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SPECIAL REPORT

Advances in Corrosion Protection Technology for Military Vehicle Platforms The Rising Cost of Corrosion Corrosion Attacked by Coating Science Revolution Cutting the Cost of Corrosion Finding a Path Through the Diversity of Corrosion Prevention Coatings Corrosion Control Coatings: The Future

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Published by Global Business Media


ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

SPECIAL REPORT

Advances in Corrosion Protection Technology for Military Vehicle Platforms The Rising Cost of Corrosion Corrosion Attacked by Coating Science Revolution

Contents

Cutting the Cost of Corrosion Finding a Path Through the Diversity of Corrosion Prevention Coatings Corrosion Control Coatings: The Future

Foreword 2 Mary Dub, Editor

The Rising Cost of Corrosion

3

MILSPRAY TM Military Technologies Matthew Johnston, Senior Director, Research & Development, Ken Fahrenfeld, Technical Director, Brian Scarpulla, Technical Director

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Published by Global Business Media Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor Mary Dub Senior Project Manager Steve Banks Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes

Operational Readiness Impact Supporting the USMC The Tough Coat™ Solution How it Works Considerations When Choosing Corrosion Prevention Technology

Corrosion Attacked by Coating Science Revolution

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Mary Dub, International Security Writer

The Effective Combination of Corrosion Prevention and Blast Mitigation Recently Patented Polysiloxane Coatings New Coatings Technology in Action in Support of Mandatory US Corrosion Prevention Requirements

Cutting the Cost of Corrosion

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Don McBarnet, Defence Technology Writer

US Naval Research Laboratory Advances in Corrosion Control to Reduce Total Lifecycle Costs Criteria for Selecting One Type of Coating or Another

Production Manager Paul Davies

Finding a Path through the Diversity 13 of Corrosion Prevention Coatings

For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org

Mary Dub, International Security Writer

The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated.

Prime Contractors Use Many Subcontractors to Work on US Army Vehicles Corrosion Control

Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles.

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NACE Research on Polysiloxane Coatings

The US Navy’s History of Work on Cost Reduction and Corrosion Control

Corrosion Control Coatings: The Future

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Don McBarnet, Defence Technology Writer

The Growth and Establishment of MIL Standards The Range of Coatings with High Value to a Range of Surfaces Within Military Vehicles Corrosion Sensors of the Future DARPA 2015 New Work The LEAP Forward In Coatings Technology and Research

References 17

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ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Foreword C

ORROSION OF tactical wheeled vehicles and other fighting platforms is now a widely accepted hazard to military readiness and life cycle cost control. The US military research institutes and the armed forces have joined with industry to develop a range of coatings with specific qualities to enhance the useful life of many fighting vehicles.

great effect on tactical wheeled vehicles and other

This Special Report opens with an article by

to those working in the coatings industry or the armed

MILSPRAY Military Technologies™ that looks at the

forces. Their results are impressive as demonstrated

impact of the corrosive effects of rust, which inhibit

in the third piece.

fighting platforms. The search for constant improvements in coatings technology and effectiveness is developing with rapidity despite the need to reduce harmful environmental emissions and those that are hazardous

the extension of the operational life cycle phase

The diversity and complexity of the coatings market

of current military systems. It is estimated that the

make the criteria of choice of one coating rather than

negative effects of corrosion cost approximately

another highly application specific. These complex

$22 billion in annual maintenance expenditures for

criteria are the theme of the fourth article.

weapon systems and infrastructure. Assets situated

Looking over the horizon to the future in the field

near significant bodies of water or in humid salt

of coatings is always going to be high risk, as there

environments, such as the South Pacific, are the

is such rapid technological development. The

most susceptible to rapid corrosion. A Corrosion

Report ends with a thumbnail sketch of where we

Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program has been

are now and a review of some of the new research

established to extend the life of assets by impeding

being undertaken by DARPA and other research

corrosion and MILSPRAY Military Technologies™

laboratories. Coatings with added qualities are

is leading these efforts with its MILSPRAY Military

under development. They will be of undoubted

Technologies™ Tough Coat™. The goal is to reduce

value where there is such widespread demand.

the maintenance cost of ground vehicles by 35%.

Corrosion is indeed the silent enemy.

The second article discusses some of the many advantages of the revolution in coatings technology that result in a range of coatings to be used with

Mary Dub Editor

Mary Dub has written about international security in the United States, Europe, Africa and the Middle East as a television broadcaster and journalist and has a Masters degree in War Studies from King’s College, London.

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ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

The Rising Cost of Corrosion MILSPRAY TM Military Technologies Matthew Johnston, Senior Director, Research & Development, Ken Fahrenfeld, Technical Director, Brian Scarpulla, Technical Director

A

T A time when the United States Department of Defense (DOD) and military departments around the globe focus on extending the operational life cycle phase of current military systems, one naturally occurring, and cost prohibitive, process stands in the way: RUST. Simply speaking, iron rich metals such as steel, when exposed to moisture and oxygen, will rust. This happens through a naturally occurring chemical reduction-oxidation reaction in which the iron (Fe) uptakes oxygen atoms, an exchange of electrons occurs, and iron oxide (Fe2O3) is formed. Corrosion may be defined as the deterioration of a material or its properties due to a reaction of that material with its environment. It can negatively affect all military assets, including both equipment and infrastructure. More so, it compromises operational readiness, rendering critical systems inoperable, and creating safety hazards for the warfighter. On a global scale, the direct cost of corrosion is $2.2 trillion which is over 3% of the world’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) according to George F. Hays, PE, of the World Corrosion Organization. Hays states, “At the same time, corrosion experts have concluded that a net of 20-25% of that annual cost can be saved by applying currently available corrosion control technologies.”1 The DOD estimates that the negative effects of corrosion cost approximately $22.0 billion in annual maintenance expenditures for weapon systems and infrastructure.

This comprises 40% of the defense system maintenance budget.2 Corrosion has significantly negative effects on military equipment in terms of cost, readiness, operator and maintenance burdens, and safety. The manner in which the DOD is approaching corrosion is evolving. According to Matt Koch, US Navy Corrosion Prevention and Control Executive, “There is a renewed emphasis within the DOD to reduce life cycle costs and improve material readiness.”3

Operational Readiness Impact In 2004, the Department of the US Navy (USN) and US Marine Corps (USMC) announced that the USMC is experiencing a decrease of readiness through corrosion of tactical ground vehicles and ground support equipment. Corrosion degrades operational and structural capabilities, also affecting the safety of USMC personnel. Due to the location of several USMC bases near significant bodies of water, as well as the amphibious nature of operations, maintenance efforts against corrosion are critical in extending operational life cycle and preserving the readiness of the fleet. Assets stationed in humid salt environments, such as the South Pacific, are the most susceptible to rapid corrosion. An Order was issued to establish a Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program through the Marine Corps Systems Command (MARCOSYSCOM). The mission? To extend the

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ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Corrosion may be defined as the deterioration of a material or its properties due to a reaction of that material with its environment. It can negatively affect all military assets, including both equipment and infrastructure.

useful life of all USMC tactical ground vehicles and ground support equipment and to reduce maintenance requirements and associated costs through the identification, implementation, and, if necessary, the development of, technologies and processes to repair, prevent, or significantly impede corrosion progression. The order identifies two specific goals with respect to corrosion control; preventative controls and corrective controls.4 The USMC has since developed a robust CPAC Program and is currently tracking and maintaining corrosion levels on more than 71,000 assets. This program is globally recognized as the program to be emulated by all the services. MILSPRAY Military Technologies™ is leading these efforts. The USMC CPAC Program Office maintains an aggressive research and development program to locate, identify, evaluate and/or develop best corrosion prevention materials and procedures. These efforts support both the acquisition community and the field user. It is anticipated that the investment in corrosion prevention and control will decrease total ownership costs while improving equipment readiness. The USMC stated program goal is a 35% reduction in maintenance cost for ground vehicles.

Supporting the USMC The USMC globally employs eight Mobile Corrosion Service Teams (MCST) that update corrosion assessment data and apply Corrosion Prevention Compounds (CPC) to preserve and protect USMC equipment from harsh operating environments. The USMC also maintains fieldlevel repair capabilities to address corrosion

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related damage identified through the CPAC Program corrosion assessments. The fieldlevel Corrosion Repair Facilities (CRF) provide operational Commanders with the capability to repair their own equipment. MILSPRAY Military Technologies™ has a regional MCRF located at its corporate headquarters in Lakewood, NJ. In addition, MILSPRAY Military Technologies™ currently operates a semipermanent Corrosion Repair Facility (CRF) at the US Army National Training Center at Fort Irwin, CA. MILSPRAY Military Technologies™ has also operated Mobile Corrosion Repair Facilities (MCRF) at more than 40 sites globally servicing the US Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marines and currently operates an expansive MCRF in the extreme humid salt environment of Guam supporting Andersen Air Force Base. The facility in Guam will be in operation for at least five years. Services provided at these locations are performed inside a MILSPRAY Military Technologies™ proprietary mobile structure and include corrosion prevention and repair, vehicle washing, top coats including Chemical


ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Agent Resistant Coatings (CARC), Tectyl™ Undercarriage Coating, Tough Coat™, marking and stenciling, and complete bodywork. The entire corrosion repair process can be completed remotely at these sites, from washing and sand blasting to priming, painting, and marking. The MILSPRAY Military Technologies™ Above Ground Vehicle Wash System can be deployed to these sites. For forward deployed, off the grid locations, the MILSPRAY Military Technologies™ Expeditionary Vehicle Wash System provides easy, quick setup and can be powered by the MILSPRAY Military Technologies™ Scorpion Energy Hunter™, a turnkey deployable hybrid energy and energy storage system. The MCRF comes to the fleet. This service provides significant cost reduction benefits by eliminating Depot Transportation Costs while Commanders maintain control of their own vehicles and equipment, thus drastically reducing repair cycle time down to days compared to months.

The Tough Coat™ Solution MILSPRAY Military Technologies™ Tough Coat™ is an advanced polyurea coating protection system that was introduced to the USMC in 2008 as a spray applied bedliner coating for trailer beds, wheeled platforms, and other highwear, high-damage, corrosion prone surfaces. Over time, the use of Tough Coat™ has evolved to become a standard coating within the USMC CPAC procedures and has begun to take hold in the other services in the US as well as with international partners. Furthermore, because the US Military relies heavily on Chemical Agent Resistant Coatings (CARC) for equipment protection against chemical and biological

warfare as well as camouflage against visual and electronic infrared detection, Tough Coat™ has become an approved corrosion and wear resistant coating to be used in conjunction with the CARC coating platform.5 The US Military recognized the need for enhanced corrosion and wear protection of motor transport vehicles and equipment, specifically in cargo areas. In 2008, the USMC CPAC Program investigated high-durability coatings that provide wear and corrosion protection, specifically for tactical vehicles and ground support equipment. Upon conclusion of its investigation, it was determined that Tough Coat™ had met or exceeded all CPAC testing requirements. This includes applications to new vehicles and equipment, as well as utilization of the material for service life extension programs such as Inspect Repair Only As Necessary (IROAN)/Rebuild. It is also authorized for use as a corrosion prevention material by the USMC CPAC program.6

How it Works MILSPRAY Military Technologies’™ Tough Coat™ works by creating a vapor barrier between a metal and its corrosive environment. Typically, as with the procedures of the USMC, an anti-corrosive primer may be applied directly to bare metal, followed by Tough Coat™ protective coating. In addition to providing a vapor barrier, Tough Coat™ has been engineered to provide a lifetime of resistance to hard abrasions, impacts, tears, punctures, rock deflection, thermal expansion, acids, caustics, solvents and fuels while still effectively providing the corrosion protective vapor barrier to oxygen and moisture.

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ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

This service provides significant cost reduction benefits by eliminating Depot Transportation Costs while Commanders maintain control of their own vehicles and equipment, thus drastically reducing repair cycle time down to days compared to months

Within the US Military, Tough Coat™ is routinely used as a damage-resistant barrier coating on cargo trailers, decking, and other high-wear and damage prone surfaces to resist corrosive elements from reaching the protected metal. Tough Coat™ is also the main corrosion barrier on MILSPRAY Military Technologies’™ Above Ground Vehicle Wash Systems as a rugged 6 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

platform corrosion protector. It can withstand the abrasion and wear from continual treading of military wheeled vehicles as well as the tracked Amphibious Assault Vehicles ranging from 46,000 to 61,000 pounds.7 Tough Coat™ is comprised of 100% liquid polymer technology, with no solvents, which is commonly referred to as a “100% solids” coating,


ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

that is free of Volatile Organic Content (VOC) and Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). It has been approved for use and application in the strictest environmentally regulated areas, including the Mojave Air Quality District in California, which few coatings can pass. The advanced polymerization of the coating allows for unmatched throughput of manufacturelevel and refinish applications. Tough Coat™ begins to gel within five seconds of application; it is tack free within three minutes, and can be walked upon within five minutes which greatly reduces the out-of-service time that military equipment endures for corrosion servicing and refinishing. Due to Tough Coat’s superior bonding strength, it is ideal for use on masonry, wood, composites, and metals. Comprised of hydrophobic polymers, it can be applied to damp, cool surfaces in temperatures as low as 40°F (4°C), yet has a functional service temperature range from -60°F (-50°C) to 250°F (121°C) and is capable of handling intermittent temperatures near 300°F (148°C). This enables Tough Coat™ to be the industry leader for corrosion control in the extreme US Military environments and used on heat-generating equipment. Tough Coat™ usage has expanded into the industrial and commercial industries as well; allowing these sectors to benefit from the military ruggedness for which it was developed. Most corrosion protection coatings are susceptible to environmental degradation; humidity, salt-laden environments, and ultraviolet light exposure. MILSPRAY Military Technologies’™ Tough Coat™ has been evaluated under a multitude of American Society of the International Association for Testing and Materials (ASTM) test standards as well as GR-487-Core test standards set forth by Telcordia Technologies, Inc. Under these conditions, Tough Coat™ has been tested for corrosion resistance (ASTM B117-11), ultraviolet resistance (ASTM D4587), and cyclical temperature and humidity resistance (ASTM D2247). Completing the standard 1,000 hours of accelerated environmental conditions, Tough Coat™ applications over steel and wood exhibited no signs of degradation. Extending the testing for 2,000 hours of accelerated exposure, again, Tough Coat™ applications over steel and wood exhibited no signs of degradation. The versatility of Tough Coat™ is unmatched; testing has shown to increase the hydrostatic bursting strength of concrete blocks by over 200%, provides leak protection beyond the standard measurable testing methods of ASTM International test method D-7088, making it an ideal coating for commercial and residential foundation fortification and moisture-proofing8.

Considerations when Choosing Corrosion Prevention Technology Selecting the appropriate corrosion protection system requires several key considerations including: (1) Operating conditions; the degree of humidity, heat, dust, and direct sunlight which contribute to the degradation of coatings; (2) Longevity requirements, whether temporary corrosion protection for shipping an asset overseas, or long-term protection for heavy construction or military equipment; (3) Expected damage sustainment, whether sedentary and undisturbed or the high wear and high abrasion surfaces of a cargo trailer; (4) Environmentally regulated emissions of Volatile Organic Content (VOC) and Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS); (5) The cost analysis and the return on investment (ROI) for that corrosion protection. MILSPRAY Military Technologies’™ Tough Coat™ advanced polymer coatings provide an exceptional balance comprising all of these factors, including the safety of the personnel performing applications.

Looking Forward

Paint technology is evolving, from renewable plant-based bioresins, to superhydrophobic paint additives for corrosion resistance of military-grade coatings, to extensive longevity polysiloxane chemistries.9 Throughout the past century, the paint and coating industry experienced technology breakthroughs that were continually built upon each decade. Notable advancements include the development of nitrocellulose laquers and alkyd resins in the 1920s; polyesters and epoxies in the 1930s; Urethanes and latexes in the the 1940s; acrylic-latex and epoxy-polyamides in the 1950s; fluoropolymers, water-dispersed polyurethanes, electrodeposition, and ultraviolet (UV) cured coatings coatings in the 1960s; Acrylic, polyester, and urethane oligomers for high-solids coatings as well as transitions from solventborne to waterborne chemistries were developed in the 1970s; waterborne epoxies and powder coatings WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 7


ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Due to Tough Coat’s superior bonding strength, it is ideal for use on masonry, wood, composites, and metals.

became available in the 1980s.10 Since then, a wealth of technologies has grown to incorporate advanced polyether and polyurea technologies, ceramic coatings, polysiloxane coatings, and plant-based coatings. The drive for better technology, greater longevity, and higher protection against environmental factors and corrosion is at the forefront of research and development. The future of protection systems include self-healing coatings, self-decontaminating coatings for biological, chemical, and radiological and nuclear contamination, regenerative coatings, and photovoltaic coating technologies that generate electricity. These evolving protection technologies cost baseline’s are buoyed however by high-cost raw materials. Presently, that places significant value on innovative, low-cost corrosion protecion solutions that maximize return on investment. That solution is the MILSPRAY Military Technologies™ Tough Coat™.

Stand Alone Statements/Quotes “The Government Accountability Office has stated that the Corrosion Policy and Oversight Office within the DOD Corrosion Program delivers at least a 14 to 1 ratio return on investment to the taxpayer through corrosion project opportunities and activity requirements. Ensuring proper corrosion prevention and control plays a major role in the sustainment costs and life cycle range.”11 A significant factor in the fight against corrosion is to protect metal from ever becoming corroded in the first place. If corrosion is prevented, the removal and repair efforts become obsolete; a major cost savings to the military and taxpayer. The 1033 Program was created by the National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 1997 as part of the US Government’s Defense Logistics Agency Disposition Services (DLA) to transfer excess military equipment to civilian law enforcement agencies. MILSPRAY Military Technologies™ refinished this Mine Resistant Ambush-Protected (MRAP) vehicle for the Toms River, NJ Police Department. The vehicle was acquired through this program.

References: http://corrosion.org/wco_media/nowisthetime.pdf

1

http://tiny.cc/9eyu7x

2 3

http://corrdefense.nace.org/corrdefense_Spring2014/feature2.asp

4

Marine Corps Order 4790.18B, Corrosion Prevention and Control Program, July 16, 2004

5

Ref: Naval Surface Warfare Center; Letter Report #3910 61/09-002//: “Tough Coat™ Test Report

6

Naval Surface Warfare Center; Letter Report #3910 61/09-002//: “Tough Coat™ Test Report

7

http://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/aavp7a1.htm

8

ref Jack Hayford: Foundation Coating Products Testing Report, 2/17/2015

9

10

http://info.ornl.gov/sites/publications/files/Pub55538.pdf https://www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/croll/HistoryofPaintSGC.pdf

NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT FOR FISCAL YEAR 2013 REPORT http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CRPT-112srpt173/pdf/CRPT-112srpt173.pdf 11

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ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Corrosion Attacked by Coating Science Revolution Mary Dub, International Security Writer

“We solved the corrosion problem, and with a negligible increase in weight, we also provided better ballistic protection and a higher payload capacity.”1 Dr. Ray Gamache and Dr. Mike Roland of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) 2015

T

HIS QUOTATION from the US Naval Research Laboratory press release this year demonstrates how the technical advances in coatings and materials science are making a real difference to the total life cycle cost of platforms, in this case an amphibious assault vehicle (AAV). The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) found that some types of rubber provide corrosion protection and potentially better ballistic protection for amphibious assault vehicles (AAVs). This is important to the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) as they look to extend the AAV, introduced in 1972, through 2035. “Innovative sustainment concepts, like those the NRL is investigating, enable us to avoid the cost of new design, development, and production of new components,” says Tim Bergland of the USMC Advanced Amphibious Assault (AAA) office.

The Effective Combination of Corrosion Prevention and Blast Mitigation How have they done this? Since the 1990s, the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) has been bolting armor onto their AAVs. “The armor itself is a laminate of high hard steel, which by itself is good for ballistics; a rubber layer; then there’s another soft steel layer in the back,” says Roland. The problem is that the armor gets corroded with intense use and exposure to salt water. After research by the laboratory into the corrosion process, Roland and Gamache found rust and corrosion starts at cracks in the paint. “You’ve got steel, rubber, steel – and these things are thermally expanding and contracting differently.” They also demonstrated how polyurea coatings improve blast protection. They demonstrated how polyurea

coatings slow bullets and blast fragments. “They take kinetic energy from the bullet,” says Roland. “So the bullet, to keep penetrating, it’s meeting an increasingly resistant medium. And if it slows down enough – it always makes it to the steel plate, but it doesn’t have enough velocity to get through it.”2 The polyurea coatings also provide effective corrosion prevention. Roland added, the paints tend to crack, but the polyureas don’t because they’re elastomeric, rubbery.

Recently Patented Polysiloxane Coatings It was the detailed analysis of the corrosion process that has been the catalyst for the development and patenting of polysiloxane coatings over the last two decades. Coatings chemists developed an appreciation of the problem of corrosion. The combined effects of photolysis 3 and photo-oxidation 4 of polymers leads to chain scission and/or a crosslinking reaction of the UV degraded polymer. The development of too much internal stress within the coating can cause it to overcome the adhesive strength of the coating system at the primer/topcoat interface and in doing so the topcoat can rip itself away from the primer and/or delaminates or cracks.5 While polysiloxanes offer an alternative approach to corrosion prevention, they also offer other features and improved ease of application to surfaces. First, polysiloxane offers potentially lower levels of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds). Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids, like paints and coatings. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short and longterm adverse health effects.6 Polysiloxanes WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 9


ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

also offer more rapid curing times which helps reduce time out of service. In the face of salt spray corrosion, polysiloxanes also offer an increased corrosion protection. Polysiloxane coatings were originally formulated to offer the applicator outstanding corrosion resistance at lower densities compared to the conventional 3 coat system i.e. epoxy zinc/ epoxy build coating/ PU (polyurethane) topcoat. NACE, the (National Association of Corrosion Engineers) have published data on the service life of various coatings in differing corrosive environments. Extensive test data from natural and long term weathering studies has shown that epoxy zinc/epoxy siloxane systems will conservatively provide a 30% increase in the service life to first maintenance at ca. 20% less total dry film builds, compared to a traditional 3 coat system.7

New Coatings Technology in Action in Support of Mandatory US Corrosion Prevention Requirements New coatings are being used on every element of a military platform, from the metal superstructure of the platform, its tires, its engine and the microcircuits that command its engine and run its communication equipment. And this is mandatory in the US Army. Chemical agent resistant coatings (CARC) are required on all tactical and support equipment. As the Army Research Laboratory says, the development of new and improved coatings have multifunctional performance requirements and need to withstand the most severe environments. The energy and research interest that all the US military forces put into corrosion prevention and the success of their research is a useful example to others.8

New coatings are being used on every element of a military platform, from the metal superstructure of the platform, its tires, its engine and the microcircuits that command its engine and run its communication equipment

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ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Cutting the Cost of Corrosion Don McBarnet, Defence Technology Writer

“Corrosion is the silent enemy. Undetected, it can compromise safety, inflate repair bills and put equipment out of service. Prevention really is better than cure”9 Dr Steve Harris, Head of External Partnerships and Brokering, BAE Systems

I

N AN era of austerity and the search for improved value for money in the total lifetime costs of a fighting platform, there is heightened awareness of the importance of corrosion control by using the very latest research from corporate and military coatings research. As the Army Research Laboratory puts it, recent studies have shown that corrosion is the major cause of downtime for critical U.S. Army assets. Therefore, the need for effective corrosion control and detection lies at the center of coatings research10. What’s more, Chemical Agent Resistant Coatings (CARC) are required on all tactical and support equipment. These camouflage coatings need to meet the survivability criteria by resisting penetration of the paint film by chemicals agents and making decontamination easier. A further requirement is that environmentally friendly coatings are used that are free of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) and with low volatile organic compounds (VOC). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has stringent standards. While in an era of cost cutting it might be easy to forego corrosion prevention to keep costs down, in terms of total lifecycle costs, corrosion prevention adds significant value. Corrosion.org, the sponsor of Corrosion Awareness Day, offers the figure of 3-4% of GDP in industrialized countries as the price of corrosion.11 This underlines the clear benefits of corrosion control.

US Naval Research Laboratory Advances in Corrosion Control to Reduce Total Lifecycle Costs Earlier this year (2015), two research scientists working at the NRL Laboratory were awarded prizes for their work with polysiloxane in reducing

the $56mn cost of coatings for ships and submarines. Conventional epoxy based nonskid (coatings) have a 12 to 36 month lifecycle, while topside coatings have a 24 to 36 month life. The new NRL-developed polysiloxane system doubles or triples the life expectancy of this system. For topside coatings, not only are lifetimes increased, but also installation costs are reduced by up to 28 per cent through the reduced number of coats over conventional systems.12 As has been noted by Ameron, the test data on these new siloxane coatings is exciting when one realizes that VOCs of 120 g/l can be attained whilst not losing any of the conventional properties of siloxane technology; i.e. excellent gloss and color retention, excellent corrosion resistance, good chemical resistance and adhesion to conventional primer technologies such as epoxy zinc, inorganic zinc and surface tolerant epoxy products.13

Criteria for Selecting One Type of Coating or Another The range of potential coatings and their various functions has grown exponentially in the last decade. The growth in complexity is now such that only a specialist can point to one coating rather than another being 100% appropriate. However, there is a spectrum of criteria which differentiate each type of product. The following are just some of the issues that should be considered. First, is the product receiving a primary or secondary coating? Is there condensation or humidity above or below the coating or present when the coating is being used? The range of operating temperatures is important, as is tin whisker mitigation when coating microcircuits. Urethane WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 11


ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

For topside coatings, not only are lifetimes increased, but also installation costs are reduced by up to 28 per cent through the reduced number of coats over conventional systems

and epoxy materials have value but only when high temperatures are unlikely to be present. Silicone materials generally provide good barrier properties and a wide operating temperature range. Silicone materials can often be difficult to remove effectively prior to rework, although mechanical abrasion can be effective. Room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone materials can tend to outgas a variety of by-products (some of which can be corrosive), so it is essential that the material is fully cured prior to being sealed in the unit.14 Parylene coating materials provide outstanding protective properties and, due to the fact that they are vapor deposited in a vacuum, they

give the best possible coverage. The primary drawbacks to parylene are the specialized deposition chambers required for application and the fact that masking must be 100% perfect. Parylene materials are difficult to inspect and rework. Parylene has poor inter-layer adhesion and is usually recoated with other material types after re-work. Finally, and by no means the least important issue, is the environmental friendliness of a coating. The demand for non-toxic and EPA approved products has produced a movement towards non-toxic coatings that offer powerful corrosion prevention capabilities, yet lower risks to the people handling them and the environment.

The demand for non-toxic and EPA approved products has produced a movement towards nontoxic coatings that offer powerful corrosion prevention capabilities, yet lower risks to the people handling them and the environment

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ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Finding a Path through the Diversity of Corrosion Prevention Coatings Mary Dub, International security writer

H

OW TO find the right coating product for the vehicle or platform needing protection? The US Army is well served with help for this difficult technical decision. According to the US Marine Corps, the US Army Research Laboratory plays a key role in the Department of Defense and Army research and development programs. It can help with access to public documents, recent research initiatives, and press releases. Specifically there is the US Army Research Laboratory Coating Team (ARL). They are able to provide answers to the many questions regarding Chemical Agent Resistant Coatings (CARC). ARL is the approving authority for all of the US Department of Defense on the topic of Chemical Agent Resistant Coatings (CARC).15 ARL is also the lead in research and development activity for CARC systems. Other countries may not be so well advised and may need to rely on commercial sources. In the United States, NACE, the National Association of Corrosion Engineers based in Texas, offers courses to train corrosion engineers in the science of corrosion prevention and inspection at their research institute and foundation.16

NACE Research on Polysiloxane Coatings The latest developments in coatings rest on new work in the fields of materials science and chemistry and many of the products created have highly application-specific qualities. NACE publishes research on the differences between epoxy polysiloxane and acrylic polysiloxane finishes. Polysiloxane topcoats were introduced to the market in the mid-90s and today polysiloxane finishes are recognized as the most advanced decorative and protective finish coating for steel structures in severely corrosive environments.17 According to NACE, polysiloxane coatings offer properties such as long life expectancy, low maintenance

cost, superior weather ability, good corrosion protection, fast dry to handle properties, low VOC content, regulation compliance and extreme durability.18 The precise balance between epoxy and acrylic coatings needs to be subject to expert advice.

Prime Contractors Use Many Subcontractors to Work on US Army Vehicles Corrosion Control The VSE Corporation announced a $19.2 million contract working with the US Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM)/Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) program. The contract was under the US Army’s Program Executive Office for Combat Support and Combat Service Support (PEO CS&CSS) for Corrosion Prevention and Control.19 Seven prime contractors were working together: Baum, Romstedt Technology Research Corp.,Booz Allen Hamilton, Camber Corp., DRS Technical Services, ICI Services, Innovative Logistics Techniques and Jacobs Technology. Other contractors were also named. To advance the work, VSE has set up operations in Fort Stewart, GA and elsewhere as part of its corrosion prevention operation. The VSE Corporation with others is also engaged in corrosion prevention research. Products used include T-32, a rust inhibitor, and reusable anti-corrosion covers that can protect metals and elastomeric materials for up to 10 years. Anticorrosion cover material can be shaped to fit over a tank-sized vehicle and protect it in an outdoor equipment yard.

The US Navy’s History of Work on Cost Reduction and Corrosion Control The US Navy shared leadership in 2000 to find a one-coat solution to the problem of corrosion control. It investigated epoxies, polyurethanes, WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 13


ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

The latest developments in coatings rest on new work in the fields of materials science and chemistry and many of the products created have highly applicationspecific qualities

polyureas, polyesters, and significant variations within these groups. Its work focused on two groups – solvent-free, rapid cure, epoxybased coatings, and solvent-free, rapid cure, polyurethane-based coatings. Although no true definition of “rapid-cure” existed when the program began, any coating that exhibited a cureto-handle time of three hours or less at an ambient temperature of 25 °C fitted within the goals of the program.20 A feature of successful and economical application of rapid-cure coatings depends on the use of specialized equipment called plural component equipment to supply and mix the base and hardener/catalyst components. The fast-cure epoxy coating components are fed via the proportioning pump in individual lines to a static mixer located on the pump itself or in a remote mix block typically located near the work area. From the mix block to the spray gun, the mixed coating is fed via a single line to a conventional airless spray gun. Each component must be 100% compatible and capable of thorough mixing at near instantaneous speeds. This is typical for polyurethane and polyurea products, which have extremely fast reaction

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speeds and very high component solubility. Because nearly all solvent-free polyurethanes have a working time of only a few seconds, that is, no “pot life.”, the components must be mixed and applied within a fraction of a second before filmsetting occurs, although the applied film may not cure hard for more than an hour.

Commercial Polyurethanes Have Advantages Historically, the US Navy rejected rapid-cure epoxy systems with excessive catalyst, or ones that were offensive-smelling polymercaptancured systems. Because the polyurea “skin” is highly solvent-resistant it presents a problem with adhesion of the next coat. Therefore, each coat of a solvent-free polyurethane should be performed in rapid succession to minimize contamination of the base coat and maximize adhesion. A solvent-free polyurethane can be catalyzed to react quickly, so the rapid application of successive coats is possible. This is one of the primary benefits of these systems.21 These products are recognized to have produced significant cost savings in total life cycle cost.


ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

Corrosion Control Coatings: The Future Don McBarnet, Defence Technology Writer

to the commercial market and has utilized other aerospace developments and university research programs to improve performance by lowering friction, protecting from wear and corrosion and enhancing mold release.

T

HE CURRENT rapid revolution in coatings is a product of recent developments in materials science, organic and inorganic chemistry and the vigorous demand for corrosion control in the full spectrum of military and industrial products. The atomic structure of corrosion processes has been intensively researched leading to new insight into the best coating combinations. The action of air, water, heat, light, cold, vibration, salt water and chemical exposure on a variety of military vehicles and materials has been studied in depth. As a non-specialist in the field, the writer can only give a partial snapshot of where corrosion coatings are today and hypothesize a trend forward into the medium term. The corrosion research institutes are also producing new ideas and products for test, but in 2015 it is difficult, if not impossible to predict with any accuracy, what will be the new disruptive technology that will transform the industry in the future.

The Growth and Establishment of MIL Standards There is a very long list of military standards for types of coatings required for military vehicles and structures,22 which are currently mandatory on most, if not all vehicles. For example, the CARC system application specification MILC-53072C requires that metal surfaces on tactical vehicles be treated to improve adhesion and corrosion resistance prior to coating with an epoxy primer and a camouflage topcoat.23 Micro Surface Corporation, for example, successfully transferred technology from NASA

The Range of Coatings with High Value to a Range of Surfaces Within Military Vehicles In 2015 tactical wheeled vehicles are highly engineered, high specification fighting platforms. There are rubber moldings, thermoplastic moldings and a complex array of computer and engineering equipment, which calls for a wide and sophisticated range of coatings products. These include release coatings, low friction coatings, and wear protection coatings. Corrosion protection coatings can protect against many factors including the environment, such as sea spray or chemical attacks. An extremely wide range of high specification products are commercially available which adhere to military standards such as Hylar, Kynar, fusion bonded epoxies, latex or matrix platings of nickel with Teflon, Boron, or silicon carbide. There is also Sandstrom Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) coating – a solid lubricant.

Corrosion Sensors of the Future Lockheed Martin has been using innovative corrosion sensors on the new F-35 to cut costs on maintenance. Weighing just half a gram, these tiny chrome-free, non-toxic sensors developed by BAE Systems embody two decades’ work dedicated to understanding and combating corrosion24 New research at BAE Systems has shed light on fundamental questions such as corrosion’s behavior at atomic level and the effect of humidity, salt and other environmental factors on corrosion processes. The University of Birmingham has been at the forefront, with PhD studentships zeroing in on key aspects of the problem. The outcome has been an invaluable platform of knowledge informing BAE System’s corrosion modelling. WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 15


ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

manufacturing processes and a new atomic layer deposition strategy that facilitates film deposition via a write/edit approach.

Determined investment into the atomic make

The LEAP Forward In Coatings Technology and Research

up of materials and the corrosion process, undoubtedly will lead to more and better coatings for all the many and diverse products within the United States armory

DARPA 2015 New Work DARPA (the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) sees coatings as an invaluable but under-researched area. As Dr. Tyler McQuade puts it “coatings, thin films and advanced surfaces are important aspects of systems, devices and technologies critical to the mission of the Department of Defense.”25 One practical issue is that the structural organization of highvalue thin films is typically controlled by hightemperature deposition or annealing, but the temperatures employed during thin-film synthesis and deposition exceed the limits of many US Department of Defense relevant substrates, restricting application opportunities, as DARPA sees it. What is new with this program? Local Control of Materials Synthesis (LoCo) programs are developing new strategies and tools as a first step toward ordered materials deposition at or near room temperature. Recent innovations include: development of new high-flux/lowtemperature plasmas for use in large-scale

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This year (2015) the Naval Research Laboratories, Materials Science and Technology Division, has received a high performance microscope – the Cameca 4000X Si Local Electrode Atom Probe (LEAP). This will facilitate “exact knowledge of where individual atoms are in a material, which is of tremendous benefit when engineering new materials,” said Keith Knipling, NRL Materials Science and Technology Division. “We expect the LEAP to greatly enhance our capability to develop new materials.”26 Determined investment into the atomic make up of materials and the corrosion process, undoubtedly will lead to more and better coatings for all the many and diverse products within the United States armory. The ingenuity of scientists and researchers in government and private laboratories will guarantee a constantly upgrading product of increasing effectiveness to combat corrosion with coatings. With the widespread recognition that corrosion impacts on vehicle readiness and life cycle costs, the good practice of the US armed forces in active corrosion prevention may offer a useful guide to other NATO and non NATO states in ways to prolong the useful life of vehicles and ships at relatively low cost as well as reducing the life cycle costs of expensive platforms.


ADVANCES IN CORROSION PROTECTION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY VEHICLE PLATFORMS

References: 1

2

A Rubber That Stops Corrosion? NRL Research May Extend Life of Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV) http://www.nrl.navy.mil/media/news-releases/2015/a-rubber-that-stops-corrosion-nrl-research-may-extend-life-of-amphibious-assault-vehicle#sthash.fgsAOyGV.dpuf

03/18/2015 07:00 EDT - 15-15r Kyra Wiens, (202) 767-2541

A Rubber That Stops Corrosion? NRL Research May Extend Life of Amphibious Assault Vehicle (AAV) http://www.nrl.navy.mil/media/news-releases/2015/a-rubber-that-stops-corrosion-nrl-research-may-extend-life-of-amphibious-assault-vehicle#sthash.fgsAOyGV.dpuf

03/18/2015 07:00 EDT - 15-15r Kyra Wiens, (202) 767-2541

3

4

Photo-oxidation is the degradation of a polymer surface in the presence of oxygen or ozone. The effect is facilitated by radiant energy such as UV or artificial light. This process is the most significant factor in weathering of polymers. Wikipedia

Photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons. Wikipedia

RECENT ADVANCES IN POLYSILOXANE COATINGS L.H.P. Gommans*, Shu Yi Chu, Karen Constable, AMERON (NEW ZEALAND) LIMITED E. Hemmings and L. Bailey AMERON (AUSTRALIA) PTY http://pacificsouthwest.net/assets/docs/psx_advances_polysiloxane_coating.pdf

5

6

The US Environment Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/volatile-organic-compounds-impact-indoor-air-quality

RECENT ADVANCES IN POLYSILOXANE COATINGS L.H.P. Gommans*, Shu Yi Chu, Karen Constable, AMERON (NEW ZEALAND) LIMITED E. Hemmings and L. Bailey AMERON (AUSTRALIA) PTY http://pacificsouthwest.net/assets/docs/psx_advances_polysiloxane_coating.pdf

7

8

Performance of Chromate-Free Pretreatment Options for CARC Systems Report No. ARL-TR-4049 Authors: Pauline Smith; Christopher Miller Date/Pages: February 2007; 22 pages http://www.arl.army.mil/www/default.cfm?technical_report=1327

Dr Steve Harris, Head of External Partnerships and Brokering, BAE Systems The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council https://www.epsrc.ac.uk/newsevents/casestudies/baesystemsstrategicpartnership/

9

10

Performance of Chromate-Free Pretreatment Options for CARC Systems Report No. ARL-TR-4049 Authors: Pauline Smith; Christopher Miller Date/Pages: February 2007; 22 pages http://www.arl.army.mil/www/default.cfm?technical_report=1327

11

Corrosion Awareness Day 2010 – April 24,2010 http://www.corrosion.org/News.html

12

09/15/2015 10:00 EDT - Daniel Parry, (202) 767-2541 NRL Center for Corrosion Science and Engineering Awarded Prize for Affordability:

http://www.nrl.navy.mil/media/news-releases/2015/nrl-center-for-corrosion-science-and-engineering-awarded-prize-for-affordability#sthash.xITn9VTu.dpuf

RECENT ADVANCES IN POLYSILOXANE COATINGS L.H.P. Gommans*, Shu Yi Chu, Karen Constable, AMERON (NEW ZEALAND) LIMITED E. Hemmings and L. Bailey AMERON (AUSTRALIA) PTY http://pacificsouthwest.net/assets/docs/psx_advances_polysiloxane_coating.pdf 13

14 Conformal coatings for electronic military applications Tags: Conformal Coatings, Thermal Management http://www.electrolube.com/technical-articles/conformal-coatings-for-electronic-military-applications/ 15

http://www.marcorsyscom.marines.mil/ProfessionalStaff/ACALPS/CPAC/Links.aspx

NACE Coatings Inspection Program course details NACE COATING INSPECTION PROGRAM (CIP) LEVEL 2 http://www.corrosion.com.au/Training/Calendar/agentType/View/PropertyID/102 16

17

NACE Product Number: 51300-07008-SG Erik Graversen 2007 ISBN: 07008 2007 CP 15 http://www.nace.org/cstm/Store/Product.aspx?id=08e90a1e-5f08-dc11-aec4-0017a4466950

NACE Product Number: 51300-07008-SG Erik Graversen 2007 ISBN: 07008 2007 CP 15 http://www.nace.org/cstm/Store/Product.aspx?id=08e90a1e-5f08-dc11-aec4-0017a4466950 18

Up to $19.2M to VSE for US Army Vehicle Corrosion Protection Dec 22, 2009 09:30 UTC by Defense Industry Daily staff http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/Up-to-192M-to-VSE-for-US-Army-Vehicle-Corrosion-Protection-06054/ 19

20

Reducing Corrosion Control Costs with Rapid-Cure Coatings A.A. Webb,1 J. Verborgt,1 J.R. Martin,1 W. Groeninger,1 P.F. Slebodnick,1 K.E. Lucas,1 and E. Hogan2 1Chemistry Division 2Materials Science and Technology Division 2007 NRL REVIEW http://www.nrl.navy.mil/content_images/07FA2.pdf

21

Reducing Corrosion Control Costs with Rapid-Cure Coatings A.A. Webb,1 J. Verborgt,1 J.R. Martin,1 W. Groeninger,1 P.F. Slebodnick,1 K.E. Lucas,1 and E. Hogan2 1Chemistry Division 2Materials Science and Technology Division 2007 NRL REVIEW http://www.nrl.navy.mil/content_images/07FA2.pdf

22

http://www.microsurfacecorp.com

23

Performance of Chromate-Free Pretreatment Options for CARC Systems Report No. ARL-TR-4049 Authors: Pauline Smith; Christopher Miller Date/Pages: February 2007; 22 pages http://www.arl.army.mil/www/default.cfm?technical_report=1327

24 EPSRC Dr Steve Harris, Head of External Partnerships and Brokering, BAE Systems https://www.epsrc.ac.uk/newsevents/casestudies/baesystemsstrategicpartnership/ 25

Local Control of Materials Synthesis (LoCo) Dr. Tyler McQuade http://www.darpa.mil/program/local-control-of-materials-synthesis

07/16/2015 06:00 Daniel Parry, (202) 767-2541 0 http://www.nrl.navy.mil/media/news-releases/2015/naval-research-laboratory-takes-leap-in-nextgen-materials-design 26

WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 17


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Defence Industry Reports – Advances in Corrosion Protection Technology – Military Vehicle Platforms  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Advances in Corrosion Protection Technology for Military Vehicle Platforms

Defence Industry Reports – Advances in Corrosion Protection Technology – Military Vehicle Platforms  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Advances in Corrosion Protection Technology for Military Vehicle Platforms