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SPECIAL REPORT

Advanced Virtual Prototyping Technology for Critical System and Software Application Development Virtual Systems Prototyping – the Future of Defense Product Development Confronting Complexity Models and Military Models Legacy Problems, 21st Century Architectural Solutions Decoding the Future?

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

SPECIAL REPORT

Advanced Virtual Prototyping Technology for Critical System and Software Application Development Virtual Systems Prototyping – the Future of Defense Product Development

Contents

Confronting Complexity Models and Military Models Legacy Problems, 21st Century Architectural Solutions Decoding the Future?

Foreword 2 Mary Dub, Editor

Virtual Systems Prototyping – the Future of Defense Product Development

3

Todd McDevitt, Lee Johnson and Vincent Rossignol, ANSYS/Esterel Technologies Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Published by Global Business Media Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor Mary Dub Senior Project Manager Steve Banks Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes Production Manager Paul Davies For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated. Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles. © 2015. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

What is a System? The Challenge: Engineering Complex Product Architectures Virtual System Prototyping Model-Based Systems Engineering Embedded Software Development and HMIs Conclusion

Confronting Complexity

8

Mary Dub, Editor

Model Building Has a Past Why Models Now? Models Based Systems Engineering in the Defence Industry – a Paradigm Shift for Requirements Generation MBSE and System Modelling Languages for Aerospace, Avionics Design and Satellites

Models and Military Models

10

Mary Dub, Editor

The Reuse of Models Simulation Model Reuse Full System Simulation Formalisation of the Process Through MBSE and its Benefits

Legacy Problems, 21st Century Architectural Solutions

12

Don McBarnet, Technology Writer

Systems, Man and Cybernetics Moving Towards the Paradigm Shift of MBSE INCOSE’s View of MBSE’s Emergent Role DODAF, MODAF, NAF, TOGAF and the Zachman Framework What is IDEAS? The link between DODAF, MODAF and NAF

Decoding the Future?

14

Mary Dub, Editor

Security Considerations, Commercial and Military An ‘Agile’ Future for Project Management Incorporating a Dynamic Process The Roadmap to 2020 What Does This Mean?

References 16

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SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

Foreword T

HIS SPECIAL Report focuses on the intricate

There is also a review of some of the defence system

world of coding, software design, system

architectures in use in the UK.

building and the interface with these systems.

The following piece assesses the effects of the

It is a world of vigorous global competition and

paradigm shift in the last fifteen years to Model Based

accelerating rapid change. The aerospace and

Systems Engineering, model re-use and the many

defence industry has many specialist systems of

benefits of this change.

its own, but nobody building systems or writing

In the fourth article, the features of some of the most

software can afford to ignore the disruptive change

common systems architectures used by Western

that is happening with accelerating rapidity within

ministries of defence within NATO are discussed. They

both the business and defence applications of

have several iterations and are intended to align and

these systems.

simplify the process of product development.

The Report opens with an article that looks at how

The final article wrestles with the intangible issue of

simulation is changing the traditional development

the future. There are some strong trends, which some

process, through the creation of virtual product

institutes of software engineering have highlighted.

prototypes, which combine the physical attributes of a

Predicting the future in this field is undoubtedly

product with its systems and embedded software. The

important. Software development is becoming an

article goes on to describe different types of systems,

increasingly key part of every consumer, defence and

their functions and complexities and the challenges

military product. And with the present reality of the

faced by engineers to produce results in the fastest

Internet of Things, all intelligent products will require

time without compromising quality and reliability. It

appropriate virtual software development, testing and

describes how ANSYSÂŽ/Esterel Technologies, offers

simulation. The commercial future looks bright.

the most advanced technologies for 3-D simulation, embedded systems and software design enabling engineers to use simulation to build complete virtual systems prototypes. The second article takes a look at the history of models, model building, model re-use and simulation.

Mary Dub Editor

Mary Dub has written about international security in the United States, Europe, Africa and the Middle East as a television broadcaster and journalist and has a Masters degree in War Studies from King’s College, London.

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SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

Virtual Systems Prototyping - the Future of Defense Product Development Todd McDevitt, Lee Johnson and Vincent Rossignol, ANSYS/Esterel Technologies

Complete systems simulation from hardware to systems, software and HMIs

A

S PRODUCT complexity grows, so does the need for enhanced simulation c apabilities. Defense agencies are struggling with how to manage intertwined product development processes where often disconnected suppliers are working to develop the same product. Some are working on physical simulation while others are developing system requirements, and still others are developing the software that is embedded into these products. In order to bring these intelligent products to market in a timely and cost-effective manner, the traditional development process, which heavily relies on physical product prototypes, must evolve, allowing for quicker product specification changes and design validation. How can this be achieved? Simulation is the answer. The hottest innovation areas require system simulation to work. By 2025, every engineer will need to use simulation, from physics, to systems to embedded software. With simulation, the traditional product development

process changes. The complexity within systems arises from the challenges of connecting the individual pieces to ensure they work together as designed and expected. By developing virtual product prototypes, companies creating intelligent systems and devices can remain competitive, while coupling the physical attributes of a product with the systems and embedded software, assuring that the individual pieces that comprise the product work in unison as planned. Everyday consumers benefit from the evolution of intelligent devices. These are highly engineered, multifunctional products that interact with the people controlling them and their environment in new ways to make them more efficient, safer and effective. From a consumer industry perspective, it’s clear that products are more intelligent and more interconnected, but the trend isn’t limited to consumer products. In nearly every industry, including defense, smart systems are ensuring our safety, improving efficiency, and reducing energy consumption. In the defense community, intelligent avionics are being developed which

UAVS ARE COMPLEX, INTELLIGENT DEVICES

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SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

Intelligent products will have thousands of unique requirements that need to be served by a multiplicity of components, each of which have thousands of design parameters and interfaces that need to be engineered, verified, and validated

MANY SYSTEMS MUST WORK IN UNISON

can learn how to fly a damaged plane and land it safely or how to combine the development of both the avionics and the ground control stations for UAVs in a single platform. The trend towards smarter, more interconnected products is not fading. In fact it’s only increasing. Engineering design is shifting away from innovating through a single mechanical device towards innovating by networking existing components and modules to provide more complex functions. What’s controlling the interoperability and communication of these new systems? It is electronics and software.

What is a System? A system, as it relates to engineering, is the assembly of components that generate and store energy, actuate and create motion, sense, and control behavior — all working in concert and subject to the surrounding environment (such as fluctuating temperature, pressure, etc.). The interactions and interconnections are complex, facing uncertainties and disturbances that can result in failure or degradation of performance. Systems are complex. They are: •D  ynamic: they move, transmit, convey, transform, emit, and measure; •M  ulti-Domain: product behaviors span multiple engineering domains and physical phenomena that interact with one another; •U  ncertain: they under/over perform, they interact with the environment, they drift, they fail; •M  ulti-Disciplinary: conception through production spans engineering and organizational disciplines and processes. Systems are also: •E  lectrified: generating and consuming electrical power to actuate and control; •S  mart: controlled electronically with a ton of embedded software, sensing their environment; 4 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

•C  onnected: interacting with the environment, consuming and producing data as part of the Internet of Things (IoT), or connected fighter jet. Systems complexity continues to increase. This complexity is characterized by more content and more variants; new technology and processes; changing views of quality and reliability; dealing with new regulations; and hitting shorter market windows. As a result, the complexity of developing systems increases as well. Managing system design complexity is integral to developing intelligent systems and devices. Engineers must understand the requirements and traceability of requirements, the architectural and functional design, the interfaces and product lines and associated variants. All of these elements must be successfully managed while reducing costs and optimizing system performance to eliminate l ate-stage integration issues and reduces the need for physical testing.

The Challenge: Engineering Complex Product Architectures The exponential growth of intelligent product, systems and devices is obvious; however the increase in product development delays and late stage design failures is also clear. Delays and product failures are also compounded by the relentless pressure to deliver higher quality products to market faster. If a company is unable to develop their product in a shorter cycle without compromising quality, they risk losing market share and revenue, as well as tarnishing their corporate brand. The headlines are littered with such examples including the Airbus A400M military transport aircraft, Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter program. The process for designing and developing intelligent devices is far from trivial. The combination of software, electronic, and hardware significantly increases the complexity of the


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

product architecture and expands the scope of the engineering design. Intelligent products will have thousands of unique requirements that need to be served by a multiplicity of components, each of which have thousands of design parameters and interfaces that need to be engineered, verified, and validated. Many organizations struggle with applying their standard development processes to engineer intelligent systems and devices. Organizations who are best-in-class developing are those that can: 1. Manage complexity 2. Coordinate interdisciplinary engineering 3. Reliably verify system performance early Mastery of these elements requires establishing the necessary processes and organization of teams, but it also requires the right product development tools, and in particular simulation tools.

Virtual System Prototyping The objective of simulation software is to inform design choices and provide validation results that, as mentioned in the definition of a system, include systems-level qualities, properties, characteristics, functions, and behavior and performance insight. The simulation solution needs to go beyond the parts, or engineering disciplines of the design, and accurately describe the interacting effects of these parts as well as an accurate view into the detail of how these parts perform. Now ANSYS® users can build complete virtual systems prototypes, allowing every system engineer to use simulation. Today ANSYS offers the most advanced technologies for 3-D simulation and embedded systems and software design. The majority of usage is historically concentrated at the component and sub-system level. We are now providing our customers the technology to assemble these different components into complete virtual prototypes of software-controlled, multi-domain systems. With virtual system prototypes, there is huge value with optimizing not just the performance of individual components or sub-systems, but optimizing the performance of the entire system. The ANSYS systems modeling and simulation method is based on ANSYS Simplorer®, a comprehensive platform for building virtual system prototypes. Originally designed as a tool for analyzing power electronics systems, Simplorer has been enhanced to assemble and simulate electrical, electronic, thermofluid, mechanical and embedded software components. The methodology offers 3-D precision when needed as well as reducedorder modeling for verifying multi-domain system performance interaction.

ANSYS Simplorer enables assembly of complete virtual system prototypes: •H  igh level of interoperability with tools, model reuse, and support for standards (VHDLAMS, Spice, Modelica, C, C++, etc.) •U  nique connections to ANSYS 3D physics and embedded software (ANSYS SCADE®) •O  pen to third party tool integration with the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) standard ANSYS Simplorer not only allows users to assemble the physical components with the systems and software models into a simulation platform, it also allows users to test the entire system working as a whole. Users can evaluate architectures, select components and tune parameters to achieve optimal system performance: • Identify problems between hardware and software components earlier •C  reate virtual test rigs to evaluate system compliance with performance standards •S  imulate thousands of virtual prototypes to analyze system robustness and reliability

Model-Based Systems Engineering In traditional systems engineering approaches, documents were the authoritative source of the system design information. A series of documents such as Requirements Document, Architecture Design, Detailed Design Document, Engineering Change Document were produced and managed. Each have an approval process to ensure consensus, and revisions were tracked and managed. An important shortcoming of these documents is that they do not capture meaningful relationships between elements in the design. If an engineer changed an aspect on one subsystem design, the impact of that change on other sub-systems had to be discovered and the documents manually updated. This can be expensive and burdensome to an engineering organization. Furthermore, it is very easy for document-based designs to become out-ofsynch. The inevitable result is that design failures and even design contradictions will be discovered late in the development cycle. To better manage the complexities of today’s product architectures and truly understand and manage the countless dependencies across sub-systems, traditional systems engineering practices have evolved to Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE). The fundamental difference is that the authoritative system definition no longer resides in a set of static text-based design documents, but rather in a living model. This model provides a thorough understanding of the dependencies and interfaces between the various sub-systems. In addition to representing large amounts of information in more sophisticated, WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 5


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

ANSYS Simplorer not only allows users to assemble the physical components with the systems and software models into a simulation platform, it also allows users to test the entire system working as a whole

SCADE INSIDE A400M COCKPIT

interrelated ways, models are easily shared and communicated across teams, more amenable to change management, and support automated and comprehensive traceability from stakeholder requirements to implementation. SCADE SystemÂŽ is a system modeling and verification environment which allows managing embedded systems design complexity with a clean separation of concerns and responsibilities in layers, coupled with powerful customization means. SCADE System automatically builds and generates Interface Control Documents (ICD) from the models. A dedicated Avionics Package extends the system design capabilities for the aerospace and defense industry, with out-of-the-box templates for compliance with standard avionics protocols and operating systems, including ARINC 653, ARINC 429 and ARINC 664/AFDX.

Embedded Software Development and HMIs Embedded software is increasingly becoming the source of product failures. Some industry leaders claim that every 1,000 lines of embedded software contain eight bugs. This means that a fighter jet or UAV with 20 million lines of the code, could contain 160,000 errors. To manage this quality risk, as well as meet tighter standards for software certification, embedded software engineers will need to leverage software simulation tools and certified code generators. The process for incorporating embedded code that controls embedded systems faces similar pressures: improve design quality, reduce development costs and shorten development time. Embedded systems and software utilization is emerging as a major 6 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

differentiator in most product industries. Yet adding embedded code increases system design challenges and complexity. ANSYS provides a model-based embedded software development and simulation environment with a built-in automatic code generator. The embedded software model is exactly implemented by the generated code without any ambiguity. It is guaranteed that the same behavior will be observed in the simulation and on the target embedded software platform. The SCADE code generator, which generates both C code and Ada, has been certified in accordance with several industry standards, including DO-178C for aerospace and defense at the highest level of safety. SCADE Suite has been used to develop critical embedded software for a wide array of applications including flight control systems, mission systems, UAV ground control stations and military land vehicles. SCADE Display has been deployed for the design of embedded human machine interfaces (HMI) in cockpit display systems and ground control stations. SCADE is also aligned to the Future Airborne Capability Environment (FACE) technical standard, enabling the automatic generation of Safe Portable Components. The FACE Technical Standard, designed as a response to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) aviation community’s challenges, is the open avionics standard for making military computing operations more robust, interoperable, portable and secure.

Conclusion As military products become smart, electrified and consequently complex, systems modeling


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

and simulation provides enabling technologies for robust and cost-effective product development. Model-based development can also help to ensure design quality, functional safety verification and reuse of design assets. Furthermore, defense organizations are now leveraging virtual systems prototyping methodologies to evaluate and demonstrate compliance/conformance with industry standards for performance. The most-successful product development companies apply modeling and analysis of systems at start of the process – designing around requirements (power, load, features, and reliability) – incorporating systems modeling and simulation as early as possible and throughout component design, then integrate the information gleaned to address the full system. There are still many challenges that companies need to manage. Systems modeling and simulation is applicable to all of them: • Anticipating increasing complexity • Incorporating more content, more variants • S  eeking out and applying new technologies and processes • Understanding multi-domain interactions •A  djusting views related to quality and reliability •D  ealing with new government and industry regulations • Hitting ever-shorter market windows

Defense organizations are now leveraging virtual systems prototyping methodologies to evaluate and demonstrate compliance/conformance with industry standards for performance

Contact Esterel Technologies ANSYS UK Ltd. 97 Jubilee Avenue Milton Park, Abingdon Oxfordshire OX14 4RW United Kingdom + 44 (0)7887951462 scade-sales@esterel-technolgies.com esterel-technologies.com

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SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

Confronting Complexity Mary Dub, Editor

“Simplicity ‘the art of maximising the amount of work not done’ is essential, especially within the implementation team.” 1 Phyllis Marbach, Agile Coach, The Boeing Company April 15, 2015

Simulation software is based on the process of modelling a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas

C

ONFRONTING COMPLEXIT Y is a daily task for software developers and system engineers. They work at the leading edge of rapid change in work practices at a time of fierce competitive pressures, where time to complete a task well is always at a premium. The global competition in the field calls for early adoption of best practice and new systems and the constant embrace of disruptive change. Picking up the writing of Prof Stephan Hartmann,2 many of the basic principles practised today echo scientific practices developed over a century ago. Hartmann argues that there is mounting evidence that the “model-building era” that dominated the theoretical activities of the sciences for a long time is about to be succeeded or at least lastingly supplemented by the “simulation era”. But what are models exactly? What is a simulation and what is the difference and the relation between a model and a simulation? This report will attempt to offer an heuristic answer to these questions. Then it will be easier to lead on to confront the complexity of the models and simulations that are on the market or available to use for free on the Internet.

Model Building Has a Past With the end of the late 19th century, model building began to dominate theoretical activity in the field of physics: J.C. Maxwell used hydrodynamic analogue models to derive the well-known equations of electromagnetism and W. Thompson, later Lord Kelvin, stated that he could not understand a phenomenon until he had succeeded in constructing a model of the system under consideration. In time, devising and exploring models became an integral part of theoretical research. Hartmann describes how quite often, the term “model” is used, throughout the sciences, synonymously with “theory”. And Stephan Hartmann’s definition of simulation? He says simulations are closely related to dynamic models. A simulation imitates 8 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

one process by another process. In this definition, the term “process” refers solely to some object or system whose state changes in time.3

Why Models Now? To put a 21st century commercial interpretation in place, simulation software is based on the process of modelling a real phenomenon with a set of mathematical formulas. Essentially, It is a program that allows the user to observe an operation through simulation without actually performing that operation. Simulation software is used widely to design equipment so that the final product will be as close to design specs as possible without expensive in-process modification4.

Models Based Systems Engineering in the Defence Industry – a Paradigm Shift for Requirements Generation It is a cliché of the defence industry that product development is held back by ever changing product requirement amendments and consequent huge cost overruns. ModelBased System Engineering (MBSE) is being developed and used in defence to combat this. Chris Piaszczyk, from the US Monterey Naval Postgraduate School presents the case for DoDAF, the Department of Defense Architectural Framework for MBSE for dealing with product requirements. He said inadequate requirements generation allows ambiguity to affect all follow-on activities. This usually shows up during detail design and requires additional engineering and possibly programmatic effort to unravel the missing or incorrect information. Once the construction contract is signed, any change requires some type of cost adjustment.5 So he argues for an MBSE DoDAF methodology, which offers visual accessibility to the DoDAF views facilitating full participation by all system stakeholders, including the customers, developers, and implementers, and enables the necessary dialogue. This


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

approach promotes communication among the members of the development team and speeds up the iterations of the systems engineering process. This represents a paradigm shift in working practices – requirements development is no longer the task for a group of subject matter experts sitting around the table in a locked conference room or, even worse, each expert working in his own cubicle in isolation.

MBSE and System Modelling Languages for Aerospace, Avionics Design and Satellites As an emerging technology, MBSE is developing Systems Modelling languages that facilitate the process. An MBSE Challenge project was established to model a hypothetical

FireSat satellite system to evaluate the suitability of SysML, a systems modelling language for describing space systems.6 Aircraft developers, like other development and manufacturing companies, are experiencing increasing complexity in their products and growing competition in the global market. Time and money is being saved by using modelling techniques that enable understanding of the engineering problems, state-of-the-art analysis and team communication, with preserved or increased quality and sense of control. Dynamic simulation is an activity increasingly used in aerospace, for several reasons; to prove the product concept, to validate stated requirements, and to verify the final implementation.7

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SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

Models and Military Models Mary Dub, Editor

“An unseen process underlying reality around the globe… the “invisible world of America and its military.” This process is invisible because of secrecy laws, actively complicit corporate media, and the difficulties of tracing farflung connections that do not seem to be directly implicated in war-making or in preparations for war” Joseph Soeters, Patricia M. Shields and Sebastiaan Rietjens8 2014

Some commentators estimate that a product such as the Airbus 380 contains 1 billion lines of code

This quotation from a recently published work on Military Studies highlights the difficulties for anyone writing about what the American military or the prime contractors working with the military are doing at any one time. The US Army’s use of MBSE and other system engineering software no doubt reflects the leading edge of thought available. However, it will always be difficult to ascertain exactly what software models or simulation systems they are using. This holds true for European armies, the Israeli armed forces and others in Asia. However, the principles spelt out in processes such as Boeing’s Agile project management system highlight the integration of system requirement generators/the customer and the software developers through the work process.9

The Reuse of Models As part of the streamlining of the process of software product development and the process of calibration, verification and validation, there is a constant drive to eliminate error from whatever source and to reduce the number of bugs in the code written. To this end there has been an evolving practise to re-use models. The re-use oriented model or re-use oriented method can be of value in building a system with a reduced number of bugs. The reuse-oriented model can reduce the overall cost of software development compared with more tedious manual methods. It can also save time because each phase of the process builds on the previous phase, which has already been refined. When carefully carried out, ROD (reuse-oriented development) can minimize the likelihood of errors or bugs making their way into the final product.10

Simulation Model Reuse The case for the reuse of simulation models was based on the intuitive argument that it would 10 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

reduce the time and cost for model development. The term ‘simulation model reuse’ can be taken to mean the reuse of small portions of code, through component reuse, to the reuse of complete models. On a more abstract level, component design, model design and modelling knowledge are prime candidates for reuse. But, as some argue, the process of re-use depends on the validity and credibility of models to be reused, and the cost and time for familiarisation.11 However, these types of arguments are now largely historic as the re-use of models is now accepted, as part of MBSE.

Full System Simulation Complex products like an aircraft, an unmanned aerial vehicle or a torpedo linked to a submarine require full system simulation before delivery. Some commentators estimate that a product such as the Airbus 380 contains 1 billion lines of code12. In a dynamic environment, that must include the estimation of the effect of natural forces like the weather or wind, the elimination of error is vital but difficult. 10 years ago, using a virtual approach, a software model of the system, known as “a virtual platform,” was built and run in a full-system simulation environment. The virtual platform must have both fidelity and performance: fidelity, so the software “cannot tell the difference,” and binaries of the golden code run on the virtual platform unchanged. The platform must also have exceptional performance -- high enough that software developers prefer to use the virtual platform, along with its superior debugging features. Many problems in systems occur during interactions between different products or multiple instances of the same product. These are precisely the areas that are most difficult to test with real hardware, which is notorious for bugs that disappear when inspected closely.13


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

Formalisation of the Process Through MBSE and its Benefits INCOSE, the International Council on Systems Engineering, offers useful ways of thinking about MBSE. This is the acronym to describe the formalized application of modelling to support system requirements, design, analysis, verification and validation. This begins in the conceptual design phase and continues throughout development and later life cycle phases. Writers for INCOSE have described the benefits of MBSE. MBSE enhances the ability to capture, analyse, share, and manage the information associated with the complete specification of a product, resulting in significant benefits. Among them are improved communications among the development stakeholders (e.g. the customer, program management, systems engineers, hardware and software developers, testers,

and specialty engineering disciplines). There is increased ability to manage system complexity by enabling a system model to be viewed from multiple perspectives, and to analyse the impact of changes. Added to that is improved product quality by providing an unambiguous and precise model of the system that can be evaluated for consistency, correctness, and completeness. Enhanced knowledge capture and reuse of the information by offering it in more standardized ways are also benefits. Further, there is the advantage of leveraging built in abstraction mechanisms inherent in a model-driven approach. This in turn can result in reduced cycle time and lower maintenance costs to modify the design. The final benefit is an improved ability to teach and learn systems engineering fundamentals by providing a clear and unambiguous representation of the concepts.14

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SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

Legacy Problems, 21st Century Architectural Solutions Don McBarnet, Technology Writer

When embedded software reaches the complexity typical of today’s designs, the risk that the software will not function correctly increases exponentially

W

RITING TWELVE years ago, in Berkeley California, a group of computer scientists summed up an historic and occasionally current problem for systems engineers and software developers working on complex dynamic products. I quote their work status problem verbatim, because it reflects the progress made by the most recent system engineering simulations and human interface graphics. “Today, the design chain lacks adequate support, with most system-level designers using a collection of unlinked tools. The implementation then proceeds with informal techniques involving numerous human-language interactions that create unnecessary and unwanted iterations among groups of designers in different companies or different divisions. The move toward programmable platforms shifts the design implementation task toward embedded software design. When embedded software reaches the complexity typical of today’s designs, the risk that the software will not function correctly increases exponentially.”15 This was said in 2003. It is this problem that much recent simulation software for a complex and dynamic products is designed to facilitate. In this instance, the case was being put for the Metropolis project.

Systems, Man and Cybernetics Moving Towards the Paradigm Shift of MBSE Publishing for the Institute for Electrical Engineers, a team of authors works through the problems of creating a System of Systems (SoS). To engineer the modern large, complex, interdisciplinary systems-of-systems (SoS) they say, the collaborative world teams must “speak” the same language and must work on the same “matter.” The “matter” is the system model and the communication mechanisms must be supported by standard, flexible, and friendly modelling languages. The evolving model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach is leading the way and is expected 12 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

to become a standard practice in the field of systems engineering (SE) in the next decade.16

INCOSE’s View of MBSE’s Emergent Role Analysing in 2006, nine years ago, the writers saw MBSE practiced in pockets across industry with some functional modelling, some executable behaviour and some performance simulation models. In their assessment, MBSE was not fully integrated into the SE process. And SoS system models were not integrated with hardware, software and other facets. INCOSE saw the use of architecture frameworks for example DODAF, MODAF (the British Ministry of Defence Architecture Framework) for SoS/enterprise modelling gaining steam. They also saw MBSE standards emerging: SysML, AP233, BPMN, and UPDM. By 2010 they thought that the industry would be well down the pathway to the vertical integration of engineering models, with increasing integration of hardware and software and alignment between architecture models, behaviour execution, simulation, and engineering analysis. And indeed this has in many ways been the case. There is a degree of model re-use, modelling metrics have been defined to assess “model goodness”, there is a marked increase in precision and leveraging of model and data management standards and there has been a move towards MBSE data certification.

DODAF, MODAF, NAF, TOGAF and the Zachman Framework And the system engineers and software developers adopted by the Western ministries of defence have not been slow to take on board these developments. DODAF is the enterprise architecture framework of choice for defense and aerospace applications, DoDAF is a key enabling technology for organizing and sharing large, complex system architectures for distributed Systems-of-Systems, for example Network Centric Operational Warfare architectures17. The US military is demanding


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

– it requires conformity to their system “to the maximum extent possible” in development of architectures within the Department. Conformance ensures that reuse of information, architecture artefacts, models, and viewpoints can be shared with common understanding. Conformance is expected in both the classified and unclassified communities. This means that the data in a described architecture is defined according to the DM2 concepts, associations, and attributes and that the architectural data is capable of transfer in accordance with the PES.18 The system is expressed in IDEAS.

What is IDEAS? IDEAS is the International Defence Enterprise Architecture Specification. It is an international project of the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Sweden and Canada, developed for the past 5 years to facilitate a way to exchange EA (Enterprise Architecture) data in support of Coalition operations. Early on in the project it was recognized that more precise and unambiguous ways to label data were needed so the science of formal ontologies was introduced. The

IDEAS ontology is first-order, extensional, and 4-dimensional, employing the mathematics of set theory and 4-D mereotopology19.

The link between DODAF, MODAF and NAF The intention behind these architecture systems is to smooth out the relationship between the system models and move towards an international interoperable system. But as always with systems and military systems there is a gap between intention, design and accomplishment. How close an alignment is there between these international systems? From this answer by the British Ministry of Defence (MOD) about MODAF it is a moot question: ‘One of the MOD aims for MODAF is to preserve an appropriate level of international alignment. This is because there is a degree of multinational co-operation in respect of architectures, implying that it is highly desirable that there is compatibility between architectural frameworks, the tools that support their use and the skills and knowledge employed by architects in different nations.’20

WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 13


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

Decoding the Future? Mary Dub, Editor

“It is the framework, which changes with each new technology and not just the picture within the frame.” Marshall McLuhan

By enabling the user to search all relevant information sources with one single query, crucial risks that can compromise information security arise

T

HE SPEED of change in the software community is high. To predict the future is probably to report something that someone did somewhere yesterday. Many software developers from those working in DARPA 21 to other research institutions publish their work as an open source. Open Source product development is a powerful trend in the market. This is in contrast to other institutions like the Ministries of Defence, which make their own very specific recommendations about conformance.

Security Considerations, Commercial and Military While the trend towards open source models and simulations is present, there is a separate worry about security. Security concerns and cyber security concerns are a strong and vigorous feature of the 21st century and there is no evidence that they are diminishing, in fact the reverse is true. In 2007, BMW, the German car manufacturer, highlighted the need to establish security. Given the explosive growth of digitally stored information in modern enterprises, distributed information systems together with search engines are increasingly in use in companies. However, by enabling the user to search all relevant information sources with one single query, crucial risks that can compromise information security arise. In order to make these applications secure, it is not sufficient to penetrate-and-patch past system development – security analysis has to be an integral part of the system design process for such distributed information systems.22 With the growth of cyber attacks, cyber security and encryption are taking on increased prominence.

An ‘Agile’ Future for Project Management Many large corporations in defence and aerospace using systems engineering and software development to manage complex 14 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM

and dynamic projects use ‘Agile’ project management. As Phyllis Marbach, Agile coach for Boeing,23 suggests, the aim is to strip back complex systems to their most skeletal structure. She claims ‘The best architectures, requirements and designs emerge from selforganising teams, based on a minimal set of guiding principles.’ If she is correct, some of the highly complex and rule-bound architectures and working practices will be challenged. And this challenge is already being worked on by prime contractors like Lockheed Martin, Airbus, General Electric, NASA, Raytheon, JHU/APL (Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory), ESA (The European Space Agency), Honeywell, Rockwell Collins, Boeing, Aerospace, Northrop Grumman, Mitre, and others. The intention of Agile is to deliver an ‘agile capability’. This means that, during development and after deployment, the reconfiguration, augmentation, and evolution of system functionality, of the system under development is able to respond to new and immediate situational requirements effectively. Under the Agile system the target is to deliver response effectiveness – i.e a short response time, a lower response cost, higher response quality, and wider response scope.24 These are, of course, much needed qualities of work in the aerospace and defence sector.

Incorporating a Dynamic Process David Long, President of INCOSE (International Council of System Engineers) makes a number of resonant points as he extrapolates future trends incorporating the Internet of Things (IoT). He takes an approach that focuses on the need to reduce risks. This is, of course, highly important in the face of spiralling complexity. He underlines the fact that mission complexity is now growing at a rate faster than the ability to deal with it. He demonstrates how system design is emerging from pieces rather than from architecture… resulting in systems that


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

are brittle, difficult to test and both complex and expensive to operate. He shows how knowledge and investment are lost by not respecting project life cycle phase boundaries. In his view, this potentially increases development cost and the risk of late discovery of design problems. Long has had many years working in the field of defense and aerospace and like many systems engineers he has had to confront the reality of the consequences of failure. If systems engineers fail to confront complexity, disasters such as the Challenger and Columbia space shuttle disasters (2003) could occur again. He reflects the view of the Accident Investigation Board that these disastrous events happened as a result of a failure to confront and deal with risk and complexity.

The Roadmap to 2020 Outlining a roadmap from 2015, Long records that the movement has already taken from document-centric to model-centric architectures.

He sees an end to long timescales on complex programs and suggests that there will be a variety of systems, including consumer and mass-market products with disparate scales and life spans. This would result greater adaptation, diversification, sharing and good practice.

What Does This Mean? There are two powerful countervailing trends to master the unmanageability of complexity of dynamic systems and their testing and simulation. The government ministry route of iterations of architectural frameworks, that are updated with regularity and are intended to align with other countries, but may not. And commercial simulations that offer perhaps more straightforward systems without the same rigidity, but meeting many of the same standards. Meanwhile, the major contractors working to keep costs down are adopting mean and agile working practices to simplify and lower risk. WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 15


SPECIAL REPORT: ADVANCED VIRTUAL PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGY FOR CRITICAL SYSTEM AND SOFTWARE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

References: 1

http://www.sdincose.org/archive/201504 INCOSE home page San Diego section

Phyllis Marbach, Agile Coach The Boeing Company April 15, 2015 Agile development Marbach

The World as a Process: Simulations in the Natural and Social Sciences Stephan Hartmann http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/2412/1/Simulations.pdf

The World as a Process: Simulations in the Natural and Social Sciences Stephan Hartmann http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/2412/1/Simulations.pdf

Wikipedia

2 3 4 5

Model Based Systems Engineering with Department of Defense Architectural Framework Chris Piaszczyk MODEL BASED SYSTEMS ENGINEERING WITH DoDAF Received 15 June 2009; Revised 19 July 2010; Accepted 18 October 2010, after one or more revisionsPublished online 16 February 2011 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 1 http://tiny.cc/t8zw1x

6

Applying Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) to a standard CubeSat

Author(s) Spangelo, S.C. ; Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA ; Kaslow, D. ; Delp, C. ; Cole, B.

7

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6187339&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6187339

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4222619&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D4222619



Aircraft Systems Modeling: Model Based Systems Engineering in Avionics Design and Aircraft Simulation Andersson, Henric Linköping University,

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Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. 2009

Routledge Handbook of Research Methods in Military Studies (Routledge Handbooks) 11 Jun 2014 INTRODUCTION Joseph Soeters, Patricia M. Shields and Sebastiaan Rietjens http://samples.sainsburysebooks.co.uk/9781136203312_sample_629276.pdf

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“Business personnel, customers or their advocates, and implementers people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.

(sic)” http://www.sdincose.org/archive/201504 INCOSE home page San Diego section

Phyllis Marbach, Agile Coach The Boeing Company April 15, 2015 Agile development Marbach Reuse-Oriented Model Or Reuse-Oriented Development (Rod) Definition Baldassarre, M.T. ; Dipt. di Informatica, Bari Univ., Italy ; Bianchi, A. ;

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Caivano, D. ; Visaggio, G.

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1510124&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D1510124

An industrial case study on reuse oriented development http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1569190X04000760 Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory

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Volume 12, Issues 7–8, November 2004, Pages 479–494 Simulation in Operational Research Simulation model reuse: definitions, benefits and obstacles Stewart Robinson, Richard E. Nance, Ray J. Paul, Michael Pidd, Simon J.E. Taylo http://www.computerworld.com/article/2567652/app-development/full-system-simulation--software-development-s-missing-link.html

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by Peter Magnusson, Virtutech Inc. Computerworld | Oct 20, 2004 1:00 AM PT http://www.computerworld.com/article/2567652/app-development/full-system-simulation--software-development-s-missing-link.html

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by Peter Magnusson, Virtutech Inc. Computerworld | Oct 20, 2004 1:00 AM PT http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mark_Sampson3/publication/267687693_INCOSE_Model_Based_Systems_Engineering_(MBSE)_Initiative/links/54ca7c290cf22f98631b167e.pdf

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Regina Griego, Sandia National Laboratories & Mark Sampson, Siemens

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Balarin, F. ; Cadence Berkeley Labs., CA, USA ; Watanabe, Y. ; Hsieh, H. ; Lavagno, L. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=1193228&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D1193228

Model-Based Systems Engineering: An Emerging Approach for Modern Systems http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5722047&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D5722047

03 March 2011 Jan. 2012 Author(s) Ramos, A.L. ; Dept. of Econ., Manage., & Ind. Eng., Univ. of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal ; Ferreira, J.V. ; Barcelo, J.

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http://dodafforum.com

18

http://dodcio.defense.gov/Portals/0/Documents/DODAF/DoDAF_v2-02_web.pdf

19

mereotopology is a first-order theory, embodying mereological and topological concepts, of the relations among wholes, parts, parts of parts, and the boundaries between parts. Wikipedia

20

MODAF website https://www.gov.uk/mod-architecture-framework

21

http://opencatalog.darpa.mil

22

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4222619&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D4222619

Model-Based Security Engineering of Distributed Information Systems Using UMLsec

Author(s) Best, B. ; BMW Group, Munich ; Jurjens, Jan ; Nuseibeh, B.Published in: Software Engineering, 2007. ICSE 2007. 29th International

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Conference on 20-26 May 2007 http://www.sdincose.org/archive/201504 INCOSE home page San Diego section Phyllis Marbach, Agile Coach The Boeing Company April 15, 2015 Agile development Marbach http://www.sdincose.org/archive/201504 INCOSE home page San Diego section Phyllis Marbach, Agile Coach The Boeing Company April 15, 2015 Agile development Marbach 16 | WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM


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Defence Industry Reports – Advanced Virtual Prototyping Technology for Critical System & Software...  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Advanced Virtual Prototyping Technology for Critical System and Software Application Development

Defence Industry Reports – Advanced Virtual Prototyping Technology for Critical System & Software...  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Advanced Virtual Prototyping Technology for Critical System and Software Application Development