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Bullying  

   

 

How  can  we  help  our  community  be  more  aware  of  the   seriousness  of  bullying?     Introduction  (Define):  The  word  “bully”  can  be  traced  back  as  far  as  the  1530s  (Harper,   2008).  In  its  most  basic  sense  bullying  involves  two  people,  a  bully  or  intimidator  and  a   victim.  The  bully  abuses  the  victim  through  physical,  verbal  or  other  means  in  order  to   gain  a  sense  of  superiority  and  power.  These  actions  may  be  direct  (i.e.  hitting,  verbally   assaulting  face-­‐to-­‐face,  etc.)  or  indirect  (i.e.  rumors,  gossip,  etc.).-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐ -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐Pg.  3     Approach  1-­‐  Awareness  -­‐Public  awareness  on  bullying  has  increased  and  the  call  for  anti   bullying  legislation  is  on  the  move.  However,  the  need  for  action  is  escalating  at  a  pace   that  demands  our  attention.  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐Pg.  6-­‐9     Approach  2-­‐Ramifications-­‐  Possible  solutions  are  to  increase  awareness  of  cyber   bullying  and  teach  the  public  how  to  prevent  themselves  from  becoming  victims.-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐ -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐Pg.  10-­‐15     Approach  3-­‐  Scope  Prevention/intervention  strategies  should  focus  on  increasing   empathy  and  support  for  those  who  are  victimized  by  bullying,  raising  awareness  of   individual  responsibilities,  and  encouraging  action  by  the  children  who  do  not  approve  of   bullying.  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐Pg.  16-­‐18     Solutions  To  Problem-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐Pg.  19-­‐20       Appendix  -­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐-­‐Pg.  23-­‐27    

 

                           

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Introduction:  

     

 

   Have  you  ever  heard  the  word  bullying  before?  We  imagine  you  have;  but  what  does    

bullying  mean?  When  did  it  begin?  Why  do  we  hear  it  so  often  today?  Let’s  explore  these   questions  together.        Bullying            The  National  Safe  Schools  Framework  defines  bullying  as,  “repeated  verbal,  physical,   social  or  psychological  behavior  that  is  harmful  and  involves  the  misuse  of  power  by  an   individual  or  group  towards  one  or  more  persons  (Fast  Facts:  Bullying  in  Schools).”    The   key  word  here  is  repeated.  Almost  everyone  experiences  an  isolated  attack  or  is  called  a   derogatory  name  at  some  point  in  life.  Conflicts  or  fights  between  equals  and  single   incidents  are  not  defined  as  bullying.            The  definition  of  bullying  has  three  critical  aspects  -­‐  a  repeated  pattern,  the  misuse  of   power  within  relationships,  and  behavior,  which  causes  harm;  all  three  aspects  need  to  be   present  in  order  for  behavior  to  be  called  bullying,  basically  not  all  aggressive  or  harmful   behavior  between  people  is  bullying.  Bullying  of  any  form  or  for  any  reason  can  have  long-­‐ term  effects  on  those  involved,  including  bystanders.   What  does  ‘misuse  of  power’  mean?  In  a  situation  where  there  is  a  power  imbalance,  one   person  or  group  has  a  significant  advantage  over  another,  and  if  this  power  is  misused,   this  enables  them  to  coerce  or  mistreat  another  for  their  own  ends.  As  mentioned  in  Fast   Facts:  Bullying  in  Schools,  this  imbalance  of  power  may  arise  from  context  (e.g.  having   others  backing  you  up),  from  assets  (e.g.  access  to  weapon)  or  from  personal   characteristics  (e.g.  being  stronger,  more  articulate  or  more  able  to  socially  manipulate   others).              It  is  important  to  understand  what  bullying  is  in  order  to  identify  it  and  distinguish  it   from  other  types  of  conflicts  or  violence.  When  identified  correctly,  appropriate  strategies   and  interventions  can  be  used.       When  did  bullying  begin?          Believe  it  not  bullying  has  existed  from  the  beginning  of  time.  Ross  Teemant  LCSW,   MSSW  said  that  there  is  evidence  since  Adam  and  Eve  and  their  family  was  on  the  earth.  It   is  sad  yet  it  makes  sense  that  since  the  beginning  of  time,  people  have  had  to  choose   between  good  and  evil.  Bullying  is  never  good;  it  makes  a  behavioral  standpoint   demonstrating  “power”  over  someone.   Donegan  says,  the  word  “bully”  can  be  traced  back  as  far  as  the  1530s  (Harper,  2008).  In   its  most  basic  sense  bullying  involves  two  people,  a  bully  or  intimidator  and  a  victim.   Bullying  has  been  engrained  in  “American  society  since  the  country’s  founding.  Bred  from   a  capitalistic  economy  and  competitive  social          Hierarchy,  bullying  has  remained  a  relevant  issue  through  the  years.”  The  desire  to   survive  is  instinctual  and  common  among  all  living  things.  Survival  is  associated  with   competition  and  people  from  the  beginning  of  time  want  to  outperform  and  overcome  


Bullying  

   

obstacles.  This  survival  instinct  and  competitive  atmosphere  has  remained  the  same   throughout  the  years  (Donegan)  

 

               

In the following chart, Billitteri with CQ Research in their report Preventing Bullying shows when bullying started drawing attention:  

     

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Awareness      

The  Nature  of  Bullying            Bullying  is  never  good.  In  an  interview  Ross  Teemant  LCWS,  MSSW  he  mentioned  “that   bullying  makes  a  behavioral  standpoint  demonstrating  “power”  over  someone.  There  are   many  ways  that  bullying  is  played  out  from  ignoring  peers  and  neglecting  friends  to   outright  verbal,  physical  or  sexual  violence.  I  believe  that  bullying  is  born  out  of   vulnerability  and  pain.  Bullies  are  usually  protecting  themselves  from  exposing  a   vulnerable  emotion.”  The  bully  does  not  want  to  be  hurt,  so  they  hurt  others  instead.      Unfortunately  it  is  not  just  once,  but  actions  that  are  repeated  hurting  the  victim   mentally,  physically  and  or  emotionally.   In  The  Nature,  Prevalence  &  Dynamics  of  Bullying,  we  find  bullying  relationships   characteristics  by:   1.  An  imbalance  of  power.  The  bully  can  be  older,  bigger,  stronger,  more  verbally  adept   and/or  intelligent,  higher  up  on  the  social  ladder,  of  a  different  race  or  of  the  opposite  sex.   Sheer  numbers  of  kids  banded  together  to  bully  can  create  this  imbalance.   2.  Intent  to  harm.  The  bully  means  to  inflict  emotional  and/or  physical  pain,  expects  the   action  to  hurt,  and  takes  pleasure  in  the  distress  it  causes.   3.  Repeated  acts  of  aggression  and  cruelty  over  time.  Bullying  is  not  a  one-­‐time  event.   Both  the  perpetrator  and  the  victim  know  that  the  bullying  can  and  probably  will  occur   again.   Graph  shows  how  bullying  is  a  group  phenomenon,  it  involves  the  following  people:   Graphic from Olweus Bullying Prevention Program School wide Guide, Dr. Dan Olweus, 2007 Hazel don Foundation

     

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The  Bully  in  Books  and  Defeating  the  Bully  

         Bullying  has  been  around  for  so  long  that  in  literary  works  children  have  been  singled   out  and  harassed  (Carpenter).  In  History  of  Bullying  we  find  the  following  examples:              “Oliver  Twist  is  likely  one  of  the  most  memorable  examples.  Written  by  Charles  Dickens   and  published  in  1838,  Oliver  Twist  was  one  of  the  first  novels  in  the  English  language  to   focus  on  the  bullying  and  criminal  mistreatment  of  a  child  protagonist.”            “Lord  of  the  Flies,  another  memorable  novel,  written  by  William  Golding  and  published   in  1954  (a  book  that  is  required  reading  in  some  middle  school  English  classes),  describes   the  actions  of  a  group  of  young  children  who,  in  the  absence  of  adult  supervision,  make  a   swift  descent  from  civilized  to  barbaric  after  being  stranded  on  a  deserted  island.” Often the bullying in movies is viewed as a challenge to the character of the kid being bullied. The entire outcome of the movie depends on how the kid being bullied eventually deals with the bully. “This usually means one of three things: the bullied child can stand up to the bully, like when Michael J. Fox travels back in time and helps Marty McFly's father stand up to the class bully in the film Back to the Future; the bullied child can “take it like a man,” as in the movie Stand by Me, where the older boys beat up the younger boys and the younger boys do their best to fight back; or the bullied kid must defeat the bully or bullies, as in The Karate Kid, where Daniel, a bullied boy, learns karate in order to fight and defeat his tormentors.”

In each of these examples, you cheer for the bullied kids to fight back and win; and when they do, you feel happy and that all is right in the world. “Unfortunately, real-life bullying situations rarely end with this type of Hollywood cinematic victory. The majority of children who are being bullied can't or just don't know how to fight back on their own (Carpenter).” They need help, support, and, most importantly, intervention. All children have the right to feel safe from bullying, and no that they are not alone. In A Time Line of the Evolution of School Bullying in Differing Social Contexts we also find more patterns of bullying in people described not only in books but also newspapers from the 18th and 19th century in some countries as the U.K. The following are some examples.


Bullying  

 

   

Bullying took the form of isolation and physical harassment.  There is a good example of introducing bullying and discussing the term in early Victorian times. Tom Brown’s Schooldays, first published in 1857, contains famous examples of bullying in school. ‘Very well then, let’s roast him cried Flashman, and catches hold of Tom by the collar: One or two boys hesitate, but the rest join.’(Hughes, 1913, p. 188). This quote from the popular book indicates that school bullying was a well-recognized circumstance in Victorian England even if it was not officially reported. There are more examples from popular books but it is “difficult to guess how much bullying occurred in schools” throughout the decades due to research began in the 1980’s. In newspaper The Times, introduced the first bullying incident on the 6th of August 1862, after the death of a soldier named Flood. The serious problem of bullying and its consequences warranted official mention and this was the first published announcement on bullying in The Times for the period covered since 1790. “It is clear from the evidence that this unfortunate man, dreadfully as he retaliated upon his tormentors, was the victim of long, malignant, and systematic bullying”. (The Times, 6th Aug. 1862, p. 8, col. F)

Who  started  researching  about  bullying  and  is  there  something  that  can  be  done?              Dr.  Dan  Olweus,  a  research  professor  of  psychology  from  Norway,  is  often  considered   the  "pioneer"  in  bullying  research."  He  has  spent  decades  researching  the  issue  of  bullying   to  help  keep  children  safe  in  schools  and  other  settings.  Today,  Dr.  Olweus  is  best  known   for  the  most  researched  and  widely  adopted  bullying  prevention  program  in  the  world,   the  Olweus  Bullying  Prevention  Program.  

Dr. Dan Olweus      

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         Dr.  Olweus  initiated  the  world’s  first  bullying  research  in  the  early  1970’s.  The  results   of  his  research  and  studies  were  published  in  a  Swedish  book  in  1973  and  in  the  United   States  in  1978  under  the  title  Aggression  in  the  Schools:  Bullies  and  Whipping  Boys.            In  “Home  of  the  Olweus  Bullying  Prevention  Program,”  we  read  “Dr.  Olweus  has  long   seen  school  safety  as  a  fundamental  human  right.  As  early  as  1981,  he  proposed  enacting  a   law  against  bullying  in  schools  so  students  could  be  spared  the  repeated  humiliation   implied  in  bullying.  By  the  mid-­‐1990s,  these  arguments  led     to  legislation  against  bullying  by  the  Swedish  and  Norwegian  parliaments.”              The  first  version  of  the  Olweus  Bullying  Prevention  Program  was  prompted  by  the   country's  Ministry  of  Education  to  initiate  a  national  campaign  against  bullying  in  schools   after  three  adolescent  boys  in  Norway  committed  suicide  after  severe  bullying  by  peers.     After  the  program’s  success  in  Norway  and  other  countries,  Dr.  Olweus  began  working   with  American  colleagues  in  the  mid-­‐1990s  to  begin  to  implement  the  program  in  the   United  States.     The  first  evaluation  of  the  Olweus  Bullying  Prevention  Program  in  the  United  States  was  in   the  mid-­‐1990s,  involving  18  middle  schools  in  South  Carolina.  After  one  year  of   implementation,  researchers  observed:   •   “Large,  significant  decreases  in  boys'  and  girls'  reports  of  bullying  others”   •   “Large,  significant  decreases  in  boys'  reports  of  being  bullied  and  in  boys'  reports  of   social  isolation.”   An  evaluation  of  the  Olweus  program  in  12  elementary  schools  in  the  Philadelphia  area   revealed  that  among  those  schools  that  had  implemented  the  program  with  at  least   moderate  fidelity:   •   “There  were  significant  reductions  in  self-­‐reported  bullying  and  victimization”   •   “There  were  significant  decreases  in  adults'  observations  of  bullying  (in  the   cafeteria  and  on  the  playground)”            Implementing  a  bullying  prevention  program  and  following  it  helps  reduce  the  bullying   in  a  campus  or  area.  We  need  to  work  together  in  order  to  make  a  program  succeed.   Children  and  people  in  general  will  have  a  safer  environment  to  learn  and  grow.            A  Bureau  of  Justice  Statistics  survey  found  that  86  percent  of  high  school  students  said   teenager’s  resort  to  violence  in  school  because  of  “other  kids  picking  on  them,  making  fun   of  them,  or  bullying  them.”  Greenya  continues  saying  that  “the  findings  strongly  suggested   that  bullying  could  no  longer  be  considered  just  a  relatively  harmless  phase  that  children   must  go  through  to  get  toughened  up  for  life.  “Being  bullied  is  not  just  an  unpleasant  rite   of  passage  through childhood,” says Duane Alexander, director of the NICHD. “It's a public health problem that merits attention. People who were bullied as children are more likely to suffer from depression and low self-esteem, well into adulthood, and the bullies themselves are more likely to engage in criminal behavior later in life.””    

 

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  RAMIFICATIONS   Like a progressive disease, bullying has transformed into a hybrid of old tactics and new technology to torment our youth today. Public awareness of bullying has increased and the call for anti-bullying legislation is on the move. However, the need for action is escalating at a pace that demands more than our attention. According to the 2012 status report on bullying, complied by the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP), “Bullying affects individuals across ethnicity, gender, grade, and socioeconomics status, whether they live in urban, suburban, or rural communities.” The OBPP preformed a poll of 300,000 students of all races and economic backgrounds.

     

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Boys showed a trend of increased bullying as their grades levels increased, while girls who reported bullying said it decreased with grade level advancement. 30% of girls who were polled reported other girls as perpetrators and 20% said it was boys bullying them.

Verbal abuse is marked as the highest type of bullying for both genders with rumors and exclusion highest for girls.

 

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While most bullying is reportedly occurring on the playground, lunchroom, and hallways, bullying still occurs in the classroom in plain view of teachers; at times bullying is reported in a combination of these locations. Sadly, 53% of 9th-12th grade students feel their teacher has done “little or nothing” to cut down on classroom bullying. Their teachers to minimize classroom bullying “fairly little” did 42-44% of 6th-8th-grade students feel. According to the National Education Association (NEA) 1 out of 30 complaints from school kids is bad treatment from their peers. 1 in 5 middle school kids refuse to use the restroom for fear of being bullied. Hostile behavior from peers isn’t exclusive to the school grounds. Cyber bullying has aggressively become a weapon of seeming anonymity. The form of victimization has evolved, and we must too in order to produce solutions. While bullying continues to amplify, so do its consequences. The rise in suicides related to bullying, compels us to take action curing this epidemic. Victim retaliation has shocked the world out of its complacency with the April of 1999 Columbine shootings, as well as 12 other bully related school shootings in the 1990s. Although not all victims respond with this level of violence towards themselves or others, some consequences are less sensational but just as impacting. Some negative effects of bullying, as reported by stopbullying.gov, are “Depression and anxiety, increased feelings of sadness and loneliness, changes in sleep and eating patterns, and loss of interest in activities they used to enjoy. These issues may persist into adulthood” or result in suicide. William E. Copeland, PhD, and professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Duke University said, “We were surprised at how profoundly bullying affects a person’s long-term functioning. This psychological damage doesn’t just go away because a person grew up and is no longer bullied.” Even the perpetrators were already experiencing, or at risk of experiencing, antisocial personality disorders. Victims and perpetrators are not alone in dealing with the devastating effects of victimization. Those whom have turned to suicide leave behind devastated parents and peers. The ramifications of bullying reach many people. Still others remain unaccounted for but are still victims of this unnecessary adolescent cannibalism. Heartbroken parents are putting the pressure on political leaders to      

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create legislation for prevention and punishment. Many states have already enacted zero tolerance anti-bullying laws in addition to this movement.

Our kids are not surviving this harassing epidemic our solutions need to include preventative and collaborative action. Anti-bullying policies alone are not the solution to bullying. Research has found that teachers do not always identify bullying correctly nor respond to bullying acts appropriately. This lack of awareness can be translated into a lack of concern. In many cases, educational staff was unaware of bullying until parental intervention brought the issue to their attention. Those teachers who feel confident identifying bullying still feel prepared to manage the bullying situations. Many bullying policies are unwritten but 58% of schools reflected some management strategies. Parent-teacher partnership is paramount to achieving long-term results. Bullying trends will continue to rise without considerable intervention by adults.          Anti-­‐bullying  policies  alone  are  not  the  solution  to  bullying.  Research  has  found  that   teachers  do  not  always  identify  bullying  correctly  nor  respond  to  bullying  acts   appropriately.  This  lack  of  awareness  can  be  translated  into  a  lack  of  response.  Sometimes   parents  were  the  ones  to  bring  bullying  to  the  attention  of  their  child’s  teacher,  when   education  staff  was  completely  unaware.  Some  teachers  who  feel  confident  identifying   bullying  don’t  feel  prepared  to  manage  bullying  situations.  Many  bullying  policies  are   ‘unwritten’  but  studies  show  58%  of  schools  reflected  management  strategies.  Parent-­‐ teacher  partnership  is  pinnacle  of  positive  educational  and  developmental  outcomes.   Bullying  trends  will  continue  to  rise  without  considerable  intervention  by  adults.

 

 

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Interview  with  Brandon  Crusat,  Building  Administrator/  Vice  principle   Kuna  Middle  School:   Who  develops  and  or  determines  the  school  districts  bullying  policies?  The  board  of   directors  uses  a  law  firm  to  put  general  procedures  into  legal  format  and  then  the  board   adopts  specifics.  Currently,  there  are  district  rules  of  conduct;  however,  each  school  within   the  district  adapts  it  in  their  own  way.   Are  teachers  and  administration  employees  trained  on  how  to  facilitate  these  rules   or  handle  bullying  situations?  Do  they  follow  through?  Everyone  working  for  the  school   district  is  aware  of  the  rules  of  conduct  policies  but  there  is  not  reinforcement  of  this,  beyond   disciplinary  actions  given,  through  out  the  school  year.  Students  and  teachers  are  made   aware  of  the  rules  at  the  beginning  of  the  school  year  only.   Teachers  are  also  allowed  to  modify  their  enforcement  of  bullying  as  long  as  they  are  not   doing  less  than  the  Idaho  legislation  requires.  They  have  a  standard  they  have  to  enforce  and   some  are  more  proactive  than  others.  If  a  teacher  doesn’t  support  the  policies  made  it  is   difficult  to  add  more.   Do  you  feel  that  policies  currently  in  place  are  affective?  What  works  best  do  you   think?  We  follow  the  Middle  Schools  bullying/harassment  steps  form,  adopted  from  the  high   school.  It  requires  a  student  report  the  action,  what  type  of  bullying  or  harassment   specifically,  and  the  “victims”  response  to  it.  We  depend  of  them  reporting  the  incident;   without  that  we  have  no  way  of  knowing  what  is  going  on.  I  interview  those  involved,  and   others  as  impartial  as  possible,  and  come  to  a  conclusion  or  the  consequence.  The  step  form   has  3  steps;  each  step  is  a  reported  violation.  We  handle  every  case  individually;  sometimes   they  think  they  are  bullied  and  they  are  equally  at  fault  or  it  proves  to  be  typical  middle   school  drama.  If  needed  for  legitimate  cases,  we  involve  the  school  resource  officer.  There  are   times  when  harassment  qualifies  as  a  misdemeanor  or  worse.   Where  would  you  like  to  see  change?  I  am  currently  with  some  others  to  put  together  a   program  to  help  deal  with  theses  issues  but  we  don’t  know  yet  if  we  want  to  spend  money  on   anything  yet.  We  have  started  teaching  a  Parents  University  class  to  cover  issues  that  data   tells  us  needs  taught.   It  seems  exhausting  to  deal  with  this  issue  reactively  instead  of  proactively.  It  can  be,   no  one  likes  to  be  hard  on  kids  but  sometimes  you  have  to.  We  try  and  give  positive  feedback   for  the  majority  of  kids  that  are  not  a  problem  and  reward  that  good  behavior.  The  REAL   program  stands  for  Respect,  Effort,  Attitude,  and  Leadership.  Teachers  hand  out  tickets  to   students  they  caught  being  or  doing  good,  then  students  turn  them  in  for  a  change  to  win  the   raffle  prize.  

     

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I  had  a  wonderful  experience  learning  

how  policies  are  made  and  enforced  at  a   primary  level.  Brandon  works  daily  with   these  issues  and  is  still  enthusiastic  and   loves  the  kids.  Hopefully  all  teachers  and   school  administration  have  that  attitude   and  want  to  do  what  is  best  for  the   student’s  interests.  The  school  has   policies  in  place  that  seem  more  reactive   like  discipline  after  the  fact,  but  they  need   proactive  actions  implemented.  Brandon   didn’t  have  the  momentum  yet  to  start  a   prevention  program  but  had  some  things   in  mind.  The  schools  seem  overwhelmed   with  kids  who  have  social  issues  because   you  don’t  want  to  punish  them  beyond   their  ability  to  understand  and  you  want   help  them.            I  asked  Brandon  if  the  teachers  felt   comfortable  handling  bullying  issues  in   class  he  said  that  it’s  hard  because  they   want  the  teachers  to  teach  not  have  to   regulate  behavior.    He  said  when  they   have  an  assembly  the  kids  don’t  listen  so   they  started  trying  to  have  advisory   teachers  take  a  few  moments  to  reinforce   some  things.  I  discussed  creating  or  

   

implementing  a  program  that  could  be   added  to  the  curriculum,  as  a  reoccurring   method,  to  modify  behavior  and  teach   awareness  of  bullying.  We  discussed  a   study  I  read  that  was  published  in  the          Journal  of  Experiential   Education,  referencing  the  interactive   bullying  prevention  program  called   BPCCC  (Bully  Prevention  Challenge   Course  Curriculum);  I  felt  it  had  the  most   positive  directives  on  how  to  attend  to   this  challenge.  Improving  feelings  of  self-­‐ worth  through  "adventure  based   learning"  where  individuals  are  placed  in   physical  (interactively  distracting)  and/or   emotional  challenging  situations  like  a   rope  courses.  It  addresses  bullying  by   targeting  individual  behaviors  and   promoting  "cooperation,  communication,   trust  and  problem-­‐solving  skills."   Students  reported  having  improved  self-­‐ esteem  and  awareness  of  others  feelings.   In  addition,  the  teacher’s  supportive  role   and  unified  vocabulary  help  create  a   positive,  safe  atmosphere  for  students.  He   asked  for  the  information  to  study  it  out   and  maybe  implement.  


Bullying  

 

   

Scope  of  the  problem:    

Is  bullying  a  serious  problem?     It  is  to  students  of  our  schools.  71%  of  them  report  that  they  believe  bullying  is  an   ongoing  problem  (bullyingstatistics.org).    

 

 

So  is  it  really  something  that  deserves  our  attention?  The  answer  is  yes  it  does   deserve  our  attention.  Bullying  is  something  that  happens  cross  our  nation  from   elementary  school,  to  high  school  and  even  into  adulthood.  2.7  million  students  are  being   bullied  each  year  (bullyingstatistics.org).       The  National  Center  for  Education  Statistics  and  the  Bureau  of  Justice  Statistics  has   found  that  28%  of  students  between  the  ages  of  12  and  18  reported  being  bullied  at   school.  Of  that  28  percent,  5%  reported  that  they  were  threatened  with  physical  harm.     21%  of  students  that  received  physical  bullying  such  as  being  pushed  shout  or  tripped   were  physically  injured  by  these  actions.  Again  this  is  only  the  number  of  students  that   reported  (Robers,  Kemp  and  Truman).  There  are  many  more  cases  that  are  never   reported.  In  2011  it  was  estimated  that  students  only  reported  being  bullied  40%  of  the   time  (Megan  Meier  Foundation).  282,000  students  are  physically  attacked  in  secondary   schools  each  month  (Make  Beats  not  Beat  Downs).       90%  of  fourth  through  eighth  graders  report  being  a  victim  of  bullying.  It  is   estimated  that  15%  of  missed  school  days  is  because  the  students  are  trying  to  avoid   bullying  (Make  Beats  not  Beat  Downs).  That  is  approximately  160,000  students  per  day   that  stay  home  from  school  (Megan  Meier  Foundation).  36%  of  students  that  report   bullying  problems  indicate  that  it  occurs  a  minimum  of  once  or  twice  each  month  (Robers,   Kemp  and  Truman).  The  amount  of  youth  who  bully  is  equivalent  to  the  amount  for  the   victims.  It  is  estimated  that  3.7  million  youth  act  as  the  bully  and  3.2  million  are  victims   (Chon  and  Canter).  It  is  also  a  fact  that  many  who  are  victims  of  bullying  become  bullies   themselves  (U.S.  Department  of  Health  and  Human  Services  HRSA).  This  creates  a   snowball  effect.  Once  one  student  bullies  another  than  Bully  continues  to  bully  while  the   victim  becomes  a  bully  and  bully  someone  else  that  may  also  become  a  bully.              

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  Cyber  bullying     So  far  we’ve  only  been  talking  about  bullying  that  occurs  during  school  hours.   However  the  spread  of  social  media  and  handheld  technological  devices  has  made  it  even   easier  to  verbally  assault,  accuse  and  put  down  others.  This  is  known  as  cyber  bullying.   Cyber  bullying,  like  bullying  is  when  one  or  several  students  single  out  an  individual  and   attack  them  with  negative,  threatening  and  degrading  comments.     In  2011  8%  of  students  ages  12  to  18  reported  being  a  victim  of  cyber  bullying   (Robers,  Kemp  and  Truman).  This  method  of  bullying  may  be  even  more  prevalent  than   the  traditional  methods.  It  is  estimated  that  only  26%  of  cyber  bullying  victims  report  being   victimized  (Megan  Meier  Foundation).  88%  of  the  teens  that  report  using  social  media  and   social  networking  sites  admit  to  having  seen  other  people  being  cruel  and  mean  online.  Of   those  teens  21%  admit  that  they  have  joined  in  on  the  harassment  (Megan  Meier   Foundation).      

 

Though it has occurred for years, we cannot look at being bullied as something harmless. “Before  Columbine,  few  Americans  would  have  drawn  a  connection  between  bullying  and   schoolyard  massacres.  But  as  Gerald  Newberry,  director  of  the  NEA's  Health  Information   Network,  points  out,  “The  kids  who  pulled  the  trigger  weren't  who  we  thought  they  were.   They  were  not  the  bullies  —  they  were  the  kids  who  had  been  bullied.  That's  what   changed  the  focus  of  the  schools  and  the  nation”  (Greenya).            A  Bureau  of  Justice  Statistics  survey  found  that  86  percent  of  high  school  students  said   teenager’s  resort  to  violence  in  school  because  of  “other  kids  picking  on  them,  making  fun   of  them,  or  bullying  them.”  Greenya  continues  saying  that  “the  findings  strongly  suggested   that  bullying  could  no  longer  be  considered  just  a  relatively  harmless  phase  that  children   must  go  through  to  get  toughened  up  for  life.  “Being  bullied  is  not  just  an  unpleasant  rite   of  passage  through  childhood,”  says  Duane  Alexander,  director  of  the  NICHD.  “It's  a  public   health  problem  that  merits  attention.  People  who  were  bullied  as  children  are  more  likely  

 

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to  suffer  from  depression  and  low  self-­‐esteem,  well  into  adulthood,  and  the  bullies   themselves  are  more  likely  to  engage  in  criminal  behavior  later  in  life.””   Factors  that  contribute     As  a  society  we  should  be  careful  in   how  we  allow  people  to  think  about   differences.  Bullying  often  focuses  on  the   differences  that  the  victims  have  to  those   have  a  perceived  difference  from  their   peers.  These  differences  can  be  something   so  minute  as  different  clothing  or  a   physical  feature  such  as  being   overweight.  I  can  also  include  things  such   as  economic  background  or  religious   beliefs  (U.S.  Deparment  of  Health  &   Human  Services).     That  makes  a  child  or  teen  at  risk   for  being  a  victim  of  bullying  is  if  they  are   seen  as  unable  to  defend  themselves.  This   could  mean  that  they  do  not  have  the   courage  to  stand  up  against  the  bullies.   Being  anxious  or  having  a  low  self-­‐esteem   also  makes  them  a  target.     Victims  are  not  the  only  place   where  we  should  look  at  the  factors  that   contribute  to  his  negative  behavior.  There   also  influences  that  increase  the   likelihood  of  a  child  or  teen  being  the   bully.  These  include  having  a  feeling  of   popularity  or  social  power,  or  feeling   isolated  from  other  peers  and  having  a   low  self-­‐esteem  themselves.  Children  who   bully  others  are  often  reported  to  have   less  parental  involvement  or  have  a   difficult  home  life.  The  US  Department  of  

who  are  engaging  in  the  bullying.   According  to  the  US  Department  of  Health   and  Human  Services,  children  who  are  at   risk  of  being  bullied  are  ones  who   Health  and  Human  Services  reported  in   2010  family  risk  factors  of  bullying   include  harsh  physical  discipline  as  well   as  overly  permissive  parenting  behavior.   If  the  parents  are  seen  bullying  others  or   bully  their  children  it  is  likely  that  there   children  may  become  bullies.  It  is  also   true  that  when  children  are  left  alone  and   do  not  have  limits  to  their  behavior  or   supervision  their  greater  risk  of  becoming   a  bully  (U.S.  Department  of  Health  and   Human  Services  HRSA).    

 

             

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  SOLUTIONS  TO  PROBLEM Solutions  1:  

         Prevention/intervention  strategies  

regardless of the child’s role whether a bully or a victim. An additional line of defense is the child’s educational resource, their teachers and school administrators. An anti-bullying policy is useless without affective implementation of the policies. A clear, consistent, well-documented definition of bullying sets the platform for collaborative action. Research showed that teacher’s belief’s involving bullying was directly related to prevention and intervention behavior. Continual education and awareness is imperative to providing both confidence and competence to bullying prevention. Anti-bullying initiatives may assist in decreasing the frequency of bullying attacks, but raising awareness to less commonly known parties associated with bullying can help. Solutions to bullying are limited by the resources allocated toward the issue and the level of cooperation from the community as a whole. Bullying is a community issue. The Journal of Experimental Education says, “Of utmost importance is constructing a culture of respect and recognition where bullying is not only not tolerated but is not necessary. Intervention should focus on creating an environment of pro-social values, including empathy, and an increased awareness of what constitutes bullying behavior and ways to combat those behaviors.” Intervention is not a one-time act or a brief training session. Studies from

should  focus  on  increasing  empathy  and   support  for  those  who  are  victimized  by   bullying,  raising  awareness  of  individual   responsibilities,  and  encouraging  action   by  the  children  who  do  not  approve  of   bullying.   The  goal  is  to  transform  schools  into   environments  in  which  students   experience  being  cared  for,  and  caring  for   others;  practice  responsibility,  fairness,   tolerance,  teamwork,  understanding  and   respect  for  different  points  of  view.     Ross  Teemant  said,  “I  think  that  helping   kids  recognize  their  value  and  esteem  will   go  a  long  way  in  reducing  the  effects  of   bullying.  As  parents  and  others  in  the   lives  of  teens  really  take  the  time  to  listen   to  them  and  hear  their  struggles,  fears   and  excitement  then  the  vulnerable  place   that  bullying  is  born  will  be  filled  with   recognition  and  love  rather  than  rejection   and  deceit.”  This  is  true,  every  child  and   person  needs  to  realize  their  value,  and   they’re  

Solution  2:   Parents are the driving force in raising awareness regarding the types of bullying and the roles of those who participate. Bystanders are included as participators of harassment because they are standing by while someone is being victimized. Parents need training to become affective components of bullying prevention and victimization. Research proves that parental intervention is impacted by how parents’ view the schools climate,  

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the Bully Prevention Challenge Course Curriculum (BPCCC) show that future efforts need to include an ongoing bullying curriculum throughout the school year to create changes. Adopting classes or a program as part of educational curriculum is recommended to bring awareness and change behavior. Involving students, in

   

implementing solutions for bullying, is a positive way to augment a bully prevention program. In addition to tools for dealing with bullying and group activities aimed at bully deterrence, ongoing curriculum prevention training will not just change the school program of study- it will change a life.

Solution  3 1)  First  solution;  How  to  Talk  About  Bullying   a) Identify:  parent-­‐child  centered  prevention.   i) Places  the  responsibility  on  the  shoulder  of  the  parents  and  their  children   ii) It  centers  on  parents  teaching  their  children   b) What  is  bullying   c) Why  it  is  bad   d) How  to  prevent  it   e) Need  to  report  it   b)  What  parents  need  to  teach?   i) What  is  bullying   a) Verbal     (1)  Teasing   (2)  Name-­‐calling   (3)  Inappropriate  sexual  comments   (4)  Taunting   (5)  Threatening     b)  Social     (1)  Exclusion   (2)  Rumors   (3)  Embarrassing  others  in  public   (4)  Convincing  others  to  not  be  friends  with  someone   c)  Physical   (1)  Hitting,  kicking,  pinching   (2)  Dripping,  pushing,  shoving   (3)  Spitting   (4)  Taking  her  breaking  other’s  things        

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d)  Cyber  bullying     (1)  Embarrassing  others  online   (2)  Threatening  messages   (3)  Taunting  messages   (4)  Rumors  spread  using  social  media  or  other  online  tools   (5)  Name-­‐calling   (6)  Inappropriate  sexual  comments                      ii)  Bully  reporting   a) Encourage  children  to  report  to  an  adult   b) Write  down,  keep  track  of  incidents  of  bullying       c) Parents  need  to  ask  children  how  their  day  is  and  if  there  was  any  problems   d) Parents  need  to  watch  for  signs  of  avoiding  certain  people  or  activities                  (1)  This  could  be  an  indication  of  the  presence  of  bullying                  iii)  Helping  yourself  and  others   a) How  to  stand  up  to  a  bully   (1)Say,  “please  stop”  in  a  clear  and  calm  voice   (2)  Walk  away  and  stay  away   (3)  Report  the  incident  to  an  adult   b) Showing  kindness   (1)  Don’t  say  or  do  anything  that  could  hurt  someone  physically  or  their   feelings   (2)  Include  those  were  left  out  or  bullied   (3)  Apologize  and  sympathize  with  those  you  have  bullied  or  who  have   been  bullied   (4)  Don’t  spread  rumors  or  join  in  teasing   c) Web  safety     (1)  Don’t  post  any  personal  information  on  the  web   (2)  Do  not  hand  out  email  address  at  school  or  other  public  settings   (3)  Keep  your  passwords  safe   (4)  Ignore  and  block  negative  messages  or  messages  from  unknown   senders   (5)  Keep  all  profiles  private   (6)  Never  friend  someone  online  that  you  do  not  know.      

     

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Appendix  1:  

 

o Elizabeth Gamber, a University Studies student at BYU Idaho, with a mayor in Marriage and Family. My husband and two teenage boys live in Texas. Throughout our lives, I have always encouraged our boys to treat others how they would like to be treated. This includes respect, love and acceptance; and to find ways to include and serve others. Individuals and families are very important to me; I want to see each person become who our Heavenly Father knows they can become. o As a team we selected the topic of bullying, it is an issue that unfortunately is growing. We wanted to make sure others knew what bullying is, its history, nature and the types of bullying that are out there and what can happen if something is not done to prevent or stop it. Children, teens and people in general can get bullied verbally, physically, mentally and now even cyber bullied to mention a few. As a team we knew that it was important to bring this issue forward in order to try to help not only the children and teens, but also parents and teachers. o For our team, I was able to contribute the history, nature, information on the psychologist that began the research on bullying and his prevention program, Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, which has helped many around the world. I was also able to contribute on the serious problem that bullying is with some solutions. o It has been a great opportunity for me to research about bullying and its effects. Through the research I realized that bullying has been around basically from the beginning of time; however, only since the late 1970’s has research really been done on this important issue. Ross Teemant LCSW, MSSW in his profession is able to see a decrease in the effect of bullying as each individual starts seeing his or her worth. Families are very important, here is where we start building our children’s self-esteem, and we teach them to love and care for each other; to lift people up instead of breaking them down. o As part of the team, I want to make sure every child, teen and person learns from the past, the history of bullying, and moves forward helping others become what our Heavenly Father knows they can become.

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Appendix 2:    

• I am Shannon Teater, a Communications student at BYUI. I have three children one in high school, middle school, and one in elementary school, who have all faced bullying of some sort. My passion for interpersonal and organizational communications compelled me to advocate for important issues such as this one. For a few years, I taught a supplementary course to elementary school children, on manners and feel that good social behaviors at every level need reinforcing. • Our team selected the bullying issue to focus on, because we sensed the importance of it. Many adults think they know what bullying is and what to do about it, even kids cry out “bully” like the little boy who cried wolf, only to find out that just because feelings are hurt it doesn’t mean it was bullying. Hypersensitivity to bullying is counter balanced with those who hide victimization and no one knows to help. Most parents use personal experiences from their childhood to teach their children how to handle bullies and the cycle perpetuates, only more and more it is gaining momentum. This increased momentum will continue unless adults surrounding the issue educate themselves on what it is and work together to stop it. • My opportunity, as member of this team, was to write about the ramifications of bullying. Knowing that this issue impacted many people, we wanted to bring it to light. Awareness is the first step to action; non-action shows lack of concern and we should be concerned. Mothers, fathers, families and friends are affected by those damaged by peer-to-peer interaction especially with harmful intentions. Suicide leaves behind questions for loved ones; some wanting to know what more they could have done and who is at fault. School shootings and other vicious retaliations leave devastation in their wake, and no solution to the epidemic with side affects lasting well beyond adolescents. • My interview with the Vice Principle of a local Middle School showed me that educators need information and resources to do more than ‘get by’. Education and collaboration is the key to a bully prevention program.  He told me when      

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they have an assembly, as a platform for teaching; the kids don’t listen so they resorted trying to have advisory teachers take a few moments to reinforce some rules. I discussed creating or implementing a program that could be added to the curriculum, as a reoccurring method, to modify behavior and teach awareness of bullying. We discussed a study I read published in the Journal of Experiential Education, referencing the interactive bullying prevention program called BPCCC (Bully Prevention Challenge Course Curriculum). I felt it had the most positive directives on how to attend to this challenge. Improving feelings of selfworth through "adventure based learning" where individuals are placed in physical (interactive activities) and/or emotional challenging situations like a rope courses. It addresses bullying by targeting individual behaviors and promoting "cooperation, communication, trust and problem-solving skills." Students reported having improved self-esteem and awareness of each others feelings saying now they were more likely to stop bullying if they saw it. In addition, the teacher’s supportive role and unified vocabulary help create a positive, safe atmosphere for students.  

                                 

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Appendix  3:  

   

   

• Biography:  Cortley     o My  most  prominent  roles  in  life  have  been  as  a  student,  and  educator  and  a   mother.  I  obtained  an  associate’s  degree  from  Brigham  Young  University-­‐   Idaho  and  will  be  graduating  with  my  Bachelors  from  the  same  institution  this   April  2014.  In  my  experience  at  this  university  I  have  had  the  great  pleasure  of   studying  a  wide  variety  of  subjects  including  theater,  communication,  child   development  and  education.   o I  grew  up  in  a  family  of  six  siblings.  I  have  been  married  for  four  years  to  a   wonderful  accountant  and  economist.  I  have  the  great  pleasure  of  being  a   mother  to  a  two-­‐year-­‐old  little  girl  and  soon  to  be  the  mother  of  a  newborn   this  April  2014.    I  currently  work  as  a  teacher  at  Patterson  elementary  school.     • Selection  of  issue:     o My  experience  has  mostly  been  in  rural  communities.  Here  I  have  learned  that   issues  like  bullying  are  not  exclusive  to  certain  areas.  It  is  a  problem  that   creeps  into  the  most  tightknit  societies.  Not  only  have  I  been  a  victim  of   bullying  through  my  childhood  but  also  I  see  it  happening  now  with  my   students  and  relatives.   o Especially  with  the  introduction  of  cyber  bullying  due  to  the  widespread   popularity  of  social  media  I  fear  for  the  emotional  and  mental  safety  of  our   rising  generation.  Being  part  of  bullying  can  have  drastic  lifelong   consequences  for  both  the  victim  and  the  bully.  If  the  message  can  be  sent  to   the  rising  generation  along  with  their  educators  and  parents  there  is  a  hope   that  this  epidemic  can  be  still  before  it  destroys  our  society.   • Team  tasks:   o My  contribution  to  this  booklet  was  to  research  the  scope  that  bullying  has   across  the  schools  and  our  nation.  I  am  advocating  the  proposed  solution  that   bullying  can  be  stopped  with  parent-­‐child  communication.  I  have  interviewed        

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a  middle  school  teacher  from  Wichita  Kansas  in  order  to  understand  the   connections  bullying  has  between  rule  and  urban  communities  and  schools   across  the  nation.               o Upon  doing  a  more  in  depth  studying  of  bullying  I  have  come  to  realize  that   there  is  far  more  factors  than  simply  popularity  versus  the  dork.  Many   children  and  teens  that  choose  to  bully  others  do  so  because  they  themselves   have  experienced  being  bullied  either  from  their  peers  or  even  from  their  own   legal  guardians.  Also  those  were  selected  as  victims  are  singled  out  for  various   reasons.  Because  of  this  bullying  is  a  complex  multidimensional  issue.  It   cannot  be  solved  simply  with  one  solution  or  one  action.  It  requires  the   integration  of  several  approaches  in  order  to  truly  be  effective  if  we  did  not   take  the  solution  to  the  main  occurrence  of  the  problem.  Children  and  teens   need  to  not  only  be  informed  but  also  empowered  to  make  a  difference  in  the   field  of  bullying  both  in  schools  out  of  schools  and  on  the  web.  

Bibliography     •

Billitteri,  Thomas.  Preventing  Bullying.  CQ  Resarcher.  20.43.  (2010)  :1013-­‐10360.  Web.  12     o Mar.  2014.     http://library.cqpress.com.byui.idm.oclc.org/cqresearcher/getpdf.php?id=cqresrre201012 1000  

Carpenter,  Deborah  and  Christopher  Ferguson,  Ph.D.  “History  of  Bullying.”  netplaces.  Web.  12     o Mar.  2014.  http://www.netplaces.com/dealing-­‐with-­‐bullies/what-­‐is-­‐bullying/history-­‐of-­‐ bullying.htm  

Donegan,  Richard.  “Bullying  and  Cyberbullying:  History,  Statistics,  Law,  Prevention  and                       o Analysis.”  The  Elon  Journal  of  Undergraduate  Research  in  Communications  3.1  (2012)  :   pag.  33-­‐41.  Web.  12  Mar.  2014.  http://www.elon.edu/docs/e-­‐ web/academics/communications/research/vol3no1/04DoneganEJSpring12.pdf  

“Fast  Facts:  Bullying  in  Schools.”  Bullying.  No  Way!  n.p.  2013.  Web.  12  Mar.  2014.     o http://www.bullyingnoway.gov.au/resources/pdf/fast-­‐fact-­‐bullying-­‐in-­‐schools.pdf  

Greenya,  John.  “Bullying.”  CQ  Researcher.  15.5.  (2005)  :  103-­‐122.  Web.  12  Mar.  2014.     o http://library.cqpress.com.byui.idm.oclc.org/cqresearcher/getpdf.php?id=cqresrre200502 0400  

Koo,  Hyojin.    “A  Time  Line  of  the  Evolution  of  School  Bullying  in  Differing  Social  Contexts.”     o Asia  Pacific  Education  Review.  8.1  (2007)  :  107-­‐116.  Web.  12  Mar.  2014     o https://webspace.utexas.edu/lab3346/School%20Bullying/Koo2007/Koreabullyinghistor y2007.pdf  

Teemant,  Ross.  Personal  interview.  13  Mar.  2013.    

 

 

   

 

     

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“The  Nature,  Prevalence  &  Dynamics  of  Bullying.”  Bullying  Prevention  Resource  Guide:  Best     o Practices.  The  Colorado  Trust.  n.d.  Web.  12  Mar.  2014.   o http://www.bullyingprevention.org/index.cfm/ID/9  

Violence  Prevention  Works!  “Home  of  the  Olweus  Bullying  Prevention  Program.”  Hazelden     o Foundation.  Web.  12  Mar.2014.   http://www.violencepreventionworks.org/public/olweus_history.page  

Battey,  Glenda  J.  L.,  and  Vicki  Ebbeck.  "A  Qualitative  Exploration  of  an  Experiential  Education  Bully   Prevention  Curriculum."  Journal  of  Experiential  Education  36.3  (2013):  203-­‐217.  Print.     Cooper,  Leigh  A.,  and  Amanda  B.  Nickerson.  "Parent  Retrospective  Recollections  of  Bullying  and   Current  Views,  Concerns,  and  Strategies  to  Cope  with  Children’s  Bullying."  Journal  of  Child  and   Family  Studies  22.4  (2013):  526-­‐540.  Print.     Goryl,  Ola,  Catherine  Neilsen-­‐Hewett,  and  Naomi  Sweller.  "Links  with  early  childhood  teachers'   perceptions  and  attitudes  to  bullying."  Australasian  Journal  of  Early  Childhood  38.2  (2013):  32-­‐40.   Print.     Publications,  Harvard  Medical.  "Taking  on  School  Bullies."  Harvard  Mental  Heatlth  Newletter  19.4   (2009):  6.  Print.       14.http://www.forbes.com/sites/alicegwalton/2013/02/21/the-­‐psychological-­‐effects-­‐of-­‐ bullying-­‐last-­‐            well-­‐into-­‐adulthood-­‐study-­‐finds/                 Saint  Louis,  Catherine.  "Effects  of  Bullying  Last  Into  Adulthood."  The  New  York  Times  [New  York   City]  21  Feb.  2013,  New  York  ed.,  sec.  A15:  30.  Print.         Garby,  Lisa.  "Direct  Bullying:  Criminal  Act  or  Mimicking  What  Has  Been  Learned?."  Education   133.4  (2013):  0-­‐0.  Print.       Limber  Ph.D.,  Susan  P.,  and  Dan  Olweus  Ph.D..  "Bullying  in  U.S.  Schools:  2012  Status  Report."   Olweus  bullying  prevention  program  1  Sept.  2013:  1-­‐20.  Olweus  Bullying  Prevention  Program.  Web.   1  Sept.  2013.  

 

   

•  

 

  Websites     bullyingstatistics.org.  Bullying  statistics  2010.  2013.  March  2014.   Chon,  Andrea  and  Andrea  Canter.  "Bullying:  Facts  for  Schools  and  Parents."  National  Association  of  School   Psychologists.  March  2014.  

     

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  Madden,  Mary,  et  al.  "Teens,  Social  Media,  and  Privacy."  21  May  2013.  PewResearch  Internet  Project.  10  March   2014.   Make  Beats  not  Beat  Downs.  Facts  and  Statistics.  2009.  March  2014.   Megan  Meier  Foundation.  Megan  Meier  Foundation  :  Be  the  change...stop  bullying  and  cyberbullying.  10  March   2014.   Robers,  Simone,  et  al.  Indicators  of  School  Crime  and  Safety:  2012.  Washington,  DC:  National  Center  for  Education   Statistics,  U.S.  Department  of  Education,  and  Bureau  of  Justice  ,  2013.   Stanford  Encyclopedia  of  Philosophy.  "Galileo  Galilei."  13  June  2013.  plato.stanford.edu.  20  March  2014.   U.S.  Deparment  of  Health  &  Human  Services.  "Risk  Factors."  stopbullying.gov.  20  March  2014.   U.S.  Department  of  Health  and  Human  Services  HRSA.  "Bullying:  Children  Who  Bully."  8  December  2010.   education.com.  20  March  2014.  

  •

http://www.violencepreventionworks.org/public/index.page  

 www.stopbullying.gov/  

 http://stopbullyingnow.com/  

http://www.ikeepsafe.org/educational-­‐issues/the-­‐civil-­‐and-­‐criminal  

http://library.thinkquest.org/07aug/00117/bullyingconsequences.html  

http://www.violencepreventionworks.org/public/bullying_prevention_resources.page  

http://www2.aap.org/connectedkids/material.htm    

http://www.violencepreventionworks.org/public/bullying_prevention_resources.page.    

http://actagainstviolence.apa.org/  

http://www.bullyingstatistics.org/content/bullying-­‐statistics-­‐2010.html  

http://www.pacer.org/bullying/  

http://www.stompoutbullying.org/  

http://www.kellerisd.net/studentsandfamilies/know/AntiBullying/Pages/default.aspx    

                         

 

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  •

http://www.championsagainstbullying.com/  

http://www.bullying.org/  

    o http://www.bullyingstatistics.org/content/bullying-­‐statistics-­‐2010.html  

       

  o http://www.pacer.org/bullying/  

  o  http://www.stompoutbullying.org/  

  Additional  Resources:    

  bullyingstatistics.org.  Bullying  statistics  2010.  2013.  March  2014.   Chon,  Andrea  and  Andrea  Canter.  "Bullying:  Facts  for  Schools  and  Parents."  National  Association  of  School   Psychologists.  March  2014.   Madden,  Mary,  et  al.  "Teens,  Social  Media,  and  Privacy."  21  May  2013.  PewResearch  Internet  Project.  10  March   2014.   Make  Beats  not  Beat  Downs.  Facts  and  Statistics.  2009.  March  2014.   Megan  Meier  Foundation.  Megan  Meier  Foundation  :  Be  the  change...stop  bullying  and  cyberbullying.  10  March   2014.   Robers,  Simone,  et  al.  Indicators  of  School  Crime  and  Safety:  2012.  Washington,  DC:  National  Center  for  Education   Statistics,  U.S.  Department  of  Education,  and  Bureau  of  Justice  ,  2013.   Stanford  Encyclopedia  of  Philosophy.  "Galileo  Galilei."  13  June  2013.  plato.stanford.edu.  20  March  2014.   U.S.  Deparment  of  Health  &  Human  Services.  "Risk  Factors."  stopbullying.gov.  20  March  2014.   U.S.  Department  of  Health  and  Human  Services  HRSA.  "Bullying:  Children  Who  Bully."  8  December  2010.   education.com.  20  March  2014.  

       

     

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Issue book on bullying