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SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation Deployable Renewable Energy Systems for Modern Military Operations Deployable Renewable Energy for Modern Military Operations Rising Defense Interest in Solar Energy The Blue Print for a Secure Energy Future Solar Energy Powers Military Installations Powering the Future

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media


SPECIAL REPORT

Next Generation Deployable Renewable Energy Systems for Modern Military Operations Deployable Renewable Energy for Modern Military Operations

NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

Contents

Rising Defense Interest in Solar Energy The Blue Print for a Secure Energy Future Solar Energy Powers Military Installations Powering the Future

Foreword 2 Mary Dub, Editor

Deployable Renewable Energy for Modern Military Operations

3

Milspray Military Technologies

Rising Energy Demand

Sponsored by

Published by Global Business Media

A Growing Liability Deployable Renewables as a Solution

Published by Global Business Media Global Business Media Limited 62 The Street Ashtead Surrey KT21 1AT United Kingdom Switchboard: +44 (0)1737 850 939 Fax: +44 (0)1737 851 952 Email: info@globalbusinessmedia.org Website: www.globalbusinessmedia.org Publisher Kevin Bell

Rising Defense Interest in Solar Energy

7

Mary Dub, International Security Writer

The Risk Types of High Levels of Energy Dependence The Scale of US Department of Defense Energy Consumption Why is There so Much Urgency to Reduce Fuel Dependency? National and International Security of Fuel Supplies

The Blue Print for a Secure Energy Future

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Business Development Director Marie-Anne Brooks

Mary Dub, International Security Writer

Editor Mary Dub

The Department of Defense Adopts Bio Fuels, Solar and Geothermal Technologies The Role of the Senate Appropriations Committee The importance of Solar Energy Initiatives China and Other European Countries Diversify their own Energy Supplies

Senior Project Manager Steve Banks Advertising Executives Michael McCarthy Abigail Coombes Production Manager Paul Davies For further information visit: www.globalbusinessmedia.org The opinions and views expressed in the editorial content in this publication are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily represent the views of any organisation with which they may be associated. Material in advertisements and promotional features may be considered to represent the views of the advertisers and promoters. The views and opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily express the views of the Publishers or the Editor. While every care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, neither the Publishers nor the Editor are responsible for such opinions and views or for any inaccuracies in the articles. © 2015. The entire contents of this publication are protected by copyright. Full details are available from the Publishers. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

Solar Energy Powers Military Installations

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Don McBarnet, Technology Writer

Fort Stewart in Georgia and Solar Energy Installations NATO Shares the United States’ Concern About Energy Insecurity Solar War Games in Hungary US Secretary Ray Mabus Sets Ambitious Target

Powering the Future

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Don McBarnet, Technology Writer

The United Kingdom’s Sustainable Development Strategy China’s Strategic Plan to Reduce Dependence on Oil New Scientific Developments in the Field of Sustainable and Solar Energy The Solar Future

References 15

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NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

Foreword I

T WAS the dangerous and costly task of

sustainable energy sources for 21st century

delivering fuel to the ISAF forces in Afghanistan

military installations. The case is strong.

and Iraq which propelled the issue of the financial

The Obama administration and other NATO

and human cost of fuel delivery to NATO forces up

countries have advanced the cause of solar

the international security agenda. The cost in men

energy. Encouraged by the Senate Appropriations

and treasure was too high. Sustainable solutions

Committee, which undoubtedly sees the cost

had to be found. Solar energy is a sustainable

advantages, there has been significant progress in

energy source that has immediate practical value

the United States in the widespread military adoption

in reducing military installation energy costs, but

of these emergent technologies.

also potentially the cost of overseas operations.

The program ‘Blueprint for a Secure Energy Future’

This Special Report opens with an article which

including solar energy is the subject of the third

discusses the continuing thirst of the military for

article. This program has produced some impressive

fossil-fuel based energy and how dependence on

results in reducing fuel bills in Forts in Georgia. And

this energy demand creates a major liability and one

the project is still underway. NATO exercises this year

that affects, significantly, national security and the

have also put into practice some new ideas about

ability to project power. It goes on to describe The

using sustainable energy. This will have an important

Burden, a new documentary which tells the story

educational and training effect.

of how the military is leading the transition away from

Finally, there is the future. The future of the price and

oil dependency. Is the answer the utilization of

demand of such an essential resource as oil is always

renewable energy? The article examines the

going to be difficult to predict. However, the driving

patented Scorpion Energy HunterTM, a turnkey

pressures of cost, climate change and new scientific

deployable hybrid energy system designed and

research are pushing down costs for photo voltaic

developed by MILSPRAY Military TechnologiesTM.

cells which, in all probability, will produce a strong and

The Scorpion Energy Hunter utilizes renewable

useful supply for the power hungry military.

energy generation combined with energy storage and power management to reduce effectively the amount of fuel required to generate power in off-grid applications. The second piece report reviews the arguments for the widespread use of solar energy and other

Mary Dub Editor

Mary Dub has written about international security in the United States, Europe, Africa and the Middle East as a television broadcaster and journalist and has a Masters degree in War Studies from King’s College, London.

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NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

Deployable Renewable Energy for Modern Military Operations Milspray Military Technologies

Rising Energy Demand The military’s thirst for fossil-fuel based energy is larger than ever. Faster planes, bigger vehicles, more computers and communication devices, and the latest technological innovations are all consuming more and more energy to facilitate our projection of power. Expansive new systems to increase battlefield awareness and communication all contain a backbone of power hungry computers and electronics.

ROGER SORKIN, DIRECTOR OF THE BURDEN, A FILM DOCUMENTING THE HIGH COST OF FOSSIL FUEL

the like. Operational energy is what’s required to enable military operations – from transportation to training and exercises to actual missions. The majority of this operational energy is provided by oil, which is consumed in great quantities by the Department of Defense in maintaining national security – over 300,000 barrels per day.

A Growing Liability America’s dependence on fossil fuels is the greatest long-term threat to national security confronting the U.S., according to a new documentary The Burden, a 40-minute film directed, produced and written by Roger Sorkin. The Burden film is the first documentary of its kind to tell the story of how our dependence on fossil fuels is a threat to national security, and how the military is leading our transition away from oil. “Dependence on fossil fuels is not just an environmental concern: it’s a matter of national security,” said former Assistant Secretary of

DEPENDENCE, RECENTLY TOLD GOVEXEC, “THERE IS DEMAND FOR CLEAN ENERGY SOLUTIONS.”

The latest intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) equipment requires more power and energy to reach farther and see clearer. Improving living conditions of the warfighter in often inhospitable environments creates large HVAC loading. Bases themselves are becoming more dispersed, enduring longer, and increasing in quantity as the military engages in more and more asymmetrical warfare efforts. During the Iraq surge of the global war on terror in 2008, the Department of Defense (DoD) had over 300 forward deployed bases in Iraq and over 100 in Afghanistan. Dependency upon this energy demand creates a large liability, one that significantly affects our national security and ability to project power. DoD energy consumption can be divided into facility and operational energy – facility energy is that which is used to power fixed bases, facilities, and

‘THE BURDEN’ FILM BY ROGER SORKIN

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NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

The majority of this operational energy is provided by oil, which is consumed in great quantities by the Department of Defense in maintaining national security – over 300,000 barrels per day

Defense Sharon Burke. “That’s why the military invests in renewable and efficient energy, and why the nation should invest in a clean energy future.” In The Burden, USMC Retired General Anthony Zinni, former commander in chief of U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) comments that, because of its immense size and command of the federal budget, the military is the only institution in the world best suited to jumpstart a 21st century clean energy economy. “We have an oil dependency that’s not been a burden we couldn’t tolerate and one we were willing to pay to this point and those days may be coming to an end. We export a billion dollars every single day to pay for this addiction. Our oil addiction, I believe, is our greatest threat to our national security. Not just foreign oil but oil in general.” “The greatest treasure the U.S. has is our military men and women. When we put them in harm’s way, it had better count for something. Their loss is a national tragedy”, comments General Zinni. The U.S. consumes one-fourth of the global oil supply. This huge consumption causes many issues for our nation. First, there is a very high price tag associated with purchasing this oil. Every $1 increase in the price per barrel costs the U.S. military an additional $130 million annually. Being a global commodity, the market price is subject to wild swings, oftentimes dependent upon the same figureheads that our military is up against. Second, there is also the reliance upon availability of supply of this oil. Currently over half of the world’s oil is transported through 8 chokepoints around the globe – in oftentimes unstable regions with complex geopolitical forces at play. Third, this oil must get to the end user – an issue that presents many challenges to our military. With a deployed military operation as an enduser, the difficulty in supplying oil and criticality of that oil both go up exponentially. In these applications, oil is most often transported via fuel convoys to forward operating bases or smaller combat outposts. These fuel convoys present several problems, each with second and third order effects. First, they are easy targets – this presents an immediate danger to those driving in the convoy and to those escorting the convoy. Often travelling through hostile territory, IEDs and ambush attacks are an all-too-common occurrence. Fuel delivery to our deployed units is a vulnerability that adversaries exploit to disrupt our operations. Fifty percent of all convoy loads is fuel. Over four years in Iraq and Afghanistan, over 3,000 Army personnel and contractors were wounded or killed in action on fuel and water resupply convoys. According to the Army Environmental Policy Institute, one in twenty four fuel convoys

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resulted in a soldier or civilian wounded or killed in action during this time period. Second, they are easily disrupted. Be it from hostile activity, environmental issues or vehicle failures and repairs, any delay in delivery creates a danger to those dependent upon that fuel when that delivery is disrupted. Mission critical communication or surveillance systems, critical to the survivability of a base, rely heavily upon that delivery of JP8 fuel to keep the generators up and running. Third, warfighter resources are required to escort and receive the convoys, which is a timeconsuming task that takes warfighters away from the mission at hand. Having less warfighters available for a mission increases the risk to those remaining. Taking warfighters off of escort duty, and back on the mission at hand, improves safety and the ability to execute missions. Fourth, a large supply chain problem results from the logistics of getting large quantities of fuel to locations with a lack of infrastructure and rough terrain. Further complicating the issue is the frequent movement of camps and bases, as well as battlespace dynamics. As spheres of control shift and migrate, routes and methods must be re-evaluated continuously for safety and security. And finally, there is a large cost associated with the delivery of oil to these inaccessible locations. For areas unreachable by ground convoy, air drop of fuel may be an option but is an order of magnitude more expensive than ground delivery. Fully burdened costs, which include the cost to deliver fuel to the point of use, go up substantially as it moves further onto the battlefield.

Deployable Renewables as a Solution There is an increasing interest in utilizing renewable energy to reduce our oil consumption and improve energy security – but can renewables really make a difference in deployed applications? Utility scale renewable energy systems can reduce facility energy usage through wellestablished methods, often with the renewable resource located upon or adjacent to the facility. Localized renewable generation can be integrated into a distributed generation strategy

MILSPRAY TM SCORPION ENERGY HUNTERTM


NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

as part of a facility microgrid, thereby allowing the facility to become more self-sufficient and improving energy security. Deployed military operations typically do not have the luxury of fixed, utility scale renewable integration to benefit from. However, renewables hold the key to helping solve these oil consumption issues even in deployed situations. They still represent localized generation that can be made reliable and are inherently very difficult to disrupt. In looking to utilize renewables for deployed military operations with the goal of saving lives, MILSPRAY Military Technologies™ has designed and developed the patented Scorpion Energy Hunter™, a turnkey deployable hybrid energy system. The Scorpion Energy Hunter™ utilizes renewable energy generation combined with energy storage and power management to effectively reduce the amount of fuel required to generate power in off-grid applications. Having been purchased by the USMC and Army Rapid Equipping Force (REF), the Scorpion Energy Hunter™ has been fielded at various U.S. Marine Corps bases, deployed to international locations, and participated in evaluations including ExFOB (Expeditionary Forward Operating Base – USMC), AEWE (Army Expeditionary Warrior Experiment – U.S. Army), NIE (Network Integration Event – U.S. Army), and E2X (Effective Energy for Expeditionary Operations – U.S. Army). The system has also undergone an operational assignment during the summer of 2015 at the United States Military Academy – West Point. In-theater OCONUS deployments are slated for either the Middle East or Africa in the near future. The system works as follows: Integrated photovoltaic (PV) modules are aggregated into two solar arrays and provide energy to the system. The solar arrays are tilt-adjustable to maximize energy production based on point of use latitude. This energy is then either converted to conventional AC power, using bidirectional inverters, for immediate use or stored in a battery bank for later use. The inverters are also able to take input from the hybrid aspect of the system, a traditional JP8 fueled generator, where they convert the input for storage in the battery bank for later use. With up 18kW of power available, the Scorpion Energy Hunter™ provides a significant amount of power, making it suitable for many offgrid applications. The Scorpion Energy Hunter™ incorporates design features to address the needs of deployed military operations, all with the goal of saving lives. As detailed previously, the system must be rugged to survive transport and rough handling. The Scorpion Energy Hunter™ addresses this on several fronts. First, the system is wholly containerized to protect components while

under transport or storage. Sensitive electrical components are mounted on shock and vibration isolators. The PV modules are individually secured in a shock isolated mounting rack to protect against damage. The batteries use an immobilized electrolyte to provide increased resistance to vibration and will not leak in the instance of any case damage or cracking. Any system must also be reliable for when lives are dependent upon having power available. Extensive testing is required to validate performance, especially in the corner conditions relative to temperature, renewable input, and load. This drives several key design considerations. Renewable energy from PV modules can change drastically based on solar insolation/air quality, climate trends, temperature and more. Loading can be unbalanced from phase to phase. The Scorpion Energy Hunter™ has undergone testing for high and low temperature performance, solar insolation testing, electro-magnetic interference (EMI) susceptibility, and many others in order to ensure power is available when needed most. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (ATEC) has extensively tested the system at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland, for safe and reliable operation. Another key aspect of a successful solution is simple setup and operation. Additional training and knowledge is required for each new piece of equipment the warfighter uses, which takes time and focus away from the core mission and skillset. Simple setup reduces errors and improves the utilization of a piece of equipment, as well as increasing system reliability. The Scorpion Energy Hunter™ was designed with ease of setup and operation in mind, with several features incorporated to facilitate this. Color-coded connections are used to eliminate confusion when setting up the system. Mechanical connections are made via detent pins when possible to facilitate quick and easy assembly. The PV modules use a slide and track mounting system to quickly assemble them into PV arrays. With two trained operators, the Scorpion Energy Hunter™ can be deployed in only 90 minutes and is shipped fully charged and ready to go. In today’s global battlespace, deployment locations are oftentimes remote and lack modern WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 5


NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

Renewables hold the key to helping solve these oil consumption issues even in deployed situations

infrastructure. Hence mobility is key to being able to deploy and execute effectively. Mobility in terms of terrain that can be navigated, modes of transport that can be used, and the ability to fit into a logistics system, are critical design imperatives to get a piece of equipment where it needs to go. The Scorpion Energy Hunter™ addresses this through its packaging. The system packs up in transport mode to be wholly contained inside standardized intermodal containers – commonly referred to as a “quadcons”. These containers easily integrate into supply chains. The intermodal nature of these containers allows shipment by air, sea, train, or truck. The Scorpion Energy Hunter™ also uses a battery technology in compliant packaging that is not transport-restricted the way more volatile battery chemistries typically are in sea or air transport modes. In addition to using renewables for a direct fuel consumption reduction, and the benefits of savings lives, reducing fuel convoys and reducing costs, renewable energy systems like the Scorpion Energy Hunter™ also provide other advantages. The Scorpion Energy Hunter™ increases the efficiency of the traditionally fueled generator connected to it, compared to using that generator to directly power a load. The Scorpion Energy Hunter™ achieves this by drawing from the generator at a steady maximum efficiency level, typically around 80~90% of a generator’s rating. The Scorpion Energy Hunter™ then stores in its energy storage element any excess energy that is not needed immediately to power a load. A traditional load demand following generator in a military application is commonly used at much lower utilization levels where efficiency is typically quite low. This improvement in generator operating point also mitigates a common internal combustion engine issue called wet-stacking. Wet-stacking occurs due to incomplete fuel combustion at low load levels in a compression ignition engine, where unburnt fuel collects on the exhaust side of the engine. This can cause significant service and maintenance issues, which are avoided by utilizing the Scorpion Energy Hunter™. The Scorpion Energy Hunter™ is also virtually silent while running off batteries and/or renewables, is not easily disrupted, is virtually maintenance free, and is a “green” asset in that it does not emit harmful exhaust emissions. It also has the ability to provide for fuel-less operation – should fuel supplies be completely disrupted, local renewable energy generation can provide for critical communication and life supporting needs. When operating on generator power supplied by MILSPRAY™’s acoustic enclosed generator, noise and sound is significantly reduced as compared to

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normal generator operation; thus reducing the operational location signature. In summary, the benefits provided by a deployable renewable energy system like the Scorpion Energy Hunter™ have the potential to make a significant impact on the energy challenges facing our military, including increasing the safety and well-being of our warfighters, improving the ability for them to perform their mission at hand, and improving operational reach and staying power. The Scorpion Energy Hunter™ saves lives, reduces oil consumption, and provides anytime, anywhere energy for today’s deployed military operations.


NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

Rising Defense Interest in Solar Energy Mary Dub, International Security Writer

‘A nation that can’t control its energy sources can’t control its future’. US President Barack Obama September 15, 2005

E

NERGY USE by the United States Department of Defense (DOD) became a rising and worrying issue during the ISAF campaign in Afghanistan. The drawdown from Afghanistan has not yet resulted in new figures on levels of fuel consumption by the armed forces, but using the 2012 figures presented to Congress, the level of consumption is and was unsustainable. By some accounts, DOD is the largest organizational user of petroleum in the world, although, DOD’s share of total U.S. energy consumption is fairly small. DOD is by far the largest U.S. government user of energy. The amount of money that DOD spends on petroleum-based fuels is large in absolute terms, but relatively small as a percentage of DOD’s overall budget. DOD’s fuel costs have increased substantially over the last decade, to about $17 billion in FY2011. Petroleum-based liquid fuels are the DOD’s largest source of energy, accounting for approximately twothirds of DOD energy consumption. When DOD’s fuel use is divided by service, the Air Force is the largest user; when divided by platform type, aircraft are the largest user.1 Writing before the Iraq and Afghanistan drawdowns, according to DOD, currently about 75% of DOD’s energy use is operational energy and about 25% is installation energy. Operational energy is defined as “the energy required for training, moving, and sustaining military forces and weapons platforms for military operations.”

The Risk Types of High Levels of Energy Dependence There is a range of different types of interdependent risk from the current level of fuel use which impact on potential operational success, national security and the strategic security of NATO and other allies. DOD’s reliance on fuel leads to financial, operational, and strategic challenges. Financial challenges and

risks relate to the possibility of a longer-term trend of increasing costs for fuel, and to shorter-term volatility in fuel prices. Operational challenges and risks relate to a number of factors. There is a waste of military resources from the diversion of manpower to the task of moving fuel to the battlefield. Further, there is the negative impact of fuel requirements on the mobility of U.S. forces and the combat effectiveness of U.S. equipment. Additionally, fuel supply lines are highly vulnerable to disruption. Strategic challenges and risks relate to getting fuel to the overseas operating area, and ensuring the global free flow of oil.2

The Scale of US Department of Defense Energy Consumption The scale of the US Department of Defense’s energy consumption is such that it is difficult to grasp. The DOD consumed about 117 million barrels of oil in FY2011. DOD is by far the largest U.S. government user of energy. DOD’s use of energy in FY2010 accounted for about 80% of the federal government’s use of energy. These statements are, to repeat, skewed by the impact of operations in Afghanistan, which have now ended. How is the energy used? When DOD’s fuel use is divided by service, the Air Force is the largest user, accounting for 53% of total DOD’s fuel use, compared to 28% for the Department of the Navy (which includes the Navy and Marine Corps), and 18% for the Army. Between 85% and 95% of the fuel used by the Air Force is aviation fuel. In FY2011, the Air Force used nearly 62 million barrels of petroleum fuel, including about 58 million barrels of aviation fuel. In FY2011, 64% of Air Force aviation fuel was used for mobility and logistics air operations, 31% for combat air operations.3

Why is There so Much Urgency to Reduce Fuel Dependency? Protecting and facilitating the supply of fuel to military and humanitarian operations throughout WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 7


NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

Any way of reducing the consumption of fuel by US forces is a welcome lifting of the strategic burden MILSPRAY EXV-1

SCORPION ENERGY HUNTER™

the world is very resource intensive in itself. In 2001 General James Amos, Marine Corps Commandant, said that fuel dependency “constrains our tactical options for executing missions in complex battle spaces, across long distances, and against hybrid threats.” The Marine Corps estimated in 2010 that there was one Marine casualty for each 50 Marine Corps fuel or water convoys in Afghanistan. A US Army analysis of the period 2003-2007 that included both Army and contractor personnel, estimated one casualty per 24 fuel convoys in Afghanistan.

where the fuel is sourced. The sea and overland routes from the Middle East and Gulf States, where high percentages of fuel used by the United States and its allies derive, are often disrupted. Therefore, securing the land and sea distribution networks becomes a high priority to protect national security. Global petroleum distribution networks pass through a number of “chokepoints” that are vulnerable to disruption, including, in particular, the Strait of Hormuz leading into and out of the Persian Gulf. Securing Persian Gulf shipping lanes, particularly through the Strait of Hormuz, is one of the primary missions of the Navy’s Fifth Fleet, headquartered in Bahrain. In summary, any way of reducing the consumption of fuel by US forces is a welcome lifting of the strategic burden.

National and International Security of Fuel Supplies Another complex issue is the level of conflict within the Middle Eastern and other states

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NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

The Blue Print for a Secure Energy Future Mary Dub, International Security Writer

“A plan for action included an all-out, all-of-the-above energy strategy to reduce our dependence on oil, save businesses and consumers money, and position the United States as the global leader in clean energy… you believe – and we agree – that an economy built to last must make the most of America’s energy resources. It must be fuelled by home grown and alternative energy sources that make us more secure and less dependent on foreign oil.”4 US White House 2012

T

HE OBAMA administrations’ robust support for alternative sustainable energy sources has been strong. As part of his Blueprint for a Secure Energy Future, President Obama challenged the Departments of Navy, Energy and Agriculture to partner with private industry to accelerate the commercialization of drop-in biofuels for military and commercial use. The three departments developed a plan to spur private industry and financiers to construct or retrofit multiple integrated bio refineries capable of producing millions of gallons of fuel annually from domestic feedstock and at a competitive price.

championed sustainable energy solutions, especially solar energy developments on military installations. Noting the Department of Defense’s role in energy consumption, it directs the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Interior to jointly prepare a plan to facilitate solar energy development on military installations. The plan should be consistent with the military mission and habitat conservation needs of disturbed lands on military bases that have been withdrawn from the public domain. The Committee directs the Secretaries to submit to the congressional defense and interior committees.5

The Department of Defense Adopts Bio Fuels, Solar and Geothermal Technologies

The importance of Solar Energy Initiatives

The US Department of the Navy (DON) and the Marine Corps have provided leadership. The Navy and Marine Corps are pioneering DoD’s efforts to reduce energy consumption. They have invested in alternative fuels/biofuels that have led to success in both aircraft and ships supporting the path to a green fleet. The hybrid-drive system has already produced fuel savings on the amphibious assault ship USS Makin Island. Energy saving efforts have also drastically cut energy usage on bases, with new solar and geothermal technologies providing electricity. As the use of alternative energy increases across the Department, DON will be protecting the environment with clean energy and lessening our dependence on foreign oil.

The Role of the Senate Appropriations Committee The Senate Appropriations Committee, as always concerned in driving down costs, has

The Senate Appropriations Committee directed the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Interior to jointly prepare a plan to facilitate solar energy development on military installations. The detail of what the Senate Appropriations Committee directed is illuminating: the Committee believes that the Department should maximize the use of energy efficient, eco-friendly roofing technologies for new construction and renovations, including family housing construction and renovation. These technologies include, but are not limited to, photovoltaic panels, solar thermal roof coatings, rooftop direct use solar lighting technology, green roofs, and cool roofs. In an effort to capture the most innovative of these technologies, the Committee encourages the Department and the services to monitor new technologies emerging from government, industry, or university research and development programs.6 This has proved to be a really useful endorsement for the solar energy industry.

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NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

Energy saving efforts have also drastically cut energy usage on bases, with new solar and geothermal technologies providing electricity

China and Other European Countries Diversify their own Energy Supplies Given the rising demand for fuel supplies which is an inevitable part of economic development, the United States is not alone in realizing that national security and sustained economic development depend on supplies of fuel which cannot fall hostage to international tensions. Concerns in 2014 about Russian activities in Ukraine and world reaction to Russia’s military move into Crimea has resulted in both China and India looking to diversify their fuel supplies and look to alternative

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energy sources. Indeed, even without the concerns raised by the Ukrainian crisis, the political, economic and security challenges surrounding the energy supply of many NATO Allies are profound: Europe’s dependency on oil and gas imports is increasing, as are the energy needs of rising powers such as China and India; political instability haunts many energy-producing and transit states; the quest for energy and other resources has sparked territorial disputes in several parts of the world; terrorist and cyber-attacks against refineries, pipelines and power plants are a common occurrence in many countries, as is piracy along critical maritime choke points.7


NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

Solar Energy Powers Military Installations Don McBarnet, Technology Writer

S

OLAR ENERGY is demonstrating its value to the US military and shows significant potential. American manufacturers have not been slow in powering up Department of Defense installations in the United States. Solar energy has been used successfully to reduce the energy use of military installations. Fort Stewart in Georgia is an example. Fort Stewart is on its way to becoming one of the largest producers of renewable solar energy within the state of Georgia, and is also slated to become the military installation producing the largest amount of renewable energy throughout the Department of Defense.8 
How have they done this?

Fort Stewart in Georgia and Solar Energy Installations Earlier this year in May (2015), the U.S. Army and Georgia Power, in collaboration with the General Services Administration, the Georgia Public Service Commission, and the U.S. Army Office of Energy Initiatives broke ground on one-third of the Army-Georgia 3x30 project. (3 times 30 megawatts). Three separate solar generation arrays are being built by Georgia Power on Fort Stewart, Fort Benning, and Fort Gordon, which are the three major U.S. Army installations within the state. The solar farms are expected to be capable of producing roughly 30 megawatts of electricity each. Following their estimated time of completion around the end of 2016, the solar arrays are expected to be the largest of their kind on any Department of Defense installation.9 The Army is looking primarily to third-party financing to fund the initiatives and this could help the service rein in costs at a time when defense spending is facing intense scrutiny. “The Army is coming in at a time when prices are at historic lows. Solar power has become quite cheap, and in many states, solar companies are able to provide power at prices that are lower than the local utilities,” Swami Venkataraman, a utilities analyst at the rating company Standard & Poor’s said. “It’s possible the Army may be able to not only

encourage solar, but they may be able to save money comparable to their existing utility bills.”10

NATO Shares the United States’ Concern About Energy Insecurity While NATO is not an energy institution, energy developments affect the international security environment and, hence, touch on Allies’ security interests. For example, the American shale gas “revolution” and growing volumes of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) shipped worldwide may raise new maritime security concerns. Similarly, falling oil and gas prices could increase instability in many non-NATO energy suppliers that are highly dependent on energy exports, including Russia. Finally, energy factors are playing a major role in the current crisis in Ukraine, as supply disruptions would have far reaching security implications for some NATO Allies.11 But more than acknowledging strategic awareness, NATO is looking to generate reports from eight experts in a specially funded team from Allied and partner countries. This Smart Energy Team or SENT were tasked with screening national and NATO documents, and visiting defense agencies to identify practical energy efficient solutions and to provide recommendations for NATO’s standards and best practices. The final comprehensive SENT report has been presented to Allies in September 2015. One useful outcome was NATO’s use of Smart Energy solutions in the exercise Capable Logistician 2015 in Hungary, 8-19 June 2015, integrating the work of the Emerging Security Challenges Division (ESCD).12

Solar War Games in Hungary Defense contractors and others have worked with NATO to test the military’s ability to use renewable power in combat and humanitarian operations. About 1,000 NATO troops are spending 12 days deploying wind turbines, solar panels and self-contained power grids in Hungary. The soldiers are testing small solar power plants that open within 10 minutes, like WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 11


NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

US Secretary Ray Mabus Sets Ambitious Target

Following their estimated time of completion around the end of 2016, the solar arrays are expected to be the largest of their kind on any Department of

VEHICLE WASH SYSTEM

Defense installation

SCORPION ENERGY HUNTER™

flowers to the sun, alongside highly insulated tents and solar-powered battery chargers. The technologies displace explosive, conventional fuels that must be delivered along vulnerable supply lines. The testing follows the wounding or killing of 3,000 U.S. soldiers in attacks on fuel and water convoys in Iraq and Afghanistan, according to NATO.13

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Secretary Ray Mabus, is supporting efforts to have 50 percent of the power used by the Navy and Marines come from renewable energy sources by 2020. This marks a seismic shift in Pentagon thinking about energy. To date, the Navy has installed more solar than the Army or Air Force, with in excess of 58 MW at or near bases in 12 states and DC. The Air Force follows the Navy with 38 MW of installed solar capacity, while the Army has deployed over 36 MW. Together, the three branches have installed more solar than 37 different states. Each branch has also developed plans to significantly expand its solar usage. While energy costs continue to rise, DOD budgets have steadily declined. The military has deployed solar installations across the country and abroad to rein in energy expenditures. The average price of a completed PV system has declined by more than 40% since the beginning of 2011. In most cases, the military can sign long-term contracts for solar energy that are below local retail rates for electricity. Other federal agencies face contract limits that can drive up the cost of solar and other renewables. Long term solar contracts allow the DOD to hedge against rising and volatile energy costs. Solar will save the military millions of dollars which, in turn, can be reinvested to ensure more ready and able armed forces.14


NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

Powering the Future Don McBarnet, Technology Writer

I

T IS undoubtedly unwise to make predictions about the short or long term future of the oil price and therefore the price of crude oil, petrol and aviation fuel. Writing in 2015, the price of oil has been trending down for some months. There is always the possibility of a ‘black swan event’ that might cause it to spike upwards. Secondly and this also impacts on the urgency of reducing the Department of Defense fuel bill, 75% of the bill is a product of overseas operations, which have currently ended with the drawdown from Afghanistan and Iraq. So the urgency attached to reducing the fuel bill and finding other energy sources is currently mitigated. However, in the United States, Congressional and Obama administration pressure to work for green and clean energy solutions, which are not oil dependent, is strong. What does this mean for the use of solar energy by the DOD? First, the strategic importance of reducing the fuel bill and dependence on Middle Eastern and Russian oil is increasing, for the United States and its NATO allies. Secondly, the consequences of climate change are beginning to be recognized and the need to mitigate them is becoming more urgent. This acknowledgement is now such that the effects of climate change are beginning to be seen as a future threat to national security. These two strategic pressures are a countervailing weight to the potentially short-term downward trend in the oil price.

The United Kingdom’s Sustainable Development Strategy The United Kingdom’s Ministry of Defence has a sustainable development strategy as a sub strategy of the strategy for Defence 20112030. The benefits of the strategy include a planned reduction in reliance on fossil fuels in theatre which, it is hoped, will reduce the amount of fuel that has to be transported to the front line, because this transportation is a costly, risky and logistically resource-intensive activity that can undermine operational continuity. The thinking behind the plan is

that using fewer natural resources, less energy, fuel and water and producing less waste will save money across defense. The strategy is underpinned by the recognition that the effects of climate change can and will make a move towards a more sustainable fuel policy imperative and that it is better to prepare for this eventuality and mitigate the release of carbon rather than to adapt in the future.15 The British Ministry of Defence does not go as far as revealing how it might take this forward in terms of solar energy or other forms of sustainable energy.

China’s Strategic Plan to Reduce Dependence on Oil While Europe looks to sustainable sources of energy, other countries, which are equally intensive users of oil like China, are trying to preserve their supplies. China is pursuing an energy policy to alleviate its import dependence, diversify the sources and routes of imported oil and prepare for supply disruption. China’s import of hydrocarbons is growing rapidly. Besides sea transport from West Asia and other oil rich countries of both crude and liquefied natural gas, China has also identified diverse import routes for oil and gas by overland pipelines.16

New Scientific Developments in the Field of Sustainable and Solar Energy Hybrid war fighting depends on the situational awareness of the dismounted soldier. Today, despite the advances in reducing power demands for mobile computing, this requires batteries, which are often heavy. New scientific developments have led to a thin, lightweight, power film which is flexible and can be used to power mobile computers without the need for heavy batteries.17 This has been taken one stage further by a group of US Army researchers who have just won a patent for a new solar cell, capping off a project that has been in the works since the late 1990s. They are called “Photonic band gap solar cells.” The new solar cells are several WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 13


NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

The effects of climate change are beginning to be seen as a future threat to national security

hundred nanometers thick. This is thinner than some other photovoltaic (PV) cells in the class. According to the US Army, typical solar cells fall into the 100 to 200 micron range (a nanometer is a billionth of a meter, and a micron is 1,000 nanometers). 18 To be useful in military portable and mobile applications, a PV device needs to function at a high level of efficiency without the need for tracking. This means shifting the solar panel throughout the day so the sun is always hitting it at an optimal angle. US Army PV devices also need to be much more durable than conventional stationary solar arrays.

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The research was done in Alabama, by Dr. Michael Scalora, a research physicist at the US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center at Redstone Arsenal.

The Solar Future With strategic and climate change pressures acting as drivers to the manufacturers and departments of defense, there is undoubtedly a strong future for rugged, mobile forms of solar energy generation, which have a ready and willing market at the right price in European and NATO countries.


NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

References: 1

Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress Moshe Schwartz Specialist in Defense Acquisition

Katherine Blakeley Analyst in Foreign Affairs Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval Affairs December 10, 2012

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42558.pdf

2

Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress Moshe Schwartz Specialist in Defense Acquisition Katherine Blakeley Analyst in Foreign Affairs Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval Affairs December 10, 2012

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42558.pdf

3

Department of Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress Moshe Schwartz Specialist in Defense Acquisition Katherine Blakeley Analyst in Foreign Affairs Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval Affairs December 10, 2012

https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42558.pdf 4

https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/emailfiles/the_blueprint_for_a_secure_energy_future_oneyear_progress_report.pdf

March 2012 The Blueprint for A Secure Energy Future Progress Report White House The Senate Appropriations Committee, in its report (S.Rept. 112-168 of May 22, 2012) on S. 3215, states: ENERGY POLICY Department of

5 

Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress Moshe Schwartz Specialist in Defense Acquisition Katherine Blakeley Analyst in Foreign Affairs Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval Affairs December 10, 2012 https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42558.pdf 6

The Senate Appropriations Committee, in its report (S.Rept. 112-168 of May 22, 2012) on S. 3215, states: ENERGY POLICY Department of

Defense Energy Initiatives: Background and Issues for Congress Moshe Schwartz Specialist in Defense Acquisition Katherine Blakeley Analyst

in Foreign Affairs Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval Affairs December 10, 2012 https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R42558.pdf

7

Energy insecurity: what can NATO do?The energy dimensions of Russia’s annexation of CrimeaRussian-Ukrainian-EU gas conflict: who stands

to lose most? Transatlantic energy security and the Ukraine-crisisCartoons - could energy security look like this?NATO’s energy security agenda

http://www.nato.int/docu/review/2014/nato-energy-security-running-on-empty/Ukraine-energy-independence-gas-dependence-on-Russia/EN/index.htm

8

http://www.army.mil/article/148844/Fo Fort Stewart leads DOD in green initiative May 19, 2015 By Staff Sgt. Richard Wrigley

9

http://www.army.mil/article/148844/Fo Fort Stewart leads DOD in green initiative May 19, 2015 By Staff Sgt. Richard Wrigley http://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2011/09/16/16greenwire-army-initiative-could-be-boon-for-us-solar-com-61176.html

10

Army Initiative Could Be Boon for U.S. Solar Companies By ANNIE SNIDER of Greenwire Published: September 16, 2011 Energy insecurity: what can NATO do?The energy dimensions of Russia’s annexation of CrimeaRussian-Ukrainian-EU gas conflict: who stands

11 

to lose most? Transatlantic energy security and the Ukraine-crisisCartoons - could energy security look like this?NATO’s energy security agenda http://www.nato.int/docu/review/2014/nato-energy-security-running-on-empty/Ukraine-energy-independence-gas-dependence-on-Russia/EN/index.htm 12

http://www.natolibguides.info/smartenergy NATO Smart energy

13

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/photo-essays/2015-06-25/nato-s-solar-war-games-planning-for-a-hot-conflict

NATO’s Solar War Games: Planning For a Hot Conflict

14

http://www.seia.org/research-resources/enlisting-sun-powering-us-military-solar-energy-2013 Solar Energy Industries Association: SEIA

15

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY A SUB-STRATEGY OF THE STRATEGY FOR DEFENCE

2011 – 2030 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/32729/20110527SDStrategyPUBLISHED.pdf

16

Mapping Chinese Oil and Gas Pipelines and Sea Routes DOI: 10.1080/09700161.2011.576510 P. K. Gautam pages 595-612

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09700161.2011.576510 17

http://www.powerfilmsolar.com/education/videos/

18

http://cleantechnica.com/2015/07/13/army-researchers-invent-ridiculously-small-new-solar-cell/

Army Researchers Invent Ridiculously Small New Solar Cell July 13th, 2015 by Tina Casey WWW.DEFENCEINDUSTRYREPORTS.COM | 15


NEXT GENERATION DEPLOYABLE RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MODERN MILITARY OPERATIONS

Notes:

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