter module so it can easily transform your existing system to be DEF-STAN 61-5 part 6 issue 6 compliant.

flexibility, lower costs, and increased levels of product turnaround, leading to greater value added and market buoyancy.

The Future There is significant market opportunity for suppliers with targeted programs to deliver COTS power supplies to the defence and aerospace industry. The key question is what programs are ripe for COTS? For example, new vehicle communication platforms represent a very large opportunity with little or no COTS penetration today. Power providers need to become part of initial discussions to help drive ‘joined up’ thinking, so that COTS solutions can address power needs across complex systems and levels of duplication in power reduced. Over time, increased adoption of COTS can bring the market more flexibility, lower costs, and increased levels of product turnaround, leading to greater value added and market buoyancy.

Contacts on-systems limited Easter Park Benyon Road, Aldermaston, Berkshire RG7 2PQ www.on-systems.co.uk mike.harvey@on-systems.co.uk

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

Supplying Power Conversion Mary Dub, Editor

A loss of power in a military system is not just inconvenient or costly; it could result in a catastrophic failure and avoidable loss of life

T

HE CONNECTIVITY of the modern soldier linked to the Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T) is a primary priority. And like the civilian caught with a flat battery on a mobile phone, he or she is dependent on power supplies in many forms for almost every military electronic system he or she uses. And the power required by these digital devices comes in all types and power ratings. Power conversion needs to take place from AC/DC, DC/DC and DC/AC. For decades, the critical difference between supplies for the military, as opposed to the commercial sector, has been the demand for reliability. This is because a loss of power in a military system is not just inconvenient or costly; it could result in a catastrophic failure and avoidable loss of life. Military power supplies were therefore designed with long MTBF (mean time between failure) ratings in mind, with a goal of delivering years of trouble-free operation.1 In 2014 reliability of military supplies is still paramount, with MTBFs exceeding those of commercial counterparts.

Speed of Innovation in Commerce Faster Than Defence Sector But an important 21st century trend is that innovation in the commercial sector is more rapid than that in the defence sector, so to profit from the innovative drive of the commercial sector and the rapid process of miniaturisation and power reduction many new commercial digital devices, like iPhones, or tablets are now being used and adapted by the military2. What is more, many military systems are being upgraded every two years just like consumer electronics. With each upgrade, the previous generation of power supplies may become obsolete. This means that obsolescence and availability issues have become more widespread, while old ideas of standards-based and system certified supplies make less sense. Nevertheless, there are stringent standards that military and naval power supplies have to meet.

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COTS and MOTS While COTS (commercial off the shelf) products may be necessary MOTS (military off the shelf) products have a well-defended place in the market for providing military reliability essential for the fulfilment of military contracts. The markets for MOTS are defined by rigorous standards. One of the primary issues for MOTS is availability and manufacturability of spare parts, because with each innovative upgrade, the previous generation of power supplies could become obsolete. So obsolescence and availability issues have become more widespread3. In addition, the ability to recognize and flag up a pending failure is becoming as important as long-term reliability.

Products Designed for the Environment of Use Military products not only have to be innovative and reliable with future availability of components, but they need to be manufactured to the standards of the U.S. Navy’s SD-18 “Parts Requirements and Application Guide.” This means that high quality suitable materials are used that will not degrade during use. Military standards are enforced and enumerated in MIL STDS that provide for a range of power events like power surges, spikes, sustained periods of operation in high temperature, resilience to shock and vibration, thermal shock, humidity, moisture and condensing atmospheres 4. Finally to add to the list of the qualities of resilience that the components must meet, electromagnetic interference (EMI) and solar radiation must all be dealt with.

Managing the EMC of MOTS and COTS The risk assessment process for EMC (electro magnetic compatibility) is described in Defense Standard (Def Stan) 59-411. The MOTS acronym is used to describe both military offthe-shelf or modified off the shelf equipment. MOTS equipment is qualified to a non-UK military EMC standard such as the US standard


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

MIL-STD-461. Modified-off-the-shelf equipment is a COTS product that has been modified to enhance its EMC performance. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products must meet the EMC performance requirements of the EU Directive for EMC, 2004/108/EC, and carry CE Marking that allows their free trade across EU member states.5 In the UK, EMC standards are set as “Def Stan 59-411” which is sponsored by the UK government Defence Equipment & Support (DE&S) agency, the Defence Electromagnetic Environment Effects Authority (DE3A), EMC Policy Section and is issued on the DSTAN website.6 There are several sections – Part 1 addresses EMC throughout the project lifecycle. 
Guidance is provided to assist Project Managers and Contractors select appropriate EMC activities, dependent on project size and complexity. An important factor is the increasing use of COTS or MOTS equipment in military environments, which has introduced an additional risk of shortfalls in EMC performance. A new COTS/MOTS risk assessment procedure has been defined which requires electromagnetic environment definition, evaluation of EMC compliance evidence (e.g. by gap analysis), determination of functional criticality of the equipment and platform and mitigation of unacceptable risks by remedial design, installation methods and retest.7

Many military systems are being upgraded every two years just like consumer electronics. With each upgrade, the previous generation of power supplies may become obsolete

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

Rules and Regulations… Don McBarnet, International Security Correspondent

Normally, a battery conceals the erratic nature of the generator by maintaining a relatively constant voltage despite the generator’s power fluctuations

I

T WOULD be a mistake to underestimate for one moment the complexity of the regulation process for power conversion components. Again using the example of EMC (electro magnetic compatibility), there is national regulation, EU rules and NATO standards, and then again specific regulations for the American market. And it does not end there. The supplier of military equipment needs to comply with applicable UK regulations, and implement EU Directives including EMC. The MoD policy on ‘CE Marking’ military equipment is under review, due to the latest UK EMC regulations (SI 2006 No.3418) implementing EMC Directive 2004/108/EC and the re-examination by the European Commission of Article 296 of the Treaty of the European Community. The expected outcome is that MoD procurement contracts will require compliance with applicable EU directives, unless a specific exemption is granted. Applying EU directives to defence projects can lead to duplication and additional costs. However, testing can be minimised by establishing Technical Documentation to demonstrate that Def Stan 59-411 satisfies the majority of the EMC directive requirements and that the remaining unsatisfied requirements are addressed by testing in accordance with commercial standards. The manufacturer or supplier then makes a Declaration of Conformity and applies CE Marking. What is important to note is that Def Stan 59-411 is not a safety standard, but recognises that controlling EMC plays an important role in safety management.

Testing for Power Conversion for Equipment and Subsystems on Operation The introduction of new platforms or systems for land, sea and air forces, which by definition are used in differing environments, leads to a multiplicity of differing testing standards and regimes. The introduction of new systems such as the UK Bowman, have produced changes.

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Similarly, for the navy, ship above decks limits increased from 200V/m to 400V/m, 1 to 4 GHz, due to new radars. Land service limits 30 MHz to 100 MHz increased up to 200V/m, due to Bowman, and land service Class C and D pulse modulated test limits have been introduced up to 200V/m, 200 MHz to 18GHz for field radars, while land service Class A and B pulse modulated limits have been reduced from 500V/m to 200V/m, 4 GHz to 10 GHz. The test methods are different for man worn, man portable equipment and LRUs (Line Replaceable Units) and sub systems. Submarines and ships have even more complex issues: ships and submarines undergo mutual interference trials to ensure they are safe to proceed to sea and that sensors, communications and navigation systems operate compatibly. Part 4 of Def Stan 59-411 incorporates Def Stan 08-112 for submarine trials. The ship and submarine trials include the requirement for the weapon electronic mutual interference trial (WEMIT). Modified test procedures are given for in situ testing of equipment on platforms or during commissioning.

US Department of Defense Standards for Power Conversion Units MIL-STD-1275D has a very important place in the definition of characteristics of necessary 28 Volt DC electrical systems in US military


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

vehicles.8 US Department of Defense created MIL-STD-1275D to set down the requirements of electrical systems powered from a military vehicle’s 28V supply. Designing systems to withstand MIL-STD-1275D’s surge and related transients traditionally requires large and expensive passive components. Not surprisingly, “starting mode,” describes the conditions that occur when the engine is started; “normal mode” describes the conditions when the system is operating without any faults; and “generator-only” mode describes a particularly vicious circumstance where the battery has been disconnected and the generator is directly powering the electronics. Generatoronly mode is a challenging situation. Normally, a battery conceals the erratic nature of the generator by maintaining a relatively constant voltage despite the generator’s power fluctuations. Predictably, the limits set down for generator-only mode are worse than normal operating mode.9

The introduction of new platforms or systems for land, sea and air forces, which by definition are used in differing environments, leads to a multiplicity of differing testing standards and regimes

Managing Spikes and Surges Two key issues addressed by MIL-STD-1275D are the management of spikes and surges. A spike is defined as a transient that lasts less than 1ms; surges are transients that last longer. Surge stopper products can provide a compelling solution to MIL-STD-1275D compliance. Alternative designs typically use shunt clamps at the input, which can result in damage or blown fuses during sustained overvoltage conditions. One item for managing surges is produced by Linear Technology: rather than shunt high energy levels to ground using bulky passive components, high voltage surge stoppers such as the LTC4366 and LT4363 limit the output voltage using series MOSFETs (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors) when faced with input voltage spikes and surges.10 There are also products to manage ripple. Ripple is the term used to refer to variations of the input voltage about the steady state DC voltage. It may be composed of frequencies from 50Hz to 200kHz.

Polarity Reversal MIL-STD-1275D stipulates that the system can withstand polarity reversal without harm. Such a condition can occur during a jump- start, if the jumper cables are connected backwards.11 Linear Technology’s surge stopper products simplify MIL-STD-1 275D compliance by using MOSFETs to block high voltage input surges and spikes while providing uninterrupted power to downstream circuitry. Blocking the voltage with series components avoids the blown fuses and damage that can occur when circuits attempt to shunt high energy to ground with bulky passive components. Linear Technology also has MOSFETS that can be used when the maximum transient power dissipation exceeds the capability of a single MOSFET, and a multiple series MOSFETs can be used to support higher power levels.

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

Market Surges for Power Converters Don McBarnet, International Security Correspondent

The commercial, residential and industrial use of power conversion equipment is predicted to rise considerably in the 5-year period from 2015

M

ARKET TRENDS in power converters and high-grade power supplies are positive and strong. What are the drivers? In a report written earlier in 2014, the Darnell Group pointed up several key drivers in the commercial field which are not specific to the military. Demand for new digitally controlled external ac-dc power supplies is coming primarily from standards and regulations mandating stricter power supply requirements. As a result of the emphasis on increased energy efficiency, manufacturers have the flexibility to offer power adapters that can communicate changes in power requirements, such as higher or lower voltage, or to shut off completely when not in use.12 The report argues that digital power management and control has also made substantial progress in embedded ac-dc power supplies, especially in the area of solidstate lighting. For example, many early digital products were focused primarily in the area of semiconductors. However, the technology has evolved and more companies are now actively introducing power supply products that incorporate digital power management and control solutions. Digital power is also more efficient in applications featuring PFC (Programmable Fieldbus Couplers) and in applications that require voltage and current profiling, which are better implemented in digital rather than analog.

Year-To-Year Dollar Growth Rates for Ac-Dc Markets to Rise The 2014 Darnell Group report presents the case for continued high year-to-year dollar growth rates for both external and embedded ac-dc markets. They foresee that this will be higher than the dcdc converter module market. Optimistically, they

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foreshadow that both the digital external and embedded units markets will each grow over four times faster than their respective overall power supply markets.

A Positive Outlook for Significant Growth The Darnell Report 2014 summaries indicate that their data shows that the digital power conversion market will experience substantial growth to 2019, as users demand more advanced features and functions in their products. A surge in 2014 will settle down into a pattern of rapid growth for the next five years. Driven by growth across a number of sectors including communications, computers, solid-state lighting and a growing smart grid and the energy management sector, the combined external ac-dc, embedded ac-dc and dc-dc converter modules markets will reach nearly $10 billion dollars in 2019.13

Surge Protection Devices Surge protection devices are an important item in the power conversion equipment field. The commercial, residential and industrial use of power conversion equipment is predicted to rise considerably in the 5-year period from 2015.14 Analysing the global market report in detail among all the application segments, the industrial sector holds the largest market share at present in the surge protection devices market, whereas the commercial segment is expected to be the fastest growing application segment in the emerging nations. The adoption of new digital equipment in the emerging countries is the major factor that is responsible for the global growth of the market. Small fluctuations in voltage can lead to equipment damage. The rising demand for protection of electronic devices from power surges or spikes is a key driver of demand.


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

More companies are now actively introducing power supply products that incorporate digital power management and North America leads the global surge protection market throughout the forecast period. However, Asia Pacific is expected to follow through as the fastest growing region in this market due to rapid industrialization.

control solutions

Smart Grid and Energy Efficiency Increased Trend up to 2015-20 Returning to the Darnell Group15 report that presents a wider product group in the global market, there are two significant important trends. First, and perhaps the most important, is the slow and inevitable march towards a “Smart Grid�. That is a grid that uses digital information to improve power use efficiency or modulate flow. Secondly, the adoption of digital power technology will play an especially important role in the dc-dc converter module market, with applications ranging from information and communications technology (ICT) to portable applications and electronic devices. Although the dc-dc converter module segment will maintain a smaller unit market than either the embedded ac-dc or external ac-dc market, it will record the highest degree of digital penetration among its applications throughout the forecast

period. It is also projected to grow three and a half times as fast as the overall dc-dc converter module unit market. Market prediction can always fall prey to external economic forces. However, the robust growth in the use of electronic digital devices and their ubiquitous and mobile use is leading to a confident prediction in a resilient global market for power supplies and power conversion equipment.

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

Powering the Future Mary Dub, Editor

The military will probably have a bias towards reliability and failsafe power supplies, because in extreme environments and hostile operational conditions, the guarantee of secure power supplies will have a higher value than a warning to change a power conversion unit

P

REDICTING THE future is inevitably a high-risk business. The disruptive nature of technological change makes the pace of innovation difficult to predict. However, strong continuing trends in the immediate 5-year period are worth highlighting. Many within the industry are familiar with the operation of Moore’s so-called ‘Law’ on the doubling of the number of transistors in an integrated circuit approximately every two years. However, researchers are beginning to note that this cycle of innovation has hit constraints. This is important because compute density has become the mantra for many of today’s advanced military programs. More system functionality is now implemented as software running on single board computers, rather than using hard-wired electronic assemblies. The industry has matured to where “new” technologies like FPGA (Field-programmable gate array) computers; switched fabrics, multicore processors and box-level systems are no longer hampered by a perception as being risky avenues to take. Acceptance of those advanced computing building blocks is now part of the familiar landscape.16

Thermal Management Constraints To satisfy demands for greater compute density, system developers have embraced faster processors and boards with more processors and processor cores. This has inevitably pushed power dissipation to the limit and thermal management has become an issue. In an industry in which air-cooling using fans is only acceptable in limited conditions, all new cooling techniques are on the table. In UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) environmental control systems are unnecessary because there’s no onboard crew. This has allowed platform integrators to look for alternative cooling solutions. Increasingly, direct spray is being viewed as an acceptable alternative to air-cooling. Direct spray systems from Parker Aerospace were used in the Air Force’s Airborne Signals Intelligence Payload (ASIP) program on the Global Hawk UAV. Scaled versions of

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the ASIP are being designed for Predator and Reaper UAVs.17 Autumn 2013, Parker Aerospace signed a production contract for thermal management systems for the U.S. Air Force’s UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) Global Hawk and U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. Northrop Grumman awarded a contract valued at more than $4 million for production of Parker’s SprayCool chassis and support hardware as part of the company’s ASIP program. The contract includes hardware for the ASIP systems on Northrop Grumman’s RQ-4 Global Hawk and Lockheed Martin’s U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. The U-2 aircraft uses six SprayCool chassis per aircraft; the Global Hawk UAV uses two.18

Cooling Becomes a Critical Criterion for Equipment Acquisition This Special Report has already discussed the complex web of rules and regulations that need to be met for a product to be accepted for use by the United States or NATO countries military forces. Manufacturers are familiar with the demand for current battlefield settings to include severe temperatures, shock and vibration, explosive decompression, immersion or exposure to sand and dust, among others. These are just a handful of the potential variables up for consideration by designers building rugged, high-performance military systems. But the emerging importance of thermal management has resulted in the SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) protocol being transitioned into SWaP-C (Size, Weight, Power and Cooling) as a priority focus for packaging engineers solving thermal challenges of these next-generation designs.19

An End to Moore’s ‘Law’ Due to the Emergence of Dennard’s Law At a conference in 2011, Dr. Robert Colwell, deputy director, DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), Microsystems Technology Office offered a sobering look at how the precious CMOS (Complementary metal– oxide–semiconductor) transistor technology


SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

To satisfy demands for greater compute density, system developers have embraced faster processors and boards with more processors that drives Moore’s Law is headed for a huge roadblock. He said that, Moore’s Law may continue to provide transistor count doubling for another decade, but Dennard’s Law, which has to do with voltage scaling, power and cooling limits20, has hit a wall that will severely constrain new designs. At a more fundamental chip level, the military and the semiconductor industry at large may be headed for tough times in the power dissipation front. To mitigate this technological problem, DARPA is putting significant research emphasis on generating new approaches to this problem.

Reliability versus Indication of Imminent Failure For the military power conversion market, reliability has always been a key consideration. However, this looks as if it may change in the immediate future. The development of a prognostic capability to recognize impending power supply failures and notify the CPU (central processing unit) embedded within the military system via a data link to prepare for corrective action may become the norm.21 A practical example of how this might work would be an analogy with the warning lights on a modern car.

and processor cores

But the military will probably have a bias towards reliability and failsafe power supplies, because in extreme environments and hostile operational conditions, the guarantee of secure power supplies will have a higher value than a warning to change a power conversion unit. The final paragraph in this report reflects a hope or perhaps a goal rather than a visible trend. Many manufacturers delivering products to different services, within various armed forces, wish for a harmonization of rules and regulations between the EU, NATO and other countries. For example, the harmonization of Def Stan 59-411 with NATO standards AECPT 250/500, US standard MIL-STD-461 and EU defence procurement requirements remains a long-term goal or, perhaps for some, a fervent wish.

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SPECIAL REPORT: NEXT GENERATION HIGH GRADE POWER SUPPLIES AND POWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT

References:  Looking Under the Hood of a Military Power Supply Friday, 01 February 2013 http://www.techbriefs.com/component/content/article/1096-et features/15736-looking-under-the-hood-of-a-military-power-supply by Ralph Livingstone, Chief Engineer, and Dave Newton, Design Engineer, Abbott Technologies (Sun Valley, CA).

1

US Defense Department approves Apple’s iOS devices for its networks Devices from BlackBerry and Samsung Electronics were earlier also cleared by the department By John Ribeiro | IDG News Service | Published 10:26, 20 May 13 http://dellkv.computerworlduk.com/news/public-sector/3448054/us-defense-department-approves-apples-ios-devices-for-its-networks/

2

Looking Under the Hood of a Military Power Supply Friday, 01 February 2013 http://www.techbriefs.com/component/content/article/1096-et/features/15736-looking-under-the-hood-of-a-military-power-supply by Ralph Livingstone, Chief Engineer, and Dave Newton, Design Engineer, Abbott Technologies (Sun Valley, CA).

3

Looking Under the Hood of a Military Power Supply Friday, 01 February 2013 http://www.techbriefs.com/component/content/article/1096-et/features/15736-looking-under-the-hood-of-a-military-power-supply by Ralph Livingstone, Chief Engineer, and Dave Newton, Design Engineer, Abbott Technologies (Sun Valley, CA).

4

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UK Defence Standard 59-411 http://www.tuv-sud.co.uk/uk-en/industry/aerospace-defence/defence-testing-and-certification/uk-defence-standard-59-411-on-electromagnetic-compatibility UK Defence Standard 59-411 on Electromagnetic Compatibility By Pete Dorey, Senior EMC Consultant, TÜV Product Service
Published: September 2007 - EMC Compliance Journal UK Defence Standard 59-411 http://www.tuv-sud.co.uk/uk-en/industry/aerospace-defence/defence-testing-and-certification/uk-defence-standard-59-411-on-electromagnetic-compatibility UK Defence Standard 59-411 on Electromagnetic Compatibility By Pete Dorey, Senior EMC Consultant, TÜV Product Service
Published: September 2007 - EMC Compliance Journal UK Defence Standard 59-411 http://www.tuv-sud.co.uk/uk-en/industry/aerospace-defence/defence-testing-and-certification/uk-defence-standard-59-411-on-electromagnetic-compatibility UK Defence Standard 59-411 on Electromagnetic Compatibility By Pete Dorey, Senior EMC Consultant, TÜV Product Service
Published: September 2007 - EMC Compliance Journal

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METRIC MIL-STD-1275D 29 August 2006 SUPERSEDING MIL-STD-1275C 23 June 2006 DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE INTERFACE STANDARD CHARACTERISTICS OF 28 VOLT DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS IN MILITARY VEHICLES Downloaded from http://www.everyspec.com

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April 2014: LT Journal of Analog Innovation Mil Std 1275, High Voltage Surge Stoppers Ease MIL-STD-1275D Compliance by Replacing Bulky Passive Components Dan Eddleman http://cds.linear.com/docs/en/lt-journal/LTJournal-V24N1-03-df-SurgeStopperMilSpec-DanEddleman.pdf

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April 2014 : LT Journal of Analog Innovation Mil Std 1275, High Voltage Surge Stoppers Ease MIL-STD-1275D Compliance by Replacing Bulky Passive Components Dan Eddleman http://cds.linear.com/docs/en/lt-journal/LTJournal-V24N1-03-df-SurgeStopperMilSpec-DanEddleman.pdf

11

April 2014 : LT Journal of Analog Innovation Mil Std 1275, High Voltage Surge Stoppers Ease MIL-STD-1275D Compliance by Replacing Bulky Passive Components Dan Eddleman http://cds.linear.com/docs/en/lt-journal/LTJournal-V24N1-03-df-SurgeStopperMilSpec-DanEddleman.pdf

12

Trends in Digital Power Conversion AC-DC Power Supplies and DC-DC Modules: Worldwide Forecasts, Market Drivers & Commercial Developments - Fifth Edition NEW YORK, April 9, 2014 /PRNewswire/ Trends in Digital Power Conversion AC-DC Power Supplies and DC-DC Modules: Worldwide Forecasts, Market Drivers & Commercial Developments - Fifth Edition 
 http://tiny.cc/267vpx

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Trends in Digital Power Conversion AC-DC Power Supplies and DC-DC Modules: Worldwide Forecasts, Market Drivers & Commercial Developments - Fifth Edition NEW YORK, April 9, 2014 /PRNewswire/ Trends in Digital Power Conversion AC-DC Power Supplies and DC-DC Modules: Worldwide Forecasts, Market Drivers & Commercial Developments - Fifth Edition 
 http://tiny.cc/t77vpx

SURGE PROTECTION DEVICES MARKET GLOBAL INDUSTRY ANALYSIS,SIZE, SHARE, GROWTH,TRENDS FORECAST. August 2014 Transparency Market Research Summary http://www.reportlinker.com/p02313389-summary/Surge-Protection-Devices-Market-Global-Industry-Analysis-Size-Share-Growth-Trends-and-Forecast.html 

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Trends in Digital Power Conversion AC-DC Power Supplies and DC-DC Modules: Worldwide Forecasts, Market Drivers & Commercial Developments - Fifth Edition NEW YORK, April 9, 2014 /PRNewswire/ Trends in Digital Power Conversion AC-DC Power Supplies and DC-DC Modules: Worldwide Forecasts, Market Drivers & Commercial Developments - Fifth Edition 
 http://tiny.cc/787vpx

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http://www.cotsjournalonline.com/articles/view/102273Five Game-Changer Technology Trends Facing the Military JEFF CHILD, EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Jan 2012

http://www.cotsjournalonline.com/articles/view/102273 Five Game-Changer Technology Trends Facing the Military JEFF CHILD, EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Jan 2012

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http://www.cotsjournalonline.com/articles/view/102273 Five Game-Changer Technology Trends Facing the Military JEFF CHILD, EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Jan 2012

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http://www.cotsjournalonline.com/articles/view/102273 Five Game-Changer Technology Trends Facing the Military JEFF CHILD, EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Jan 2012

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http://www.eng.auburn.edu/~agrawvd/COURSE/READING/LOWP/Boh07.pdf A 30 Year Retrospective on Dennard’s MOSFET Scaling Paper Mark Bohr, Intel Corporation, mark.bohr@intel.com

Looking Under the Hood of a Military Power Supply Friday, 01 February 2013 http://www.techbriefs.com/component/content/article/1096-et/features/15736-looking-under-the-hood-of-a-military-power-supply by Ralph Livingstone, Chief Engineer, and Dave Newton, Design Engineer, Abbott Technologies (Sun Valley, CA).

21

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Defence Industry reports – Next Generation High Grade Power Supplies and Power Conversion Equipment  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Next Generation High Grade Power Supplies and Power Conversion Equipment – On-Systems

Defence Industry reports – Next Generation High Grade Power Supplies and Power Conversion Equipment  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Next Generation High Grade Power Supplies and Power Conversion Equipment – On-Systems