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SPECIAL REPORT

Advances in Filtration Technology for Military Aircraft Applications Donaldson Focuses on Advancing Proven Filtration Systems to Better Protect Military Aircraft Systems Worldwide ‘Must Have’ Filters – The Lesson Learned From Iraq and Afghanistan Can Heavy Lift Helicopter Services Be Improved? Global Market Growth in Filters Budget Demands for Increased Performance at a Lower Price Predicting the Future of Filtration into the 2020s

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

SPECIAL REPORT

Advances in Filtration Technology for Military Aircraft Applications Donaldson Focuses on Advancing Proven Filtration Systems to Better Protect Military Aircraft Systems Worldwide ‘Must Have’ Filters – The Lesson Learned From Iraq and Afghanistan

Contents

Can Heavy Lift Helicopter Services Be Improved? Global Market Growth in Filters Budget Demands for Increased Performance at a Lower Price Predicting the Future of Filtration into the 2020s

Foreword 2 Mary Dub, Editor

Donaldson Focuses on Advancing Proven Filtration Systems to Better Protect Military Aircraft Systems Worldwide

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Donaldson Aerospace & Defence Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Published by Global Business Media Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org

Legacy of Expertise Comprehensive Solutions Deep Expertise Air, Land and Sea Cost Effective

‘Must Have’ Filters – The Lesson Learned 7 From Iraq and Afghanistan Mary Dub, Editor

Publisher Kevin Bell

The Added Danger of ‘Brown Out’ or DVE (Degraded Visual Environment) The Challenge from ISIL and Ebola – the Follow On From Iraq and Afghanistan The Lesson from Tianjin, China

Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks

Can Heavy Lift Helicopter Services Be Improved?

Editor Mary Dub

Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes

Paying For a Helicopter Capability Through Life Capability Management The Prevention of Catastrophic Failure by Protecting Components with Filtration Customer Standards are Rising

Production Manager Paul Davies

Global Market Growth in Filters

Senior Project Manager Steve Banks

For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org

Don McBarnet, Defense Technology Writer

The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated.

Budget Demands for Increased Performance at a Lower Price

Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles.

New Helicopters in Development?

© 2016. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

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Don McBarnet, Defense Technology Writer

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Global Air Filters Market to 2020

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Mary Dub, International security writer

Predicting the Future of Filtration into the 2020s

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Mary Dub, International security writer

The Role of Battlefield Aviation New Redesigned Lightweight Components for 21st Century Rotorcraft NASA Spinoffs from Space Exploration that Point to Future New Air and Water Filters Scientists and Engineers at MIT Experiment with New Filtration Materials

References 15

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SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

Foreword E

NGINEERS AND designers create engineering

with improved filtration systems for the hot and high,

systems for military fixed wing and rotorcraft

dust ridden and sandy conditions, they were, and

to fight in the extremes of environmental conditions.

sometime now are, being asked to fly in. These must-

Their filtration technology is the interface between

have filters are the central focus of the second piece.

systems and the gases, dust and compounds that

The third article covers the changing patterns in

contaminate the gas and fluid flows within those

the marketplace for military helicopters and their

systems. The systems are highly engineered,

filtration technology. They have to meet stringent

often bespoke and have to meet all the demands of

new budgetary constraints, but also targets for

21st century defense and aerospace contractors.

maintenance hours and component life as customers

This Special Report is about these filters.

become more demanding.

The opening article looks at Donaldson Aerospace

A brief review of the global market for air and fluid

& Defense, one of the leading providers of filtration

filters indicates that it is buoyant and growing with

solutions for industrial and heavy manufacturing

some of the greatest interest in the Asia Pacific region.

applications, as well as for aerospace and defense.

Budget targets for new performance criteria for the

Headquartered in Minneapolis, the company is a

engines and filtration technologies of military rotorcraft

primary supplier of filtration systems for the U.S

are always ambitious. But are they too ambitious?

Army’s helicopter fleets and is already at work on new

A discussion of this issue is the topic of the fifth piece.

capabilities to help support high-performance engine

And what is the direction of travel into the future?

upgrades for Sikorsky and Boeing. Donaldson focuses

Predictions about the outcomes of defense political

on helping customers perform essential work, under

wrangling are not useful. Looking at new trends in

all kinds of conditions, and to do say safely, reliably

material science and the use of graphene may lead

and economically.

to new technologies. The future for filters looks bright.

The demand for filters for military aircraft echoes the demand for the aircraft they serve. But the bitter lessons of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan indicate that many aircraft have been or need to be retrofitted

Mary Dub Editor

Mary Dub has written about international security in the United States, Europe, Africa and the Middle East as a television broadcaster and journalist and has a Masters degree in War Studies from King’s College, London.

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SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

Donaldson Focuses on Advancing Proven Filtration Systems to Better Protect Military Aircraft Systems Worldwide Donaldson Aerospace & Defence

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ITH MORE than a century of proven performance as a leader in the development of advanced filtration systems, Donaldson Aerospace & Defense remains committed to meeting and exceeding the filtration needs of military services and air crews around the world. And the division of Donaldson Company – the leading provider of filtration solutions for aerospace, defense, industrial, and heavy manufacturing applications – is helping customers maintain their vital edge by developing new technologies and innovative applications. Donaldson Aerospace & Defense, headquartered in Minneapolis, Minnesota, is the primary supplier of filtration solutions for the U.S. Army’s helicopter fleets, including the combatproven Sikorsky H-60. It also is developing new capabilities to better protect the reliability and operation of cutting-edge platforms like the Sikorsky CH-53K and Bell-Boeing V-22, and legacy workhorses like the Sikorsky S-61, earlier generation CH-53s, and the modernized Boeing MH-47.

Legacy of Expertise These advances extend a legacy of expertise in fluid and gas filtration that started in 1915, when Frank Donaldson invented an air cleaner for farm tractors. “Since Donaldson was founded, we have focused on helping our customers perform essential work – often in extreme operating conditions – and to do so safely and reliably,” said Lars Hesbjerg, global director of sales for Donaldson Aerospace & Defense. “We are committed to further supporting them as they push for greater performance, higher reliability and lower operating costs from their equipment.” A good example is the success Donaldson is having on the CH-53K helicopter program,

which posed daunting engineering challenges. The U.S. Marine Corps is seeking a more capable replacement for the CH-53E that will still operate in the same space on board U.S. Navy ships and will fit inside U.S. Air Force Lockheed C-5s and Boeing C-17s for air transport. The new helicopter being developed – the CH-53K – will need to have twice the payload and combat radius of the current heavy-lifter, perform better in high and hot operating conditions, and achieve significantly lower maintenance costs. Critical to achieving those goals are the CH53K’s three 6,000-shaft-horsepower-class GE T408 engines and the vital protection by the Engine Air Particle Protection System (EAPPS) Donaldson developed for the program’s system development and demonstration phase. Donaldson Aerospace & Defense also produces an Inlet Barrier Filter (IBF) system that is available as a kit for H-60s (including the U.S. Navy’s UH-60 Seahawk family) as well as the U.S. Army’s Bell OH-58D/F Kiowa Warriors. Donaldson IBFs are standard on Army special operations Boeing MH/AH-6 Little Birds. The IBF has demonstrated its ability to produce operational, maintenance and overhaul cost savings that allow helicopter operators to recoup their installation investments in a year or less, and save more throughout the protected aircraft’s service life. The IBFs protect engines from microscopic dust and dirt while allowing flight crews in IBF-equipped aircraft to fly to Basic Inlet-equivalent performance and high operations levels.

Comprehensive Solutions The IBF and EAPPS systems are part of a comprehensive line of Donaldson Aerospace & Defense filtration applications for military and commercial aircraft and for ground vehicles. Other systems in that line include: WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 3


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

Donaldson is continually refining its air and liquid filtration systems that for more than 30 years have protected a wide range of military ground vehicles, from light all-terrain vehicles to main battle tanks like the Nexter Leclerc, Israeli Military Industries Merkava and BAE Systems Challenger

UH-60 FILTERED DESERT

•L  iquid filters for coolant, fuel lube/oil, and transmission systems •H  ydraulic manifolds that protect return, case drain, and high-pressure lines and provide smooth operation of essential flight systems • Filtration for pneumatic systems •P  ropellant surface tension devices for reliable fuel flow, and fuel filters to eliminate particulates that can foul engines •C  hemical, microbial and particulate filtration for avionics (such as radar, countermeasures and navigation systems) and environmental control systems • Nuclear, biological and chemical pre-filtration •A  ir cleaner, exhaust, and emission systems that reduce noise and backpressure, increase fuel economy, and extend service life. The company has a long history of meeting the filtration needs of military customers. In the 1930s, it provided exhaust systems and air cleaners for five-ton military trucks and artillery tractors. In the 1950s, the company developed Strata™ Tube (updated versions of which are used in the CH53K systems) and Donaclone® inertial separators, as well as a catalytic air cleaner for USAF’s B-52 strategic bomber. A Donaldson engine air particle separator began flying on the U.S. Army’s OH-6A helicopters in the 1960s. In the same decade, the company introduced an engine intake pre-cleaner using its Strata™ Tubes for the CH-53. (Updated versions of the Strata™ Tube are used in the new CH-53K system.) When the V-22 began flying in the 1980s, a Donaldson oil conditioning system protected its Rolls-Royce turboshaft engines. In the next decade, the company began introducing the IBF system to the helicopter market and provided cabin air filters and environmental control system filtration for USAF’s C-17.

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Deep Expertise After the turn of the century, the U.S. Army qualified the first fully integrated Donaldson barrier filter for use on U.S. Army aircraft. These include the V-22 shaft-driven compressor; auxiliary power unit (APU) inlet barrier filters for the Army’s UH-60s, AH-64s and H-47s,; and the main-engine IBFs for the UH-60. The company also developed the first dry-media barrier filter to protect the V-22’s shaft-driven compressor and main engine IBFs for the UH-60. Sikorsky also selected Donaldson to develop the integrated EAPPS for the CH-53K program. In addition to military aircraft, Donaldson provides aviation authority-certified IBF solutions for the: •A  gusta Westland AW109E/S/SP, AW119, AW119Ke and AW139 • Bell 205A1, 206B, 407, 206L-3/4, 206L-1(C30), 429 and 430 • Airbus Helicopters EC130, AS350 B/BA/B1/ B2/B3/B3e • AS350s with Soloy or Heli-Lynx Honeywell engine conversions • MD Helicopters MD 369H Series, MD 500D/E/F and MD 900/902 Many of those aircraft also are used in military applications. For instance, Donaldson has provided IBF systems and avionics bay filtration for Bell 407 trainers and armed scout helicopters deployed with Iraq’s security forces. It also has provided IBF systems for the entire fleet of U.S. Army TH-67 training helicopters.

Air, Land and Sea Donaldson is continually refining its air and liquid filtration systems that for more than 30 years have protected a wide range of military ground


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

vehicles, from light all-terrain vehicles to main battle tanks like the Nexter Leclerc, Israeli Military Industries Merkava and BAE Systems Challenger. In 2012 Donaldson’s RadialSeal air filtration system was selected for use on the U.S. Defense Department’s Lightweight Tactical All-Terrain Vehicles (LTATVs) because of the system’s ability to meet the stringent engine requirements of the LTATV’s challenging operating environments. In 2013, Donaldson was chosen to provide about 400 advanced engine air filtration systems – including its PowerCore® filters – to improve the long-term performance and reliability of the Canadian Army’s LAV III light armored vehicles under an eight-year program to extend that battle-proven ground fleet’s service life to 2035. The Canadian Army’s LAV IIIs saw extensive use during deployed operations in Afghanistan in recent years. The PowerCore’s Ultra-Web® nanofiber filter media provides up to 10 times higher efficiency than conventional cellulose media and is especially well suited to capture fine dust commonly found in desert environments. Donaldson’s Pulse Jet Air Cleaner (PJAC™) Ultra® air cleaner, installed in ground vehicles that include Daimler Trucks North America’s M915 A5 military tractor, also uses Ultra-Web® nanofiber media to provide greater than 99.997% filtration efficiency. Field-tested in harsh, high-dust military environments, PJAC Ultra uses controlled pulses of compressed air to automatically clean the intake filter, offering up to 10 times the life of conventional air cleaners. The active cleaning process helps keep contaminants away from the engine and helps keep vehicles operational in the most severe environments.

Cost Effective These applications continue Donaldson’s long tradition of working with U.S. and allied forces to modernize military vehicles and aircraft with advanced filtration solutions that enhance mission capabilities, reduce the need to procure new equipment, cut operating costs and increase support for forces at home and in the field. “In today’s tight budgetary environments, controlling and reducing life-cycle costs are top priorities for military platforms, whether they are deployed in the air or on the surface,” said Hesbjerg. “We are focused on advancing the state of filtration technology and applying the best capabilities to the operational requirements of military customers across the board.” An example of such advancement is recent testing by Donaldson that demonstrated its IBF’s ability to prevent airborne salts from degrading the performance of helicopter turboshaft engines and increasing their maintenance costs. Helicopters flying low or hovering over the ocean and coastal and inshore regions ingest airborne salts that combine with the heat of their engine’s turbine sections to corrode blades and other components and increase exhaust gas temperatures. This increases the need for aggressive engine washing, which reduces aircraft availability. It also drives up maintenance and overhaul costs of the aircraft. Donaldson’s expertise in filtration is recognized beyond the original manufacturers of military aircraft. In 2014, for instance, Airbus Helicopters selected the company to provide air filtration systems for its upgrade of 40 German military medium-lift CH-53Gs. The upgrade to the -53GA configuration through

UH-60 AH-64 IRAQ

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SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

What started in 1915 as little more than an idea has grown and flourished into a global corporation and industry leader

PJACULTRA B WITH FILTER

2015 will use Donaldson’s Strata™ Tube inertial particle separators and pleated filter media to cleanse cooling air for avionics bays and protect critical elements of the upgrade (such as a four-axis autopilot with auto-hover automatic flight control, modernized electronic warfare capabilities, an enhanced glass cockpit and satellite communications) from the degrading effects of airborne fine-particle contaminants. Combined with structural enhancements, the upgrades are designed to ensure that the CH-53GAs remain effective platforms for the German air force through 2030. Donaldson developed the Universal Filter Module (UFM) inlet barrier filter for the Sikorsky S-61 and comparable aircraft types. The UFM allows operation in adverse environments while substantially reducing engine damage

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potential. It features streamlined fairings with removable filter assemblies integrated to the existing engine inlet, creating a sealed intake plenum. As with all certified Donaldson IBFs, the UFM includes an alternate inlet air bypass system – an important emergency bypass capability that is absent in most traditional sand filters and particle separators. Protecting that added performance (as well as the current-configuration engine) in such dirty, dusty environments is a capability Donaldson filtration systems have already proven. What started in 1915 as little more than an idea has grown and flourished into a global corporation and industry leader. The Donaldson team is proud of its legacy, committed to its military customers, and looking ahead to another century of innovation and excellence – and products worthy of the Donaldson name.


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

‘Must Have’ Filters – The Lesson Learned From Iraq and Afghanistan Mary Dub, Editor

“The Army’s and Marine Corps’ equipment has been employed in what has been described as ‘the harsh operating environments of Iraq and Afghanistan’ where the heat, sand, and dust as well as operational rates, ‘well in excess of peacetime rates’ have taken a heavy toll on the Army’s and Marines’ equipment.” U.S. Army and Marine Corps Equipment Requirements 20071

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HIS QUOTE and report was offered to Congress in 2007. Since then the harsh lessons learned from flying ‘hot and high’ in Afghanistan, along with the corrosive effects of the dust and sand on military aircraft and other machinery have been difficult. An aircraft maintenance engineer writing in Helicopter Maintenance magazine recently2 explains the problem: “A clean compressor is a more efficient compressor. A more efficient compressor requires less fuel to produce the same power. A lower fuel flow rate at the same power level reduces hot section temperature, prolongs hot section life and landing, especially when propeller reversing is utilized. Helicopters can stir up even larger quantities of dirt during take-

off and landing. This stirred-up sand and dirt can be ingested into the engine. When the sand and dirt particles are struck by the compressor blades, they are shattered into a very fine dust. Air from the compressor that is contaminated with this fine dust is then extracted to pressurize the engine labyrinth seals that help keep the oil in the bearing compartments. This process allows the dirt/dust to enter and contaminate the engine oil system. The result of a helicopter flying in dust and sand is sand and slurry blasting the engine components that can cause catastrophic engine failure unless filtered and monitored. The issue is not confined to mountainous and desert regions like Iraq and Afghanistan. Helicopters working over the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf coasts have WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 7


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

The result of a helicopter flying in dust and sand is sand and slurry blasting the engine components that can cause catastrophic engine failure unless filtered and monitored

additional problems due to the combination of salt and aviation fuel, which frequently contains sulphur, causing sulfidation, which corrodes aircraft components. Volcanic dust or gases thrown up by volcanoes can exacerbate this. When this level of dust and gas is present in the air, flight has to be restricted, as when Eyjafjallajökull erupted in Iceland in 2010. Without highly effective filters on both inlets and outlets, both rotary and fixed wing military aircraft will have their airworthiness compromised3. At the very least, the mean time between the projected efficiency of the components and failure will be reduced.

The Added Danger of ‘Brown Out’ or DVE (Degraded Visual Environment) By the very nature of a helicopter’s propulsion, the down draft from the rotation of the rotor blades can produce a cloud of brown dust called a ‘brownout’ or DVE. This not only causes the engineering problems that have already been identified, but forces the pilot to fly without visual cues resulting in a potential loss of aircraft and loss of life. Naval Air Systems Command test pilot and former Marine Corps Colonel Christopher Becker puts it this way: “You’ve momentarily lost control of your destiny…You are instantaneously in a scenario where you have this big huge swirling mass of these particles,” he explains. “It’s not just that you can’t see, it’s that some of it is coming from the right and up, some of it is coming from the left and down, or from the left and up.”4

The Challenge from ISIL and Ebola – the Follow On From Iraq and Afghanistan While it would be a mistake not to learn the lessons taught by the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, time moves on and Generals, to quote a cliché, should not prepare to fight the last war. General Selva5, current US deputy Joint Chiefs of Staff and until July 2015 Commander of Transport Command, briefed writers in Washington DC about current operational issues.

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He highlighted the operational logistics demand to support the fight against ISIL in Iraq and the recent (2014) need to offer sustained humanitarian support to countries affected by the Ebola virus. This has meant airlifts that US forces had not anticipated. For example, they are supporting the Iraq Security Forces with resupply, and supporting the Peshmerga forces in the North.6 While the use of helicopters and other military aircraft for operational logistic back up is not new, it was the consequences of the humanitarian assistance in West Africa that confronted the US with the need for an UOR (Urgent Operational Requirement) for an air filtered medical isolation unit that could be used to transport several military or civilian workers infected by Ebola back to the United States – a facility that the US lacked. “We put a requirement on the street for a transportation isolation module, a system that would allow us to isolate a patient, filter the air that moves through the compartment where the patient is isolated and treat them for a communicable disease that’s airborne or blood-borne. So it accommodates the Ebola issue but it also accommodates other potential airborne contagents.” The need to protect military personnel working on humanitarian assistance to deal with infectious diseases or other sorts of airborne contamination is a new but current national security issue. The rapid spread of viruses or airborne chemical contamination can create a new demand for good filtration to protect the armed forces.

The Lesson from Tianjin, China The chemical explosions in Tianjin in August 2015 provide many potential lessons for the Chinese government. One of the most poignant is the death toll of the missing fire officers, who are under the control of the military7. Many of the fire officers were untrained and unprotected and unable to handle a chemical and gas explosion on this scale.8 Some reported they could still smell chemicals when wearing full protective gear. Could they have used better filtration systems? Probably.


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

Can Heavy Lift Helicopter Services Be Improved? Mary Dub, Editor

“From its early roles in medical evacuation and tactical transport, the helicopter has evolved into a formidable offensive aircraft, as well as emerging as a powerful element in the provision of tactical heavy lift.”9 House of Commons, Defence Committee Helicopter capability 2008-9

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HIS REPORT from the British House of Commons Defence Committee reflects the views of many of the countries that fought in ISAF (International Security Assistance Force) in Afghanistan. The Minister of Defence at that time went on to say: “Helicopters are absolutely key assets. We could not contend with the challenges in insurgency and counterinsurgency operations like those in Iraq and Afghanistan without helicopters. Put simply, helicopters are key enablers for the Armed Forces to do their job.”10 And although both the campaigns in Iraq and Afghanistan have reached some sort of end, the view that helicopters have a key role to play in hybrid warfare remains constant. And this perhaps is the key comment; their status as force-multipliers lends further weight to their value. They are a cost-effective means of increasing the operational impact of other force elements and therefore, of operational

capability generally.11 It is the flexibility of the helicopter and its role as a force multiplier in a wide range of different conflict or humanitarian assistance scenarios that reinforces its salient position in the spectrum of platforms available to a Commander in charge of operations.

Paying For a Helicopter Capability It was the impact of IEDs in Afghanistan and Iraq that made the movement of troops and supplies by helicopter absolutely vital. If the roads became lethal, the troops had to use their air capability. But it was this surge in demand for helicopter capability that led to a perceived shortfall that left commanders on the ground leaning on other countries’ capabilities.12 Why was the British helicopter provision so weak? Afghanistan’s hot and dusty conditions proved very challenging for helicopters designed for use in Europe, the Arctic and sea operations. The National Audit Office WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 9


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

Afghanistan’s hot and dusty conditions proved very challenging for helicopters designed for use in Europe, the Arctic and sea operations

was told that serviceability rates were good, but that the older helicopters “find it harder work and more of a challenge than the others, specifically the Sea Kings…Maintenance issues were central to in-theatre capability”13. The National Audit Office noted that “[n]one of the helicopter types were designed specifically to undertake missions in hot and dusty countries such as Iraq and Afghanistan”, and furthermore, that “ [t]he mountainous nature of Afghanistan also means that helicopters are forced to fly at higher altitudes where the air is thinner and greater engine and rotor-blade performance is required.” At the cost of getting helicopters on operational duties, these engineering amendments were made.

Through Life Capability Management But the critical change came in the way that helicopters were paid for through a system of through life capability management (TLCM). This change proved to be a paradigm shift in the relationship with industry, necessitating the retrofitting of dust, sand and other management systems. The constant aim was to improve the flying hours of the helicopters to enable their capability and reduce maintenance time and the time between component failures. To manage cost effectively a military aircraft sustained airworthiness became the central aim to drive down costs effectively.

The Prevention of Catastrophic Failure by Protecting Components with Filtration The protection of components in fluid or pneumatic systems and the installation of the most effective filtration system to protect critical components, for example, nozzles and valves, is the function of filtrations systems. And for sure, there are numerous new and competitive systems offered by international corporations providing high technology products, or bespoke products to protect the highly engineered designs of modern rotorcraft, fixed wing military aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles both rotary and fixed

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wing. Design engineers know that filtration has a role immediately upstream of the component to be protected, inside the component, as an integral part of the assembly or at the normal outlet of a contamination-vulnerable component that experiences reverse flow.14

Customer Standards are Rising The market for military helicopters is highly competitive, and through life maintenance has become part of the product. Therefore maintenance, service and component availability are now part of the product that is sold in the international marketplace. The historic importance of reliability, airworthiness and an extended mean time between failure for components, and therefore the utmost importance of good filtration systems to protect them has never been more important. Guillaume Faury, CEO of Airbus Helicopters, is trying to consolidate its position in the North American helicopter market. “Here in the U.S. market we have strong, successful customers who demand higher standards,” he says. “They demand that we deliver parts on time and keep their helicopters flying.” Airbus used to source a large amount of its commercial helicopter parts from Europe. If a part is not in the company’s U.S. inventory when a customer asks for it, delivery will be delayed at least one more day. Airbus Helicopters continues to provide high-quality support to the Army and does it profitably while working under a tough fixed cost-perflight hour contract with the Pentagon. Data management techniques are now being used to deliver more sophisticated parts and system monitoring techniques and devices. This knowledge base will make it easier for operators to predict maintenance needs, minimizing unscheduled maintenance. Also, It will make it possible for informed operators to alter the way in which they fly to maximize operational availability.15 Peter Cutler says that Airbus customers recognize the company’s efforts to improve support. “They want us to focus on two things: controlling their maintenance costs and their aircraft availability rates – and we’re doing that.”16


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

Global Market Growth in Filters Don McBarnet, Defense Technology Writer

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HE WORLD market for filters and filtration equipment is diverse and segmented. 0The commercial market for filters for cars and trucks has some overlap with the military market, in the same way that fluid and gas filters offer some overlap. But there is no accessible dedicated market research specifically for the global military filtration market. According to Gosreports, the fluid filter market is divided into oil and fuel filters. The oil filter market attained a market size, by value, of $222.1 million in 2014, and is expected to reach $376.2 million by 2019, at a CAGR of 11.1% from 2014 to 2019. The fuel filter market, by type, is expected to drive the fluid filter market, in terms of value, with the highest growth rate of 12.5% during the forecast period to 2019. The fluid filter market is segregated on the basis of region into Asia-Pacific, North America, Europe, and rest of the world. Asia-Pacific occupies the largest market share, in terms of value, and is estimated to grow from $446.3 million in 2014 to $841.0 1 million in 2019 at a CAGR of 13.5% over the forecast period. North America and Europe are expected to grow at CAGRs of 13.3% and 8.8%, respectively. Asia-Pacific is expected to hold a market share, in terms of volume, of 55.2% in the fluid market by 2019, growing at a CAGR of 8.2% from 2014 to 2019.17

Global Air Filters Market to 2020 Air filters are categorised on the basis of application area such as HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) filters, gas turbine air filters, automotive air filters, cleanroom air filters and bag house air filters according to TechSci research. Some of these applications, but not all are relevant to the military market. The global air filters market has always been dominated by the HVAC air filters segment, with continuous demand from commercial and residential sectors for new installations as well as retrofitting of existing systems.18 The global air filters market is estimated by TechSci to surpass USD19 billion through 2020. During the economic recession, demand for air filters was hampered by a dip in consumer spending and industrialization. However, the market has been recovering on account of increasing disposable income coupled with rising concern regarding air quality and related health disorders. The trend for the Asia Pacific region to drive and lead growth is retained. Air filter manufacturers see myriad opportunities across this region due to growth of end-use industries such as semiconductors, electronics, power, cement and the steel industry. The Asia-Pacific market is anticipated to retain dominance in the market over the forecast period as well, growing at a higher CAGR in comparison to other regions.19 WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 11


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

Budget Demands for Increased Performance at a Lower Price Mary Dub, International security writer

During the economic recession, demand for air filters was hampered by a dip in consumer spending and industrialization

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HE DR AWDOW N f rom Iraq and Afghanistan has been the catalyst for a trenchant rethink of platform costs and capabilities in preparation for new international uncertainties that may impact on the national interests of NATO countries and others with whom they have interests. 21st century concerns about cybersecurity, both offence and defense, the use of data management in networked warfare, the growth of ISIS, viral epidemics like Ebola in West Africa, have taken budget and attention away from the platforms that needed investment at the end of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars20. But behind the new concerns, old instabilities and long standing hybrid conflicts are still there. Logistic support against ISIS in Iraq, moving troops including Special Forces for training and humanitarian assistance or conflict avoidance are continuing to demand high performing and cost effective airlifts with the flexibility and capability of the helicopter.

New Helicopters in Development? New helicopters are in development with what are undoubtedly aggressive US Army imposed performance goals for the new engines. The Advanced Affordable Turbine Engine (AATE) program is a project of the U.S. Army’s Aviation

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Applied Technology Directorate Improved Turbine Engine Program (ITEP). The new 3,000-shp engine is being developed to provide a 50 percent increase in power; the program is also targeting improved specific fuel consumption by 25 percent, reduced production and maintenance costs by 35 percent and a 20 percent longer engine life a tremendous engineering request. It would be good to think that these goals were achievable and that new techniques and technologies in filtration with new fibers, lightweight structures and improved construction all adding to the new high performance mix. However, it is salutary to note that some of the costs of the development of new helicopter platforms have been hugely expensive. Wikileaks reveals the real costs of maintenance of the Comanche helicopter and they were not as low as claimed. The US Army hoped to achieve a ratio of 2.6 hours of maintenance to every one hour of flight; however, both the General Accounting Office and Congressional Budget Office assert that projected reductions in maintenance are always optimistic. Additionally, some studies conclude that the Comanche had become more expensive to fly than the Kiowa Warrior ($2,042/hour vs $1,598/hour), but less expensive than the AH-64D, which can cost as much as $3,622/hour to fly.21 It is easy to demand very high engineering efficiency at a low cost; it is another thing altogether to achieve it.


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

Predicting the Future of Filtration into the 2020s Mary Dub, International security writer

P

REDICTING THE future of filtration and its use by Heavy Vertical Lift rotorcraft and other variants of military aircraft in the United States is an inherently high-risk task. The interplay of service requests, industrial programs, Congressional funding and corporate competition create a mix of raw politics, with a highly uncertain outcome. Only the brave or the foolhardy could predict exactly what the outcome of the interplay will be by 2020. Similarly, in Britain, informed participants such as Rear Admiral Tony Johnstone-Burt, Commander, Joint Helicopter Command, is equally perplexed by the future. However, there are trends and commonalities, which can be used to highlight the very high value placed on helicopters for hybrid warfare.

The Role of Battlefield Aviation As the British Commander of the Joint Helicopter Command puts it – the defining aspects of battlefield aviation are its inherent flexibility and adaptability, which encompasses not only the ultimate in utility, but also in its agility, reach and potential lethality. They are also the qualities of the opponent – a hybrid insurgent. But, as the commander points out, the central aspect of this is the ability to deny the enemy the advantages and safe-havens provided by dense urban terrain, where currently the insurgent can exploit the density of population, transportation networks, public services and local infrastructure, and hide, plan, rehearse and then escape from allied forces at will.22 But unlike, the American forces who will have a range of specialist craft, the British battlefield helicopter may well have to perform a multitude of roles: from the Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition and Recce, or ISTAR role, into either an interdiction or attack role, a sustainment and troop-carrying role or, indeed, perform Provincial Reconstruction activities or humanitarian operations.

New Redesigned Lightweight Components for 21st Century Rotorcraft The high expectations of commanders and ministries of defense may well be met by the technologists manufacturing components for the craft and the filters to protect them. As Johnstone Burt points out “the environment will always be an enemy for our rotorcraft, especially the extremes of temperature and weather”23 and it will be the task of the filtration technologists to develop the mediating filters to perform. Extreme environments, vibration, low weight demands, complex structural issues will all have to be overcome in association with the aircraft designers. It is also a given that greater performance by rotorcraft engines, lower costs per flying hour and therefore lower maintenance costs will be demanded by customers. This will continue to be a powerful motivator to manufacturers in an era of vigorous global competition.

NASA Spinoffs from Space Exploration that Point to Future New Air and Water Filters Among the most valuable filters in a military fixed wing or rotorcraft are those which filter air from gases, dust, bacteria and other harmful contaminants, which may harm the war fighters or their passengers. NASA research into sustaining perishable foods for long-duration space missions by the ISS (International Space Station) resulted in the development of an aircleaning device that eliminates airborne bacteria, mold, fungi, mycotoxins, viruses, volatile organic compounds, and odors. NASA engineers who created the Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System, a complex system of devices intended to sustain the astronauts living on the ISS, produced a highly sophisticated water purification and filtration system of value to the military, but also to civilian water filtration systems.

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SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

Unlike the American forces who will have a range of specialist craft, the British battlefield helicopter may well have to perform a multitude of roles

Scientists and Engineers at MIT Experiment with New Filtration Materials Running parallel to changes in defense technology are vigorous disruptive changes in material science and data collection. Many of these new developments are already being picked up and used. One such is to lower costs to desalinate water, a frequent military necessity during operations or humanitarian assistance, which has been a long-standing challenge. MIT scientists have discovered new properties of graphene. In a study, released in 2014 in Energy & Environmental Science, Cohen-Tanugi and others at the Center for Clean Water and Clean Energy at MIT and KFUPM (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), have found that if a plant uses a more permeable filter, such as a graphene membrane to purify water, its energy consumption could be reduced by up to 46 per cent.24 With graphene such a recent discovery, it may well be valuable for future filtration applications on military fixed wing or rotorcraft.

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It is also a given that greater performance by rotorcraft engines, lower costs per flying hour and therefore lower maintenance costs will be demanded by customers


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

References: 1

2

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/weapons/RL33757.pdf U.S. Army and Marine Corps Equipment Requirements: Background and Issues for Congress Updated June 15, 2007 Summary

http://content.yudu.com/A3ocij/JuneJul2015HM/resources/index.htm?referrerUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fcontent.yudu.com%2FhtmlReader%2FA3ocij%2FJuneJul2015HM%2Findex.html

Helicopter maintenance magazine June July 2015 Author Ralph Hawkins is the chief engineer of MORE COMPANY OF MINDER, NV.

GAS TURBINE ENGINES INSTRUCTIONS FOR CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS WHY? http://www.helicoptermaintenancemagazine.com/article/gas-turbine-engines-instructions-continued-airworthiness-why-1 APRIL 1, 2015 Ralph Hawkins is the chief engineer for MORE Company, Minden NV.

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http://breakingdefense.com/2012/03/army-seeks-brownout-fixes-for-helo-pilots-afghan-tests-loom/ Army Seeks Brownout Fixes For Helo Pilots; Afghan Tests Loom By RICHARD WHITTLE March 09, 2012 at 2:45 PM

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General Paul J. Selva is Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, D.C., a position he assumed on July 31, 2015. Prior to his current assignment General Selva was the U.S. Transportation Command, Scott AFB, Ill., where he was responsible for managing all global air, land and sea transportation.

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Defense Writers Group A Project of the Center for Media & Security New York and Washington, D.C. Gen. Paul J. Selva Commander, US Transportation Command December 4, 2014 http://www.airforcemag.com/DWG/Documents/2014/December/120414Selva.pdf#search=filtration%20systems

August 16, 2015 10:42 am Chinese premier Li Keqiang visits scene of Tianjin blast Christian Shepherd in Tianjin http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/e5678a6e-43f8-11e5-af2f-4d6e0e5eda22.html

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http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-33955963 China explosions: Tianjin residents hold protests

House of Commons, Defence Committee, Helicopter capability Eleventh Report of Session 2008–09 http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmselect/cmdfence/434/434.pdf

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House of Commons, Defence Committee, Helicopter capability Eleventh Report of Session 2008–09 http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmselect/cmdfence/434/434.pdf 10

House of Commons, Defence Committee, Helicopter capability Eleventh Report of Session 2008–09 http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmselect/cmdfence/434/434.pdf 11

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High Command British Military Leadership in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars, Christopher Elliott Oxford University Press 2015

House of Commons, Defence Committee, Helicopter capability Eleventh Report of Session 2008–09 http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmselect/cmdfence/434/434.pdf 13

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Last chance filters Pall.com

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Airbus Helicopters - Focusing on Customer Support http://www.helicoptermaintenancemagazine.com/article/airbus-helicopters-focusing-customer-support FEBRUARY 1, 2015 - 1:00PM

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Airbus Helicopters - Focusing on Customer Support http://www.helicoptermaintenancemagazine.com/article/airbus-helicopters-focusing-customer-support FEBRUARY 1, 2015 - 1:00PM http://www.gosreports.com/global-fluid-filter-market-is-expected-to-reach-1463-7-million-by-2019/ Gosreports Global Fluid Filter Market 2015-08-13 http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-air-filters-market-to-surpass-usd19-billion-by-2020-says-techsci-research-499559981.html Global Air Filters Market to Surpass USD19 Billion by 2020, Says TechSci Research http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-air-filters-market-to-surpass-usd19-billion-by-2020-says-techsci-research-499559981.html Global Air Filters Market to Surpass USD19 Billion by 2020, Says TechSci Research

Dr Arati Prabhakar, Head of DARPA addressing the Future of War Conference in University of Arizona February 24 - 25, 2015 https://www.newamerica.org/international-security/future-of-war/ 20

21

CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RS20522 Updated July 2, 2003 Army Aviation: The RAH-66 Comanche Helicopter Issue Wikileaks

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https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/Johnstone-Burt_1.pdf The Joint Helicopter Command: 2020 Vision and 2020 Reality Thursday 25 March 2010 This was a paper delivered at the Air Power Series conference of the Royal United Services Institute. By Rear Admiral Tony Johnstone-Burt OBE MA FRAeS Commander, Joint Helicopter Command

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https://www.rusi.org/downloads/assets/Johnstone-Burt_1.pdf The Joint Helicopter Command: 2020 Vision and 2020 Reality Thursday 25 March 2010 This was a paper delivered at the Air Power Series conference of the Royal United Services Institute. By Rear Admiral Tony Johnstone-Burt OBE MA FRAeS Commander, Joint Helicopter Command Vicki Ekstrom | MIT Energy Initiative February 13, 2014 Energy & Environmental Science, Cohen-Tanugi and his coauthors — MIT PhD students Shreya Dave and Ronan McGovern, Professor John Lienhard, director of the Center for Clean Water and Clean Energy at MIT and KFUPM, and Professor Jeffrey Grossman of DMSE http://climatechange.mit.edu/news/brighter-future-filtered-seawater

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SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCES IN FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS

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Special Report on Advances in Filtration Technology for Military Aircraft Applications  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Advances in Filtration Technology for Military Aircraft Applications – Donaldson

Special Report on Advances in Filtration Technology for Military Aircraft Applications  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Advances in Filtration Technology for Military Aircraft Applications – Donaldson