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SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation Live Fire Training Equipment and Range Control Systems Next Generation Live Fire Training Equipment and Range Control Systems Marksmanship: The Critical Military Small Arms Skill The Complexity of Training Range Systems Live Fire Training Systems The Future of Live Fire Training

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media


SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation Live Fire Training Equipment and Range Control Systems Next Generation Live Fire Training Equipment and Range Control Systems

NEXT GENERATION LIVE FIRE TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND RANGE CONTROL SYSTEMS

Contents

Marksmanship: The Critical Military Small Arms Skill The Complexity of Training Range Systems Live Fire Training Systems The Future of Live Fire Training

Foreword 2 Mary Dub, Editor

Next Generation Live Fire Training Equipment and Range Control Systems

3

Theissen Training Systems

Precision Shooting with Wide-Angle Location of Miss and Hit (LOMAH) Systems

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

Published by Global Business Media Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks Editor Mary Dub Senior Project Manager Steve Banks Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes Production Manager Paul Davies For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated. Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles. © 2015. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

Judgmental and Military Training with the Newly Developed Hostage Target System Range Control Tablets Modern Modular Product Design

Marksmanship: The Critical Military Small Arms Skill

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Mary Dub, International Security Writer

Marksmanship Training, the Recent History and Cost Awareness The Rising Cost of Ammunition for Live Fire Training Marksmanship Crosses the Services and Demands Compromise Geo-Political Pressures

The Complexity of Training Range Systems

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Don McBarnet, Defence Technology Writer

The Role of ISAF Mentors Working With the Afghan National Army on NATO’s Resolute Support Mission How Does the US Army Train? The Arroyo Rand Report The Importance and Effectiveness of Simulators Before Live Fire Training Stryker Mobile Gun System (MGS) Also Use Simulators

Live Fire Training Systems

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Don McBarnet, Defence Technology Writer

Lockheed Martin’s Links with Kuwait Saab Integrated Gunnery Training Includes Assessment Software Leading to Accurate Reassessment When Does Simulator Based Training Work Best? Weaknesses in Simulator Training Where Only Live-Fire Will Do The Israeli Defense Forces Basic Training Called ‘Tironut’

The Future of Live Fire Training

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Mary Dub, International Security Writer

Fusion Warfare: The Cyber Dimension The RAND US Army Survey or Small Arms Weapon Training Greater Diversification and Specialization Required The Relative Emphasis on Live Fire Training and Simulator Training

References 15

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NEXT GENERATION LIVE FIRE TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND RANGE CONTROL SYSTEMS

Foreword E

VERY MAN or woman soldier entering

The theme of the third piece is a discussion of the

military service in Britain, Europe or in the

reality of combat for which the soldier is preparing. The

United States will proceed to a sustained period

insurgents they face in combat are frequently using

of marksmanship training with small arms. Many

their weapons in non-traditional ways. The fear, heat

will go on to master more complex weaponry, but

and noise of battle is difficult to replicate in a virtual

small arms fire and marksmanship is a qualifying

or live fire environment, yet virtual environments can

capability. This Special Report is about how

teach many skills which can then be mastered more

the systems and processes of this training are

quickly in the live fire training sessions.

changing by the addition of simulators and other

Many of the prime contractors that are embedded

virtual systems. And, most importantly, in the final

with modern armies have integrated complex virtual

stages of preparing for readiness for deployment,

and live fire training systems. The fourth article looks

live fire ranges are used to train and assess each

at some of these systems and their strengths. Many

individual soldier.

armies that use conscripts or national service have

The opening article in the Report looks at live fire

sustained traditions for marksmanship training. They

training and range control systems and, in particular,

aim to use this training to ensure safety on operation

the Wide-Angle Location of Miss and Hit (LOMAH)

and to build a resilient national reserve of troops that

system developed by Theissen Training Systems.

could be called upon should national security demand.

The efficiency of this technology gives shooters

And what of the future? The progress of any military

a better way to improve their skills in small arms

system has to be planned for and constantly re-

marksmanship, while saving time and money. The

assessed to ensure that soldiers are preparing to

LOMAH system enables the correct detection of the

fight future conflicts and not past wars. However, this

location of the hit on the target and is even able to

Report argues that even if there is a greater emphasis

detect the exact location of near misses. The scoring is

on fusion warfare and cyber offense and defense,

automatic and is transmitted (hardwired or by radio) to

nevertheless instability, uncertainty and post conflict

the range control unit, removing the need for repeated

stabilization or humanitarian assistance will always

access to the target area for the retrieval of information.

require a military or paramilitary police force that is

The second article presents a snapshot of the state

highly trained in the basic skills of marksmanship.

of small arms weapon training and its systems. The diversity and complexity of many of the weapons being trained on is myriad, so too are many of the simulators and training systems and their software. The live fire training systems are equally sophisticated.

Mary Dub Editor

Mary Dub has written about international security in the United States, Europe, Africa and the Middle East as a television broadcaster and journalist and has a Masters degree in War Studies from King’s College, London.

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NEXT GENERATION LIVE FIRE TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND RANGE CONTROL SYSTEMS

Next Generation Live Fire Training Equipment and Range Control Systems Theissen Training Systems

T

HEISSEN TRAINING Systems (TTS) is an engineering and software development company dedicated to designing and producing target appliances for international armed forces. We develop, produce and install complete training range systems for Small Arms Ranges, Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) facilities, and Combined Arms Live-Fire Exercise (CALFEX) Ranges, that include Tank and Attack Helicopter operations. At TTS, we not only supply modern off-the-shelf products, but also provide highly customized solutions meeting customers’ specifications and requirements. Our newest range solutions, representing the next advanced level in shooter preparation, are presented in the following report.

Precision Shooting with Wide-Angle Location of Miss and Hit (LOMAH) Systems When using traditional LOMAH systems, there is a requirement to fire at 90 degrees to the equipment. Unlike other systems, the original TTS LOMAH maintains accuracy for small deviations from that angle, and is suitable for most fixed ranges. However, when engaging the targets from wider angles, for example in field-firing scenarios, an alternative solution is required. Target systems can now be equipped with a Wide-Angle Location of Miss and Hit (LOMAH) system developed by Theissen Training Systems. The efficiency of the LOMAH technology gives shooters a better way to improve their skills in small arms marksmanship while saving time and money. The LOMAH system recognizes the angle of impact of rounds when they pass through the target area, in addition to their position. Its special design enables the scoring of projectiles fired with shooting angles up to ± 30° Azimuth and ± 10° Elevation.

The LOMAH is a precision system that enables the correct detection of the location of the hit on the target and is even able to detect the exact location of near misses. The calculated position of a shot is transmitted (hardwired or radio) to the range control unit. As the scoring is automatic, the system removes the need for repeated access to the target area for the retrieval of information. The TTS LOMAH systems can be installed on existing target mechanisms and is prepared for legacy or other vendors’ target mechanisms. It enables interaction with, and is powered through, the target appliance to which it is connected. It is designed to display registered hits or misses graphically in relation to the respective target silhouettes on the monitor of the central control console. The target silhouettes are matched to the targets in use. In the target area, the LOMAH system consists of the registration unit that is installed in front of the target mechanism. From the shooter’s position, only the target silhouette itself can be seen, while the registration unit and the target lifter are protected against direct hits by a protective cover. Two groups of four sensors each are installed on the base plate by means of a special sealing material to ensure that only supersonic shock waves are registered. The two sensor arrays of the registration unit locate any projectile, travelling with a speed of minimum Mach 1.3, by detecting the supersonic shock wave. The integrated software calculates the position of the projectile due to the sound wave of the projectile itself. Features: •Efficient scoring system that saves time and money • Shooting angles up to ± 30° Azimuth and ± 10° Elevation. • Omits the need for repeated access to the target area for the retrieval of information • No time-consuming manual measurements are required WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 3


NEXT GENERATION LIVE FIRE TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND RANGE CONTROL SYSTEMS

The efficiency of the LOMAH technology gives shooters a better way to improve their skills in small arms marksmanship while saving time and money

WIDE-ANGLE LOMAH SENSOR SYSTEM

• Immediate feedback to Range Control System and/or Shooter`s Monitor • No data loss caused by failure to measure all shots • Detection capability up to 20 rounds per second with an accuracy rate of 99% • Implementation in an existing shooting range is possible (as an upgrade) • Installable on existing targetry • No errors of cross-firing by using a lane discriminator • Specification of different evaluation criteria TTS offers marking and scoring technology for supersonic and subsonic projectiles. Box Target systems operate in subsonic, as well as in supersonic, regions. In addition to those systems, TTS Shooter’s Monitors give a detailed view and precise hit results. Shot Sensors installed on each firing position guarantee reliable hit counting and eliminate incorrect scoring on multi-lane ranges.

HOSTAGE TARGET SYSTEM

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Judgmental and Military Training with the Newly Developed Hostage Target System Theissen Training Systems, in conjunction with the Kuwait National Guard, has developed a new Hostage Target System representing the next advanced level in shooter preparation. Being designed for hostage rescue, as well as qualification training, the Hostage Target System not only trains a shooter to hit a target, but also improves the shot accuracy and teaches what he is not supposed to shoot. The target system consists of a combination of two independent infantry target mechanisms that are arranged to simulate hostage true-tolife scenarios. The front target simulates the hostage while the automatically vertical and adjustable back target represents the hostage-taker. The new target system has a


NEXT GENERATION LIVE FIRE TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND RANGE CONTROL SYSTEMS

EXAMPLE FOR MODULAR DESIGN – STATIONARY INFANTRY TARGET – TARGET CUBE

dual purpose; serving as a hostage for rescue while simultaneously providing true target identification and shooter accuracy training to neutralize the threat. The target lifter mechanism, which lifts and lowers the hostage taker silhouette, is mounted on an automatic horizontal adjustable slider and is designed to change the distance to the hostage silhouette. This core-feature enables the end user to train the soldiers from a beginner level, with the silhouettes far away from each other, to a professional level, where the hostage taker is nearly invisible (hidden behind the hostage silhouette). Both target mechanisms are equipped with contact hit sensors to provide immediate feedback of the shooting skills by lowering either one, or both, of the silhouettes after a hit. Furthermore, the contact hit sensors distinguish which silhouette was hit and give immediate feedback if the shooter hits the hostage and/ or the hostage taker silhouette, thus providing skill development in the conducting of “Shoot/ Don’t Shoot” training. The Hostage Target System is available in a battery powered, rechargeable, and radio controlled version, equipped with a frame that accommodates all main components needed to be operated. No site preparation is necessary or required to install the system, provided that the mechanism is protected from direct fire and ricochets. Hardwired and landline controlled configurations are available.

Range Control Tablets The mobile Range Control Tablet is a compact, handheld target control system. The tablet PC, specifically designed for military use, operates the TTS Range Control Software.

The portable handheld range control device is a battery powered and radio controlled terminal to remotely operate and manage infantry target mechanisms, armor target mechanisms, moving and stationary target systems, enemy fire simulators and automatic scoring systems.

Modern Modular Product Design Our modular product range enables us to provide tailor-made solutions using well proven components from existing products. With our extensive application skills, we know how to maximize the installed efficiency and the lifespan of the product, regardless of application type. Our application engineers assist you with expert knowledge all the way from prototyping and testing to serial installation and support. The modular concept of our systems enables us to provide deployable, as well as permanently installed, versions of our target lifters supporting flexible applications such as radio or landline controlled, hardwired or battery-powered, solar powered, or a combination of either or all. These attributes contribute to extraordinary energy efficiency and allow extensive operational cycles without the need for permanent battery charging. Additionally, the compact design and low weight enable convenient transport and easy storage. Multifunctional target systems are available to train marksmanship, Military Operations in Urbanized Terrain (MOUT) and tactical live-fire operations. The flagship of our product range sets standards for live-fire training and can be deployed in eight (8) different modes as stationary and moving target systems, utilizing our world patented Target Cube unit. This modular and modifiable target mechanism offers a unique combination of flexibility, excellent reliability, and WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 5


NEXT GENERATION LIVE FIRE TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND RANGE CONTROL SYSTEMS

The new target system has a dual purpose; serving as a hostage for rescue while simultaneously providing true target identification and shooter accuracy training to neutralize the threat

safe easy handling. Multiple target modes allow intensive and realistic live fire training. Various adaptors and add-ons are available to further increase training realism. The systems have a modular design and are easy to maintain and repair. In case of an unexpected failure of a device during a live fire exercise, the system can be brought back in operation as soon as possible by swapping complete components. Repair actions can easily be done by replacing a defective part or component in a minimum amount of time.

Contact T.T.S. Theissen Training Systems GmbH SchuchardstraĂ&#x;e 3 40595 DĂźsseldorf, Germany

Theissen Training Systems Inc. 1225 SE 4th Terrace Chiefland, FL, 32626, United States

Phone: +49 (211) 97504-0 Fax: +49 (211) 97504-33

Phone: +1 (352) 490-8020 Fax: +1 (352) 490-7788

E-Mail: info@theissentraining.de Website: http://www.theissentraining.de

E-Mail: info@theissentraining.com Website: http://www.theissentraining.com

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NEXT GENERATION LIVE FIRE TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND RANGE CONTROL SYSTEMS

Marksmanship: The Critical Military Small Arms Skill Mary Dub, International Security Writer

“Today we have naming of parts. Yesterday, We had daily cleaning. And to-morrow morning, We shall have what to do after firing. But today, Today we have naming of parts. Japonica Glistens like coral in all of the neighbouring gardens, And today we have naming of parts.” Henry Reed (August 1942)1

C

HOOSE AN army, any army, anywhere in the world and small arms marksmanship training will be embedded in training procedures. The quotation above describes the process of British Army rifle training in 1942. Safety, skill and accuracy in handling small arms is a critical part of basic training in the British Army now as it was then. This is also true across the Atlantic in the US Army’s Initial Entry Training. And training is not just on small arms, a large catch-all category, including the M4/16 Rifle, M9 pistol, the M2, MK19, and M240B machine guns, and the M249 squad automatic rifle. Larger weapons are included in marksmanship training: the Bradley Fighting Vehicle, the Abrams tank, fires COE 155mm and 105mm howitzer and the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS). Helicopter based weapons also have to be trained on. Training is most intensive preparing for deployment readiness and is then repeated at six monthly or annual intervals.

Marksmanship Training, the Recent History and Cost Awareness With the rising numbers of mounted and dismounted infantry required for the early 21st century wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, preparing each soldier for deployment demanded intense training in small arms fire accuracy. Two major trends emerged: the use of simulators to prepare the soldier for live fire training and the downward pressure on costs to reduce the cost of ammunition for live fire training, which played directly into the drive towards the increasing use of simulators. The simulators, which could imitate

some, but not all features of live fire training, were useful, but under-evaluated in the rush to keep costs down. They were thought to be a useful preparation for the psycho-motor skills of rifle, pistol and machine gun usage, but less so for the complex procedures that had to be mastered in, for example, tank fire accuracy.2 In the face of substantial reductions in its budget, the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army decided it was necessary to examine its current resource allocations to determine where savings might be possible, including the increased use of virtual technologies in weapon training strategies.3

The Rising Cost of Ammunition for Live Fire Training The Arroyo Centre report for RAND by Crowley and others noted that training strategies and standards had not changed greatly since 2000, but training ammunition expenditure rates had. The differences between the weapon training strategies in 2000 and 2011 were small. Some changes had been made to meet new operational requirements, and there had been a small increase in the use of simulators. In 2011, these rates were around 30 per cent of the authorized amounts for many types of ammunition. The spend on ammunition was considerable. This Report is going to draw on the Arroyo Rand Report of 2014, because it is, without doubt, the most recent and thoroughly researched evidence of academic investigation into the methods and effectiveness of marksmanship training systems to be published recently. In 2010, over a billion dollars were spent to buy training ammunition in the United States, and many dollars were spent maintaining and providing the training WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 7


NEXT GENERATION LIVE FIRE TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND RANGE CONTROL SYSTEMS

THEISSEN TRAINING SYSTEMS

In the face of substantial reductions in its budget, the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army decided it was necessary to examine its current resource allocations to determine where savings might be possible, including the increased use of virtual technologies in weapon training strategies

aids, devices, simulators, simulations, ranges, and targetry (TADSS-RT) that support weaponsystem training. US Army units have traditionally devoted considerable time to weapon-system proficiency. In 2001 and 2002, combat brigades devoted about 45 days—half of their annual field training days—to live- and dry-fire exercises, and they spent additional time on preliminary weapon-system training in garrison.

Marksmanship Crosses the Services and Demands Compromise It’s not just the US Army that trains on small arms, Marines do rifle and pistol training on board ship.4 But there is a further and complex issue of judgment, which has to be tailored to the training of each weapon system in choosing the balance between simulator and live fire practice: compromise. Weapon training strategies and standards necessarily involve a compromise. Unit training time, ammunition, simulator capabilities, ranges, and targetry are constrained resources. As a result, weapon training strategies and standards are shaped to gain the highest level of operational weapon engagement proficiency practically possible, rather than the ideal level. As operational requirements change, a second look at these compromises is certainly warranted, even if the result is confirmation.5

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Geo-Political Pressures It is a familiar part of the geo political snapshot in 2015 to acknowledge that the drawdown has taken place (almost) from Iraq and Afghanistan. The downward push on troop numbers in the United States and Europe from congressional and budgetary pressures is recognized. One further less familiar event has been the withdrawal of American troops from Germany. The right wing think tank, the Heritage Foundation in Washington DC, notes the numbers: in January 2012, the Obama Administration reversed its previous position of removing only one BCT (Brigade Combat Team) from Europe and announced further reductions of U.S. military forces in Europe as part of the latest round of defense cuts. The U.S. Army’s share of these cuts includes: the inactivation of the 170th BCT and the 172nd BCT—a reduction of more than 8,000 soldiers, and an additional reduction of approximately 2,500 soldiers in enabling units of the U.S. Army in Europe over the next five years.6 So while there is a military pressure to reduce costs by reducing the amount of ammunition used in training, there is a parallel reduced demand for the training facilities for troops being prepared for readiness because of significant withdrawals of troops from South Asia and Europe by the Obama administration.


NEXT GENERATION LIVE FIRE TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND RANGE CONTROL SYSTEMS

The Complexity of Training Range Systems Don McBarnet, Defence Technology Writer

T

HE TASK of training is preparation to confront the enemy. It is useful for a moment to consider how some of the most recent forces opposing ISAF troops in Afghanistan have fought and may well still be fighting now. Rapid self-teaching leads to what the New York Times Atwar blog calls their traditional fighting skills, which also conceal what some commentators saw as “shoddy marksmanship”. Indeed, it is the weakness of their marksmanship that is thought to have led them to use the effective and lethal IED (improvised explosive device) instead.7 The blog is illustrated with photos of Taliban fighters in 2007. The Taliban fighter is firing his Romanian-made Kalashnikov assault rifle while pointing it from his shoulder without putting his eye to the sights. As the writer points out: this kind of shooting style has little more than a suppressive effect, especially because the Taliban fighters were behind walls or firing from within vegetation, and presenting very small targets. Pointing is not aiming. American trainers in Afghanistan endlessly tell their Afghan trainees not to fight this way, but this kind of shooting remains on regular display.8

The Role of ISAF Mentors Working With the Afghan National Army on NATO’s Resolute Support Mission Post drawdown, American trainers have been working with the Afghan National Army and police to deliver basic training and complex fighting skills. The Afghan Army has the backing of a large and well-off conventional military force. It cannot blame lackluster performance on the poor condition of its rifles, or to mismatched ammunition, or to an absence of entry-level training and professional supervision. American taxpayers provide functioning equipment and underwrite formal training, along with mentoring in the field. But it is not unusual to see Afghan troops who seem to have a very limited sense of basic fighting skills on patrol and in firefights. 9

How Does the US Army Train? The Arroyo Rand Report In 2014 the Arroyo Center at the RAND Corporation published a study commissioned by the Vice Chief of the US Army to review the fundamentals of the basic training process in marksmanship.10 They offer a summary of the basic training techniques in marksmanship currently used by the US Army. As would be expected, specific weapon systems’ strategies vary in terms of number and types of events, standards, and the use of simulators and other technologies. First, all strategies outline a progressive set of training activities and events, most of which are captured in a set of defined dry and live-fire “Tables.” Across the weapon systems they examined, training begins with individual training and culminates with collective live-fire exercises. Individual training starts with training on weapon system operation and engagement techniques and normally includes a “gunnery skills test” or some other type of hands-on test of equipment operating skills. These strategies then progress to dry-fire exercises—sometimes supported by simulators or gunnery devices—and then to individual or crew weapon qualifications, with most weapon systems having a live-fire practice before the individual or crew live fire qualification event. All these strategies include crew–level collective live-fire events. Except for helicopters, pistols, and some support units, successful collective live-fire exercises are required for AC qualification.11

The Importance and Effectiveness of Simulators Before Live Fire Training In a recent report released by the Marine Corps, the success of simulators in improving performance on live fire exercises was established. Simulation systems used for training have many advocates among military leaders, but they still have some doubters when it comes to training on tactical vehicles and weapons. After all, how could a computerWWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 9


NEXT GENERATION LIVE FIRE TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND RANGE CONTROL SYSTEMS

MOVING ARMOR TARGET

Pointing is not aiming. American trainers in Afghanistan endlessly tell their Afghan trainees not to fight this way, but this kind of shooting remains on regular display

generated virtual scenario compare to actually working with real equipment on real terrain with real targets?12 As it turns out, the answer is pretty well, according to a study by the Marine Corps Systems Command of M1A1 tank crews working with the simulation-based Advanced Gunnery Training System (AGTS). The command’s Program Manager Training Systems set out to quantify AGTS’ effectiveness and found that it improved significantly Marines’ proficiency – and translated to livefire performance – while saving the Corps millions of dollars in training costs. The proof-of-concept study evaluated three tank crews performing 10 tasks over time, which added up to hundreds of scores. Although the study’s authors acknowledge that three crews is a small sample compared with the total number of crews across the Corps, they say the scores were consistent enough to show AGTS’ effectiveness.

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Stryker Mobile Gun System (MGS) Also Use Simulators The Project Office for Ground Combat Tactical Trainers13 describes its use of simulators and training ranges to allow progression to permit transition to live-fire training or combat gunnery. The system that they use is a training simulator for vehicle commander/gunner teams for the Stryker MGS vehicle. It is rapidly transportable and deployable and features a high-fidelity crew compartment replicating the vehicle’s turret and fire control system in both physical and functional aspects. The MGS AGTS presents the vehicle commander and gunner with a full range of simulated engagement situations. The system trains both fully operational and degraded-mode gunnery techniques under a wide variety of conditions. The preprogrammed, computer-controlled exercises vary in target type and number, range, vehicle and target motion, and visibility.


NEXT GENERATION LIVE FIRE TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND RANGE CONTROL SYSTEMS

Live Fire Training Systems Don McBarnet, Defence Technology Writer

A

RUNNING theme of this Report is and has been the ubiquitous nature of marksmanship training in military and police forces throughout the world. The areas facing most recent instability, threat of asymmetric attack or terrorism are also often the countries with the need and the demand for regular training for their national armies and police forces. For example, the Kuwait Security Forces demand that those doing National Service, which last for two years, receive 30 days of training every year. Kuwait relies heavily on the United States for backup protection. Kuwaiti armed forces have been trained to hold their positions for 48-72 hours before reinforcements arrive. Its strategic links with neighboring countries within the Gulf Cooperation Council are also important. Kuwait’s use of its security forces to hold the ground while support arrives means they have underlined the importance of marksmanship training and use both simulators and live fire training.

Lockheed Martin’s Links with Kuwait Since 2007 Lockheed Martin has held a contract to provide facilities to train the Kuwaiti National Guard (KNG). Lockheed Martin has been under contract to provide the KNG with Small Arms Skills trainers, which provide marksmanship and complex tactical scenario training14; a High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) Combat Trainer, which combines individual and team skills into vehicle-based operations; and Turret Gunnery Trainers, which will enable Pandur vehicle crews to learn gunnery skills, characteristics of the vehicle and crew coordination. In addition, Lockheed Martin has developed a Wargaming Center to take forward technology needed for simulations of various terrain and computer generated forces as well as logistical and operational support. “The Kuwait National Guard have identified a variety of needs to train troops to respond to a variety of demands and scenarios including natural disasters, civil unrest, terrorism and insurgency activities,” said Dale Bennett, president of

Lockheed Martin Simulation, Training & Support (STS). “The training systems being supplied will accommodate their current needs and will easily adapt to new requirements in the future.”

Saab Integrated Gunnery Training Includes Assessment Software Leading to Accurate Reassessment Saab’s Integrated Gunnery Training15 system allows a seamless transition from skills to tactical training, and supports training from individual up to platoon and troop level. A key benefit of the Saab system is the modular design, which enables the same components to be reconfigured to cost-effectively meet the unique requirements of training and evaluation. They have identified a shortfall between live-fire, laser and virtual gunnery training, which wastes time and resources. Their system is based on reducing waste where crews prematurely enter live-fire training without having had the opportunity to conduct sufficient repetitive practice. Their system captures data and offers software. The analysis of this data has resulted in more efficient and effective training.

When Does Simulator Based Training Work Best? There are undoubted advantages in using simulators. They allow and increase frequency of weapon training, they improve weaponperformance feedback and they train on tasks, which are difficult to replicate on live-fire ranges. However, there are training transfer problems. First and most importantly, nothing replicates the noise, uncertainty, fear and chaos of a real engagement. But for weapons with very high per unit costs for ammunition they provide invaluable experience. Simulators play the largest training role for weapon systems with high per-round costs. Key examples are anti-tank and air defense guided missile systems (including the tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided [TOW] missile, Javelin, Patriot, and Hellfire). These systems have such high unit ammunition costs that training and qualification is simulator based and live fire is not normally WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 11


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The areas facing most recent instability, threat of asymmetric attack or terrorism are also often the countries with the need and the demand for regular training for their national armies and police forces

MOVING INFANTRY TARGET

part of the strategy.16 Simulators allow crews with problem shooters to be identified early and receive focused training. They can also support engagement skill sustainment. As a result, fewer soldiers/crews would need to refire to qualify in live-fire training and higher overall live-fire performance could be achieved. Finally, simulators have the potential to replace some live-fire training.

Weaknesses in Simulator Training Where Only Live-Fire Will Do Simulators and their designers are not always perfect. Where the simulator does not realistically replicate important engagement procedures and techniques the simulator does not serve its purpose. Rifle marksmanship training requires the US soldier to qualify on every primary sight he may be asked to use. So he has to qualify

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annually on a Close Combat Optic (CCO) and a Thermal Weapon Sight (TWS) as well as the backup iron sight. Not all simulators offer all these options.

The Israeli Defense Forces Basic Training Called ‘Tironut’ According to recent blogs from Israeli soldiers and reservists, training, and critically, safety procedures during training are given high importance. After theoretical study of procedures, reservists proceed to supervised firing in measured firing ranges. Recruits are handed single bullets to fire and later graduate to five. A very high level of discipline and accuracy is required. One officer and an observer and a medic with a stretcher are required at all times. In the IDF, soldiers are taught to treat all guns as if they were loaded17 a valuable safety precaution.


NEXT GENERATION LIVE FIRE TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND RANGE CONTROL SYSTEMS

The Future of Live Fire Training Mary Dub, International Security Writer

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ITH WIDESPREAD public reluctance in Europe and the United States to put ‘boots on the ground’ and to pay for troops to do so, there is little defense ministry demand to invest in new military training systems. The most widespread concern about the small arms skills of their national armies is in countries close to areas of entrenched insurgency or terrorism. These include many Middle Eastern countries and the Gulf States. Looking to the short to medium term future, the United States is leading doctrinal and training thinking with an emphasis on fusion warfare. This is what future recruits will be trained for and what enlisted troops will be qualified for. What is fusion warfare and how does it relate to the basic training skills in small arms training and larger weapons training in marksmanship and accuracy? Maj. Gen. VeraLinn “Dash” Jamieson18 , Director of Intelligence at the Air Combat Command speaking at the Mitchell Institute earlier this year, summarizes the principles and his assumptions. He is working to a longer term, 20 year future horizon. “Specifically in 2035, our competitors will probably be nearpeer technologically and some will have advanced us technologically.”

Fusion Warfare: The Cyber Dimension The assumption Jamieson makes is that, if the United States (and its allied European and other nations), is not technologically at the leading edge of warfare, it must still have a tactical edge. “The reason why we need fusion warfare is exactly to maintain our tactical edge. And when I say our tactical edge, I mean the outer boundary of warfight.” So, in the complex language of American doctrinal thinkers, the combat environment will be about assuring “an asymmetric decision advantage integrating and

synchronizing multi-source, multi-domain information in the time and space of our choosing.” This, he explains means cyber operations, electronic warfare and antiaccess/area denial. With such lofty thinking it is hard to see an assured place for small arms training and marksmanship. However, it is undoubtedly true that, while the combat domain may well be controlled by algorithms and cyber offense and defense, the conflict in the cities, in the rural areas, and along the metropolitan seaboard cities of the future will still require soldiers on the ground. These ground forces, paramilitary trained police forces and security forces will be needed to maintain the peace, stabilize conflict areas and be integral to post-conflict reconstruction. An armed presence is also necessary to manage humanitarian assistance for mass movements of people as refugees after natural disasters and the consequences of climate change.

The RAND US Army Survey or Small Arms Weapon Training The strongest recommendation to emerge from the Arroyo Center Report funded by the US Army is that many critical small-arms tasks and skills are either not addressed at all or not adequately addressed, in that they are not qualification requirements. An example of the former is area fire for machine guns, while an example of the latter is area short-range reflex rifle engagements. This is an important conceptual starting point for improving future weapon training strategies and determining the level of resources appropriate for their support. They suggest using combat requirements as a basis for determining the tasks, skills, and standards that are critical to combat success.19 As they see it, this is not always happening at the time of gathering evidence for the report in 2013/14.

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STATIONARY INFANTRY TARGET

The review of smallarms training strategies showed that each weapon system is different, requiring different sets of tasks and skills; therefore the training strategy for each needs to be shaped and supported differently

Greater Diversification and Specialization Required The report argues strongly for differentiated training strategies for each weapon system and that these should be well resourced. The review of small-arms training strategies showed that each weapon system is different, requiring different sets of tasks and skills; therefore the training strategy for each needs to be shaped and supported differently. For example, small arms are somewhat unusual in that accurate engagement is mainly a function of individual psycho-motor skills. Other major weapon systems are more supported by technology and require crews or units collectively applying procedures rapidly and precisely. Even within the category of small arms, there are differences between machine guns and rifles.20

The Relative Emphasis on Live Fire Training and Simulator Training The long standing funding and time management debate on how much simulator time is appropriate can never be resolved with assurance. The report does present their conclusion, but it is qualified. Their conclusion is that simulators have the potential to improve weapon training

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strategies and that this potential is likely to increase as weapon system technology and simulator capabilities improve. However, while there is this potential, determining the specifics will be a challenge because each weapon system is different and each requires its own examination. Furthermore, the examination needed to determine that changes do not unduly risk undercutting engagement proficiency could be extensive21. This writer interprets this to mean that the simulators must endeavor to keep pace with the rate of change of the weapon technologies and their ammunition or they become of limited value in establishing proficiency in combat. Despite the apparent reluctance to spend money on soldiers operating on the ground of the Obama administrations, it would not be impossible to see a complete reversal of his foreign policy principles under a new Republican President and a compliant Congress. A Republican President might well be prepared to fund higher troop numbers and persuade Congress of the necessity of paying for new technologies for their training. While small arms and other weapon training demand will always be a constant, there is the strong possibility that it will be able to look forward to sustained growth.


NEXT GENERATION LIVE FIRE TRAINING EQUIPMENT AND RANGE CONTROL SYSTEMS

References: Henry Reed 1942 “The naming of parts” http://www.solearabiantree.net/namingofparts/namingofparts.html 2 Changing the Army’s Weapon Training Strategies to Meet Operational Requirements More Efficiently and Effectively by James C. Crowley, Bryan W. Hallmark, Michael G. Shanley, Jerry M. Sollinger The Arroyo Centre (2014) http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR448/RAND_RR448.pdf 1

Changing the Army’s Weapon Training Strategies to Meet Operational Requirements More Efficiently and Effectively by James C. Crowley, Bryan W. Hallmark, Michael G. Shanley, Jerry M. Sollinger The Arroyo Centre (2014) http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR448/RAND_RR448.pdf 3

Marines Conduct Marksmanship Training at Sea http://www.defense.gov/Media/Collection-View/CollectionID?CollectionId=14436 5 Changing the Army’s Weapon Training Strategies to Meet Operational Requirements More Efficiently and Effectively by James C. Crowley, Bryan W. Hallmark, Michael G. Shanley, Jerry M. Sollinger The Arroyo Centre (2014) http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR448/RAND_RR448.pdf 4

Withdrawing U.S. Forces from Europe Weakens America By Luke Coffey http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/05/withdrawing-us-forces-from-europe-weakens-america

6

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http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/04/09/afghan-marksmanship-pointing-not-aiming/?_r=0

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http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/04/09/afghan-marksmanship-pointing-not-aiming/?_r=0

9

http://atwar.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/04/09/afghan-marksmanship-pointing-not-aiming/?_r=0

Changing the Army’s Weapon Training Strategies to Meet Operational Requirements More Efficiently and Effectively by James C. Crowley, Bryan W. Hallmark, Michael G. Shanley, Jerry M. Sollinger http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR448/RAND_RR448.pdf 10

11 Changing the Army’s Weapon Training Strategies to Meet Operational Requirements More Efficiently and Effectively by James C. Crowley, Bryan W. Hallmark, Michael G. Shanley, Jerry M. Sollinger http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR448/RAND_RR448.pdf

12

1st Lt. M. Joel Wagaman, project manager at the command’s Program Manager Training Systems, demonstrates the Advanced Gunnery Training System. https://defensesystems.com/articles/2015/03/24/marines-agts-tank-simulation-study.aspx

13 Stryker Mobile Gun System (MGS) Advanced Gunnery Training System (AGTS) http://www.peostri.army.mil/PRODUCTS/MGS_AGTS/

14 Lockheed Martin Selected to Provide Live, Virtual Training Systems to Kuwait National Guard (Source: Lockheed Martin; issued Feb. 20, 2007) http://www.defense-aerospace.com/articles-view/release/3/79324/lockheed-wins-kuwaiti-guard-training-contract.html

15

Saab’s Integrated Gunnery Training system allows a seamless transition, from skills to tactical training, and supports training from individual up to platoon and troop level. http://saab.com/land/training-and-simulation/live-training/Precision-Gunnery-Training/

Changing the Army’s Weapon Training Strategies to Meet Operational Requirements More Efficiently and Effectively by James C. Crowley, Bryan W. Hallmark, Michael G. Shanley, Jerry M. Sollinger http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR448/RAND_RR448.pdf 16

17

https://www.quora.com/What-is-taught-to-the-Israeli-Army-about-carrying-weapons-and-gun-safety

Air Force ‘on the road’ to predictive cyber algorithm By Mark Pomerleau Oct 22, 2015 Mitchell Institute https://defensesystems.com/Articles/2015/10/22/Air-Force-fusion-warfare-predictive-algorithm.aspx 18

Changing the Army’s Weapon Training Strategies to Meet Operational Requirements More Efficiently and Effectively by James C. Crowley, Bryan W. Hallmark, Michael G. Shanley, Jerry M. Sollinger http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR448/RAND_RR448.pdf 19

20 Changing the Army’s Weapon Training Strategies to Meet Operational Requirements More Efficiently and Effectively by James C. Crowley, Bryan W. Hallmark, Michael G. Shanley, Jerry M. Sollinger http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR448/RAND_RR448.pdf

21 Changing the Army’s Weapon Training Strategies to Meet Operational Requirements More Efficiently and Effectively by James C. Crowley, Bryan W. Hallmark, Michael G. Shanley, Jerry M. Sollinger http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR400/RR448/RAND_RR448.pdf

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Notes:

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Defence Industry Report – Next Generation Live Fire Training Equipment & Range Control Systems  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Next Generation Live Fire Training Equipment and Range Control Systems

Defence Industry Report – Next Generation Live Fire Training Equipment & Range Control Systems  

Defence Industry – Special Report on Next Generation Live Fire Training Equipment and Range Control Systems