Plan & cost basic menus learner guide

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SITKOP302 Plan and cost basic menus The Gordon, 2014 All requests and enquiries regarding use and availability should be directed to: Hospitality, Tourism, Events & Cookery The Gordon Private Bag 1 Geelong Mail Centre VIC 3221 Ph: 5225 0730 Created: March 2014 File name: Plan & cost basic menus learner guide.docx

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Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


Contents What this unit is about5 Competency based learning5 How is this unit structured? What you will learn Employability skills summary Assessment What you need Study guide Study support Identify customer preferences Types of customer Location of establishment Price range..................................................................12 Sales Analysis..............................................................12 Type of establishment.................................................12 Kitchen size and equipment Menu construction Plan menus Planning a menu Menu history Writing descriptive menu listings14 Traditional sequence of courses Menu styles.................................................................17 a la carte table d’hote Set or function menu Degustation menu Cycle menu Cocktail Buffet menu Food Availability Fruit and vegetable availability Keeping them fresh Seasonality Menu balance Cookery methods Colour Tastes Textures Nutritional balance Healthy Living pyramid Cost menus Menu price balance Menu engineering.......................................................28 Profit margin versus cost of goods Menu analysis process Price elasticity Types of yield tests Labour cost Frozen

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Write menu content Writing menus Menu presentation Culinary balance checklist Evaluate menu success Activity 1 – Identify your customers............................37 Activity 2 - Culinary Influences38 Activity 3 - Regional Influences40 Activity 4 - Local Produce Research Activity 5 – Plan these menus Activity 6 - Spelling Quiz Activity 7 – Standard recipe cards Activity 8 – Yield tests Activity 9 – Cost the menus designed in Activity 5 Activity 10 – Write the menus Activity 11 – Evaluate the menus Activity 12 – Overview and revision Workplace Assessment Underpinning knowledge assessment

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Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


What is this unit about? This unit describes the performance outcomes, skills and knowledge required to plan and cost basic menus for dishes or food product ranges for any type of cuisine or food service style. It requires the ability to identify customer preferences, plan menus to meet customer and business needs, cost menus and evaluate their success. It does not cover the specialist skills used by senior catering managers and chefs to design and cost complex menus after researching market preferences and trends. Those skills are covered within SITHKOP501 Design and cost menus.

Competency Based Learning Competency based learning is not only about gaining knowledge but also about being able to put what you know into practice – to perform a task or demonstrate a skill. Assessment will be on your ability to demonstrate your competency (skill in relation to the performance criteria). You will need to show that you: • Can do all the things listed under performance criteria. • Could do them, if you were out in the workplace.

How is this unit structured? Each unit is made up of Elements and Performance Criteria. Elements: These briefly state the skills and knowledge you will have developed by the time you finish the unit. You must successfully complete all the elements in order to satisfactorily complete the unit. In this unit there are four elements. Performance criteria: There are a number of performance criteria for each element. These explain what you need to demonstrate to be assessed as competent. This unit has been set out in logical work/study

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sequence with reference to other materials needed to complete the unit.

What you will learn Outlined below are the elements and performance criteria for this unit. You need to read these through when you start, so that you know what you are aiming for. It is a good idea to refer back to these as you work through the workbook so you can keep a check on your progress. You can use this information to prepare for assessment.

Element 1. Identify customer preferences

2. Plan menus

1.1 1.2

Identify current customer pro Analyse the food preferences

2.1

Generate a range of ideas for production ranges, assess the relevant personnel. Choose menu items to meet Identify organisational service suitable menus. Include a balanced variety items for the style of service Itemise all proposed compon food production items. Calculate portion yields and c Assess cost-effectiveness of p production items and choose yield. Price menu items to ensure m

2.2 2.3 2.4 3.1

3. Cost menus

3.2 3.3 3.4

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Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


4.1 4. Write menu content

4.2 4.3 5.1

5. Evaluate menu success

5.2 5.3

Write menus using words tha and fit with the business serv Use correct names for the sty Use descriptive writing to pro

Seek ongoing feedback to improve menu performanc Assess the success of menus satisfaction and sales data. Adjust menus based on feedb

Employability Skills Summary SIT203013 Certificate II in Kitchen Operations The following table contains a summary of the employability skills required by the hospitality industry for this qualification. The employability skills facets described here are broad industry requirements that may vary depending on qualification packaging options. Employability Skill

Communication

Initiative and enterprise Learning Planning and organising Problem-solving

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

Industry/enterprise requirements for this q

Interacting with colleagues in a polite and fr and actively listening to determine custome verbal and written information on menu item procedures; discussing operational and serv and supervisors. Identifying and discussing with supervisors b operational activities in the kitchen; seeking technologies and suggesting their use to sup Participating in activities to learn new things operational tasks and better ways of providi sharing information with colleagues on new Collecting and organising menu, recipe and p efficiently participate in operational activitie operational and daily activities to ensure a s positive dining experience to the hospitality Thinking about problems that relate to own avoiding deadline problems by planning own activities; identifying and resolving routine o

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Self-management

Teamwork

Technology

predetermined policies and procedures to g extent of problems and requesting assistanc supervisors to solve operational problems in Following policies and procedures for legal c for servicing the hospitality customer and kn to supervisors; seeking feedback and guidan kitchen activities. Working as a kitchen team member, taking i understanding own role in servicing the nee supporting other team members to coordina kitchen to ensure a positive dining experienc Understanding the operating capability of ki selecting and safely using them; selecting an protective equipment to manage personal s

Due to the high proportion of electives required by this qualification, the industry/enterprise requirements described above for each employability skill are representative of the hospitality industry in general and may not reflect specific job roles. Learning and assessment strategies for this qualification should be based on the requirements of the units of competency for this qualification.

SIT30813 Certificate III in Commercial Cookery The following table contains a summary of the employability skills required by the hospitality industry for these qualifications. The employability skills facets described here are broad industry requirements that may vary depending on qualification packaging options. Employability Skill Communication

Initiative and enterprise Learning

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Industry/enterprise requirements for this

Interpreting food preparation lists and discussi determine the operational requirements of the and written information about recipes, menu i requirements to ensure a quality dining experi solutions to operational service difficulties and Identifying and suggesting ways to improve kit efficiency; generating and suggesting ideas for items. Knowing own product knowledge and cookery aware of opportunities to learn and participati professional development activities; seeking an colleagues on new food trends, products, servi

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


Planning and organising

Problem-solving

Self-management

Teamwork

Technology

job skills. Collecting, analysing and organising food prepa procedural information to efficiently plan the p period; collecting and analysing information to customer group; setting timelines, organising o meals to meet operational, customer requirem hospitality business; adjusting timelines and pa service period to meet changing customer traf Anticipating problems that may arise with kitch mitigating problems by planning kitchen opera clarifying the extent of problems; taking respon service issues; referring high-level problems to solution; using discretion and judgement as we procedures to guide solutions to operational p Understanding and following policies and proc organising own work priorities to produce mea responsibility for own job role in servicing the h operational problems in the kitchen; thinking a seeking feedback and guidance on success in c Working as a skilled team member to deliver th hospitality business; taking responsibility for ow working collaboratively as a team member by g providing feedback and assistance to other tea instruction to assistant or trainee kitchen team Understanding the operating capability of, sele equipment, computer systems, software and in commercial cookery activities; selecting and us equipment to manage personal safety in the ki

Due to the high proportion of electives required by this qualification, the industry/enterprise requirements described above for each employability skill are representative of the hospitality industry in general and may not reflect specific job roles. Learning and assessment strategies for this qualification should be based on the requirements of the units of competency for this qualification.

Assessment Competency based assessment has no “pass or failâ€?. You are either competent (CM) or not yet competent (NYC) which means you are still in the process of achieving competence and needing more time to develop a skill and obtain knowledge. You may be assessed using a range of methods, depending on the nature of the skill. These assessment methods may include: •

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

Practical demonstration of your skills in a

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• • • • • • •

classroom situation Workbook review Written questions and answers Verbal questions and answers A portfolio of evidence Projects and Assignments Oral classroom presentation A combination of these methods

What you need To successfully complete this unit you will need to have: • • • •

Your own copy of this workbook Access to a commercial graded kitchen or workplace A full Cook’s Uniform and Tools A calculator

For those who would like to follow up on any of the topics in this workbook, the following texts, videos and websites are recommended. You should be able to locate them through the Institute library. • • • • • • • • •

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Commercial cookery: use basic methods of cookery. 641.57 C734 (Two Day Loan) Commercial cookery principles and methods of cookery BAG 641.5 C734pr (Video) La technique : the fundamental techniques of cooking 641.5 P422f Practical professional cookery 641.572 C883p Cookery for the hospitality industry 641.57 D645c A Day in the career of an apprentice chef VHS 641.572 D273 (Video) Safety in the commercial kitchen BAG 363.11964795 S128 (Video) Tools for cooks 641.50284 M143t Working the plate : the art of food presentation 641.5 S938w

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


Study Guide To be successful in this unit you need to link learning to your workplace. Students who are working in the food industry will be able to achieve this. For those not yet employed, observation of examples can take place in the institute kitchens. Some further study points: • • • • • • •

Read the workbook thoroughly Complete review section Discuss the information and exercises with fellow students Share your skills and experiences Practise your new skills as often as possible Think about how you can use the knowledge and skills in your workplace If you need help, ask for it

Remember: What you are learning is practical, useful know to the workplace and it is up to you to find ways to apply it.

Study Support

The Gordon's experienced Study Support staff provide a confident develop a range of study skills, bridge gaps in knowledge and build Study Support staff assist with: • • • • • • •

Assignment writing Note taking Oral presentations Numeracy skills development Basic computing Literacy skills development Referral to other support services

Students with specific problems should see their teacher. An appo Manager if they do not wish to speak to the teacher, or they can a

Study support: City Campus Room H1.20 in the Library Chris Renick Ph: (03) 5225 4836 Email: crenick@gordontafe.edu.au

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Unit Guide A complete unit guide is available for viewing on the student portal.

Identify customer preferences

1.1 Identify current customer profile for the food business. 1.2 Analyse the food preferences of the customer base.

Types of Customer For the customer, almost every significant event in life is celebrated with food and shared with other significant people. The adage ‘Know your customer’ implies recognition of their needs. Analyse the type of people you are planning to cater for and base your menu around that group. Their general likes and dislikes should be taken into account. Remembering you cannot possibly be all things, to all people. Over time customer needs can and will change. You may need to be prepared to change, innovative in your ideas and current with new trends and produce. There are many varying factors that lead to make up our customers. From age and gender, to the current economy and food trends. Therefore, as a competent chef, you need to be able to tailor menus to meet your customer profiles and preferences. A BIG research CIA survey contained a total of 157 items including demographics as well as general consumption behaviors for various services and products. Among these, 10 questions were associated with customers’ dining out behaviors at a restaurant. Restaurant choice attributes were measured with: “Which of the following are reasons why you eat there most often?” For fast-food restaurants, respondents were asked to check all that apply among “advertising”, “cleanliness”, “décor of the restaurant”, “fast service”, “healthy menu option”, “kid friendly”, “location”, “menu selection”, “open late”, “portion size”, “price”, “quality of food”, “value menu”, and “trustworthy establishment”.

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In terms of full service restaurants, “advertising”, “cleanliness”, “décor of the restaurant”, “fast service”, “friendly service”, “friendly wait staff”, “healthy menu option”, “kid friendly”, “location”, “menu selection”, “open late”, “portion size”, “price”, “quality of food”, “reservations taken”, “special offer/discounts”, and “trustworthy establishment”.

Location of Establishment Location, Location, Location! Businesses should be sited in a location where they are wanted and needed. Locations such as City, Suburb or Rural immediately suggest a difference in lifestyle. Social and income status associated with particular areas can influence food choice. Location also refers to traffic patterns, competing businesses, and a ‘catchment’ area to where customers may be drawn. Visibility is an extremely important part of location. If not in the perfect location, ease of access, adequate signage, lighting and parking are important considerations. When competing for business against other restaurants, it is important to be sufficiently different, whilst remaining appealing to customers.

Price Range Price range is an important consideration when constructing a menu. The decision will be influenced by the type of customer you are trying to attract and the establishment. The price range will directly affect the choice of many potential food items. Most customers are very aware of value for money. In a more up-market establishment, price may not be as important as menu choices and service.

Sales Analysis Sales analysis is a vital step to food control. In order to determine whether your menu is returning the type of profits you require, it is necessary to gather the data of sales and do an analysis of it. This data can be taken automatically through the register or can be recorded manually after each service. This information is an important management tool that

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provides information such as: What were sold/how many covers? When it was sold Total items sold Total food cost Total sales value Food Cost % per item Average spending/cover Can help to determine: Efficiency of service staff Profit per menu item Future demand – changes in trends What needs to be purchased Possible pilferage Slow selling items We use this information to make informed decisions regarding menu changes and pricing. In “menu costing” we will look at this in more detail.

Type of Establishment A business needs to match its menu to the type of establishment. It is much easier to match the food to the environment, than the environment to the food. Examples of classifying establishments may be: Primarily takeaway Limited menu / low price / self-service Limited menu / low-moderate price / self-service Limited menu / moderate price / service Full menu / low-moderate price / service Full menu / moderate price / service Full menu / moderate-high price / service Luxury menu / high price / service plus

Kitchen Size and Equipment The facilities and equipment available for use must be adequate for producing the required quantity and quality of product within a specified period of time. The better the facilities and equipment are the wider the choice of possible menu options. Don’t ‘overload’ one piece of equipment; because when it gets busy you may find that the particular piece of equipment may not be able to cope with the volume.

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Menu Construction The menu planner is constrained by a variety of factors which limit the food choice. Type of customer Location of establishment Price range Sales analysis Type of establishment Staff levels and capabilities Kitchen size and equipment Food availability Menu balance Culinary and nutritional balance Menu design preferences Business expectations Timing of food production

Plan menus

2.1 Generate a range of ideas for menus for dishes or food p merits and discuss with relevant personnel. 2.2 Choose menu items to meet customer preferences. 2.3 Identify organisational service style and cuisine and dev 2.4 Include a balanced variety of dishes or food production and cuisine.

Planning a Menu Menus are planned for all occasions, some formal, some informal. At home we plan what we are having for our next meal, a birthday party or an informal barbeque. Whether it requires time to cook, who will be attending (how many), and how we are going to make sure everyone is happy. These same principles, and others, apply when we create menus. As professionals we must be able to develop menus for any occasion, whilst ensuring a profit is achieved.

Menu History Menus, as a list of prepared foods, have been discovered dating back to the Song Dynasty (700AD) in China.[ In the larger populated cities of the time,

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merchants found a way to cater to busy customers who had little time or energy to prepare food during the evening. The variation in Chinese cuisine from different regions led caterers to create a list or menu for their patrons. The word "menu," like much of the terminology of cuisine, is French in origin. It ultimately derives from Latin "minutus," something made small; in French it came to be applied to a detailed list or résumé of any kind. The original menus that offered consumers choices were prepared on a small chalkboard, in French a carte; so foods chosen from a bill of fare are described as "à la carte," "according to the board." The contemporary menu first appeared in France during the second half of the eighteenth century, or The Romantic Age. Prior to this time eating establishments or table d'hôte served dishes that were chosen by the chef or proprietors. Customers ate what the house was serving that day, as in contemporary banquets or buffets and meals were served from a common table. The establishment of restaurants and restaurant menus allowed customers to choose from a list of unseen dishes, which were produced to order according to the customer's selection. A table d'hôte establishment charged its customers a fixed price; the menu allowed customers to spend as much or as little money as they chose.

Writing Descriptive Menu Listings • • • • • •

Current fashion, type of customer or type of establishment can dictate the approach taken to the way menu descriptions are written. Much care needs to be taken when writing menu descriptions. Most people ‘scan’ a menu rather than read it line by line, when looking for something that appeal to their tastes. Descriptions can help this, but poor English, bad spelling and excessive wording can cause confusion and frustration. Be brief and to the point. Avoid embellishment, but provide clear information.

Some types of information that can be included are: •

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Type of dish - Soufflé, Salad, pie etc.

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


• • • • • • • • • • •

Main ingredients - Chicken, beef, salmon etc. Portion/Cut - Slice, medallion, fillet etc. Cookery method - Pan-fried, deep fried, grilled, poached etc. Major flavour- Spicy, chilli, herb, smoked etc. Sauce/Dressing - Sauce named Garnish - Served with, wrapped in, studded with etc. Texture - Crusty, crisp etc. Temperature - Iced, warmed, chilled etc. Colour - Pink, green etc. Season - Summer, spring etc. Style of Cuisine - Thai style, Italian style etc.

Traditional Sequence of Courses This is the traditional ‘sequence of courses’ and definition of each course. In the past the number of courses served was up to seventeen as shown below. There are the traditional French words and also the English word and definition. The number of courses is rarely, if ever, used today. The order or sequence is a framework that is important to remember, helping you to determine the proper order of the food for service. An understanding of the appropriate sequence will help you, as well as the serving staff. It may be easy to determine a three course with a soup and dessert, but what about a seven course degustation menu. 1.

Hors D’oeuvre - Appetizers

These are small items of food used to stimulate the appetite; they can be single, mixed, hot or cold. Items used range from avocados, oysters, cocktails, pickled and smoked goods. 2.

Potages - Soups

A clear and a thick soup are usually offered. National soups may also be featured. The rule being that the clear soup is always placed first. 3.

Farineux - Pasta & Rice

All types of pasta (flour products), spaghetti, noodles, ravioli, rice and gnocchi.

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4.

Oeufs - Egg Dishes

All varieties of cooked eggs may be found, en cocotte, scrambled, omelette, etc. 5.

Poisson - Fish

Being a soft fibred and tender meat which is easily digested helps to prepare the appetite for the heavier courses to come, various cooking methods can be used but ensure the correct garnishes and sauces accompany the dish - shell fish will also come under this category.

6.

Entrée - First Main Course/sauced dish

This is the first meat course on the menu. These dishes are generally small, well garnished and have a rich sauce. Potatoes and vegetables may be served with this category.

7.

Releve - (Remove) Roasts - on the bone

These are usually butchers’ Joint which have to be carved, saddle of lamb, baron of beef, leg of ham; they are always served with a sauce or “roast gravy”, potatoes and vegetables. 8.

Grillades - Grills

These are the individual cuts of meat suitable for grilling - sirloin, fillet, chops, t-bone, cutlets.

9.

Roties - Roasts - poultry or game

Chicken, turkey, duck, pheasant, quail accompanied with its own particular sauce or gravy and a green salad served on a crescent shaped plate. 10. Legumes - Vegetables Most European menus feature vegetables as a separate course category. These may be ordered and eaten with a main dish or as a dish in their own right individual items such as corn on the cob, asparagus and artichokes with a butter sauce served separately. (Hollandaise, Beurre Fondue or Beurre blanc).

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11. Salades - Salads These are usually the mixed or combination variety consisting of meat and vegetables within a dressing and presented on a garnished plate, some may even be served hot. 12. Buffet Froid - Cold Buffet These are cold cuts of meat, fish and poultry, galantines, pates and terrines, appropriately garnished or set in aspic and served with a sauce - often based on mayonnaise.

13. Entremets - Sweets Both Hot and Cold are listed under this category, soufflĂŠs, crepes, coupes, jellies, bavarois etc. 14. Glaces - Ices This category is restricted to frozen preparations such as ice-creams, sherbet, granitas, parfait and bombes. 15. CanapĂŠs - Savouries Most of these items are served on toast, - mushrooms, oysters, Welsh rarebit - the general rule being they are hot (peppery) in flavour or cheese based. 16. Fromage - Cheeses All types of cheese may be offered with the appropriate accompaniments - dry biscuits, dried/fresh fruit, salad greens, nuts etc. 17. Dessert - Fresh Fruit & Nuts All forms may be offered - served.

Note: Beverages are not considered to be a course, these are offered at the completion of the meal together with Petit Fours (or After Dinner Mints) and liqueurs.

Menu Styles Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

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A restaurant prepares and serves food, drink and dessert to customers in return for money. Meals are generally served and eaten on premises, but many restaurants also offer take-out and food delivery services. Restaurants vary greatly in appearance and offerings, including a wide variety of the main chef's cuisines and service models. Traditionally there are two main styles of menus - á la carte and table d’hôte.

á la carte Means - From the card An á la carte menu lists individually priced dishes cooked to order. This menu will offer the customer a full list of dishes to suit a variety of taste. The course may follow a traditional sequence of courses. Characteristics: • • • • • •

The food is cooked/assembled to order Customers make their own selection Items are a single serve style Customers are required to wait Not as suitable for large functions Expensive items can be included in the menu

table d’hôte Means - Table of the host (pronounced “table dote”) The Table d’hôte menu is a fixed or set menu offering a complete meal at a set price. The full price is charged even if the customer has not consumed all courses. Characteristics: • • • • • •

There is a limited choice to each course The items are often pre-prepared or cooked Items are often multi-portion style e.g. Wet dishes or roasts Traditional course sequence is generally followed This menu is popular for functions It can be a faster method of service

Other menu styles include: • • •

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Set or Function Menu Degustation Menu Cycle Menu

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


• Cocktail • Buffet Menus Smorgasbords Finger Food Buffet Breakfast Buffet

Set or Function Menu A set or function menu is mainly used for formal occasions such as weddings. The number of courses and sequence is predetermined. The distinguishing feature is there is no choice offered within each course. This is where the set or function menu differs from a Table d’hôte menu.

Degustation Menu Means - Tasting A degustation menu is a fixed multi coursed menu with a set price. The degustation menu was fashionable in the French Nouvelle Cuisine movement. It is designed to allow customers to taste a wide range of dishes that a restaurant has to offer. The portion sizes are small to be enabling the customer to consume a large number of courses. This style has become popular in some top of the range restaurants in Australia. Characteristics: • • •

The number and sequence of courses is predetermined There is usually no choice offered within the courses The price is set with no choice for customer

Cycle Menu Means - Rotating A cycle menu is an organised period for presenting preplanned menus in a regular and repeated pattern, over a set period of days. Characteristics: • • •

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

These menus are particularly suited for institutions, hospitals, canteens and cruise ship The cycle of time are usually repeated every 14, 12 or 28 days The cycle menu allows for careful control of costs

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Cocktail A cocktail buffet may be served at any time of the day. It is ideal for functions such as seminars, graduations, speeches or presentations, where people stand rather than sit down. Food items include: canapés, boucheés, dips, cheeses etc. The item should be no more than two mouthfuls.

Buffet Menus A buffet is a system of serving meals in which food is placed in a public area where the diners generally serve themselves. It is a popular method for feeding a large number of people with minimal staff. Buffets are offered at various places including hotels and many social events.

Types of buffets include: •

Smorgasbords Are known as buffets as they may be used to offer the dishes of a buffet meal to guests.

Finger Food Buffet Finger food is food eaten directly using the hands, in contrast to food eaten with a knife and fork, chopsticks, or other utensils. In many Western countries there are catering businesses that supply finger-foods for events such as weddings, engagements, birthdays and other milestone celebrations. For weddings, in particular, finger foods are becoming more popular because they are less expensive and offer more flexibility with menu choices.

Breakfast Buffet The breakfast buffet has the practical advantage of allowing a longer service time with a minimal amount of staff. It is an economical way to serve a wide variety of food to a large number of customers in a short period of time.

Food Availability The ease of acquiring food should be taken into consideration. Seasonal availability is still the major

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consideration when planning a menu. Price and quality are not at their best when food is out of season. A planner needs to be familiar with: • • • • • • •

The variety of food products available The differing quality aspects of food The seasonal availability of food Suitable food suppliers Food styles in vogue Modern preparation and presentation methods How the food is best packaged, transported, stored and preserved

Fruit & Vegetable Availability The following information has been obtained from ‘the green line, organic direct’. The web site for updates is, under a guide to fruit and vegetables: http://www.greenlinedelivery.com.au/

January - midsummer - fruit apricot, banana, berries - blackberry - blueberry boysenberry - gooseberry - loganberry - mulberry raspberry - strawberry, cherry - morello (sour), currants - red currant - black currant, lemons, lychee, mango, mangosteen, melons - honeydew - rockmelon watermelon, nectarine, passionfruit, peach, pineapple smooth leaf, plum, prickly pear, rambutan, starfruit, tamarillo.

January - midsummer - vegetables asparagus, avocado - reed, beans - butter - green snake, capsicum, celery, choko, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, okra, onions - salad - spring, peas - green snow - sugar snap, radish, squash, sweetcorn, tomato, zucchini, zucchini flowers.

February - late summer - fruit apple - aba, banana, berries - blackberry - blueberry boysenberry - loganberry - raspberry - strawberry, fig, grapes - cardinal - muscat - sultana - waltham cross, guava, kiwifruit, lemon, lychee, mango, mangosteen, melons - honeydew - rockmelon - watermelon, nectarine, orange - valencia, passionfruit, peach, pears - howell - red sensation - williams, plums, prickly pear, rambutan, rhubarb, starfruit, tamarillo.

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February - late summer - vegetables avocado - reed, beans - borlotti - butter - green - snake, capsicum, celery, chilli, choko, cucumber, daikon, eggplant, leek, lettuce, okra, onions - brown - salad spring, peas - green - snow - sugar snap, radish, squash, sweetcorn, tomato, zucchini, zucchini flowers.

March - early autumn - fruit apples - aba, cox's orange pippins - gala - jonagold jonathan - mutso, banana, berries - raspberry strawberry, breadfruit, feijoa, figs, grapes - cardinal currant - muscat - purple cornichon - sultana - waltham cross, guava, kiwifruit, lemon, limes, mango, mangosteen, melons - honeydew - rockmelon, nashi, nectarine, nuts - almond - chestnut - hazelnut pistachio - walnut, orange - valencia, papaya, passionfruit, peach, pears - beurre bosc - howell josephine - packham - red sensation - williams, persimmon, plums, pomegranate, rambutan, rhubarb, tamarillo.

March - early autumn - vegetables asian greens - bok choy - choy sum - gai laan - wonga bok, avocados - fuerte - shepard, beans - borlotti butter - green - snake, capsicum, celery, chilli, cucumber, daikon, eggplant, leek, lettuce, okra, olive, onions - brown - red - spring, peas, potato, pumpkin, shallot, silverbeet, spinach, squash, sweetcorn, sweet potato, tomato, zucchini.

April - mid autumn - fruit apples aba, bonza - braeburn - cox's orange pippins fuji - gala - golden delicious - granny smith - jonagold jonathan - mutso - red delicious - snow, banana, cumquat, custard apple, feijoa, figs, grapes - muscat purple cornichon - sultana - waltham cross, guava, kiwifruit, lemons. limes, mandarin - imperial, nashi, nuts - almond - chestnut - hazelnut - peanut - pistachio - walnut, orange - valencia, papaya, passionfruit, pears - beurre bosc - howell - josephine - packham - red sensation - williams, persimmon, plums, pomegranate, quince, rhubarb.

April - mid autumn - vegetables asian greens - bok choy - choy sum - gai laan - wonga bok, avocado - fuerte, beans - green - snake, beetroot, broccoli, brussels sprout, cabbage, capsicum, carrots, celery, chilli, cucumber, daikon, eggplant, fennel, garlic,

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ginger, leek, lettuce, mushrooms - wild - field - pine slippery jacks, okra, olives, onions - brown - spring, parsnip, peas, potato, pumpkin, shallot, silverbeet, spinach, squash, sweet potato, swede, tomato, turnip, zucchini.

May - late autumn - fruit apples - bonza - braeburn - cox's orange pippins - fuji gala - golden delicious - granny smith - jonagold jonathan - mutso - pink lady - red delicious - snow sundowner, banana, cumquat, custard apple, feijoa, grapes - purple cornichon - waltham cross, kiwifruit, lemons, limes, mandarin - imperial, melon champagne, nuts - chestnut - hazelnut - peanut walnut, pears - howell - josephine - packham - red sensation - williams, persimmon, quince, rhubarb.

May - late autumn - vegetables asian greens - bok choy, - choy sum - gai laan - wonga bok, avocados - fuerte - sharwill, beetroot, broccoli, brussels sprout, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celeriac, celery, daikon, eggplant, fennel, garlic, ginger, horseradish, leeks, lettuce, mushrooms - wild - field pine - slippery jacks, okra, olives, onions - brown spring, parsnip, peas, potato, pumpkin, shallots, silverbeet, spinach, squash, swede, sweet potato, taro, tomato, turnip, witlof, zucchini.

June - early winter - fruit apples - bonza - braeburn - cox's orange pippins - fuji gala - golden delicious - granny smith - jonagold jonathan - lady williams - mutso - pink lady - red delicious - snow - sundowner, custard apple, grapefruit, kiwifruit, lemons, limes, mandarin ellendale, melons -champagne, nashi, nuts - chestnut hazelnut - walnut, oranges - navel, pears - beurre bosc - josephine - packham, persimmon, pomelo, quince, rhubarb.

June - early winter- vegetables asian greens - bok choy - choy sum - gai laan - wonga bok, avocados - fuerte - sharwill, beetroot, broccoli, brussels sprout, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celeriac, celery, fennel, garlic, ginger, horseradish, jerusalem artichokes, kale, kohlrabi, leeks, okra, olives, onions, parsnip, peas, potato, pumpkin, shallot, silverbeet, spinach, swede, sweet potato, turnip, witlof.

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

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July - mid winter - fruit apples -bonza - braeburn - fuji - golden delicious - lady williams - pink lady - red delicious - snow - sundowner, cumquat, custard apple, grapefruit, lemons, limes, mandarin - ellendale - imperial, melons - champagne, nashi, oranges - navel, papaya, pineapple, pomelo, rhubarb, tangelo.

July - mid winter- vegetables asian greens - bok choy -choy sum - gai laan - wonga bok, avocados - fuerte - hass - sharwill, beetroot, broccoli, brussels sprout, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower, celeriac, celery, fennel, garlic, ginger, horseradish, jerusalem artichoke, kale, kohlrabi, leeks, okra, olives, onions, parsnip, potato, pumpkin, shallot, silverbeet, spinach, swede, sweet potato, turnip, witlof.

August - late winter - fruit apples - fuji - lady williams - sundowner, cumquat, custard apple, grapefruit - yellow - pink, lemons, limes, mandarins - ellendale - imperial - murcot, nashi, oranges - blood - navel, pawpaw, pineapple - smooth leaf, pomelo, rhubarb, tangelo.

August - late winter- vegetables asian greens - bok choy - choy sum - gai laan - wonga bok, avocados - fuerte - hass - sharwill, beetroot, broccoli, brussels sprout, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, celeriac, celery, fennel, garlic, ginger, horseradish, jerusalem artichoke, kohlrabi, leeks, okra, olives, onions, parsnip, potato, pumpkin, shallot, silverbeet, spinach, swede, sweet potato, turnip, witlof.

September - early spring - fruit apple - lady williams, cumquat, grapefruit, lemon, mandarins -ellendale - murcot, oranges - blood seville, papaya, pawpaw, pineapple - smooth leaf, tangelo.

September - early spring - vegetables artichoke, asian greens - bok choy - choy sum - gai laan - wonga bok, asparagus - green - purple, avocados fuerte - hass - sharwill, beans - broad - green, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, cauliflower garlic, ginger, leek, lettuce, mushrooms - morel, onions - salad - spring, peas, potato, pumpkin, silverbeet, spinach.

October - mid spring - fruit berries - strawberry, cumquat, grapefruit - pink -

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Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


yellow, lemon, loquat, mango, orange - valencia, papaya, pawpaw, Pineapples - smooth - rough leaf, starfruit.

October - mid spring - vegetables artichoke, asian greens - bok choy - choy sum - gai laan - wonga bok, asparagus -green - white - purple, avocados - fuerte - hass - sharwill, beans - broad green, broccoli, choko, cucumber, garlic, lettuce, onions - salad - spring, peas, silverbeet, spinach, watercress.

November - late spring - fruit banana, berries - strawberry, cherry, grapefruit, loquat, lychee, mango, melons - honeydew - rockmelon watermelon, orange - valencia, papaya, pawpaw, pineapples - smooth - rough leaf, starfruit.

November - late spring - vegetables artichoke, asparagus, avocado - hass, beans, choko, cucumber, lettuce, onions - salad - spring, peas - green - snow - sugar snap, spinach, sweetcorn, tomato, watercress, zucchini flowers.

December - early summer - fruit apricot, banana, berries - gooseberry - loganberry raspberry - strawberry, cherry, currants - black currant - red currant, lemon, lychee, mango, melon honeydew - rockmelon - watermelon, orange valencia, passionfruit, pineapples - smooth - rough leaf, rambutan, starfruit.

December - early summer - vegetables asparagus, avocado - hass, beans - green - snake, capsicum, celery, choko, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, onion - salad - spring, peas - green - snow - sugar snap, radish, squash, sweetcorn, tomato, watercress, zucchini, zucchini flowers.

Keeping Them Fresh Fresh fruit and vegetables continue to mature after harvest. Correct storage helps to maintain quality, freshness, flavour and nutrient value. Below is a quick guide to the correct storage conditions for fruit and vegetables. These recommendations may vary depending on the climate. •

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

Green leafy vegetables and salad vegetables that have too much moisture can cause spoilage. These vegetables are very perishable and should be used

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• • • • • •

soon after purchase. They should be stored, unwashed in the crisper or vented plastic bags in the fridge. Citrus fruits, apples and pears are best stored in the fridge. Berries, stone fruit, melons, grapes, kiwi fruit are best stored unwashed in the fridge. Take care to protect fruit from bruising. Bananas should be stored at moderate room temperature. If hot keep in a cool place but do not refrigerate. Mushrooms are best stored in brown paper bags in the fridge. Root vegetables - carrots, turnips, beetroot, and parsnips should be stored in sealed plastic bags or the crisper compartment of the fridge. Onions, potatoes and garlic should be stored in a cool, dark, dry and well ventilated place.

Seasonality Please note that not all fruits and vegetables will be available at these times of year or in an organic form. The list reflects when fruit and vegetables are at their peak of flavour, ripeness, quality and value each month but it cannot take into account climatic conditions. Name the season for the following produce:

Fruit /Vegetable Example: Apricot

Starting month December

Banana Pawpaw Asparagus Strawberries Tomato Zucchini Flowers Mandarins

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Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

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of the liquid. Steaming - is the principle of cookery where food is suspended and cooked by steam. The steam may be atmospheric or pressure. Stewing - is the principle of cookery where food is completely covered in a minimal amount of liquid or sauce and slowly simmered. Braising - is the principle of cookery where food is half covered by an appropriate liquid and cooked slowly in a tightly lidded container in the oven. Deep frying - is the principle of cookery where food is cooked by totally immersing in hot fat or oil. Shallow frying - is the principle of cookery where food is cooked in a small amount of hot fat or oil. Grilling - is the principle of cookery where the food is cooked by radiated heat directed from above or below the food. Roasting - is the principle of cookery where food is cooked in an oven or on a spit roast. In both cases fat is used as a basting agent. Microwaving - is the principle of cookery in which energy is transferred to the food by electro-magnetic radiation. Sous vide - is a method of cooking food sealed in airtight plastic bags in a water bath for a long time—72 hours is not unusual—at an accurately determined temperature much lower than normally used for cooking, typically around 60 °C or 140 °F. The intention is to maintain the integrity of ingredients.

Colour When planning a menu you need to remember the importance of the colour selections of an individual dish and throughout the menu. This will create that first impression to the customer. Provide a range of colours that will enhance each dish.

Tastes The basic flavours are bitter, sour, sweet and salty. Flavour changes during cooking and flavours can be added to base ingredients by using seasonings, sauces, Page 30 of 74

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dressings, marinades and accompaniments.

Textures Textures may be described as chewy, brittle, soft, hard, crunchy, crisp, sticky, thick, thin etc. Consistency and variety is important and is achieved by using a variety of fresh, raw and cooked ingredients.

Nutritional Balance It is really important to offer your guest the choice of very healthy foods as well as the “favourites� that usually contain a lot of saturated fats. If you work in a hospital, nursing home, boarding school, etc. where you have the responsibility for providing all the meals and snacks an individual consumes, you must prepare foods that are highly nutritious and well presented. There are two main food classifications used in Australia. The one that is most useful is the Australian

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Guide to Healthy Eating. This gives sample serving sizes and an indication of the number of serves required for the major age groups. It is a guide only and is for healthy Australians. The other classification is the Australian Food Pyramid. There are three pyramids available: 1. 2. 3.

For healthy Australian Adults For healthy Australian Children For healthy Elderly Australians

The Healthy Eating Pyramid divides foods into three major groups: 1. Eat most 2. Eat moderately 3. Eat in Small Amounts There is no indication of sample serving sizes within each group.

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Source: The

Australian Nutrition Foundation

The following points should be observed to maintain maximum nutritional value in food: •

• •

• • • • •

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

Use minimal salt in recipes. Consider replacing part of the salt with an herb or spice, flavoured vinegar, citrus juice or peel, garlic or onion powder. Use vegetable spray or non-stick pans for grilling or stir-frying. When you use oil, select olive or canola oil. Drain off visible fat while cooking; blot pan-fried /deepfried foods on paper towels to absorb extra grease before serving. Avoid excess soaking of fruits and vegetables. (Destroys water soluble vitamins). Avoid over-cooking fruits and vegetables. This causes a loss in vitamins and minerals. Purchase fruits and vegetables at their freshest and store at the appropriate temperature. Prepare fruits and vegetables as close to service time as possible and don’t over peel. Using appropriate cooking methods, minimal fat,

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and adding more vegetables, fruits and whole grains to recipes is a guaranteed way of providing better nutritional value to ourselves and our customers. These steps can help lower risk for such things as high cholesterol and heart disease.

Cost menus

3.1 Itemise all proposed components of the included dishes 3.2 Calculate portion yields and costs from raw ingredients. 3.3 Assess cost-effectiveness of proposed dishes or food pro menu items that provide high yield. 3.4 Price menu items to ensure maximum profitability.

Menu Price Balance Menus have a number of high food cost and lower food cost items in their mix. Every food service operator would like to have only low food cost items on the menu “for better profit�; however low food cost items are not always what your customers would like. Q. What are the low food cost dishes on your menu or a restaurant you may know? _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _______________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _______________________________ Q. What are the high food cost dishes on your menu or a restaurant you may know? _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _______________________________ _____________________________________________

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_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _______________________________ Menu Cost Balancing requires the chef to spread the costs throughout the menu, in order to achieve the desired food cost %.

Definitions Sales mix: The ranking of items on a menu according to their contribution to the overall volume of sales.

Contribution to Profit: The ranking of an item on a menu according to its contribution to the overall profit margin.

Example A 30% food cost applies to the dishes. Recommende d Menu Item

Food cost $

Sale price (food cost @ 30%)

Seafood salad

Potato and leek soup

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

Cost Evaluation

dish Too high

$6.90

$23.00

(how is this determined?)

$1.10

$3.67

Too low

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If the recommended sale prices are accepted, you can see how the low food cost of the soup makes up for the high food cost of the seafood. The revised food cost should compete with competitor’s prices, whilst still reflecting market forces.

Menu engineering What is menu engineering? There is not just a one-fits-all formula to pricing a menu. There are different factors to consider when making this decision. Menu engineering is a tool which allows you to control the contribution to the profit margin of your menu items in response to changes such as: •

Marketing approach to evaluate menu pricing, design and content decisions

Classifies menus on base selling price and margin dollars, not just percentages

A cost multiplier pricing formula inadvertently restrictive to profitability

Reliable model does not replace sound professional judgment

The aim is to: •

Maximize menu profitability

Identify your best sellers and profit contributors

Weed out low-volume low-profit menu items

Ensure that your profit and menu strategy is in sync

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Menu engineering is a tool which allows you to control the contribution to the profit margin of your menu items in response to changes such as: •

Changing economic, social and competitive climate

Growth of price/value driver of spending behaviour

Rising food costs

Menu engineering is a pricing strategy model used to support profitability and also assist with menu structure decision making. The three elements for making a price decision are: •

Customer demand: number of patrons over certain period of time

Menu mix analysis: relative proportion of menu items sold (customer preference by menu item) and in what relative proportions

Item contribution margin: number of $$ remaining after food cost; each item’s profitability

Profit Margin versus Cost of Goods • • • •

No direct relationship between food cost % and its contribution to profit margin Menu items which generate a high contribution to profit margin are good Food cost is less important if Contribution to profit Margin is good. Menu engineering uses an average contribution margin as the benchmark for evaluating competing menu items.

Example:

Contribution

Margins

vs.

Food

Percentage

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

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Cost


The Steps in Menu Engineering 1. 2. 3. 4.

Produce a menu item analysis Generate a menu mix analysis Develop menu item classifications Identify appropriate menu item decision alternatives 5. Resources such as computerised menu management systems (such as the Resort software) and POS systems are the basis for collecting data.

The Menu Analysis Process • • •

Based on menu sales (volume of sales) and profit margin Highlights the relative profitability and popularity of individual dishes. This will assist in menu planning, design and pricing decisions Identifies menu categories and items you want to sell (the most popular and profitable ones), and those items to eliminate that do not contribute to the bottom line. Allows for more subtle menu planning by revealing, for example, a popular but unprofitable item which can be “modified” to provide more profit Identifies items for potential price changes

Psychology of Menu Pricing (Know your clients) •

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Establish an acceptable price range for your Target

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


• • • •

market Analyse your markets ability to differentiate products and value Examine consumer conditioning to pricing based on the style/ type of restaurant. Monitoring your competitors pricing in relation to quality, service, portion size, etc. Develop signature items: those without competitive comparison

Price Elasticity Price elasticity relates to quantity sold after the selling price is increased • • • •

Higher elasticity = menu items which are less sensitive to price increases Ability to retain, reposition, replace or re-price items The Challenge: Pricing menu high enough to cover expenses yet low enough to attract business Price and demand are the primary focus; other factors include quality, image, location, service

Consider the following: Alternatives to Increasing Prices • • • • •

Reduce portion size ( supplement accompaniments) Revise purchase specifications Reduce complementary food items Increase productivity Improve operational controls

with

Making Price Changes The Challenge is to avoid the risk of loss versus real gain, so: • • • • •

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

Limit increases in low trade volume periods Make small increases as soon as possible Discount pricing during low volume periods Use odd pricing such as $5.95 or $5.99 versus $6.00 Think about it in relationship to contribution

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• •

margin Call as little attention to the increase as possible Re -order the dishes on menus/menu boards

Possible actions to increase the Contribution to Profit Margin • • • • • • •

Determine sensitivity to price change Redo recipe/re-engineer product Delete from menu or use for specials only (cash cows) Increase or decrease price Package menu items together (combos) Change your concept Measure the payback

The word yield refers to the amount of saleable food obtained from the raw product. We use yield tests to help us determine the profit of an item on a menu. The purpose for yield testing is to obtain the following information: • The cost of the dish • The food cost % • Compare other available commodities • To calculate orders When purchasing, it is important to consider which product will return the greatest yield for your money. A yield test will give you this information.

Types of yield tests There are a number of yield tests which can be applied. They include:

Butchering test: •

used for meat, fish or poultry to calculate actual quantity and cost of raw saleable meat/food.

Cooking loss test: • • •

is mainly used for meat to calculate the cooking loss during the cooking process. the loss of bones and trimming after cooking may also be included. different temperatures/cooking times as well as equipment must be considered.

Trimming and preparation loss test: •

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mainly used for fruit & vegetables to determine actual quantities and cost of raw saleable food.

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


Labour test: • •

this test is applied if the cost of labour is added to the total value of the item. cost effectiveness must be examined to determine how to purchase meats/food.

Labour cost When doing a yield test it is important to consider labour costs. The time it takes to perform the task of should be calculated to the overall cost. For example if you are trying to identify whether it would be cheaper to purchase an untrimmed product you need to add the labour cost to the final trimmed product before you can make that decision.

Frozen Products are purchased by the per kg price. When items are frozen they can retain water, especially seafood. You need to do a yield test on some frozen products to determine the % loss in water when defrosted. You may be surprised that you are paying more per kg than you originally thought. A yield test can contain some or all of the following information. Bones and Trim

This is the weight lost after the meat is p

Cooked weight

Cooked Weight = Prepared Weight - Los

Cooking degree

This information is only provided when a

Cooking temperature

This information is only provided when a

Cooking time

This information is only provided when a

Cost factor Cost per kilogram

The new cost per kilogram

Cost per kilogram =

the total cost

Grade

Grade refers to the quality of the raw pr

Item being tested

This could be any cut of meat including t red meat. It could be raw or cooked.

Loss in cooking

Loss in Cooking = Prepared Weight - Coo

Loss in trimmings

Loss in Trimmings = Total Weight – Trim

New cost per kilogram

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

Cost factor =

=

The total value

/Saleable weight

Preparation time

This is required for labour cost.

Saleable weight

The amount of meat that remains after during the preparation.

Total cost

Sometimes the total cost may be given t

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using the following formula: Total value

The total value of the raw meat and sale

Total weight

It is how much this product weighs.

Trimmed weight

Trimmed weight = total weight - trimmin

Weight in percentage

The raw weight expressed as a total per

Write menu content

4.1 Write menus using words that appeal to the customer b service style. 4.2 Use correct names for the style of cuisine. 4.3 Use descriptive writing to promote the sale of menu item .

Writing Menus A menu is more than just a list of food with prices. It is a reflection of your style and concept. A menu, regardless of what it’s to be used for, is not something to be hastily written up, but rather an important marketing tool that should be carefully considered. There are three main parts of designing a menu: • • •

Description Layout Pricing

Writing your Menu A good rule of thumb when writing the descriptions of your menu items is to keep it short and simple. But the description should be vivid and enticing - enough to make a guest’s mouth water. Always explain what the major ingredients are in a particular dish, and use ethnic names if they fit, to add a bit of authentic flair to the menu description. On the successful completion of this topic you will be able to: • • •

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Write concise and attractive dish descriptions and phrasing for menu item listings. Describe menu items in ways appropriate for a variety of establishments. Identify and use correct menu terminology.

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


Show an awareness of the need to be accurate and truthful.

The menu communicates to the customer on two different levels: • • • • • • •

• •

What food and services are on offer? Quality, size, and shape of the menu design and layout. (Sends a subtle message about what your establishment thinks about their customers). What impressions will a customer get from a menu which is ‘dog eared’ and stained? How might a customer’s mood be affected by a dull and drab menu? What if the descriptions are unclear or confusing? What if there are spelling errors? All of these things can give the customer the impression that the food may be as carelessly prepared as the menu or that the chef or management doesn’t really care about the customers. Since the menu gives customers one of their first impressions of an establishment, every effort should be made to ensure it is a good one. The menu planner’s main task in the area of communication is to choose the best possible words and phrases to describe the food and services offered.

Menu Presentation How you list items on a menu is very much personal choice. Food items are generally listed on menus in one of three different ways: • • •

Title Title plus description Description

Title • • •

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

Dishes simply listed by title without a description. The customer needs a fairly good culinary knowledge. Not popular today due to the many cuisine styles

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and the general lack of knowledge of many customers. Titles are still used today especially with banquet menus where the food items are mostly basic and require little explanation.

Titles and Descriptions •

On today's menus, titles are usually combined with a small description, to give the diner a little more information. • With the vast array of international restaurants today it is important for them to provide a brief description as a lot of customers are not familiar with international food terms. • On some occasions titles are clear but descriptions are added to provide a bit more information or create an atmosphere by using language to evoke feelings and draw mental pictures. For example: Scallop Salad Sautéed coffin bay scallops with roasted red pepper and sun dried tomatoes

Descriptions • • •

The third way of describing food items on a menu is by just using a description. This is a popular method today. The descriptions range from simple, precise descriptions to long lists of ingredients and in some cases quite extensive paragraphs.

Spelling • • • •

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There is no excuse for poor spelling. All menu copies should be proof-read and checked thoroughly by several people before being printed. Even daily specials or blackboard menus should be double-checked by several people. The smallest of errors can still cause embarrassment.

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


Style of Menu Most menus follow formatted styles taken from other successful menus. Menu Design is both art and science. But it’s largely dependent on the foods on your menu. Every establishment is different. So what works for one, may not work for another. The key to good and practical menu design is being flexible enough to allow for changes that will inevitably occur within every establishment due to a variety of conditions. Your menu should reflect the order in which people actually eat the dishes you offer. At an all-day establishment, this would be breakfast, lunch, appetisers, dinner, and then dessert.

Culinary Balance Che

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2

3

4

5

6

7

Evaluate menu success

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Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

Main flavourings

Main ingredients

ColourPredominant

Menu ItemName of

Course number

1


5.1 Seek ongoing feedback from customers and others an performance. 5.2 Assess the success of menus against and customer sa 5.3 Adjust menus based on feedback and profitability.

All menus need feedback from customers and other parties, to check its success and to look for improvements. There are many ways to evaluate and assess a menus performance, below are some examples: • Sales analysis • Customer feedback • Verbal communication • Non-verbal communication • Profit and loss statements

Activity 1 – Identify your customers

Identify who your customers are in these 5 menus:

Type

Covers

Finger food

25

Seated

50

Buffet

100

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

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A la carte 10 entrees,10 mains,

90

6 desserts Set menu 6

40

6 6

• Identify current customer profile for the food business. • Analyse the food preferences of the customer base.

.

Activity 2 – Culinary Influences

Read the following menu and prepare a list of all the culinary influences. As a guide, you refer to the following areas. Please put your answers on the table on the next page. • • •

Ethnic (country of origin) Regional (area within the country) Style (contemporary, classical variation, nouvelle)

MENU Starters: Creamy Leek and potato soup with croutons and grilled bacon Caesar Salad Smoked Salmon with crème fraiche and a cucumber and tomato salsa

Main course: Roast Rib of beef with Yorkshire pudding and roast vegetables

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Char grilled Tasmanian Salmon with steamed baby bok choy, chervil butter sauce Crumbed veal schnitzel with melted Gruyere and baby chat potatoes tossed in a seeded mustard butter

Sweets: Pavlova Peach Melba Crème brûlée

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

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Please put your answers in this table from Activity 2 on previous page

Dish

Ethnic, Regional, Style

Creamy Leek and potato soup with croutons and grilled bacon

Caesar Salad

Smoked Salmon with crème fraiche and a cucumber and tomato salsa Roast Rib of beef with Yorkshire pudding and roast vegetables Char grilled Tasmanian Salmon with steamed baby bok choy, chervil butter sauce Crumbed veal schnitzel with melted Gruyere and baby chat potatoes tossed in a seeded mustard butter

Pavlova

Peach Melba

Crème brûlée

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Activity 3 – Regional Influences Many cuisines now influence menus in Australia. Please provide the information in the grid below.

Cuisine (country of origin)

List five ingredients

Example of a dish

Menu description

1. Italy

2. France

3. Thailand

4. China

5. Morocco

6. Your country of

choice

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

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Activity 4 – Local Produce Research

For each of the produce, research to identify where it is produced and how we use it on a menu. Please place your answers in the space below each area.

Australian product

Name of premium Australian product

Name it on a menu

Cheese

Beef

Pork

Lamb

Fish

Mollusc

Crustaceans

Game

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Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


Bush food

Activity 5 – Plan these menus

Assignment work. Plan these 5 menus.

Type

Covers

Customer type

Finger food

25

18th Birthday

Seated

50

100th Birthday

Buffet

100

Football club presentation night

90

European style restaurant

A la carte 10 entrees,10 mains, 6 desserts Set menu 6 6 6

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

Blackboard 40

Family Bistro $35.00

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• Generate a range of ideas for menus for dishes or food production ranges, assess their merits and discuss with relevant personnel. • Choose menu items to meet customer preferences. • Identify organisational service style and cuisine and develop suitable menus. • Include a balanced variety of dishes or food production items for the style of service and cuisine.

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Activity 6– Spelling Quiz

Cross out the incorrectly spelt words and write in the correct word above it: •

Otway pork belly with capsicum, baby roqcket and Asian dressing

Consome

Beetroot, hazelnuts and goats cheese with hot and cold cauliflower

Pan roasted blue eye with muscle & leak chowder and smokey bacon

Crown of Lara rabbit with broad beans, carrot puree and confite leg

Roasted duck brest with cherrys and parfait

Flinders island lamb with pressed neck, fenel and cocoa

Rubarb with yogurt sorbet, crumble and apple chip

Crispy pinapple brioche

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

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Activity 7 – Standard Recipe Cards

Calculate the cost for 1 portion of the following recipe:

Fillet of beef chasseur - 10 portions Ingredient

Quantity required

Price per unit

Eye fillet Oil Butter Onions Mushrooms Tomatoes Beef Jus Tarragon White wine Black pepper Sea salt Shallots

2.5kg 0.050 L 0.050 kg 0.850 Kg 1.350 Kg 1.170 Kg 1.1 L 2.5 bunches 600mls 5g 10g 160g

$ 26.85 kg $ 4.26 L $ 4.95 kg $1.85 kg $ 7.50kg $ 6.80 kg $ 3.65 L $ 1.15 bunch $12. 95 L $ 22.50 kg $ 12.63kg $ 6.50kg

Total

Total cost for 10 serves

$

Total cost for 1 serve

$

1. What would the selling price be if you had a 28.5% food cost?

2. What would the food cost % be if the menu price was $ 24.50?

3. What would the food cost % be if the menu price was $ 32.75?

Portion Cost - Spicy Chickpeas Patties Recipe from Taste.com.au Page 56 of 74

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


Yield - 4 serves

Chickpeas Thick Greek Style Yoghurt Curry powder Egg Fresh breadcrumbs Green onions Fresh coriander Tablespoon oil Mango chutney Cucumber

Ingredient

2 x 300g cans .375kg 0.20kg 1 .25kg 3 .25kg 0.01L 0.02kg 1

Qty

at at at at at at at at at at

$1.90 ea can $2.85 kg $4.99kg $0.50each $2.73kg 0.70 cents each $2.89kg $4.99 per L $4.10kg $1.99 each

Cost

Unit

Unit

Total

Total Cost

What is the portion cost? 1. What would the selling price be if you had a 22% food cost?

2. What would the food cost % be if the menu price was $ 18.00?

3. What would the food cost % be if the menu price was $ 8.00?

Portion Cost - Caramel Crème Caramel

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

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Recipe taken from Taste.com.au Yield- 8 serves

Caster sugar Water Milk Thickened cream Eggs Brown sugar Golden syrup

Ingredient

.270kg 80mL .375L 250mL 4 eggs .55kg .20L

Qty

at at at at at at at

Unit

$3.00 per kg free $2.15 per Litre $2.30 per 250mL bottle $0.50each $3.50 per kg $3.95 per Litre

Cost Unit

Total

Total Cost

What is the portion cost? 1. What would the selling price be if you had a 12% food cost?

2. What would the food cost % be if the menu price was $ 9.50?

3. What would the food cost % be if the menu price was $ 15.00?

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Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


Activity 8 – Yield Tests

Yield Test 1 Please complete the Yield test below – show working out calculations. Item being tested Total weight Cost per kilo Total cost Grade

Sirloin on the bone 17.5 kg $19.50 $ A1

1. What is the cost of the meat? $

Weight Kg

Weight %

Original Cost per kilo

Total weight

17.500Kg

100 %

$19.50

Bones

3.000kg

a.

Fat

1.000kg

b.

sinew

0.500kg

c.

Details

Trimmed weight

d.

kg

e.

%

f.New cost per kilo? $

Cost factor

Cost factor g.

Working out space: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 2. How many 0.250g steaks would I obtain from the trimmed weight? 3. How much would each 250g steak cost?

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4. How much would you sell the steak if the gross profit was 71.75 % and the following Additional commodities were used? Cost of the above steak - $ Fondant potatoes

$0 .85

French beans

$0 .60

Slow roast Roma tomatoes

$0 .72

Red wine jus

$1 .36

Crisp pancetta

$0 .75

Watercress garnish

$0 .17

a. Total food cost - $ b. Menu price - $ 5. How much sirloin on the bone do you need to order for 462 portions at 0.250 grams?

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Yield Test 2 Please complete the Yield test below – show working out calculations. Item being tested Total weight Cost per kilo Total cost Grade

Sirloin on the bone 20.5 kg $17.75 $ A1

1. What is the cost of the meat? $

Details

Weight

Kg

Total weight

20.500Kg

Bones

4.000kg

a.

Fat

1.500kg

b.

sinew

1.00kg

c.

Trimmed weight

d.

kg

e.

Weight %

Original Cost per kilo

100 %

$17.75

%

f. New cost per kilo? $

Cost factor

Cost factor g.

Working out space: a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

.

2. How many 0 250g steaks would I obtain from the trimmed weight? 3. How much would each 250g steak cost?

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4. How much would you sell the steak if the gross profit was 69.75 % and the following Additional commodities were used? Cost of the above steak - $ Fondant potatoes

$0 .79

French beans

$0 .65

Slow roast Roma tomatoes

$0 .56

Red wine jus

$1 .07

Crisp pancetta

$0 .68

Watercress garnish

$0 .13

a. Total food cost - $ b. Menu price - $ 5. How much sirloin on the bone do you need to order for 534 portions at 0.250 grams?

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Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


Yield Test 3 - Cooking Loss Yield Please complete the Yield test below. The chef prepares a fish terrine from the following ingredients: • • •

1 kg salmon at $ 22.00 kg 1 kg prawns at $ 29.00 kg 1 kg scallops at $ 30.00 kg

1. What is the per kg price of the uncooked terrine? $ 2. During cooking there is a 22% cooking loss, therefore: a. How much will the cooked terrine weigh?

kg

b. How much is the cooked terrine per kilo (this is the new price per kg)? $ c. How much will a 120gram portion cost (remember to use new price per kg)? $ 3. How much should you charge if the targeted food cost percentage is as follows: •

24.5% - $

16% - $

34.5% - $

4. How much would a 165gm portion cost? $ 5. What is the cost factor for this fish terrine? CF = 6. How much of each type of seafood would I need to order to obtain 243 portions at 140g each, of the cooked terrine? Order this much of each type of seafood:

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Activity 9 – Cost the menus designed in Activity 5

Choose one.

Type

Covers

Customer type

Finger food

25

18th Birthday

Seated

50

100th Birthday

Buffet

100

Football club presentation night

90

European style restaurant

A la carte 10 entrees,10 mains, 6 desserts Set menu 6 6 6

Blackboard 40

Family Bistro $35.00

Notes: 25% food costs 33% labour costs

• Itemise all proposed components of the included dishes or food production items. • Calculate portion yields and costs from raw ingredients.

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• Assess cost-effectiveness of proposed dishes or food production items and choose menu items that provide high yield.

Activity 10 – Write these menus

Type

Covers

Customer type

Finger food

25

18th Birthday

Seated

50

100th Birthday

Buffet

100

Football club presentation night

90

European style restaurant

A la carte 10 entrees,10 mains, 6 desserts

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Set menu 6

Blackboard 40

6

Family Bistro $35.00

6

• Write menus using words that appeal to the customer base and fit with the business service style. • Use correct names for the style of cuisine. • Use descriptive writing to promote the sale of menu items.

Activity 11 – Evaluate the menus

Type

Covers

Customer type

Finger food

25

18th Birthday

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Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


Seated

50

100th Birthday

Buffet

100

Football club presentation night

90

European style restaurant

A la carte 10 entrees,10 mains, 6 desserts Set menu 6 6 6

Blackboard 40

Family Bistro $35.00

• Seek ongoing feedback from customers and others and use to improve menu performance. • Assess the success of menus against and customer satisfaction and sales data. • Adjust menus based on feedback and profitability.

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Activity 12– Overview and Revision

1. What are the 2 main menu styles? Now explain the 3 main characteristics of each. 1.

2.

2. What is a standard recipe card?

3. Why are standard recipes important? Please provide 4 reasons.

4. List 10 important pieces of information required in a standard recipe card:

5. What other 2 elements are required to be calculated into the sales price of a menu item besides the food cost %? 1. Food Cost % 2. 3.

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6. Please calculate the correct menu price for the following dishes given the food cost and food cost %:

Menu item

Food cost

Food cost %

Menu Price?

Prawn cocktail

$3.75

27 %

$

Mushroom Soup

$0. 86

18 %

$

Lobster salad

$27.00

46%

$

Tuscan salad

$2.80

16%

$

Coffee parfait

$1.16

23 %

$

7. What is the food cost Percentage of a Crème caramel? If the menu price is $5.10 - $ If the food cost is $0.73 - $ 8. What does the term “Gross profit” mean?

9. Why is a monthly stocktake important?

10. What is the opening stock?

11. What is the closing stock?

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12. List, in order, the seventeen courses in the Traditional Classical menu: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 13. What is the benefit of knowing the Classical menu?

14. What are the culinary balance issues you need to consider when planning a set menu, with no choice?

15. What are the five main food groups?

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Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon


16. List the things that you can personally do to help you manage you time effectively.

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Candidate name: Name of Supervisor:

Contact no: employer

Relationship with candidate:

supervisor

colleague

other

Please specify ________________________________________________ [Please do not complete the form if you are a relative, close friend or have a conflict of interest]

Dates the candidate worked with you

From:

To:

The candidate is being assessed against the hospitality industry competency standards. We are seeking your support in the judgement of this candidate’s competence. Please answer these questions honestly as a record of the candidate’s performance while working with you. Thank you for your time.

Workplace Assessment - Plan and Cost Basic Menus Practical Component I can verify the candidate’s ability to: (tick the correct response)

Yes

No

Not sure

Evidence to support my responses e.g. photographs, samples etc. (please attach)

1. Identify Customer preferences

2. Plan Menus

3.Cost menus

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4.Write Menu Content 5.Evalute Menu Success

Supervisors signature:

Date:

Underpinning Knowledge Assessment You will need to demonstrate your underpinning knowledge for this subject. Your assessor will arrange a date for you to sit two written knowledge assessment tests To ensure you are ready for the knowledge tests, please read through the “Student Learners” guide for this subject and complete all of the activities, reviews and revision questions.

Subject

Date

Test 1 Test 2 Workbook complete

Final recorded mark (The Gordon)

CM

 Satisfactory

NYC Not Satisfactory

Verification of Competency for: (SITHKOP302) Plan and cost menus Observation

Demonstration

Assessor Name: Assessor signature:

Samples of work provided

Records of training sighted

Discussion and questioning

Knowledge test

Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon

Date: Comments:

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Plan and cost basic menus Learner guide I The Gordon