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IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa



SAPPMA Perspective

Enabling the framework for land acquisition and infrastructure projects

Setting the benchmark for quality and performance

Karl Hoffmann

Director & Attorney, HSG Attorneys Incorporated

Water & Wastewater

Pressure management in eThekwini

Roads & Bridges Edge breaks: causes and consequences

APE pumps

YEARS of local innovation

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FIND A DIVISION NEAR YOU ... EASTERN CAPE DIVISION Tel: +27 41 486 1043 Email: Contact: Ian Nortier Address: ERF 4093, Butterfield Crescent, Fairview, Port Elizabeth

EXPORT DIVISION Tel: +27 10 020 7858 Email: Contact: Shaun Saraiva Address: 61 Hugo Street, Krugersdorp North, 1739, Gauteng, South Africa

FREE STATE DIVISION Tel: +27 51 434 2226 Email: Contact: Tommy Martin Address: 26 Enterprise Street, Hamilton, Bloemfontein, 9301

GAUTENG DIVISION Tel: +27 10 072 0130 Email: Contact: Sean Harmse, Pieter van Schalkwyk, Riaan Jooste Address: 48 Lochner Str Mnandi Centurion

KWAZULU NATAL DIVISION Tel: +27 31 7929500 Email: Contact: Dennis Naidoo, Sagren Naidoo Address: 20 Umdoni Crescent, Mahogany Ridge Park, Pinetown, 3610

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NORTH WEST DIVISION Tel: +27 18 462 5564 Email: Contact: Michael Nortier Address: Reebokfontein West, Ext 19 District Road, Klerksdorp

WESTERN CAPE DIVISION Tel: +27 21 905 9740 / +27 82 574 6329 Email: Email: Contact: Trevor Lombard, Abu Eksteen Address: 44 Range Road Blackheath, Cape Town




12 IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa


SAPPMA Perspective

Enabling the framework for land acquisition and infrastructure projects

Setting the benchmark for quality and performance

Karl Hoffmann

Director & A�orney, HSG A�orneys Incorporated

Water & Wastewater

Pressure management in eThekwini

Roads & Bridges Edge breaks: causes and consequences

APE pumps

YEARS of local innovation

I S S N 0 2 5 7 1 9 7 8 Vo l u m e 4 6 N o . 0 9 • S e p t e m b e r 2 0 2 1 • R 5 5 . 0 0 ( i n c l . VAT )

ON THE COVER Matching the right pump for the right application is crucial for the optimal performance of fluid transfer systems. IMIESA speaks to John Montgomery, GM at APE Pumps and Mather+Platt, about their decades of experience in the design, manufacture, installation, and commissioning of pump systems for a range of industries. Increasingly, this includes operations and maintenance services. P6

INDUSTRY INSIGHT South Africa’s land legal environment is a complex one to navigate, governed by a myriad of legislation. However, given the country’s pressing socio-economic demands, this is the essential starting point for all infrastructure planning and project preparation. IMIESA speaks to Karl Hoffmann, director and attorney at HSG Attorneys Incorporated, about the most effective approach. P10






Water Pressure Management

Editor’s comment President’s comment Index to adver tisers

3 5 56

Cover Story 69 years of local innovation


Over 2 000 PRVs in the Valley of a Thousand Hills


Water & Wastewater Tackling non-revenue water requires a collaborative strategy 40

Training & Development

Spatial Development

Bricklaying is a foundational skill that empowers new oppor tunities 8

Establish a benchmark for township renewal 41


Roads & Bridges

Demand management and the histor y of water legislation 12

Everite spearheads growth in sustainable construction 14

The causes and consequences of edge breaks 42 SMEC South Africa awarded Huguenot Tunnel project 44 The adequacy of traffic control measures during road works 45

Trenchless Technology


Building Systems

Determining the remaining life of concrete sewers 16 Rehabilitating Cape Flats 1 and 2 20

Cement & Concrete

ERWIC 2021 Awards Winners of the ERWIC Awards


BIM Technology Few digital twins in construction industr y 26

Energy The road to net-zero


SAPPMA Industry Perspective High standards key to improving competitiveness 30 Plastic pipe specifications, design and per formance 32 The Meccano of quality plastic pipes 35 Product excellence driven by investment in technology 36


Big data and digital twins are old news for sur veyors 46


Durable precast concrete cladding cuts costs and time 48 Precast solutions enhance housing project 49

Vehicles & Equipment 50 years of dumper exper tise Expanding into remote trench compaction Smar ter excavation Rise of the U17-3 One pneumatic platform for all markets

50 51 53 53 55

Attenuation Ponds Attractive and functional retention pond revamp 56



EDITOR’S COMMENT MANAGING EDITOR Alastair Currie SENIOR JOURNALIST Kirsten Kelly JOURNALIST Nombulelo Manyana HEAD OF DESIGN Beren Bauermeister DESIGNER Jaclyn Dollenberg CHIEF SUB-EDITOR Tristan Snijders CONTRIBUTORS Alaster Goyns, Gundo Maswime, Johan Muller, Shaun Norris, John Smallwood, Bhavna Soni PRODUCTION & CLIENT LIAISON MANAGER Antois-Leigh Nepgen PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jacqueline Modise GROUP SALES MANAGER Chilomia Van Wijk BOOKKEEPER Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS PRINTERS Novus Print Montague Gardens ___________________________________________________ ADVERTISING SALES KEY ACCOUNT MANAGER Joanne Lawrie Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 / +27 (0)82 346 5338 Email: ___________________________________________________

PUBLISHER Jacques Breytenbach 3S Media 46 Milkyway Avenue, Frankenwald, 2090 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: R600.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2021. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS HEAD OFFICE: Manager: Ingrid Botton P.O. Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Email: Website: BORDER Secretary: Celeste Vosloo Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2433 Email: EASTERN CAPE Secretary: Susan Canestra Tel: +27 (0)41 585 4142 ext. 7 Email: KWAZULU-NATAL Secretary: Narisha Sogan Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Email: NORTHERN PROVINCES Secretary: Ollah Mthembu Tel: +27 (0)82 823 7104 Email: SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO Secretary: Henrietta Olivier Tel: +27 (0)79 390 7536 Email: WESTERN CAPE Secretary: Michelle Ackerman Tel: +27 (0)21 444 7114 Email: FREE STATE & NORTHERN CAPE Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27 (0)83 457 4362 Email: All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of the authors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers. _____________________________________________

Funding and payment for services


he ownership of land and access to dignified housing are key priorities in South Africa, alongside the need for a more concerted roll-out in electrification, water and sanitation. These are among the pressing issues that political parties are promising to address as they campaign ahead of the local government elections, now confirmed for 1 November 2021. As a developing nation, South Africa’s social infrastructure challenges are not unique; these include spatial inequalities that divide the rich and poor. For this reason, sharing common experiences with other global stakeholders – including obstacles like access to external funding – is so important. The developed world continues to support South Africa’s transition through donor funding and direct investment. The same is equally true for the developing nations in the form of BRICS, represented by Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. Since its formation in 2015, the funding platform for BRICS has been spearheaded by their jointly managed New Development Bank (NDB), which finances infrastructure and sustainable development projects among its members. In South Africa’s case, an example is the National Non-toll Roads Management Program, an approximately US$1 billion loan scheduled for phase-in between April 2020 and March 2023.

NDB expands country membership For the first time, country membership of the NDB was expanded in September 2021 to include Bangladesh, the UAE and Uruguay. It’s a significant development as the NDB positions itself for further growth, working with the global financial sector to raise capital for projects. Numerous well-known South African consulting firms and contractors have worked on iconic projects in UAE cities like Abu Dhabi and Dubai. The Middle East is also seen as a growth

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SA construction needs a boost Our local construction sector remains under severe pressure, as confirmed by Stats SA’s Q2 2021 GDP figures, reflecting a minus 1.4% growth. In turn, government expenditure was recorded at minus 0.1%. However, the fortunes of the construction industry will change for the better once more capital projects come online, making 2022 a possible boom market. The tabling of the Mediumterm Budget Policy Statement by the Minister of Finance on 4 November will further indicate the direction of future infrastructure spending.

Local Government Revenue and Expenditure Report In the meantime, National Treasury’s recent Q4 2020/21 Local Government Revenue and Expenditure Report shows that surpluses were recorded against billed revenue. For the secondary cities, for example, the report states that “energy sources revenue billed was R26.1 billion against an expenditure of R24.8 billion.” The reality, however, is that consumer debt remains a big challenge and collection rates need to step up a notch. For secondary cities, for example, some R44.8 billion is outstanding – of which around 75.5% is owed by households. Within metropolitan areas, a similar trend emerges. Since non-payment impacts a municipality’s ability to perform and maintain existing infrastructure, it’s a crucial area that needs fixing. Investing in sustainable infrastructure builds economies, but funding support is interdependent on payment for services. It’s a collective responsibility.

Alastair To our avid readers, check out what we are talking about on our website, Facebook page or follow us on Twitter and have your say.



Infrastructure News

The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa



SAPPMA Perspective

Enabling the framework for land acquisition and infrastructure projects

Novus Holdings is a Level 2 Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) Contributor, with 125% recognised procurement recognition. View our BBBEE scorecard here:

market for construction, presenting opportunities for private sector, and intergovernmental initiatives. Either way, the UAE is a strong partner to have on the NDB board.

Setting the benchmark for quality and performance

Karl Hoffmann

Director & A�orney, HSG A�orneys Incorporated

Water & Wastewater

Pressure management in eThekwini

Roads & Bridges Edge breaks: causes and consequences

Cover opportunity

In each issue, IMIESA offers advertisers the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the journal. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings, contact Joanne Lawrie on +27 (0)82 346 5338.

APE pumps

YEARS of local innovation

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IMIESA September 2021




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Rebuild and renew Watching the rise and fall of the various Covid-19 waves has been a taxing experience; however, we are beginning to see a far more positive trend in the increasing number of vaccinated people, which will hopefully help us return to a high degree of normality.


e’re already seeing a return to a measure of normality in other parts of the world, like the UK and USA, where sporting events are again packed to capacity. It’s also encouraging to see how countries within the G7 group have pledged their support to funding vaccine roll-outs to developing nations – a case in point being the 5.66 million Pfizer vaccine doses donated by the USA in August 2021 to support South Africa’s vaccination drive. Across the world, there’s a renewed commitment to end the pandemic, which is being driven locally and globally by potential policy shifts within public and private sector entities. The World Health Organization, for example, is currently mulling the pros and cons of a so-called vaccine passport, as are

countries like South Africa. However, debate continues about the potential infringement of personal freedom of choice. Locally and internationally, though, there’s a definite trend from employers to make vaccinations mandatory for employees. In South Africa, Discovery was one of the first employers to make this policy. Internationally, Canada has announced its intention to make it a requirement for all employees across their federal public service. However, the first prize is for responsible citizens to step forward voluntarily, which is happening in increasing numbers. As a sign of optimism, we’ve already booked the East London International Convention Centre for next year’s conference, which will be held between 26 and 28 October 2022. The last time we hosted a conference there was in 2016.

IMESA/CESA Excellence Awards In the meantime, we’ve had an excellent uptake for the virtual IMESA 2021 Conference, which will convene online on 17 to 19 November. Although many of the on-site benefits can’t be offered, the delegates who registered in the early-bird period will still receive their traditional conference bag. We’re also excited to confirm that we’ve received an exceptional range of entries for our biennial IMESA/CESA Excellence Awards. This was due to take place during the annual conference in October 2020, which was postponed due to Covid-19. Our judges were faced with the challenge of narrowing down the final winners from an exceptionally innovative and diverse range of submissions across the three competition categories. These are Engineering Excellence in Structures and

Bhavna Soni, president, IMESA

Civils; Environment and Climate Change; and Community Upliftment and Job Creation. The project submissions undergo a thorough evaluation process by representatives from both IMESA and CESA. The showcased projects range from reservoirs, irrigation schemes, water and sanitation systems to national roads, interchanges, and bridge refurbishment – all aimed at establishing essential and enabling infrastructure. Municipalities involved include the City of Cape Town, eThekwini, and the City of Johannesburg, as well as many of smaller local municipalities. It’s great to see new names among the consultants and contractors too. A special evening is being arranged in Cape Town in November 2021 for the winners to receive their certificates and awards. All the submissions, with the announcement of the winners, will be shown online at the IMESA 2021 Conference and included in the November/December 2021 issue of IMIESA. Thanks, once again, to all those delegates who have already joined us for the conference. As an industry, we’re all looking forward to the 2021 event, but even more so to gathering in East London next year to engage as delegates in a physical setting once again.

IMIESA September 2021



years of local innovation Matching the right pump with the right application is crucial for the optimal performance of fluid transfer systems. IMIESA speaks to John Montgomery, GM at APE Pumps and Mather+Platt, about their decades of experience in the design, manufacture, installation, and commissioning of pump systems for a range of industries. Increasingly, this includes operations and maintenance services.


hen South Africa implemented its first hard lockdown in March 2020, APE Pumps and sister entity Mather+Platt rose to the challenge and continued to operate at full capacity as an essential business. “In fact, the business pressures increased as our water and wastewater utilities, and SOE clients – especially in the energy sector – intensified their focus on ensuring that all their fluid transfer systems were performing optimally during the onset of the Covid-19 storm, which is an unprecedented crisis in our lifetime,” explains Montgomery.


IMIESA September 2021

“In a recent example, this has led to APE Pumps and Mather+Platt concluding a contract with an SOE to operate and maintain our installed systems. We expect these types of service-level agreements to become more common in future as clients recognise the benefits of partnering with expert original equipment manufacturers (OEMs),” he expands. APE Pumps and Mather+Platt are certainly not strangers to the fortunes of events, tracing their origins back to the first Industrial Revolution in the mid-1800s. Since then, they have continued to evolve, innovate and respond to modern-day challenges – celebrating 69 years of existence in 2021. “Going back over the timeline since establishing in South Africa in 1952, our strength then and now has been on local investment in people and technology, backed by a major multinational OEM group,” Montgomery continues. A.P.E Pumps (Amalgamated Pump Engineers) and Mather+Platt now form part of WPIL Limited, headquartered in India, having been acquired in 2012. Now more than 69 years old, WPIL has manufacturing operations in Australia, France, Italy, South Africa, Switzerland, Thailand, the UK and Zambia through its Group companies.

Proudly South African and committed to 100% local content As registered members of Proudly South African, APE Pumps and Mather+Platt have the advantage of being able to provide standard OEM and custom solutions for any industry where pumps are employed. When it comes to local manufacturing, this strength is supported by a synergistic partnership with South African foundries.

“Every one of our pumps that rolls off the production line in South Africa is manufactured from 100% local content. We’re proud of that fact because it creates jobs, upskills, and sustains local industries. It also means shorter lead times for our customers when placing orders, since APE Pumps and Mather+Platt are not reliant on imports, plus the associated higher shipping costs and potential delays in seaborne freight,” Montgomery explains. The casting process for pumps is an exact one, with zero margin for error. In this respect, APE Pumps and Mather+Platt are among the few South African entities that have an in-house pattern making workshop, with apprentices trained and prepared for industry certification in this niche field by a master artisan. “Even after 69 years of existence, we are able to draw on our own OEM blueprints for any pump replacement or refurbishment. Added to this, our technical team can measure and replicate any other redundant OEM pump,” Montgomery explains.

3D scanning The ancient art of pattern making remains applicable to this day, working with wooden models that can take months to execute, depending on the scale. Allied to this is the exciting new frontier of 3D scanning, a technology that APE Pumps and Mather+Platt have added to their technical arsenal, with major benefits for clients. A recent example is a major pulp and paper producer that couldn’t take an older and critical pump out of service for extended maintenance. APE Pumps and Mather+Platt’s technical team carried out a 3D scan of the existing pump setup. Going back to the drawing


ABOUT MATHER+PLATT board, they designed and produced a replacement system, which was successfully installed within a tight shutdown window. “In addition to supplying solutions, our expertise in fluid management systems has led to a major growth in demand for outsourced operations and maintenance services, and we’ve geared up for this with an ongoing investment in technical personnel,” Montgomery continues.

Turnkey execution Within the mix, the provision of turnkey solutions forms a core component of the services offered by APE Pumps and Mather+Platt, with the group certified as an 8 ME (Mechanical and Electrical) contractor in terms of the Construction Industry Development Board grading system. “What customers especially enjoy about our service is that they can walk through the design, manufacturing and commissioning process with us,” he adds. “This also includes

training for the client’s technical personnel as well as subcontractors in terms of BBBEE contractor participation goals.” Recent turnkey projects include a contract for Umgeni Water to manufacture, supply, deliver and commission Pump 4 at the Verulam Pump Station. The latter forms part of the Hazelmere water treatment plant supplying residents within eThekwini Municipality. APE Pumps and Mather+Platt replaced a split-case pump with a new vertical turbine pump, complete with piping, auxiliaries, valves, instrumentation and a motor. The pump, which was specifically designed to fit into the footprint of the old pump, was fitted with a 650 kW variable-speed drive (VSD). As part of the upgrade, APE Pumps and Mather+Platt also replaced the medium-voltage switchgear.

Tackling the maintenance backlog Across South Africa, it’s common knowledge that many municipal water and wastewater plants are in poor condition, suffering from years of neglect. “Since we’ve been in the local market for decades, we often come across situations where we’re asked to provide a turnkey repair for one of our older installations, sometimes dating back 30 years or more,” says Montgomery. Aside from a lack of routine maintenance, one of the root causes of failure is the use of non-OEM parts, and even replicated or pirate parts, to save on costs. Non-OEM parts do not precisely match APE Pumps and Mather+Platt design tolerances and are therefore prone to premature failure. The upside to older pump replacements and OEM refurbishments is that new technologies can be introduced. In

Mather+Platt manufactures horizontal multistage and split-case pumps for high-volume, highpressure applications

ABOUT APE PUMPS APE Pumps specialises in the design and manufacture of vertical industrial turbine pumps, and split-case pumps for most industries

addition to energy and life-cycle cost savings provided by installing VSDs, for example, the latest telemetry technologies enable the remote monitoring, control, and regulation of key variables like flow, pressure, operating temperatures, and vibration. “While the barriers to entry may seem low for potential new pump importers, there’s no guarantee of longer-term support for local customers. The same cannot be said for APE Pumps and Mather+Platt, which have remained committed and invested in the South African market for close on seven decades,” Montgomery concludes. Feel confident enough in the South African Market to look to expand via more aquisitions of companies with synergies to A.P.E group.

IMIESA September 2021



Bricklaying is a foundational skill that empowers new opportunities High youth unemployment is a key challenge facing South African society. There’s also a growing queue of new built environment graduates that cannot find sustainable employment. As South Africa’s largest cement producer, PPC is playing its part by providing training in foundational skills that equip aspiring artisans, construction managers and SMMEs.


ricks and cement are basic requirements for any building project, with bricklayers and plasterers always in demand. However, the historical contraction in the construction sector has led to a decline in activity, which has shed skills and hampered training opportunities. It’s a catch-22 scenario, so breaking this negative cycle for South Africa’s economic reconstruction and recovery is an overriding priority. In August 2021, PPC launched a groundbreaking, two-week bricklaying training initiative at its Hercules factory in Pretoria West. The site is significant,

since it’s the location of South Africa’s first cement plant, established in 1892, underscoring PPC’s 129-year commitment to infrastructure delivery. At PPC Hercules, 13 trainees were inducted as part of an unfolding nationwide programme. In addition to training, participants receive a financial incentive to help them buy the construction tools they need after the course. Future attendees can either apply to attend or can be nominated by a retailer or supplier, with training provided at no charge to the participant. Further details are available instore or on the PPC website.

PPC funded trainees to learn the foundational skills at an inaugural programme held at its Hercules cement plant in Pretoria West


IMIESA September 2021

Everyone’s welcome The PPC Hercules training group comprised new market entrants with no previous construction experience, as well as two participants with tertiary qualifications, but no immediate job prospects, namely Mikateko Ruth Matshebele and Mpho Thulare. Matshebele is a 37-year-old civil engineering graduate who dreams of running her own company. Thulare is a 24-year-old construction graduate trying to gain vital experience. “We have chosen Motheo Academy, a privately owned FET institution, to do the training as they have an exemplary record of providing exceptional, relevant instruction in the built environment. We want to give participants the best opportunity to improve their skills so they can build better lives,” says Njombo Lekula, managing director, PPC South Africa.

NQF 3 & 4 The NQF level 3 (bricklaying and plastering) and NQF level 4 (construction management) courses funded by PPC are certain to empower and uplift local communities. They also support


The bricklaying skills training funded by PPC will enable a new generation of specialist artisans

Product quality is interdependent on technical building skills

PPC is proud to be a leading provider of quality building materials and solutions to empower people to experience a better quality of life. This includes technical support and training for customers and communities.” a boom in the informal building market, either for manufacturers of products like precast concrete masonry bricks, lintels and rooftiles, or artisans and contractors employed in housing and related developments. “Informal builders are small businesses that play a vital role in building our communities, while also providing much-needed direct investment – two objectives that align with those of PPC,” says Lekula.

It begins and ends with quality Ensuring a sustainable construction result is the hallmark of PPC’s value proposition for the South African building and civil engineering markets. For PPC, quality is non-negotiable, and this is reflected across its cement, aggregates, metallurgical-grade lime, burnt dolomite, limestone, readymix and fly ash product solutions. “We want to ensure that every stakeholder – whether they’re a top-tier contractor, an SMME or an artisan – understands and appreciates this within the construction mix,” says Lekula. “Informal building entrepreneurs can often be self-taught. That’s highly commendable. However, many of these self-starters don’t have the necessary knowledge about cement selection, creating mixes and the techniques needed to ensure that their projects are totally

Completed building sections

fit for purpose. Often, the results can vary as far as quality is concerned,” Lekula points out.

The graduating class at PPC Hercules celebrates a new milestone

The unfolding vision Within the next 12 months, PPC will fund the training of more than 200 informal or ‘bakkie’ builders across South Africa. In future, current courses will also be topped up with advanced training. “We believe that by helping to create interest in construction at an informal, grassroots level – and further up the formal building chain – we will be encouraging more young people to consider construction as a career path,” adds Lekula. “However, ensuring this outcome can only be achieved by building the construction industry itself,” Lekula concludes.

IMIESA September 2021


INDUSTRY INSIGHT Projects should only go out to tender once the land legal checklist has been ticked off

Enabling the framework for land acquisition in infrastructure projects South Africa’s land legal environment is a complex one to navigate, governed by a myriad of legislation. However, given the country’s pressing socio-economic demands, this is the essential starting point for all infrastructure planning and project preparation. IMIESA speaks to Karl Hoffmann, director and attorney at HSG Attorneys Incorporated, about the most effective approach. What are the primary objectives?

Karl Hoffmann, director and attorney at HSG Attorneys Incorporated


IMIESA September 2021

KH There are various key objectives, some historical – in terms of addressing the spatial inequalities of the pre-1994 spatial landscape, like land restitution, the Constitutional right for any person to own land – and others now more immediately directed at supporting South Africa’s economic reconstruction and development programme, and the roll-out of projects driven by South Africa’s Infrastructure Fund. The latter was already gaining momentum before Covid-19 hit but is clearly even more of a priority in tackling

the socio-economic fallout, helping to refocus the drive towards meeting the goals of the 2030 National Development Plan. A further development is the proposed Expropriation Bill.

What role do land audits play in the process? They are essential. A land audit is the process of identifying and investigating the properties that are affected by the intended development/ infrastructure project. This audit process includes confirmation of ownership information; obtaining title deeds, notarial deeds, servitude documents, and mortgage bonds; a spatial analysis using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to detect possible tenure conflict and ensuring that there are no restrictive conditions of title that could affect the subdivision/ consolidation of land, registration of servitudes, or the development of the project. Zoning and/or land use confirmation is also required.

Is the land legal process well understood by municipalities? Projects should only go out to tender once the land legal checklist has been ticked off. That includes environmental impact assessments. However, the land legal step is often missed. Too often, the weighting is on completing the engineering design and starting the project. But if the contractor arrives on-site without a proper land legal process and agreements being in place with the landowner concerned, unanticipated tenure disputes will put the brakes on construction once the owner files an interdict. That will contribute to cost overruns due to standing time claims. The negative impact of delayed service delivery can also not be ignored. The time taken to complete the land legal process may seem time-consuming; however, doing it correctly will actually help further down the project line to ensure that projects are completed within their planned timeframes. Government refers to ‘shovel

INDUSTRY INSIGHT ready’ projects, but has the land legal side been completed?

Is establishing or transferring land ownership or the registration of land rights a straightforward process? From a legal standpoint, ownership and the acquisition of land rights and/or property, and its subsequent sale, transfer and/or registration, has always been an intricate process. The legal framework is governed by who the buyer and seller are. So, the first question to ask is, “What is the tenure?” For example, is the seller a private or public entity (like an SOE, national department or municipality)? Or is it a tribal authority negotiating the sale of a land parcel to make way for a greenfield construction development – a case in point being Sanral’s N2 Wild Coast project, where we have been involved from a legal perspective. In another example, a water pipeline needed to cross a school property in rural KwaZulu-Natal so confirmation was required from the landowner, which was the Provincial Department of Public Works. But because it was a school, we also had to get the consent of the Department of Basic Education. There may also be conditions on a title deed that restrict certain actions. For example, the land occupant may not be

the owner, such as in a land invasion scenario. Or there might be a tenure conflict on a proposed pipeline route due to existing servitude rights and/ or expropriation. An example might be an existing servitude owned by Eskom, with a section expropriated by Sanral. In another scenario, an earthworks contractor might accidently hit an existing pipeline; however, its position would have been verified beforehand if the title deed had been checked for registered servitudes. And where there’s an unreported deceased estate, that estate is frozen. The potential heirs might also not be traceable.

Is there a place for land expropriation? Across the world, land expropriation is an accepted practice in preparing the way for infrastructure projects that include roads, rail, water and sanitation. However, it intensifies within the South African context. Either way, expropriation should be the last resort where negotiations with the owner are unsuccessful.

When it comes to the implementation team, who’s on board? The whole process works best with a holistic, multidisciplinary approach. Key team members include: - registered land surveyor - registered town planner

A spatial analysis using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to detect possible tenure conflict

- professional valuator - conveyancer with speciality in land legal matters - communications specialist, plus community facilitators/ negotiators to ensure proactive public participation - GIS specialist - project coordinator - project manager.

Why is accurate GIS data so important? GIS is a tool used by the full project team. You can take the engineer’s pipeline design, overlay that with information provided by the land legal team, and automatically identify the land parcels that the proposed infrastructure runs over. Using a GIS, the specialist and surveyor can also identify infrastructure deviations that may require additional servitudes or acquisitions. These deviations are then checked on the ground to ensure that an accurate representation is captured. Our recommendation is that project planners base their decisions on up-to-date aerial photography. This can also prove invaluable in legal disputes. An example would be where a land invasion occurs after construction has commenced.

Can you provide an example that illustrates the value of pre-project preparation? A classic one is the iLembe Water and Sanitation Pipeline Project. The latter serves as an excellent example of how the land legal process either comes together perfectly or becomes bogged down if the vital preproject preparation checklist is not followed. This project entailed the acquisition of servitude rights for the installation of water and sanitation pipelines. Land acquisition was also required for the associated reservoirs and pump stations. The latter are regarded as subdivisions, requiring planning permission

TYPICAL LAND LEGAL IMPEDIMENTS • Restrictive conditions of title • Tenure conflict • Tenure rectification • Tenure insecurity • Deceased estates • Leasehold tenure • Land invasion • Tribal-held land

before proceeding with the transfer process. The project involved all forms of acquisition, including expropriation. In addition, the pipeline routes needed to cross under privately owned sugar cane farmland. This necessitated the appointment of sugar cane valuers in addition to property valuers. The purpose of the sugar cane valuers was to determine the loss of harvested income by the owner during any seasonal interruptions caused by the construction programme. The value of the servitude also had to be determined and negotiated. Various deceased estates were identified and, due to the lack of a comprehensive land audit being undertaken prior to the appointment of the contractor, these estates led to substantial delays and damages.

And in closing? The South African government has placed major emphasis on an infrastructure-led economic recovery. For this reason, strict due diligence is required to ensure a smooth land legal process. It’s a step-bystep process that cannot be circumvented. And when done correctly, it will speed things up further down the line.

IMIESA September 2021



Demand management and the history of water legislation

The historical evolution of water legislation in South Africa provides a compelling case for understanding the current discourse on water infrastructure. A key consideration is the question of funding, operations and maintenance. By Gundo Maswime*


s a case in point, the Water Research Commission recently issued a request for interested parties to draft a position paper on the conception of policy and legislative instruments that may pave the way for communities to take charge of their water infrastructure where their municipalities are seen to be failing. There are sections of the water industry and value chain that believe failing municipalities must give way to local initiatives of water system management. This means community initiatives should be legally able to take over the operation, financing and capitalisation of water infrastructure from failing local councils. The formalisation of this ‘takeover’, it is argued, will ease funding by the community and the private sector. On the opposite side of the aisle are those convinced that the community takeover brings back the days of water boards that were seen to be unregulated, as well as unaccountable and incapable of running complex distribution networks. There is also a question of the fine line between the community and private sector, especially when funding is to be involved. There is


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unease about the risk of privatisation and commodification of access to water if this fine line is breached. Even among those agitating for a community takeover, there are glaring disparities in what exactly this takeover should look like. In fact, some believe it was successfully piloted in the early 2000s in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape. What is generally agreed on is that there are shortcomings in the current models in as far as the reliable provision of potable water and sanitation services is concerned. It is in the diagnostics that people hold diametrically opposed opinions.

Emotive issues, ideological shifts Understanding the dynamics of the water situation in South Africa requires taking a step back in history to appreciate why the issue is highly emotive. Unlike all other areas of legislative exertion, water sector legislation immediately reveals the ideological disposition and balance of forces within a political dispensation. Since the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, only four national pieces of water legislation have been passed by government,

with each piece clearly depicting ideological shifts in policy. The Irrigation and Water Conservation Act (No. 8 of 1912) followed two years after the Union of South Africa was formed. It captured the fact that the economy was agrarian, and the agricultural sector was the most powerful lobby at the time. This legislation remained in place for 36 years, until a new government came into power in 1948. The 1948 administration took eight years building consensus with the new lobby groups that were challenging the dominance of the agricultural industry on all things water. There are historical records of frantic petitioning and postponement of the tabling of draft legislation. This culminated in the Water Act (No. 54 of 1956). A close look at this Act shows that the state acknowledged the mining and industrial lobby by giving generous concessions to their demands.

Dominus Flumnis clause With advice from Hendrick Van der Bijl and HJ Van Eck, the state later made major amendments to the Act. The amendments included introducing the Dominus Flumnis clause to the Water Act, which meant that


There are sections of the water industry and value chain that believe that failing municipalities must give way to local initiatives of water system management the Minister of Water Affairs had absolute power over decisions pertaining to the apportioning of water resources. This was a tacit nationalisation of water resources. Van der Bijl understood that the lack of full control of water resources by the state would limit its developmental agenda. The development of the industrial hub in the Vaal rested on the state having full control over its water resources and a key national project like that couldn’t be undertaken without the guarantee of water security. The other intervention was to legislate the exclusion of native Africans from participation in water boards or receiving loans for irrigation infrastructure. It was further expressed in the Act that land demarcated for natives may be expropriated for development of water projects without compensation. This is the origin of the now popularised phrase ‘expropriation without compensation'. The revised Act sponsored by Van der Bijl and Van Eck was

tabled in Parliament as an amendment to the Water Act, becoming part of the suite of legislation that ushered in a new era of ‘separate development’.

Post-1994 landscape The next enactment was the National Water Act (No. 36 of 1999), which followed the 1994 dispensation. The agricultural establishment, mining complex and secondary industrial complex were replaced by the residential use of water. To this end, access to piped water jumped from about 63% to about 95% between 1994 and 2019. This began to present new challenges in the maintenance and operation of infrastructure. Institutional arrangements had to change and many in the private sector did not see the need to participate in the operations under the new setup. But the asset management and operational inadequacies have adversely affected agriculture, mining and industry. Indeed, no one in the township or rural area wants to take part in the maintenance and operation of water resources in substitution of the municipality. The question then becomes: which community is keen to take charge? Local communities do not possess the skills base needed to operate complex reticulation and treatment processes.

What preoccupies the state is addressing the fact that only 40% of residential water is shared by 70% of the population, while 60% is used by 30% of the population. It is the unequal access to water within the various communities that have access. While South Africa is the most unequal society in terms of income disparity, it has more inequality in terms of access to water. Any intervention that will be seen to address this situation is undoubtedly going to resonate with the aspirations of the state, notwithstanding which side of the aisle it comes from. The infrastructure fraternity must determine if fewer than the current 142 water services authorities will improve management through the consolidation of skills. A contract between a private sector contractor and the City of Johannesburg has worked well enough, if not very well. A community-based management of water supply schemes can be beneficial if it augments and does not replace the efforts of the municipality. A replacement may, however, be in conflict with the aspirations of the National Water Act of the integrated management of all aspects of water resources. *Gundo Maswime is a lecturer at the University of Cape Town and a researcher in public infrastructure.

IMIESA September 2021



Everite spearheads growth in sustainable construction A respected leader since 1941, Everite Building Products (Everite) has evolved through a series of owners, the most recent being its acquisition by majority shareholder and Mauritian investment entity Lonsa Group Limited (Lonsa). Robin Vela, Lonsa’s chairman, expands on the benefits for the South African and international markets. By Alastair Currie


onsa Everite, the specialpurpose vehicle incorporated to execute the approximately R600 million acquisition, comprises Lonsa (55.49%), Everite Management (Pty) Ltd (14.5%), Legacy Africa Capital Partners (Pty) Ltd (25.01%), and Muvhango Netshitangani (5.0%). The deal, effective 1 May 2021, includes Everite Group’s assets, businesses and companies (including Sky Sands and Sheetrite), as well as the purchase of Everite’s production facility in Kliprivier, Gauteng. Previously part of Group Five, Everite was sold as a going concern. For the local market, it’s a new lease on life for Everite and its more than 500 employees. The company is a leading manufacturer of fibre cement and allied products for the commercial, industrial and residential markets. Within the product mix, Nutec is a household Everite brand for a range of ceilings, internal and external cladding, and roofing systems. As an early adopter of alternative building technologies, Everite also holds an exclusive licence in South Africa from the Xella Group


IMIESA September 2021

in Germany to manufacture Hebel autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) block and panel products. This technology has been commonly used worldwide for more than 80 years, with a growing application footprint, including landmark developments in Dubai and South Africa. This is due to AAC’s exceptional green building qualities, high speed of building, and superior technical properties. “As the only large-scale fibre cement manufacturer in South Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa, Everite is in a unique position to service building and social infrastructure requirements in the region,” says Vela. “This is backed by some 50% excess production capacity on idle plant that is ready to run as demand increases. As we ramp up, this will drive expansion on the continent, which currently only accounts for 10% of Everite’s sales,” he continues. “Lonsa would also like to position Everite more aggressively as an enabler and delivery agent for UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – infrastructure, housing, employment, poverty alleviation – and, in doing so, make it an attractive participant for the capital committed to infrastructure in South Africa and Africa by the G7 and leading economies,” he adds. Alongside fibre cement, key growth is expected in AAC alternative building systems, supporting South African government initiatives that include the roll-out of essential projects in the housing, education, health and sanitation markets.

Industry engagement To facilitate this process, Everite is engaging with government entities, South African built environment professionals and contractors to present the business case. Industry alliances include a partnership agreement with Sanjo Fabtech Sterling Building Technologies, which forms part of Sanjo Construction (Sanjo). The former is a technology holder and custom manufacturer of internationally developed

The conversion of the Absa Tower in Johannesburg’s CBD employed autoclaved aerated concrete during its conversion from office to residential accommodation

modular loadbearing construction systems suitable for use in structures up to six storeys high, servicing all sectors of the market – from low-cost to high-end applications. Within the social housing market, Sanjo has recently constructed numerous multi-storey buildings. These include developments in Tembisa, Tshwane and the West Rand. Everite has also formed a partnership with one of its shareholders, Instratin – a 100% black-owned property development, investment and asset management specialist focusing on turnkey solutions. Instratin is currently investigating the development of several high-rise buildings on behalf of the Social Housing Regulatory Authority within Durban and Johannesburg.

AAC advantages Between two to ten times faster than conventional construction, AAC passes on major savings for a wide range of loadbearing and non-loadbearing applications. Its lightweight properties and superior strength are core

Everite is a direct enabler of infrastructure and affordable housing development, and an indirect contributor to the creation of employment and alleviation of poverty in Africa.”


Autoclaved aerated concrete was extensively used during the construction of The Leonardo in Sandton

Fibre cement cladding forms a distinctive feature of the Nedbank head office in Sandton

features, significantly reducing foundation and structural costs, while providing excellent fire resistance (being non-combustible), acoustic and thermal insulation properties. According to Xella, insulation performance is five times greater than that of clay brick of the same thickness. From a weight perspective, AAC also ticks all the boxes. This is underscored by the fact that the typical brick and mortar wall load is approximately 350 kg/m2 compared to AAC blocks at around 90 kg/m2, which comes from the 600 kg/m³ density at which the product is fabricated. Xella’s Hebel AAC products are made from sand, lime, cement and water, with aluminium

powder acting as a foaming agent to form a homogeneous cellular structure known as calcium silicate hydrate. This is also a green product, since the manufacturing process consumes approximately 70% less energy compared to clay brick production. AAC offcuts at the factory can also be recycled. Critical to the manufacturing process is the autoclave curing cycle. This not only fully cures the cement in a highly accelerated 12-hour curing process, but significantly improves the chemical structure of the raw materials to create a unique cementitious phase called tobermorite – specific to both fibre cement and AAC manufacture – giving these materials superior properties.

The incorporation of stained Nutec fibre cement planks adds a key aesthetic element for a building entrance

South African flagship projects So far, the various alternative building technologies supported by Everite have been employed for various landmark projects in South Africa. These include The Leonardo, a mixed-use development in Sandton, which is currently the tallest building in Africa at a height of 234 m, where AAC was used as infill walling. Within Johannesburg’s CBD, the conversion of the Absa Tower office block from commercial to residential accommodation is a further example in a growing list of local AAC applications. The conversion of the old ENS building in Sandton, which is now the Sky Hotel, extensively used Sanjo infill walling products, as did the conversion to high-end residential units of the Department of Home Affairs building in Fredman Drive, also in Sandton.

It’s common knowledge that the advent of Covid-19 has had a negative impact on commercial office space, brought on by a shift to a working-from-home culture. All indications are that this trend will remain a permanent feature, motivating property owners to rethink alternative uses like housing and student accommodation. Both are in huge demand in South Africa. Everite is receiving a growing pipeline of enquiries from landlords and potential developers about how AAC can form the basis for future building reconfigurations. These projects also dovetail well with Everite’s complementary Nutec range. “Lonsa’s strategic goal is to provide the best return for our shareholders, clients and communities in the regions where we operate – while doing good. The driving force for our investments is not simply monetary return but also delivering a social dividend and contributing towards the attainment of the UN SDGs,” adds Vela. “The acquisition of Everite is our contribution to promoting local content, growing South Africa’s manufacturing base, and helping to accelerate and lower the cost of infrastructure delivery in a sustainable manner. We are highly optimistic about what the future holds,” Vela concludes. Robin Vela, chairman, Lonsa Group Limited and Lonsa Everite

IMIESA September 2021



Determining the remaining life of concrete sewers Traditionally, the large-diameter outfall sewers installed in South Africa from about the 1950s onwards were made of concrete and designed for a 40-year life. In many cases, these systems have lasted beyond their designed lifespan; in others, they have had to be replaced or are in need of rehabilitation or replacement. By Alaster Goyns, Pr Eng*


he deterioration of these sewers is mainly due to biogenic corrosion and particular problems arise when gradients are inconsistent or sewers are downstream of rising mains. To perform optimally, these pipelines should flow partly full under gravity at reasonable gradients, which ensures effective operation. Where gradients are too flat, there is insufficient oxygen in the slow-flowing effluent, resulting in hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas being generated. When there are steep gradients, any H2S that has been generated is stripped out of the fast-flowing effluent and then biologically converted to sulfuric acid (H2SO4). This H2SO4 then attacks and corrodes any alkaline pipe material, such as concrete or fibre cement. The structural integrity of the pipes is then compromised; if this is not addressed timeously, the sewer collapses. However, before a sewer collapses, it starts leaking – resulting in cavities forming around the leaks and becoming water paths running adjacent to the sewer. The flow along these paths removes the bedding support around


IMIESA September 2021

the pipes, further reducing their load-carrying capacity and shortening the time to collapse. As these sewers are frequently placed at depth below the surface, such a collapse of the pipe/soil system invariably results in problems for the services above. Although many of the outfalls installed in South Africa since the 1950s and 1960s are still in operation – way beyond their planned operating life – some have deteriorated and collapsed. When this happens, the costs are several times that of replacement, even before the unaccounted-for costs to the public are considered. To prevent this from happening, any sewers where this could happen should be replaced or rehabilitated. In urban areas in particular, the use of trenchless techniques is generally the best approach.

Replace or rehabilitate? Before deciding about replacing or rehabilitating a pipeline, an assessment of its performance and condition should be done. This will establish how well its hydraulic and structural requirements are being met and enable an estimate of its remaining

service life. Recently, the great strides made with CCTV and associated inspection systems mean that a complete picture inside sewers, as well as a quantification of internal dimensions, can be provided. Combining this information with the loading conditions, and an understanding of the corrosion mechanism, provides input for the structural analysis of sewers and an estimate of their remaining life. The extent and severity of the problems can be established and Corrosion mechanism in sewers




decisions about the appropriate remedial measures taken. Remaining life is dependent upon the external loads and actual wall thickness, both of which will vary along the length of any sewer. Over the past two decades, protecting concrete pipes with an inert lining such as polyethylene is frequently done. This is effective, but only economically justifiable when corrosion is predicted for larger sewers (≥1 200 mm diameter). This does not address the issue of how to handle the problem with existing sewers that have already started to deteriorate and will at some point in the future need rehabilitation to avoid their collapse. The problem is to determine when this rehabilitation should take place and what technique should be used.

of various binder/aggregate combinations. A bypass line was constructed so that the flow could be diverted, and the various pipes physically inspected and estimates of the corrosion losses made. The inspections confirmed that the Portland cement dolomitic aggregate (PC/DOL) pipes performed much better than PC pipes made with siliceous aggregate (SIL), and concrete using calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and SIL performed significantly better than the PC concretes. It was predicted that the control pipes made using PC/SIL would corrode through after 10 years. A physical inspection confirmed that this did in fact happen. In 2003, the sections of the experimental sewer where the PC/SIL were on the point of collapse were exposed and these pipes, plus short sections of the adjacent pipes, were removed so that the actual wall losses Long-term test could be measured. There were sections of In 1989, a 65 m long experimental section the PC/SIL pipes where the concrete (84 mm was installed in Virginia, Free State, as part thick) above the flow level had disappeared of a 900 mm diameter sewer where very completely, whereas the PC/DOL pipes had aggressive conditions were expected. The lost about 40% of this and the CAC/SIL pipes purpose of this was to compare corrosion rates only about 25%. The removed pipes were 21-09-14_040_ID21178_eAZ_Kapstadt_IMIESA_210x148,5_RZgp

Wall at any section Outside to invert

Invert wall Outside diameter

Physical dimensions to check

replaced with short sections of various special cementitious materials, which are periodically monitored. The indications are that some of these are at least 20 times more effective than PC/SIL concrete. The original pipes have now been exposed to these aggressive conditions for 32 years. The results have provided valuable quantitative information on the corrosion rates of various cementitious materials for sewers and can be used for predicting what will happen in existing sewers. It has also provided the criteria for


EFFICIENT SEWAGE SYSTEM State-of-the-art tunnelling technology from Herrenknecht was applied to upgrade the sewage system (Cape Flats 3 Bulk Sewer – Phase 2) in Cape Town. The new, sustainable tunnel infrastructure has been constructed with minimal disruption to the local community.

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Corroded RCP (front) and FC (back) pipes

Mushroom-shaped pipe

PC/SIL pipe wall gone in 10 years

evaluating the performance of CAC-based concretes for the mortar relining of sewers.

remained intact – will have increased due to consolidation and countered these loads. On the other hand, if some of the material surrounding the pipeline has infiltrated into it through leaking joints, cavities will have formed around the sewer, resulting in a loss of bedding support. The load-carrying capacity of the pipe/soil system will then deteriorate, and collapses can be expected.

form a sharp bend over the sills and could become overstressed. Under such conditions, instead of a curedin-place or a fold-and-form liner matching the sewer profile, which will be excessively stressed where it bends over such sills, a spirally wound liner could be a better option. This liner can be installed so that a circular profile is maintained. When the sewer capacity is inadequate due to population densification in urban areas, pipe bursting or reaming is an effective way of increasing the pipeline diameter and capacity with minimal surface disruption. As there will be less space for digging trenches in future urban landscapes, many new sewers and water supply pipelines will be installed using trenchless techniques such as microtunnelling and directional drilling.

Residual strength The critical issue for the utility owner is the sewer’s remaining life before it needs rehabilitation or replacement, and then the most suitable method for doing this. A secondary issue is how effectively and efficiently the sewer will perform during this remaining life. The strengths at three stages in a sewer’s life need to be determined, namely: the initial, when installed to meet the design specification; the residual, at time of investigation; and the minimum required to take the actual loads imposed on the pipes. Although the strengths for a specified pipe class, as determined at the time of installation, will be constant, the minimum initial strengths needed along the sewer will depend on the actual loading. The residual strength along the sewer length may also vary as the corrosion losses over time may differ due to the changes in the hydraulic conditions along the sewer. The minimum strength needed will also vary along the sewer length, depending on the actual loading conditions and corrosion losses. Assuming that the soil around the pipes remains intact, it will consolidate over time. The vertical loads and moments generated on the pipes will then probably be less than those originally designed for, as the lateral pressures – if the bedding support has

Choice of rehabilitation or replacement technique Once the rehabilitation and replacement priorities are determined, decisions about the most appropriate technique to use need to be made. Although the utility owner will invariably want to choose the rehabilitation method based on price, this should not be done if it compromises the pipeline’s longterm functionality or structural integrity. The most economical solution would generally be slip lining. However, as it is not a tight or close-fit liner, it may not provide the capacity needed. In addition, there will be a gap between the liner and host pipe – and this will have to be grouted to prevent a water path developing next to the sewer and a loss of soil support if joints on the host pipe have been leaking. When the internal cross-sectional profile of a sewer is not circular due to corrosion, and has sharp longitudinal deviations from this, as with a mushroom-shaped pipe with longitudinal sills, a tight or close-fit liner would

As there will be less space for digging trenches in future urban landscapes, many new sewers and water supply pipelines will be installed using trenchless techniques such as microtunnelling and directional drilling."

Leverage your assets However, there are still many ageing sewers below congested city and urban areas that have been designed for historic population densities, and their condition is unknown. It is these ‘holes through the soil’ that are the utility owner’s real assets: the pipelines are merely liners that should enable them to perform effectively and efficiently on a sustainable basis. Many of these are now in need of rehabilitation or replacement. However, before any decisions about this are made, it is essential that their hydraulic performance and structural integrity are assessed by using the techniques that are now available. The benefit of doing this is that the asset owner is informed of which sections of sewer need attention and how to prioritise this work. *Alaster Goyns is the founder of Pipeline Installation and Professional Engineering Services CC.

IMIESA September 2021



Rehabilitating Cape Flats 1 and 2 Trenchless technologies will be employed extensively for the refurbishment of one of Cape Town’s largest sewer systems, with all works expected to be completed by 2025. Vuyo James, senior professional officer: Planning, Design and Projects at the City of Cape Town’s Water and Waste Directorate, says the project is the largest undertaken to date in South Africa. By Alastair Currie


he Cape Flats 1 and 2 (CF 1 and 2) sewer lines, each measuring some 14 km in length and running in parallel, were originally installed in 1962 and 1969, respectively, to meet growing demand. Then and now, they perform a vital service, which has become even more crucial given ongoing residential, commercial, and industrial expansion within the City of Cape Town. This was the motivation for the construction of the new Cape Flats 3 (CF 3) sewer line, completed in 2016, which has significantly reduced the load on the overall system. The additional services provided by CF 3 now make it possible for a systematic and phased refurbishment of CF 1 and 2, without putting service delivery on the line. As a far more modern system, CF 3 was installed with larger-diameter pipe networks compared to CF 1 and 2 – the latter ranging from 1 050 mm up to 1.8 m. CF 3 also benefits from the latest advances in protective polyurethane lining systems preinstalled by the precast pipe manufacturer that supplied the project.


IMIESA September 2021

Athlone is the starting point for CF 1 and 2, culminating at the Cape Flats Wastewater Treatment Works (WWTW) in Zeekoevlei. The treated effluent is subsequently discharged into the Zeekoevlei zone, an approximately 258 ha water body that borders the Atlantic Ocean.

Designed to last The original networks for CF 1 and 2 are composed of precast reinforced concrete pipe in varying diameters along their length – as is typical of a sewer system. However, it’s interesting to note that the City’s design team went a step further by encasing the entire pipeline installation with a concrete outer layer as an added protective measure during their construction. As was common practice in the 1960s, the manholes are built predominantly of clay brick, incorporating a chamber, or chimney, for inspections. “Considering that these pipes have been in operation for close on 60 years in a highly corrosive environment, they have stood the test of time exceptionally well,” says James.

Vuyo James, senior professional officer: Planning, Design and Projects, City of Cape Town Water and Waste Directorate

“From the CCTV inspections undertaken to date, it has been confirmed that there are no pipe collapses on CF 1 and 2. However, there are collapses at the manholes, which can be expected given some six decades of performance. Manhole chambers tend to be subjected to far higher concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas build-ups than the pipes themselves.”

Trenchless versus opentrench excavation The City of Cape Town’s engineers have gained extensive experience in the deployment of trenchless technology for new pipeline installations, like CF 3, as well as major bulk line refurbishments. This made going the trenchless route a logical choice. “A major benefit of trenchless construction is minimal, if any, disruption, which is especially important in urban areas,” James explains. “Plus, the cost of electing for an open-trench


method to replace and re-lay new pipelines would have been prohibitive, and unnecessary, given the refurbishment products available on the market. In any case, space constraints within the pipelines’ servitudes ruled out an open-cut approach.” Depending on the specific repair intervention required, three products have been specified by the City following in-depth research. These comprise cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) lining systems (either reinforced or unreinforced), a PVC spirally wound pipe liner system, and concrete-on-concrete repair using a proprietary calcium aluminate cement (CAC) and aggregate product. CAC will be employed extensively for the manhole refurbishments. This will be the first-time application of spirally wound pipe on a City of Cape Town project. The product is installed by launching a spindle machine attached to a PVC liner spool feed. As the spindle travels down the pipe, it systematically installs an approximately 20 mm diameter liner, which incorporates a strip of steel reinforcement. Strips are secured in place by a mechanical locking joint. A further plus is that the spindle machine can be set for a fixed or variable diameter.

The ovality factor Currently, the appointed contractors are completing detailed profiling inspections that will determine which of the recommended technologies should be employed on affected sections. The ovality of CF 1 and 2 pipelines will be the determining factor. Pipes start out round, but their shape changes over time due to corrosion and/ or scale build-up. Corrosion is always going to be a key issue within sewer lines unless combatted with protective systems, like HDPE liners, during their original commissioning. Where calcification occurs, this will reduce the pipe’s diameter; however, corrosion is the main factor. It progressively eats away the concrete. The pipe diameter then starts to increase, exposing the steel reinforcing. This in turn negatively affects the pipe’s hydraulic characteristics, increasing the speed and variability of flow patterns. Typically, a mushroom effect results at the base of eroded pipes, since this is where most of the flow occurs. However, a reverse mushroom effect can also occur, characterised by scale build-up at the apex of the pipe. CIPP is not limited in terms of diameter. However, the risk and cost increase exponentially above a certain diameter. It’s also important to note that each CIPP liner is

An example of a collapsed brick manhole section

custom-built to meet a specific pipe’s exact dimensions, making allowance for some degree of expansion and contraction. Typically, these liners are blown through the pipe using compressed air and then inflated using either heat, air, or water. They contain a specialist resin that cures and hardens through exposure to air or UV light. “Generally, CIPP tends to work best on pipe diameters up to 1.2 m. After this, spirally wound liners are the preferred approach,” James explains.

A strategic and phased intervention The budgeted cost for the refurbishment of CF 1 and 2, which includes the rehabilitation of over 300 manholes, is more than R200 million. Some R100 million has been allocated during the 2021/22 financial year for profiling work and the appointment of consultants. Once the project enters the refurbishment stage, the first phase will entail repair works on CF 1. In preparation for this, a wall constructed at Manhole 1 (the mixing chamber) will divide the CF 1 and 2 lines. At Manhole 12, sluice gates have also been installed so that flows can be diverted to either pipeline. James says that the flow to CF 1 will be completely diverted to CF 2 during CF 1’s repair; however, completely shutting off CF 2 during its repair will not be possible since it currently transports higher loads than CF 1. So, some sections of CF 2 must remain operational during its rehabilitation. “We’ll need to be very strategic. The success of the project will hinge on close teamwork between the City, consultants, contractors and product suppliers,” says James. “Optimal process efficiencies at

Mining a pipe blockage

the Cape Flats WWTW will also be a critical factor.” The scale of the project is certain to place the spotlight on Cape Town from trenchless technology practitioners locally and internationally. “Our engineering teams take a proactive approach to asset management and infrastructure master planning as part of the City’s longer-term socio-economic vision. Investing in infrastructure creates the enabling framework,” adds James. “That was clearly well understood by the City’s engineers back in the 1960s, when CF 1 and CF 2 were built. Their visionary design in encasing the pipelines means that we can now use modern-day trenchless techniques to extend their life for at least another 100 years,” James concludes.

IMIESA September 2021



Winners of the ERWIC Awards

The Empowerment and Recognition of Women in Construction (ERWIC) Awards were developed by the the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) to celebrate and encourage women in the construction industry, and showcase woman-led projects and achievements.


IMIESA September 2021



he awards categories recognised construction entities and individuals that develop and support gender transformation and the mentorship of women in the industr y. The following categories and award winners were:

Project Delivery Excellence – Woman-owned Construction Entity Recognising woman-owned projects that have demonstrated overall excellence in project implementation, met the client’s requirements and have been led by an effective project team. Project criteria include sustainability and the provision of innovative solutions for the client. • W inner: Perseverence Mashale, Ke Nale Modisa Construction and Projects • Second Place: Nonhlanhla Esen, NOS Group • T hird Place: Mikateko Rosemar y Mabunda, Mikateko Trading Enterprise

Rural Project Recognising woman-owned construction entities that have motivated and completed a successful project within the rural environment. ‘Rural’ is defined as a district or small settlement outside urban areas. • W inner: Thobekile Ndlovu, Thobethulani Trading

support of the gender agenda through the implementation of a transformation policy. • W inner: Lebogang Zulu, Tshitshirisang Construction and Projects • Second Place: Buang Moloto, Linhleko Projects • T hird Place: Dr Nkgomeleng Julia Petla, Amedzo Trading and Projects

Innovative Entity Recognising an entity utilising new technologies and showing innovation in their approach to projects and/or their business. • W inner: Lebogang Zulu, Tshitshirisang Construction and Projects • Second Place: Lettie Mashau, Motheo Construction Group • Third Place: Rose Ntabiseng Tsenase, Bashoeshoe Housing System

Winner of Project Delivery Excellence: Perseverence Mashale, Ke Nale Modisa Construction and Projects

Business Resilience – Covid-19 Recognising an entity that showed resilience, agility and adaptability in 2020 during the pandemic. The entity will have sur vived and may even have thrived during this period, kept staff employed or paid, fulfilled client obligations and, where possible, completed projects. • W inner: Nokuthula Mahlangu, Elezulu Construction • Second Place: Faith Tshepiso Mabena, Nokhanya Ser vices • Third Place: Lettie Mashau, Motheo Construction Group

Winner of the Rural Project of the Year: Thobekile Ndlovu, Thobethulani Trading

Mentoring Entity Recognising an entity within the construction industr y that is positively contributing to the development and support of women in the construction industr y. The entity provides skills-based training, formal mentorship programmes, and on-the-job support for women in the organisation. • W inner: Lebogang Zulu, Tshitshirisang Construction and Projects • Second Place: Lettie Mashau, Motheo Construction Group • Third Place: Murendeni Ernest Mabada, Mabert Electrical Solutions

Youth-owned Woman Construction Entity

Transformation Entity

Woman-owned Construction Entity

Recognising an entity that has supported and continues to support its woman employees and nurtures talent in a way that has helped them to grow and mature within their fields. The entity must display

Recognising an entity owned by a female aged 35 years or younger. The entity must be sustainable, display a good track record for over two years, and be contributing to the empowerment of women and the industr y. • W inner: Tshepiso Ingrid Ngwenya, KwaMarona • Second Place: Kgothatso Doris Matsogo, Kgothatso Electrical • Third Place: Phindile Hlongwane, Injabulo Suppliers

Recognising a key woman player with 51% or more ownership of a construction entity. The individual has managed and grown a successful entity in the industr y.

Winner of Mentoring Entity of the Year: Lebogang Zulu, Tshitshirisang Construction and Projects

Winner of the Transformation Entity of the Year: Lebogang Zulu, Tshitshirisang Construction and Projects

IMIESA September 2021



The importance of shining the light on the excellent work that women do cannot be overemphasised, especially in a patriarchal society. The year 2021 is dedicated to the memory of a pioneer and freedom stalwart, uMama Charlotte Maxeke who – through all her work and efforts – sought to contribute to a South Africa that is united, prosperous and at peace with itself. She proved that women were capable, effective leaders.”

same time promoting and highlighting the contribution by women in the industr y. • W inner: Celeste Margo Le Roux, React 24 • Second Place: Nelisiwe Joyce Radebe, NJ Radebe General Projects • Third Place: Nokuthula Mahlangu, Elezulu Construction

The individual has contributed significantly to the development of the South African construction industr y, through her dedication, conviction, vision, commitment and leadership. • W inner: Celeste Margo Le Roux, React 24 •S  econd Place: Faith Tshepiso Mabena, Nokhanya Ser vices • T hird Place: Nokuthula Mahlangu, Elezulu Construction

In his opening address, Bongani Dladla, acting CEO of the CIDB, said, “We have a strong focus on supporting the gender agenda and are working hard at encouraging all entities registered with the CIDB to embrace gender diversity and transformation within their organisations to enhance the sustainability of women within the construction industr y.” He added that the CIDB will use the generous donation received from its parent entity, the Department of Public Works and Infrastructure (DPWI), to further enhance business skills of women in construction through a formalised business coaching process. Feziwe Mpaku, founder of Independent Girls Business Enterprise, spoke on behalf of the ERWIC judges. “The quality of the entries this year was extremely high. They rose above the challenges presented by the Covid-19 pandemic with resilience and tenacity, and did ever ything possible to retain staff and keep their businesses running. We hope that the ERWIC Awards are used as a platform to inspire woman entrepreneurs and prove that it is possible to have a successful business in the construction industr y.” In her keynote address, the DPWI’s deputy minister, Noxolo Kiviet, confirmed government’s commitment to transformation, stating, “Our affirmative

Woman Mentor Recognising women who have supported and continue to support other women working within the construction industr y, who have contributed to nurturing talent in a way that has helped them to grow and mature within their fields. • W inner: Vuyiswa Ndzakana, Ms3 Property & Investments •S  econd Place: Celeste Margo Le Roux, React 24 • T hird Place: Thobekile Ndlovu, Thobethulani Trading

Exceptional Woman in Construction Recognising a woman working within any sector of the construction industr y who is professional, ethical and committed. The recipient shows determination and skill to advance within her field, while at the


IMIESA September 2021

Chairman’s Award Recognising an outstanding woman-owned entity within the construction industr y that has contributed significantly to the development and transformation of women in the South African construction industr y, through dedication, conviction, vision, commitment and leadership. The CIDB chairperson reser ves the right to bestow this award on a worthy recipient of their choosing. • W inner: Lebogang Zulu, Tshitshirisang Construction and Projects

Embracing gender diversity and transformation

Winner of Innovative Entity of the Year: Lebogang Zulu, Tshitshirisang Construction and Projects

Winner of Business Resilience of the Year – Covid-19: Nokuthula Mahlangu, Elezulu Construction

Winner of Youth-owned Woman Construction Entity of the Year: Tshepiso Ingrid Ngwenya, KwaMarona

Winner of the Womanowned Construction Entity of the Year: Celeste Margo Le Roux, React 24


action policies are directed at the empowerment and emancipation of women, among other designated groups. The Economic Reconstruction and Recover y Plan indicates government’s will to ensure effective gender mainstreaming in all aspects of the plan through the participation and mobilisation of women at all levels. This includes mechanisms like the 40% set aside for women in public procurement, legal remedies to close the gender pay gap, women’s participation in key economic sectors, access to assets such as land, and women’s financial inclusion and empowerment. “The impor tance of shining the light on the excellent work that women do cannot be overemphasised, especially in a patriarchal society. The year 2021 is dedicated to the memor y of a pioneer and freedom stalwar t, uMama Charlotte Maxeke who – through all her work and effor ts – sought to contribute to a South Africa that is united, prosperous and at peace with itself. She proved that women were capable, effective leaders,” Kiviet concludes.

Winner of Woman Mentor of the Year: Vuyiswa Ndzakana, Ms3 Property & Investments

Winner of the Chairman’s Award: Lebogang Zulu, Tshitshirisang Construction and Projects

Winner of the Exceptional Woman in Construction of the Year: Celeste Margo Le Roux, React 24

Bongani Dladla, acting CEO, CIDB

IMIESA September 2021



Few digital twins in construction industry Research from the McKinsey Global Institute has identified construction as one of the least digitised industries in the world. Andrew Skudder, CEO of RIB CCS, believes that the conservatism of the industry and its use of technology predominantly only at a project level are reasons for this slow uptake. By Kirsten Kelly


isk associated with the practice of designing and constructing structures is so high that owners, engineers and contractors become extremely cautious when implementing anything new. As a result of that conservatism, there is some scepticism around the ability of technology to create value and deal with real business problems,”

Skudder explains. “Furthermore, the construction industry frequently uses technology on a project-by-project basis, instead of at an enterprise level. As a consequence, a construction company will use different tools on different projects, creating data silos and a lack of collaboration. So, while there is an improvement in productivity and efficiency at a project level, it is not at a sustained enterprise level,” he continues.

Specialised software for construction and engineering Despite the slow pace of digital transformation in the industry, Skudder remains passionate about the value digital transformation can bring. “It increases collaboration, productivity and efficiency, which results in greater profitability and sustainability for construction companies and greater certainty of project outcome for project owners. By assisting construction companies to build more with fewer resources, we benefit society. Those saved resources can be directed to other projects. An effective built environment (and the associated infrastructure) is key for people’s quality of life and prosperity.” RIB CCS is a specialised software solutions company with a mission to digitally transform the construction industry. As a highrisk industry with low margins, Skudder urges construction companies to Andrew Skudder, CEO of RIB CCS


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Introducing new technologies should not necessitate the employment of new people but should encourage the upskilling of existing employees.” embrace the correct technology that drives productivity. “Generic software does not cater for the construction and engineering industries. Construction is project-based, with ver y specific business processes across the project life cycle. These projects are complex and dynamic in nature. Therefore, software must be flexible, with specialist functionality that can work with a large volume of changes (like change order management, scope, budget, schedule) and continually show the impact of these changes on projects.” One product offered by RIB CCS is MTWO – an integrated 5D BIM enterprise construction cloud software platform for contractors, developers, and owners to speed up their project- and enterprise-level digitalisation journey.

MTWO MTWO can be used for the entire life cycle of a structure. • BIM model management – impor t architectural BIM models, structure models and MEP (mechanical, electrical and plumbing) models from mainstream modelling software for cross-platform


model integration, collision detection and model quality improvement. • Quantity take-off – quantity surveyors can easily generate automated quantities from 3D models (e.g. cubic metres of concrete in the foundations, number of windows, electrical reticulation). • Estimating – combine the power of 3D models and data from previous projects to create construction estimates (e.g. labour, plant, material, overheads). Realise dynamic cost management as cost estimates are always networked with real costs. • Scheduling – create reliable schedules to reduce wastes, mitigate risk and optimise work. Work out how long each activity will take. • 5D simulation – Assess different scenarios in the construction phase. Compare 5D simulations side by side to evaluate different time and cost scenarios, forecast cash flow, and detect mistakes to avoid changes in the construction phase.

“As an industry, we need to do as much simulation, constructability analysis and value engineering before reaching the actual construction phase as possible,” adds Skudder.

Misconceptions about BIM Skudder believes that the ‘B’ should be removed from BIM. “This is because the ‘building’ part of building information modelling (BIM) conveys the false impression that BIM is only suitable for building projects. BIM is also suitable for infrastructure, industrial and mining projects. The municipal space can manage a road, hospital, school, bridge and water plant through BIM. “Many people do not realise that BIM has evolved past a 3D model. While 3D BIM still creates a digital twin of what has been constructed, adding schedules, costing, carbon footprints and operations management creates a far richer digital twin with all information in one environment. This integration is offered through our MTWO product,” he adds.


Perceived barriers

• 3D BIM • 4D BIM = 3D BIM + schedule • 5D BIM = 4D BIM + cost • 6D BIM = 5D BIM + sustainability • 7D BIM = 6D BIM + asset management

Because MTWO has the capability to manage a project from the plans, through the build and into the operate phases of a construction project, it is often perceived as too complicated, overwhelming and technology heavy. “MTWO is a user rolebased solution where different users use

different tools – but they are all working off the same data or one source of truth. While it is an end-to-end solution, a particular user will only be exposed to certain functionalities. The beauty of MTWO is that it has an open architecture with open APIs, and this allows for it to interface with other tools within the construction value chain. For example, many of our clients are users of Microsoft Project or Primavera, as well as SAP or Oracle, which can integrate into our platform.” Adopting new technology often requires a mindset change and Skudder points to Covid-19, where a surprising number of people are effortlessly using platforms like Microsoft Teams and Zoom. “Introducing new technologies should not necessitate the employment of new people but should encourage the upskilling of existing employees.” Many companies within the Southern African region believe that MTWO is a ‘firstworld solution’. “South Africa has some of the best trained and qualified engineers, project managers and site agents in the world, and contracting in South Africa is very similar to contracting in other parts of the world. RIB CSS is building up a list of successful reference cases in South Africa. MTWO provides a unique opportunity for owners, developers and contractors to embrace this technology and create a more collaborative, transparent, efficient and productive industry.”

IMIESA September 2021



The road to net-zero The International Energy Agency (IEA) recently released a report detailing a way forward for countries looking to achieve netzero emissions by 2050. However, the recommended path ahead is a tough one for South Africa to follow, considering its heavy reliance on coal.


s the world prepares for the 2021 UN Climate Change Conference (COP26) taking place in Glasgow, Scotland, in November 2021, South Africa – as an IEA associate country – must focus its efforts on tangible solutions for emissions reductions. “Given the current South African coaldominated electricity generation context, the IEA milestone targets will prove a lot more difficult to achieve than most other countries,” says Lethabo Manamela, interim CEO of the South African National Energy Development Institute (Sanedi). Among others, the report, Net Zero by 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector, recommends that by 2030 all subcritical coal-fired power plants must be phased out; by 2050, global coal use must be 90% lower than in 2020.

A just transition

Lethabo Manamela, interim CEO, South African National Energy Development Institute


IMIESA September 2021

However, Manamela adds that there is reason for hope. “Recent signals from the president, together with the Department of Mineral Resources and Energy, other government ministries, Eskom and the private sector show a clear commitment by all the major decision-makers to achieve this target.” She adds that this, however, must take place within a just energy transition (JET) framework, which appears to be gaining a lot of momentum in the country and is sure to be a big focus of COP26. The JET is crucial for South Africa’s sustainable and inclusive move towards cleaner energy practices. In this regard, last year saw the formation of the Presidential Climate Commission, which is mandated to coordinate and oversee the transition towards a low-carbon economy and society that considers South Africa’s unique socioeconomic landscape. “The socio-economic situation in South Africa brings with it both a number of challenges, but also a lot of opportunities.

That is why the emphasis placed on JET in South Africa is so important. The ‘new’ opportunities brought about by a transition to newer, more modern and clean technologies provide with them the opportunity to introduce many more innovative skills into the economy, which will go a long way in reducing the high unemployment levels, especially among the youth, and it can potentially get the economy moving in the right direction,” says Manamela. She adds that South Africa has many ‘good news’ initiatives in place to report on at COP26.

Carbon tax and hydrogen economy shift For example, Phase 2 of the Carbon Tax, due for implementation in the beginning of 2023, will see a radically different carbon pricing regime that will accelerate the transition to a low-carbon economy. Added to that, there is the envisaged growth in the hydrogen economy, which, if successful, could see a major shift in the local energy landscape in the medium term. In addition, Sanedi has been involved in the implementation of the recently gazetted regulations on Energy Performance Certificates for buildings, which will see building owners prioritising their energy efficiency initiatives in the coming years. Finally, President Ramaphosa’s increase in the licence threshold for people to generate power from 1 MW to 100 MW is another step in the right direction. “While the road to net-zero is sure to be a challenge for South Africa, we are up for this challenge. With many initiatives already in place, there is reason for hope as we work together to combat climate change. Sanedi looks forward to continuing its work in transforming our local energy sector to one that is sustainable, reliable and economically inclusive,” Manamela concludes.

QUALITY CONNECTIONS CREATING ABSOLUTE CUSTOMER CONFIDENCE IN THE PLASTIC PIPE INDUSTRY The Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association (SAPPMA) is a voluntary, self-regulating association incorporated under Section 21 as a company not for gain, which was launched in 2004 to represent the interests of the well-developed plastic pipe business in South Africa and surrounding countries.

use of high quality plastic pipes and pipe systems. SAPPMA members contribute towards the long term well-being of the plastic pipe industry by way of research, technical discussion, analysis and problemsolving. Being a non-profit organisation, it is solely aimed at protecting the customer and the infrastructure of the country.

Pipes produced by member companies carry the registered SAPPMA logo for clear identification. SAPPMA members are allowed to use the association’s logo on their products only after they have been able to successfully demonstrate that their plastic pipes and fittings comply with the association’s quality and manufacturing requirements and that they are fully compliant with all relevant local and international standards and specifications. This includes: • Ensuring they are ISO 9001:2015 quality management system compliant (or alternatively, they have passed a SAPPMA systems audit) and as such strive towards successful maintenance and improvement of these systems. • Agreeing to be independently audited on a regular basis (announced or unannounced), including sampling and testing of products. • Conforming to additional SAPPMA ‘Minimum Standards’ to further differentiate members from non-members.

All SAPPMA members are committed to a strict Code of Conduct whereby they agree to comply with various requirements for national product standards, internal standards and pay due regard to trade mark, copyright, patent ownership and all other intellectual property in order to maintain the industry body’s highest ethical standards.

THE SAPPMA MARK: A GUARANTEE OF QUALITY The purpose of SAPPMA is to create consumer confidence within the plastic pipe industry and to promote the production and the

By signing SAPPMA’s Code of Conduct, members undertake not to supply counterfeit products, refrain from negative marketing and any form of corruption with customers, suppliers, competitors, legal authorities and any other persons, desist from any anticompetitive behaviour (including the fixing of prices or other trading conditions), the division of markets through the allocation of customers, suppliers, territories or types of goods, or collusive tendering. IT’S WHAT’S ON THE INSIDE THAT COUNTS SAPPMA members only use virgin grade approved polymers and in terms of the relevant product standards no third party regrind PE-HD material. They do not use any fillers, nor heavy metal additives in the production of PVC pipe.



HIGH STANDARDS KEY to improving competitiveness The Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association (SAPPMA) has highlighted the importance of adhering to local and international standards as one of the key ingredients to improving the sector’s competitive edge.


arlier this year, the merSETA (Manufacturing, Engineering and Related Services Sector Education and Training Authority) Plastics Chamber released the findings of a study conducted with Plastics SA that aimed to identify the biggest challenges facing a hugely challenged plastic pipe manufacturing sector. The study also hoped to make recommendations that would aid its growth and sustainability. “The results of the merSETA study have certainly highlighted aspects in the pipe sector that require attention or need improvement,” says Jan Venter, CEO of SAPPMA. “One overarching factor is the issue of continued weak demand, which resulted in inadequate capital expenditure and a lack of research and development. However, we remain resolute in our belief that adherence to international and local standards is still a key ingredient to ensure the survival, success and growth of this important sector,” says expands. The research report also made it clear that the pipe manufacturing sector cannot be viewed in isolation. The broader supply chain


IMIESA September 2021

and executive players in that supply chain have a direct impact on the industry and therefore need to be approached holistically if the sector’s current position is to improve. As Venter points out, SAPPMA is in the privileged position to have the entire value chain represented as members, including raw material suppliers, manufacturers and installers. SAPPMA was launched in 2004 to represent the interests of the well-developed plastic pipe business in South Africa and surrounding countries. Today, this voluntary, self-regulating association represents more than 80% of the country’s plastic pipe manufacturers. Its primary objective is to create consumer confidence within the plastic pipe industry by promoting the production and use of highquality pipes and pipe systems. Only plastic pipes manufactured by members who have committed to abide by the Association’s Code of Conduct – which includes agreeing to independent, unannounced audits – are permitted to display the SAPPMA logo as proof that they meet local and international quality standards.

Improving quality management systems

Taking shortcuts on quality causes long-term harm

The South African pipe industry has been

“Unfortunately, we have seen a growing number of players in the industry unwilling to meet our criteria for the sake of cutting costs or taking shortcuts. We are receiving more and more reports of pipes that are underweight or shorter in length entering the market. Companies that are guilty of using substandard procedures, skipping certain quality tests, or including recycled materials are causing irreparable harm to the reputation and longevity of our industry and will not be awarded membership to SAPPMA,” Venter stresses.

Optimising the value chain and improving quality management systems were subquestions of the research methodology, and the study has revealed that much could be leveraged in this area. Venter explains that quality management systems are already a key focus area for SAPPMA and are an important element of their audits. “Few manufacturers, specifiers and endusers understand that combining quality concepts results in an optimal balance between cost and quality and leads to an improved system and life-cycle cost. For this reason, we frequently host webinars or workshops where members and non-members alike, as well as other interested parties, are offered insights into the benefits of combining risk management, total cost of quality, and functional quality management systems,” Venter explains.

Increasing output and efficiency through upgrading technology and equipment

SAPPMA’s CEO Jan Venter (left), together with technical manager Ian Venter

SAPPMA We have the technical skills, world-class experience, manufacturing infrastructure and motivation needed to restore our industry to its rightful place on the world stage.” subjected to low demand for products from the construction industry over the last few years, which has had a direct impact on profitability. Added to this have been the pressures faced by the country’s gold and platinum mining sectors, which has resulted in allocated budgets not being properly applied in mining projects and fewer orders for pipes being placed.

Strict adherence to quality control is a requirement for SAPPMA membership

close partnership with Plastics SA, which has introduced a range of short training courses that can be applied in the pipe industry. These courses, along with SAPPMA’s regular technical Quality Workshops/webinars, annual PIPES conferences and popular Technical Manual for PVC and HDPE piping systems are valuable in ensuring technical skills are transferred to a new generation of leaders.

Close partnerships with certification and standards bodies Although regular audits of factories, systems and products are a key function of SAPPMA, the pipes body is not in competition with any certification or standards authorities. In fact, a close partnership exists with them to promote quality products and weed out inferior-quality plastic piping systems. “Without continuous intervention, product quality and standards inevitably deteriorate. Thousands of metres of pipe find their way on to the South African market every month. It is impossible for the standards and certification bodies to be everywhere to oversee and regulate all the products. For this reason, SAPPMA acts as the eyes and ears on the ground. Regular forum meetings take place, during which technical standards are discussed and future projects identified,” Venter explains.

Looking ahead The costs of raw materials, which have reached an all-time high, the impact of Covid-19 lockdowns, unreliable and expensive electricity supply, and other high input costs have placed further pressure on pipe producers, who need to continuously upgrade their production machinery and invest in laboratory test equipment to remain competitive. “However, the cost of importing quality machinery is a huge factor affecting company competitiveness. Outdated technology and machinery continue to burden the industry. Our members are ultimately delivering a service to the end-user, municipalities and communities around the country without passing the burden of cost on to them. They should therefore not be expected to carry the financial burden of machinery upgrades alone without government support,” Venter stresses.

Raising standards through skills transfer and development As is the case in other manufacturing industries, the plastic pipe sector has identified the need for skilled people such as polymer technologists and extrusion operators. In this regard, SAPPMA has been working in

“Over the past year, government has gone on record on numerous occasions with promises to fast-track high-impact structural reforms in water, sanitation and reticulation. As an industry, we can only hope and pray that these intentions will be met with SAPPMA’s technical training programmes help to ensure high-quality installation standards

SAPPMA’S NEW COMMITTEES SAPPMA has formed three new standing committees. Specific focus areas cover the manufacture and use of HDPE and PVC pipes, as well as their installation. • HDPE Committee George Diliyannis, technical service leader at Safripol, heads up the HDPE Committee, supported by Lesley Geyser, QC manager and production planner at The Rare Group. Current areas of focus include issues relating to the mixing and contamination of polyethylene, updating SAPPMA’s MFR document, and addressing queries that relate to specific standards such as SANS 21138 and ISO 4427:2019. • PVC Committee Renier Snyman, technical manager at Sun Ace SA, chairs the PVC Committee with the support of Tanya van Rensburg, production coordinator of Eurocelt. Issues currently being addressed by this working group include SANS 967 (strap-on saddles), SANS 966-2 (HSIT alternatives), SANS 1601 (sockets and seals), and queries regarding pipe lengths. • IFPA (Installation and Fabrication Plastics Pipe Association) Renier Pieterse, director at Barona Pipelines and Fittings, is responsible for heading up the IFPA Committee, which is currently working on a consultant’s document and training manual. This will aid consulting engineers in specifying the correct standards in tenders. The committee has also recently decided to remove the IFPA welder number from the welder certificates issued by Plastics SA and to add a reference field for a weld qualification attachment (i.e. welder test piece certificate) instead.

National Treasury’s financial commitment,” he adds. “We have the technical skills, world-class experience, manufacturing infrastructure and motivation needed to restore our industry to its rightful place on the world stage. Together with our members, SAPPMA will continue to be the flagbearers for maintaining excellent standards and quality through the commissioning of reliable and knowledgeable consultants, pipe manufacturers and installers,” Venter concludes.

IMIESA September 2021



Plastic pipe specifications, design and performance The durability of plastic pipe is legendary; the material is used in over 50% of the water and sewage networks installed globally. Optimal performance depends on various factors, especially the strict adherence to product, design and construction standards. A good understanding of pipe/soil interaction adds further benefits. By Alastair Currie


ithin the world of Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers thermoplastic pipe, Association (SAPPMA). there are a range of Venter recently hosted a SAPPMA webinar material options that on the subject (Webinar VII), presented can be used to form them, depending on by design and construction management the downstream application requirements. experts. (Visit to Within the spectrum, polyvinylchloride (PVC) download the training material for quick and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) are the reference and guidance.) best known. Understanding their material In addition to ensuring quality standards characteristics is important from among its members, technical design, specification and training and industry installation perspectives. consultation are core Construction is a “Aspects like stress SAPPMA mandates. This and strain, as well was the motivation multidisciplinary as how the pipe is for the launch of field, where sharing supported above and the Installation and technical knowledge in the ground, will Fabrication Plastics is vital in achieving have a direct bearing Pipe Association on its performance (IFPA) – a SAPPMA the UN’s Sustainable characteristics. Each initiative aimed at Development Goals site has its own unique ensuring best practice in conditions, like the the sector. depth of excavation, marshy Pipe manufacturers belonging conditions, traffic loads or higher-thanto SAPPMA subject their products to normal groundwater levels, which must be extensive testing, supported by ongoing factored in during the design and pipelaying investment in research and development. The stage,” says Ian Venter, technical manager, same holds true for polymer manufacturers.


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SAPPMA’s quality assurance programmes, which include unannounced audits at member production facilities, ensure that specifiers can buy with confidence, knowing that key specifications, like wall thickness, and critical dimensions are consistently adhered to. “The reality is that any type of material system will fail if it’s not properly designed, manufactured, and installed, so it’s vital to take a holistic approach,” Venter explains. “Where pipe failures do occur, the root causes are often not difficult to find. It’s just a matter of ensuring that products are well understood and that the design and application have been aligned to their unique properties, characteristics, as well as jointing capability. By doing this, it is quite easy to further prevent failures of this type,” he continues.

Tougher and more flexible Research and development advances have been significant over the years, with the industry progressively shifting from rigid to flexible plastic pipes. Tensile strengths have also vastly increased for all plastic pipe materials, such as polyethylene (PE) pipes (12 MPa to 24 MPa) and PVC (45 MPa to 75 MPa), allowing them to enjoy market shares typically occupied by steel and concrete pipe. One advantage of modern-day plastic pipes is that they offer the designer internal pressure and loadbearing capabilities, while remaining flexible to soil movements

SAPPMA and changes in the native soil conditions. External loads would include the backfilled material, plus any superimposed loads like vehicle traffic. The degree of elasticity provided by the side support then plays a key role in minimising any pipe deflection imposed by vertical loading. The influence of the water table on the soil properties also needs to be taken into consideration. There will always be a combination of stress conditions to consider in determining the permissible load. The main ones are internal pressure, deflection, buckling, ring bending and arching. Where the vertical load is too great, and the side support inadequate, a flexible plastic pipe will eventually buckle, or collapse inwards because its ring stiffness is inadequate. Therefore, a buckling design check must form part of all thermoplastic pipe design approaches. This must also factor in the pipe manufacturer’s recommendations in terms of the diameter over wall thickness ratio. “Confirming buoyancy resistance of shallow gravity piping systems is always good practice, regardless of the type of material being used to design with,” adds Venter.

Technical design guidelines SAPPMA’s Technical Manual for Pipe Manufacturing and Pipeline Design, now in its fifth edition, serves as an invaluable and user-friendly tool for designers, specifiers and installers. The manual provides a set of useful formulas for most types of applications. Studies show that correctly designed and installed thermoplastic pipe will easily outperform traditional materials, even

BENEFITS OF PLASTIC PIPE • Corrosion resistance • Excellent flow characteristics due to exceptional resistance to chemicals and microbial growth • Virtually leak free due to welded joints • Lightweight and flexible for ease of handling • Ductile and durable • Manufactured under ISO/SANS 4427 Parts 1, 2, 3 and 5

at extreme depths. In addition, the deeper the pipeline installation, the more dispersed the vertical load. However, to accurately determine this requires a specialist geotechnical investigation, which is especially recommended for larger pipelines.

Adhering to the specifications and standards This underlines the importance of only specifying products manufactured according to applicable industry specifications and specifically those that apply to South Africa. This is crucial since product specifications vary internationally – a case in point being DIN versus ISO pipe stiffness standards, where there’s a variation in how ring stiffness is calculated. All pipes manufactured by SAPPMA members must comply with the relevant local or international product standard as referenced on the membership certificate. This standard also clearly defines the frequency and parameters for testing and quality control. Examples of key specifications include the maximum allowable deflection, with a clear distinction between short-term (i.e. immediately after installation) and longterm deflections (typically some 18 months after installation). That will influence the

optimum selection of the pipe joints to prevent overloading and potential leaks. Another important specification is the regulation of recycled materials. For PE pipe systems, the SANS 4427 stipulation is that pipes and components can only be manufactured from virgin compound or unused own in-house reworked compound. This ruling prevents the use of recycled pipe that may have been previously installed or contaminated through contact during its application. All potable water standards follow these principles to ensure a zero possibility of toxicity from previous use and application. Custom fittings, like bends, also need to be verified to ensure that they match the pipe specification, including the pressure rating.

Long life and sustainability “When designed and installed correctly, plastic pipe offers a virtually maintenancefree lifespan of well over 100 years, making for an exceptional return on investment for infrastructure asset owners,” adds Venter. “However, like any technology, it requires expert execution. “End-user benefits are also outweighed by benefits from a construction perspective. Plastic pipes remain highly cost-competitive due to their lightweight properties, which lower transport costs and promote easier handling and installation. Depending on the pipe diameter, this makes plastic pipe the most well suited for labour-intensive and communitybased projects, and SMME contractor development,” Venter concludes.

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Suppliers and installers of high- and low-density polyethylene and polypropylene extruded pipes. Fittings can be fabricated for extrusion welding, butt welding, and electrofusion welding in sizes ranging from 16 mm-1000 mm(HDPE) and 300 mm-3500 mm (Structured Wall Pipe). Custom fabrications include manifolds, manholes, tees, and reducing fittings. HDPE fabricated fittings can be made to design according to your individual specifications or, alternatively, we are able to assist in the design process to produce a fitting that meets your exact application.

Project planning: Installation of HDPE, LDPE plastic pipelines, and fittings.

Designing installation: Butt welding, electrofusion, branch, socket, and extrusion welding of plastic pipes.


HDPE pipe lines are ideal for carrying corrosive and abrasive products such as acid water, crude oil, slurry, wet gas, raffinate and effluent.

11 Sesmylspruit St Sunderland Ridge Centurion | 0030

Renier Pieterse +27 10 597 3667

Vincent Smith +27 79 977 5764

+27 10 597 3667


Quality piping systems can create durable infrastructure with reduced repair costs. This is why Barona Pipelines & Fittings specialises in highdensity polyethylene (HDPE) and focuses on quality through its entire supply chain – beginning with raw material suppliers through to installation and ending with repairs and maintenance.


e are certified by the Installation and Fabrication Plastics Pipe Association (IFPA) – a part of the Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association (SAPPMA). Quality control procedures and systems are central to our business, which is why we offer a full turnkey project solution. We want to be fully in control of the quality of our products and services,” says Renier Pieterse, director, Barona Pipelines & Fittings.

Custom fabrication With its manufacturing plant in Sunderland Ridge, west of Pretoria, Barona can design a complete pipeline project inhouse, manufacture the project before installation, and then install it on-site. This means that there is minimal site disruption

The Meccano of quality plastic pipes BARONA PIPELINES & FITTINGS PROJECTS Barona installs pipelines for sewer, potable water and slurry applications in the mining, private and government sectors

and installation time. By using 3D drawings supplied by a customer, the company has the capability to manufacture the entire pipeline. They are also HDPE fabricators who can design and manufacture all the fittings, bends, manifolds, manholes and tees to a client’s custom specification. Custom fabrication requires specifications and parameters to ensure maximum tolerances and minimal losses to a pipeline project. “The ever-increasing demand for more complex and economical pipeline designs has resulted in a greater need for HDPE fabricated fittings and pipe to solve installation situations where common fittings fail,” explains Pieterse. The company also works within the repairs and maintenance space, recommissioning and rehabilitating old existing abrasion pipelines to reduce corrosion, resistance and friction.

Specialising in HDPE “Barona specialises in HDPE fabrication and installation, which ensures that we provide

The majority of Barona’s installation team are qualified welders

• Black Rock expansion • Mogalakwena hydrogen plant (fire articulation and fire lines) • Mototolo Concentrator Plant, Steelpoort • Vemetco Chrome • Sky City Development • Clubview Crossing, Shopping Centre • Blyvoor Gold, New Processing Plant at Shaft 5 • Export fittings to Zambia and DRC

a quality product and service with decent turnaround times. The integrity of pipelines built up over many years is of critical importance, and Barona Pipelines & Fittings believes that it must be a part of a responsible, ethical and quality-conscious industry to make a difference,” adds Pieterse, who is a qualified welding inspector. With up to 10 installation teams (the majority of which are qualified welders) that can do butt welding, electrofusion, as well as branch, socket and extrusion welding of plastic pipes, Barona installs pipelines for sewer, potable water and slurry applications in the mining, private and government sectors.

Renier Pieterse, director, Barona Pipelines & Fittings

IMIESA September 2021



An extruded pipe section coming off the production line at Inkulu’s Hammarsdale factory

Product excellence driven by investment in technology Established in 2014, Inkulu Plastic Pipe’s team combines years of industry experience with the application of cutting-edge technology to target niche market expansion. The company’s motto, ‘Dare to commit’, underscores its confidence in meeting just-in-time delivery and strict quality assurance standards, says Gabriel Reddy, founder and CEO.


eading the market, Inkulu Plastic Pipes (Inkulu) is believed to be the first company in South Africa to invest in a new extrusion production line designed to manufacture soldwall 1 200 mm diameter HDPE pipe. The line was commissioned at Inkulu’s Hammarsdale factory in Durban and is set up for pipes in nominal diameters from 500 mm to 1 200 mm. This specialist extrusion line has a maximum output capacity of 1 600 kg/h. “Setting a new production benchmark for the local and cross-border market, designers, municipalities and utilities now have a high-


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quality and locally manufactured solution for bulk water distribution and sewer lines,” says Reddy. The company currently operates seven pipe extrusion lines, with an overall monthly production output capacity of more than 1 500 t. Depending on the application, products are supplied in three different materials – namely HDPE, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP).

Extensive product range HDPE solid-wall pipes are manufactured in a range from 16 mm through to 1 200 mm according to specified pressure ranges to meet small-, medium- and large-bore requirements. In addition, Inkulu produces spiral-structured wall pipe for applications that include stormwater and sewer systems. Sizes range from 300 mm to 1 500 mm in 4 kN/m² and 8 kN/m² ring stiffness specifications. The company’s small-bore high-speed extruder lines produce coils in 500 m lengths in diameter sizes from 16 mm to 40 mm. Additionally, Inkulu produces full coil diameters for borehole depths exceeding 100 m. These are supplied as a single coil with no joints.

Inkulu’s industry-certified fabricated fittings provide custom connections

our new high-speed lines are far more efficient, significantly reducing the cost per kilogram to produce plastic pipe. Faster output times make us far more competitive,” he continues. Alongside its extrusion line acquisitions, Inkulu has responded to client requirements for turnkey solutions by investing in fabricated fittings equipment. A wide range of bends,


Latest investment “Our latest investment in new production technology now means we can extrude corrugated-sleeve pipes in a range from 50 mm to 160 mm, which is an exciting development that will serve key markets like agriculture, roads infrastructure and telecommunications,” says Reddy. “We invest in the best technology to optimise production throughput and quality. For example,

Standard industry material tests are conducted at Inkulu’s on-site laboratory according to SANS ISO 4427/ISO 4437. Inkulu is also ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and ISO 45001 certified, and is a member of the Southern African Plastic Pipe Manufacturers Association.


PRODUCTS • Coiled: HDPE pipes 16 mm to 110 mm • Lengths: HDPE pipes 125 mm to 1 200 mm • Perforated: HDPE pipes 63 mm to 1 200 mm • Plumbing hot water pipes, manufactured using PP • Telecommunication fibre-optic HDPE ducting • PE100 HDPE gas pipe • Manufactured fittings up to 630 mm • Moulded HDPE butt-welding and electrofusion fittings

potential,” says Reddy. “In this respect, HDPE lines – combined with electrofusion fittings – are ideally suited to this application.” Manufactured in accordance with ISO 4437 standards, Inkulu’s gas pipes and fittings are quality tested throughout the entire production process to ensure safety and reliability. Available in coils and lengths, these gas pipes are specifically designed for buried installations and, like all HDPE products, they are maintenance-free over their lifetime, resistant to corrosion, easy to install and flexible, with high-impact strength. A further advantage of HDPE pipe is their suitability for trenchless construction.

The material of choice

Inkulu’s products serve key markets like agriculture, roads infrastructure and telecommunications

tees, stubs, flanges, and reducers cater for pipe systems up to 630 mm.

Gas market gains The liquid gas sector is another growth area for Inkulu for HDPE installations typically ranging from 16 mm to 630 mm. Sectors supplied to date include the industrial, mining, municipal and residential markets. “Switching to gas as an alternative energy source holds huge

In the infrastructure space, Inkulu is experiencing growing demand for water, wastewater and stormwater applications as municipalities recognise the cost benefits of plastic pipe compared to traditional pipeline systems manufactured from ductile iron and concrete. “Through our ongoing research and development (R&D) programme, we’ve met the need for more complex and costefficient pipeline designs by means of HDPE fabricated fittings to solve installation situations where common fittings fail,” Reddy Inkulu’s truck fleet ensures on-time delivery. Purpose-designed trailers cater for pipe lengths up to 24 m

To support its turnkey installation and commissioning services, Inkulu has invested in a wide range of welding technologies

explains, adding that Inkulu also supplies and manufactures moulded HDPE butt-welding and electrofusion fittings. Keeping pace with the market, Inkulu’s ongoing R&D initiatives continue to tap into new niche segments. The latest developments include the production of PP plumbing hot water pipes, as well as fibre-optic HDPE ducting. “Inkulu has established a well-proven track record for supplying quality pipes on time, focusing on establishing and building partnerships with suppliers and customers. Our recent capex investments now place us at the forefront of the plastic pipe manufacturing sector. We’re excited about the possibilities as more infrastructure projects come online,” Reddy concludes.

IMIESA September 2021



Over 2 000 PRVs in the Valley of a Thousand Hills EThekwini is unlike SA's other metros. Approximately 60% of its population lives in rural areas, with over 560 informal settlements. It also operates across a varied topography – from 0 m to 1 000 m above mean sea level. By Kirsten Kelly


ur metro has one of the biggest pressure management programmes in the country. Between R30 million and R40 million has been invested annually over the past 12 years in pressure management. The programme cuts across a number of departments and teams within the municipality and is highly complex, given our hilly terrain and large rural areas,” says Bhavna Soni, department deputy head, eThekwini Water and Sanitation (EWS). Consulting engineering teams are appointed to actively review the existing water distribution systems – with the aim of having a minimum 250 kPa and a maximum 600 kPa supply pressure to customers. If there are any places that breach the 600 kPa measurement, steps are taken to install a pressure-reducing valve (PRV). “However, EWS is starting to reach a


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saturation point with the retrofitting of PRVs, and we are now focusing on the pressure management of new reticulation systems. These are constructed according to design guidelines where, according to pressures, control valves are installed at key points,” explains Nischal Nundlall, acting senior manager: Water Design and Non-Revenue Water at EWS.

Asset management “Asset management and pressure management go hand in hand. EWS has established a prioritisation model when it comes to pipe replacement that is purely based on the performance of the system. We are currently conducting a case study in Chatsworth, where an entire pipe network (including the service connections) up to a metering point will be replaced. This area has experienced a high number of water leaks. The performance of the new system will be benchmarked against the old system. The new system will need to meet certain parameters regarding leakages in order for the contractor to receive full payment. It is a performance-based contract,” adds Nundlall. The operations team engages with EWS Planning and Design teams whenever pipes repeatedly burst in a supply area. Before pipes are replaced, the existing supply pressure is measured. If pressure exceeds 600 kPa, steps are taken to reduce that pressure in the area, which will then, as a consequence, lessen the frequency of burst pipes.

Retrofitting PRVs Nundlall adds that a works contractor is

currently retrofitting the distribution system with PRVs or control valve installations. This involves installing pipework and building chambers/kiosks to house the PRVs. To date, over 130 sites have been handed over to eThekwini Municipality.” The municipality’s water distribution system is divided into roughly 300 reservoir supply zones, with over 12 500 km of distribution mains. Each reservoir zone is evaluated based on the level of the reservoir and the extent to which that reservoir feeds into an area. The reservoir zones are further broken down into district metered areas that comprise a maximum of 2 000 households. These district metered areas are then divided into pressure management zones. The pressure management zones cover approximately 40% of EWS’s total distribution system. Serving no more than a couple hundred households each, the pressure management zones do not have multiple feeds – there is a distinct supply point where a PRV is installed. This makes it easier to operate and maintain control.

ETHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY STATS • 1 050 Mℓ/day water in the system • Population: 3.6 million people • Non-revenue water: 49.2% • Pressure-reducing valves: 2 341 • Control valves: 265 • Break pressure tanks: 94

WATER PRESSURE MANAGEMENT “It is very difficult to calibrate hydraulic models when there are so many variables in the existing distribution system. After a desktop study, on-site simulations are conducted where a certain supply area has been modelled and pressure control measures are simulated in the field. If that simulation has passed all tests, the operations teams will sign off on the implementation of PRVs.” says Nundlall.

Maintenance Jabulani Mayise, a civil engineering technologist at EWS, conducts regular site visits to verify whether the PRVs are working at the prescribed settings. “We have over 2 300 PRVs and 500 piloted control valves that comprise inlet control valves or pump control valves. Most of the PRVs are hydraulic, with about 10% being time controlled and used for pressure management at night. Each PRV is examined at least once a year, or every few months if located in problematic areas.” Criminal activity (theft and vandalism) is also an issue and often causes burst pipes and water loss. Mayise adds that each PRV is put on to EWS’s Geospatial Information System, which can clearly show where they are installed and what zone they service.

Drought Due to the severe drought experienced in 2015/16, EWS implemented a drought mitigation plan to address water shortages. Part of the plan involved reviewing the existing pressure management zones and reducing the pressure via PRVs (where there were no design limitations) to 150 kPA. The effect of pressure reduction within the areas was varied, and properties located at a higher elevation within the pressure management zone were impacted more than those at lower elevations.

Jabulani Mayise, civil engineering technologist, EWS

View from the street of an underground PRV installation

“As the pressure management zones cover 40% of EWS’s total distribution system, we also had to install reducers at the metering points. Approximately 250 000 devices were installed in areas of the municipality most affected by the drought, including Verulam, Tongaat and KwaMashu. That had a significant impact on the demand reduction (almost 30%),” says Nundlall. Presently, EWS’s systems have recovered and have reverted to their normal operations. EWS’s drought action plan has been shared with other municipalities.

Informal settlements The implementation of a community ablution blocks programme has played a significant role in formulating a pressure management plan within informal settlements. “Fires are common in informal settlements so, therefore, the fire department was

Bhavna Soni, department deputy head, EWS

Nischal Nundlall, acting senior manager: Water Design and NonRevenue Water, EWS

Underground PRV installation

reluctant to have restricted pressure in these areas – especially because vehicle access is often difficult. We therefore decided to install fire hydrants next to the ablution blocks and not to reduce water pressure to these points,” explains Nundlall.

Lessons learnt from water pressure management “There are many different types of PRVs and control valves (time-based, flow modulators, hydraulically actuated). Typically, municipalities will use hydraulic control valves and will then look into optimising them with technology. But once layers of technology are added, the payback period is significantly extended. We have found that a simple hydraulic operation will sometimes yield the best results,” explains Nundlall. He goes on to say that there are circumstances where there are high flow rates and extreme changes in demand (like in central business districts) where it is feasible to install electronically controlled PRVs, but mostly hydraulically operated pressure control systems are suitable and have the lowest payback periods. “It is also important to remember that technology has to be backed up with the necessary support, and teams must be equipped with the skills to operate and maintain sophisticated electronic devices. There is little point in having the best technological systems in place but not having the operational capacity to rectify problems as they arise,” Nundlall concludes.

IMIESA September 2021



Tackling non-revenue water requires a collaborative strategy Non-revenue water (NRW) losses are currently estimated at around 41%, posing a significant environmental risk and a financial shortfall for municipalities. Chetan Mistry, marketing and strategy manager for Xylem Africa, considers the threat and steps to counteract the problem.


apers such as ‘Counting the lost drops: South Africa's study into non-revenue water’ and work by the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) push for systemic solutions. In general, Mistry cites the steps to remove NRW as follows: • Modernise management: Over 60% of South African municipalities have poor to terrible water recordkeeping, according to the Water Research Council. Part of the problem is that data for business functions, asset management, leak detection and forward planning remains in silos. If municipalities used modern management platforms to merge the data into straightforward reports and dashboards, they could quickly identify water revenue losses. • Invest in existing infrastructure: Focusing too much on new water infrastructure leads to neglecting existing infrastructure and does not incentivise municipalities to pursue systemic investigations of water losses. It also makes projects around existing infrastructure less attractive to investors. Yet many case studies demonstrate that focusing on what you have is by far the best and most costeffective way to address NRW. Early wins include improving sensor data from water meters for revenue collection. • Identify leaks and stresses: If you try to solve NRW by exclusively hunting leaks, you will not gain much in the long term, as only around a quarter of NRW losses result from leaks. But as part of


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NRW’s low-hanging fruit

Chetan Mistry, marketing and strategy manager for Xylem Africa

a systemic and broad strategy, you can make and keep significant gains. Modern leak and stress detection technologies make this possible, through the use of acoustics and electromagnetism to scan hundreds of kilometres of pipe network within hours. • Promote best practices: The steps articulated here are all inspired by best practices. NRW is a global problem – roughly 24% of countries have NRW rates of 40% or more (Global Water Intelligence, 2017.) But many have bucked the trend and did so by using established best practices. The word ‘systemic’ keeps appearing in NRW conversations because it’s a question of culture and ongoing practices, not isolated remedies. • Encourage private investment: Water projects are expensive, and those related to NRW are no different. But private investors shy away from NRW projects because they are prone to fail if executed in a piecemeal fashion.

However, by using a combination of modern management and maintenance technologies, the gains are incredible. Singapore, which runs the world's largest smart water network, has reduced NRW losses to under 5%. In another example, when the city of Milan, Italy, scrutinised its main pipelines, it quickly found over 20 major leaks that traditional methods would never have detected. And in Colorado, USA, advanced leak and stress detection canvassed an 80 km pipeline in under a day, revealing numerous stressors before they turned into leaks. Mistry explains that if you want to score some quick wins against NRW, there is a clear place to start. Quantitywise, commerce and industrial customers represent about 5% to 15% of a municipality's utility customers but 35% to 60% of overall revenue. NRW projects should focus on those customers, specifically whether their usage is adequately monitored. Doing so will encourage the adoption of best practices. “If municipalities combine best practices with good management, they can make gains quickly and unlock a lot of lost revenue,” Mistry concludes.


Establish a benchmark for

TOWNSHIP RENEWAL Zutari is currently cocreating community solutions in Soweto as part of the Future Cities South Africa (FCSA) consortium – the delivery partner for a bilateral programme funded by the UK’s Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office.


longside Zutari, the consortium team includes PwC (UK and South Africa), Open Cities Lab, Palmer Development Group, Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading, and the Isandla Institute. The FCSA consortium aims to support the city administrations of Johannesburg, eThekwini and Cape Town with their urgent urban challenges, including those posed by

Covid-19. This has resulted in the scoping and delivery of several projects, with Zutari overseeing the one in Soweto. In addition to urban planning, the Soweto project’s focus incorporates key elements like spatial economics, finance, engineering, climate change and resilience, with the ultimate objective of bolstering economic development “We are liaising intensively with community stakeholders and local government in order to co-design innovative solutions that are based on emerging best practice for township economies,” explains Monique Cranna, technical director: Urban Planning at Zutari. The project initially encompassed a major survey, but this had to be scaled back due to Covid-19. “We had to reconfigure our entire scope of work in terms of the process we wanted to adopt so as to ensure that a viable outcome was still achievable within a reasonable timeframe,” Cranna continues.

Strategic area framework

the City of Johannesburg, which have had a strained relationship of late due to factors such as ongoing service delivery protests. “As soon as this project has been bedded down successfully, the aim is to have benchmarked an approach to spatial planning that can be rolled out to other township economies or marginalised settlements,” she expands. “Most rewarding for me about the process to date is engaging with the local community, who have been articulate and specific about their needs and requirements. Taking all of this onboard and co-creating solutions between Zutari, the local community and the City has been extremely effective and will go a long way in setting out a roadmap for sustainable collaboration in future,” Cranna concludes. The FCSA project in Soweto incorporates key elements like spatial economics, finance, engineering, climate change and resilience, with the ultimate objective of bolstering socio-economic development

This outcome is expected to take the form of a detailed strategic area framework for a study area within Soweto that is endorsed and therefore validated by all stakeholders. “It is a very different approach to that which is normally adopted by the City, due to the fact that we wanted to depoliticise the process itself and keep it to a technical and pragmatic level, so that the local community could clearly see how it would translate into tangible deliverables,” she stresses. However, Cranna sees the most important outcome of the project as nurturing reciprocal trust between the Soweto community and Monique Cranna, technical director: Urban Planning at Zutari

IMIESA September 2021



The causes and consequences of edge breaks Edge breaks are not just a local phenomenon. They are internationally highlighted as a major contributor to road accidents and fatalities. This is Part 1 of 2 in a series highlighting the problems and offering solutions and recommendations. By Johan Muller*


lassified alongside potholes under the general ‘pothole pandemic’, edge breaks basically fall under the same mode of road surface deterioration. However, in addition to ageing and deformation in the wheel tracks, they are actually more dangerous and costly to repair properly. Edge breaks generally occur when the road shoulder is worn. Professor Louis de Villiers Roodt, PrEng, published an excellent article, entitled ‘Road

Road crossfall and washing away of gravel with additional support of some grass in places contributed to the edge breaks


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Safety, Maintenance and Claims for Damages, Lessons from cases and investigations’, which formed part of the proceedings of the 33rd Southern African Transport Conference (SATC 2014). Roodt stated that claims against roads authorities have escalated since the capping of Road Accident Fund payouts. Among the major factors related to accidents, damage and fatalities are typical road failures, which are mainly related to surface failures such as potholes and edge drops/breaks. Related to these road surface failures, the failure of services and maintenance in the road reserve

M6 Lynnwood Road edge breaks... shoulder gravel loss

also contributes to crashes. Lessons learnt from case studies indicate that road failures do not necessarily have to be in the normal wheel tracks to be dangerous, and maintenance interventions of the full width of the trafficked lanes are essential. A few of the causes of edge breaks and edge drops are detailed as follows: • Burst water pipes and sewerage systems in major and minor metropolitan municipalities often result in a sag curve, which is caused by aged water pipe and sewer reticulation systems. As an example, earlier this year the residents of Emfuleni Municipality had weeks of interrupted water supply due to burst pipes – and the same holds true for most formal and informal human settlements. Municipalities have not prioritised the replacement of these pipes for many decades. Water and even raw sewage dam and run over the road surfaces into the kerb inlets or wash away the support material next to the road surface. • Rainfall and stormwater run-off on to the roadside support structure and road reserve areas causes mass volumes of gravel and soil material to wash into drainage systems and water catchments in the absence of kerbs and stormwater reticulation. The


results in standing water in and around the road edges. The standing water and lateral ingress of excessive moisture then soften unstabilised verges, which results in base material damage, a reduction in stiffness and the more rapid deterioration of subsurface and surrounding support material essential for road surface stability and durability in typical road designs.

What South African road accident statistics tell us R101 between Bon Accord and Pyramid Stations, north of Tshwane

Excellent gravel shoulder maintenance and paved shoulder. No evidence of edge breaks

cost of the replacement of such material is astronomical and has a negative impact on our limited natural resources. • Informal use of unsurfaced roadsides and road reserves by selfish and impatient public road users and public transport operators (especially on major trafficked routes) results in and contributes to major mechanical breaks on road edges. Furthermore – and apart from this bad driver behaviour being a nuisance and frustration for law-abiding citizens – it subsequently causes soil erosion due to water erosion, wind erosion and the friction of tyres of various vehicle types. Roadside materials are often carried on to adjacent road surfaces and, apart from the silt and gravel that may cause a loss of traction and windscreen damage, also result in dust and a reduction in visibility (another major cause of accidents). • A lack of grass cutting, drainage system cleaning/clearing, and other regular roadside maintenance interventions often

When I requested the assistance of the South African Road Federation (SARF), the lack of availability of national statistical data was evident. This is despite the high level of focus on road safety that SARF facilitates as a major custodian and excellent training facility – a crucial element of the SARF mandate. Basil Jonsson, operations director at SARF, referred me to Craig Proctor-Parker, founder of Accident Specialist, a company based in Kloof, KwaZulu-Natal. After a relatively quick discussion with Proctor-Parker, he opened a wonderful opportunity to discuss the topic. Although we cannot provide an accurate statistical mathematical figure in this article, it is evident that a large proportion of accidents investigations indicate (as Roodt has also stated) that edge breaks and drops are either causing accidents or exacerbate the outcome of an accident. The investigations carried out by Accident Specialist cover a large array of clients (including state and other authorities).

Tools to address edge breaks and drops In the USA, many states have guideline documents to address the main causes of and provide remedies for the high-risk deterioration experienced on their road networks. A paper entitled ‘An investigation of urban area run off road crashes in Western Australia 2005-2009 (RR 10-005)’ produced some revealing data. It was published by the Curtin-Monash Accident Research Centre and indicated that single vehicle run-offroad crashes accounted for around one in ten crashes, and significantly contributed to serious injuries. With appropriate statistical data for urban areas, their investigation describes the epidemiology of single vehicle run-off-road crashes. They considered a range of safe road and roadside countermeasures and others to reduce the incidence of crashes and injury severity. Roadside barriers and audio-tactile edge-lining, for example, are commonly known to be important and effective countermeasures for run-off-road crashes.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT Bituminist Consulting aims to disseminate valuable information and promotes collaborative engagements in the interests of the road industry, the binder supply and manufacturing fraternity. Continuous improvement and adaptation to the challenges experienced locally and internationally leads to new developments. In preparation for this article, various passionate practitioners provided input and dedicated their time free of charge. Special thanks to the passionate people like Basil Jonsson at SARF; Craig Proctor-Parker and Eloise Deschamps at Accident Specialist; Johannes Lambert at Tosas; Nastassja Nielsen, Dave Collins and Wynand van Niekerk at BSM Laboratories; Louis Walstrand and Mark Knowles at Specialised Road Technologies; and Pieter Molenaar at Royal HaskoningDHV. A special thanks also to Professor Roodt and our freelance field photographer, Pierre Roux.

The two major crash types that were occurring in the Perth metropolitan area in 2005-2009 were identified as: - vehicles running off the road and crashing into an object or involved in a non-collision (rolling over) - vehicles running off the road and colliding with a pedestrian or carriageway. The role of speed, road alignment, and type of collision as contributors to injury severity were considered. Within the South African context, Accident Specialist’s investigations to date point to collapsed and crumbling or drop-off edges as contributing factors for local road crashes to date. *Johan Muller is the founder of Bituminist Consulting. He holds an MSc in Organic Chemistry and has worked in the roads industry for more than 27 years.

IMIESA September 2021



SMEC South Africa awarded Huguenot Tunnel project Engineering and infrastructure consultancy firm SMEC South Africa has been appointed by Sanral to provide consulting engineering services for the commissioning of the Huguenot Tunnel North Bore and the upgrading of the Huguenot Tunnel South Bore.


he 4 km tunnel, which is located on the N1 freeway (Section 1), approximately 60 km northeast of Cape Town, carries the freeway through the Du Toitskloof mountains that separate Paarl from Worcester. The tunnel’s supporting infrastructure includes a toll plaza, a main control centre building, and tunnel portal buildings that contain extensive electrical, electronic, and mechanical systems required to manage and operate the tunnel and toll plaza.

HUGUENOT TUNNEL FACTS • The South Bore was completed and opened to traffic in March 1988 • The tunnel reduces the distance between Paarl and Worcester by 11 km • The tunnel eliminates a climb of some 500 m over the Du Toitskloof Pass • T he tunnel has served over 100 million vehicles over the past 30 years

Western entrance to the Huguenot Tunnel


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Sanral identified the need for the Huguenot Tunnel to be upgraded and cited the European Directive on Road Tunnel Safety, EU/2004/54/EC Clause 2.1.2. This clause states that when a 15-year traffic forecast shows that the volume will exceed 10 000 vehicles per day per lane, a twin-tube tunnel with unidirectional traffic shall be in place. SMEC South Africa’s scope of work for the North Bore and South Bore includes preliminary design, detail design, procurement and construction supervision. The design and procurement phase will take place over a period of 15 months, while construction is set to take 55 months to complete.

Approaching the entrance to the Huguenot Tunnel

North and South Bore phases Works on the North Bore will include: concrete lining; continually reinforced twolane pavement with associated drainage and services; electrical, ventilation and fire-fighting systems; and upgrades to the highway on either side of the North Bore (including the design of the new Elands River Bridge and widening of the existing Molenaars River Bridge) to accommodate two additional lanes. Upgrade works to the South Bore, which are dependent on the status of a current rehabilitation contract, are envisaged to address moisture ingress and structural integrity, as well as the rehabilitation of fire-damaged areas. In addition, SMEC South Africa will be responsible for the design, procurement and construction supervision of two ventilation buildings, two operations buildings and the associated backup facilities. “We feel honoured to have been awarded this contract by Sanral. The Huguenot Tunnel is one of South Africa’s most iconic structures and one that remains close to our hearts at SMEC, having previously provided structural design and geotechnical services in the

Huguenot Tunnel against the Du Toitskloof mountains

early 1980s,” comments Jaco Engelbrecht, regional manager: Western Cape and functional GM: Roads and Highways, SMEC South Africa. “We look forward to collaborating with Sanral to deliver a safe, aesthetically pleasing, environmentally sensitive and modern road tunnel,” he concludes.

Jaco Engelbrecht, regional manager: Western Cape and functional GM: Roads and Highways, SMEC South Africa


The adequacy of traffic control measures during road works Prior to the treatise research study undertaken by the second co-author for an MSc (Built Environment) Construction Health and Safety Management, limited – if any – studies related to road construction workers’ health and safety (H&S) had been undertaken. By Professor John Smallwood* and Shaun Norris**


he aim of the study was to determine the H&S problems confronting road construction, as well as road construction traffic safety issues, and evolve a response. The sub-problems identified include construction workers being struck by passing vechicles, accidents involving passing vehicles, construction workers struck by construction plant and equipment, and confusion during traffic control management.

Research method and sample stratum To collect data, three descriptive surveys were conducted on two different road construction projects within the Eastern Cape. The survey participants included engineering consultants, contractors, traffic safety officers, general road construction workers, as well as random motorists driving through the work zone. Further data was collected from a speed measuring instrument placed in the work zone of a major new

interchange on the N2 leading to the Baywest Mall development near Gqeberha.

understand signage well, they do not respond to speed-reducing signage. It should be noted that 88.6% of the 616 vehicles measured during the speed measuring exercise exceeded the 60 km/h speed limit before and alongside the work zone. Furthermore, signage in poor condition can increase the risk of accidents. Ultimately, the competency of the contractor responsible for the traffic accommodation can influence the site H&S.

Recommendations Summary of the salient findings The findings indicate that workers are aware of the risks associated with working in a road construction work zone, and that traffic accommodation is important for their H&S. While workers believe barriers are sufficient protection from vehicles, they perceive that road users are not aware of the risks to workers in the work zone, and therefore do not slow down when passing by. In terms of construction plant, respondents believe that plant operators are skilled, fit and mindful of fellow workers. However, their visibility is hampered, which results in injuries. Plant is generally mechanically sound and adequately equipped with warning devices. However, mobile phones also distract workers and thus should not be used in the work zone. With respect to traffic control, respondents contend that motorists do not respond to advance warning signs. Although they

The public needs to be educated in terms of the risks associated with speeding through a work zone. Electronic speed measuring devices should also be placed prior to the work zone to make road users aware of the speed required, reduced in stages in relation to the speed limit. Sensors and cameras must also be installed on the rear and side panels of construction plant for operators to have all-round vision. Furthermore, the use of mobile phones must be prohibited. Alternatively, a mobile phone booth must be erected for workers to use when needed. In conclusion, work zone H&S is a concern that requires more attention to reduce the risk of injury to workers. Therefore, the preplanning of work zone layouts is essential. *Department of Construction Management, Nelson Mandela University **Health & Safety Consultant

IMIESA September 2021



Big data and digital twins are old news for surveyors Geospatial has always been considered as big data and surveyors have been making forms of digital twins since computers have existed (in fact, a map is a digital representation of reality). But the advent of technology has dramatically changed the surveying profession’s ability to create digital twins and collect data. By Kirsten Kelly


y father was a sur veyor, and it took an enormous amount of expertise to measure the position of an object on the earth and present it on a plan in relation to other objects. Conversely, it was inordinately difficult to make a mark on the sur face of the earth that represented a position on a plan,” says Chris Kirchhoff, principal at 5DGeo.

Big data

Credit: Joshua Fuller


IMIESA September 2021

“Nowadays, it is easy to collect the geospatial position of an object – it requires ver y little skill. A drone (if the web is to be believed) can create a 2 GB, 1 cm resolution file called a map. Collecting big data is simple; however, extracting the required, appropriate information and organising it into manageable pieces that enables the end-users to make informed decisions requires enormous skill from sur veyors. “Sur veyors constantly shift between creating an over view of data to a more detailed, granular view of the same data set. The ability to understand geospatial data – allowing for one to analyse and interpret data and make it meaningful – is a valuable skill,” he adds.

GEOMATICS Like the centre of the wheel, a surveyor connects (spokes) with the architect, town planner, engineer and owner

Digital twin Surveyors and geospatial professionals are a crucial connection between what is real and what is digital. All infrastructure projects start and end with a land surveyor. A digital twin is the merging of geographic information system (GIS) mapping, building information modelling (BIM) and sensors connected through the internet of things. GIS is foundational for any digital twin and BIM is more facility and infrastructure focused. Kirchhoff explains that location is central to GIS, BIM and sensors. “Without location, there is no digital twin. Surveyors convert geospatial data into geospatial information that can be trusted. If there is no trustworthy foundation to a digital twin, it will be useless. “With construction, five-dimensional modelling (adding time and cost elements to a 3D model) has the ability to create a much more intelligent twin. So instead of having

a paper Gantt chart, one can look at a 3D model and visualise the cash flow as the digital twin grows over time. It also becomes immediately apparent if there are issues with time planning. For instance, installing large sheets of glass and handling concrete via crane on the same day may cause issues,” he says. The surveyor is the linkage between the architect, town planner and engineer, and provides spatial information needed for the design. The surveyor also works with the engineer and construction company to ensure that the structure that was designed is built in the right place and right position. Once construction is completed, the surveyor often assists the owner of the building with facility management spatial information. “With a digital twin, there is one source of truth, and should a change be made to the building plans, all parties will be notified, so there will never be an issue of an architect working on revision three and an engineer working on revision four of a plan,” adds Kirchhoff.

Future Kirchhoff believes that the strong selling

3D scanners, light detection and radar (LiDAR), and drones have dramatically changed the surveying profession’s ability to create digital twins and collect data

point of a digital twin is the ability to predict the future. “But without good foundational geospatial location data, the future might turn out to be fake news. Going forward, geospatial data will increasingly be used by people outside the profession to model and predict business scenarios. I think information around where we are, our activities prior to us reaching a location, our mode of transport to that location, and our activities on reaching that location will be monetised,” he concludes.


Durable precast concrete cladding cuts costs and time

Economical precast concrete cladding not only offers designers unlimited scope for creativity, but also provides exceptional durability, as well as thermal insulation and construction efficiency, says Gary Theodosiou, structural engineer at Cement & Concrete SA. board-marked, ribbed or rope-patterned finishes,” he explains. “Exposed aggregate finishes can be specified to reflect the natural colour of the aggregate. Architects are basically spoilt for choice with alternative finishes, such as reconstructed stone, and panels with a polished stone or ceramic tile finish also available,” Theodosiou continues. High quality is achieved through robust formwork, specific concrete mix designs and manufacturing expertise. Precast elements are cast to tight tolerances controlled in the factor y prior to deliver y to site. “The repetition of elements can make the most intricate panel shapes relatively affordable. Furthermore, samples of the proposed cladding can be pre-approved by the client and utilised as a benchmark for quality at the precast operations. Potential human concrete errors on-site are generally removed by factor y panel production,” Theodosiou explains.


heodosiou states that precast cladding has significant cost advantages, with studies having shown precast concrete elements to be, on average, at least 23% cheaper than cast-in-place equivalents. “Then, for architects, there's the aesthetic factor. In precast cladding, there are a wide range of options and finishes available to meet both design and budget requirements. In off-the-form finishes, the mould detail is mirrored in the concrete sur face and can, for example, produce


IMIESA September 2021

Standing the test of time Durability – a prerequisite for any structure – is another highly desirable element of precast cladding. Several South African buildings erected many decades ago (even close to the ocean) still testify to the cladding’s superior durability. The landmark Johannesburg Civic Centre in Braamfontein, completed 60 years ago, is just one striking example. With extreme weather conditions now increasingly being experienced globally, designers will also be influenced by the fact that concrete retains its structural integrity in flood conditions. Precast elements can

also be designed to limit water ingress through the joints. The use of concrete sandwich panels, incorporating thermal insulation, can also reduce the need for expensive airconditioning or heating equipment in the working environment, while the panels’ superior acoustic quality helps minimise the intrusion of traffic and industrial noise.

Speed of construction and low maintenance Using precast elements reduces on-site requirements for scaffolding and formwork. With tight construction programmes now generally the norm, precast cladding panels – lifted into place with standard cranes – provide exceptional construction speed to limit building costs. “The panels can, in fact, already be manufactured while the foundations of an office block are being laid,” Theodosiou points out. Precast cladding requires minimum maintenance with no need for frequent cleaning, and non-combustible concrete’s exceptional fire resistance is well known in the design and construction sectors. Supplementar y cementitious materials are now also widely used by precast producers to reduce the cement content, thereby lowering the carbon footprint of concrete cladding.

Cladding categories Theodosiou says architectural concrete claddings generally fall into two categories: • Claddings that purely ser ve as enclosures. In this application, the claddings are applied as self-finished panels or as backing components to other facade materials, such as brickwork. • Claddings that form an integral part of the framework of a building. These

Precast concrete cladding offers the specifier limitless freedom regarding form, texture and appearance.”


Gary Theodosiou, structural engineer, Cement & Concrete SA

claddings per form an enclosing as well as a structural function. The panels can be manufactured in a variety of shapes and sizes but are mainly applied as storey-height or spandrel panels. The storey-height units span from floor to floor, and the spandrel version forms a sill wall beneath fenestration strips. Storey-height panels can incorporate apertures for windows and doors that will be installed on-site later. Window frames can also be attached in the cladding manufacturer’s plant and paint finishes applied before the panels are delivered to site.

“As precast concrete panels are produced to predetermined dimensions, no further cutting, trimming or drilling is usually required, which leads to a substantial reduction of on-site waste. Lifters are cast into the panels to further limit waste. Usually, the panels simply have to be washed clean with water – without hazardous chemicals – before installation,” says Theodosiou. Finally, he advises that input should be obtained from experienced precast specialists in the early decision-making stages of a cladding project to maximise the speed of construction, structural per formance, and a decision on the most economical frame package for specific projects. “Designers might well decide on a composite/hybrid solution, which could combine cast-in-place and factor y-produced precast panels. Either way, there is no doubt that precast cladding’s durability, superior strength and structural integrity are leading to ever-increasing applications worldwide,” Theodosiou concludes.

Precast solutions enhance housing project


arnival Gardens, located at Salfin, Boksburg, is a threephase, 888-unit affordable housing development consisting of one- and two-bedroom units. Technicrete, part of the Infrastructure Specialist Group, was commissioned to supply the project with a range of precast products. “There is a high demand for socially affordable housing in

Technicrete’s JZZ pavers are renowned for their longevity and hard-wearing surface, which makes them ideal for residential complexes

South Africa; developments such as Carnival Gardens help those who qualify to get a foot in the property market,” says Arno Smuts, a sales consultant based at Technicrete’s Olifantsfontein manufacturing plant.

“The ground layout, design and landscaping have been carefully thought through and utilise top-quality products – such as our Technicrete JZZ pavers, garden kerbs and Earthform retaining blocks – which have created an attractive and aesthetically pleasing finish,” Smuts adds. Technicrete’s JZZ units are solid-block interlocking pavers that – once applied – form a continuous, hard-wearing surface. They are particularly suitable for domestic driveways, pedestrian pavements and pathways. Technicrete supplied 9 321 m2 of its 60 mm grey pavers and 370 m2 of the 80 mm grey JZZ pavers to Carnival Gardens. In addition to JZZ pavers, Technicrete supplied 285 m of grey garden kerbs 500 mm x 150 mm x 75 mm, and 195 m of Fig.3 barrier kerbs sized at 1 000 mm. One thousand Earthform retaining blocks were also supplied to the development, offering an attractive feature for plant and flower placements, while retaining steep areas safely. Technicrete offers a range of paving and kerb solutions suited to any commercial, industrial or residential project, with colours such as slate, terracotta, plum, tan and autumn also available.

IMIESA September 2021



50 years of dumper expertise


ince 2012, the Wacker Neuson centre of expertise for dumpers and excavators has been located in Hörsching near Linz, Austria. Here the research, development and production of the latest and next generation of machines take place, building on a collective experience that can be traced back to 1971. Wacker Neuson’s entr y into the dumper class began at the turn of the millennium, when the then Neuson Baumaschinen acquired Ebbs & Radinger – an Austrian OEM with a long-established track record. “In developing our dumpers, we always think one step ahead,” explains Stefan Kurzmann, product expert for dumpers at Wacker Neuson. “On the one hand, we optimise already time-tested and

Wacker Neuson’s DW15e electric wheel dumper

proven models in matters of safety, ergonomics, per formance and handling. On the other, issues such as digitalisation and electrification play a growing role in further development.” A prime example is Wacker Neuson’s 1.5 t payload DW15e electric wheel dumper. The dumper is equipped with an electric motor for the drive system and another motor for the hydraulics. In comparison with conventional models, sound levels have been reduced by more than 20 decibels to 60 dB(A), which is equivalent to normal room volume. Compared to conventional machines, the electric drive is virtually maintenance-free.

The Wacker Neuson DV 90 dual-view dumper has an approximate payload capacity of 9 t. The hydrostatic drive enables the machine to accelerate from a stop to a maximum speed of 30 km/h without loss of traction

Per formance outputs for the DW15e are also on par with the OEM’s 1.5 t payload diesel-powered 1601 dumper, but without the added fuel burn costs.

Dual-view dumpers Another key innovation is the development of the Wacker Neuson dual-view dumper series, which comes to market in a threemodel line-up. The dual-view concept allows for a comfortable and quick change of the seat position through a 180-degree turn of the entire operating and seat console. In this way, the operator always has per fect vision in the direction of travel during transportation, loading and unloading. The rotation can be per formed conveniently from the driver’s seat by simply unlocking the seat console and turning it around. This makes these machines ideally suited for confined applications where manoeuvrability is limited – such as in tunnel projects and urban road construction sites. Depending on the machine, payloads range from 6 t to 10 t. Products like the DW15e and dual-view dumper underscore Wacker Neuson’s reputation for pioneering designs that build on five decades of development. They also continue to position the OEM as the trendsetter for new interpretations on a highly versatile materials handling solution for construction and general industr y.

Ergonomic and safety design improvements have advanced significantly in the past few decades


IMIESA September 2021


Expanding into remote trench compaction Talisman Hire Wadeville has extended its rental fleet with the acquisition of an Ammann ARR1575 remote-controlled articulated padfoot roller, designed specifically for trench compaction. The machine was supplied by South African Ammann machine distributor ELB Equipment and offers superior levels of efficiency for contractors.


e purchased this machine to address the demand for faster, safer trench compaction and to eliminate the need for multiple workers in dangerous deep excavations. In terms of productivity, it easily replaces a dozen or more men using rammers – and the quality of compaction is simply incomparable,” says Morné Venter of Talisman Hire Wadeville. “For example, a standard rammer is around 300 mm wide and applies up to 12 kN of compaction force, while the Ammann ARR1575, with a width of 850 mm, achieves up to 75 kN of compaction force with great accuracy. A clearly visible compaction level indicator also gives the operator a visual representation of compaction progress and eliminates the risk of over-compaction, thus saving time,” he continues. Trench rollers, also called multipurpose compactors, perform well in cohesive soil types, such as clays, which can be very difficult to compact. The ARR1575 is able to overcome the high moisture content in clays

An infrared remote control is built with safety in mind and the operator must have line of sight of the machine to operate it

through extreme compaction energy and the kneading effect of its padfoot drums. The machines perform effectively and quickly on less challenging soils, too. “In certain regions, clay and other poor soil conditions require the soil excavated from a trench to be discarded and more suitable fill material trucked in,” Venter expands. “However, this is not required with the Ammann ARR1575, as the compaction happens at a soil particle level and the padfoot breaks the bonds that usually prevent clayey soils from compacting uniformly and ‘bouncing back’.”

Manoeuvrability and operation Two steering cylinders help make the ARR1575 responsive and precise, while the extended drum width and low centre of gravity provide excellent stability on uneven sur faces. This provides faster, more seamless operation, which, combined with its high compaction output, allows for the faster compaction of thicker layers in fewer passes. Rammax, which was acquired by Ammann in 1995, invented

Morné Venter and Emile Diamond of Talisman Hire Wadeville take delivery of their first Ammann ARR1575 roller from ELB Equipment

the trench roller more than 40 years ago. Today, Ammann is believed to be the only manufacturer to offer both articulated and skid-steered trench rollers. The longevity of the product line and the updating of the range prove Ammann’s commitment to this market.

After-sales support “We choose our equipment from the best suppliers and those who are able to properly support our machines and enable us to keep them running around the clock. ELB Equipment is exemplary in this regard and we have bought many machines from them in the past 11 years since opening our doors,” says Venter. “They also understand the plant hire business and are able to provide input and opportunities that allow for us to remain ahead of the game,” Venter concludes.

AMMANN ARR1575 KEY FEATURES • Operating weight • Compaction frequency • Amplitude • Centrifugal force • Power

1 340 kg – 1 450 kg 40 Hz (2 400 VPM) 1.1/06 mm 75/36 kN 14.6 kW

IMIESA September 2021







Smarter excavation


yundai’s new R210 Smart Plus series excavator is a high-production workhorse designed to maximise output and lower fuel-burn costs. “With the addition of the new Eco mode, users now have a wider choice of operating modes to suit specific tasks and further improve fuel efficiency,” explains Ross Collard, managing director, HPE Africa – the Southern African distributor for Hyundai Construction Equipment. Other features that contribute to lower fuel

The latest-generation Hyundai R210 Smart Plus excavator has an approximate operating weight of 21 200 kg and comes equipped with a 0.92 m³ bucket

consumption include the breaker mode, which automatically sets the pump flow to an optimal level, and a fuel-saving kit for accurate monitoring. The auto-deceleration system prevents fuel losses by reducing engine rpm during no-load conditions. In turn, the electrohydraulic control system ensures precise flow at various workloads, while the opencentre design of the main control valve ensures fast response times. For increased machine durability, this series has a reinforced front structure, with

specialised steel plates, a strengthened undercarriage, as well as a forged ring body. In addition, the machine’s X-frame provides excellent resistance to torsional bending, extending the structural ser vice life. A counterbalance valve works as a hydrostatic brake and prevents accidental rolldown of the machine on steel gradients. Another key safety feature is the boom and arm holding system, which stops attachments from drifting against gravity due to prolonged overhanging.

Rise of the


The U17-3 is a powerful multitasker with a maximum digging depth of 2 310 mm and breakout force of 15.2 kN


eplacing the U15 model, the new 1.7 t Kubota U17-3 mini excavator packs a bigger punch, with better groundbreaking force, as well as excellent digging depth and reach. “One of the key selling points is the Kubota 16 hp engine, delivering superior horsepower and performance, as well as low noise, vibration levels and exceptional fuel efficiency,” says Michele Cicognani, national product and sales specialist at Smith Power, the local Kubota distributor. Kubota uses three independent pumps for boom, arm and swivel, making coordinated operations as smooth and efficient as possible.

The variable track width can be adjusted from 990 mm to 1 240 mm at the touch of a single lever. Changing the blade width is as easy as removing two pins by hand. To reduce maintenance costs and improve site

efficiency, the Kubota U17-3 has an improved maintenance layout and access points. With no bolts to unscrew, the underdeck hydraulics are also quick and easy to access for routine maintenance.

IMIESA September 2021




AECOM AFI Consult Alake Consulting Engineers ARRB Systems Asla Construction (Pty) Ltd BMK Group Bosch Munitech Bosch Projects (Pty) Ltd BVI Consulting Engineers CCG / Corrosion Institute of Southern Africa Dlamindlovu Consulting Engineers & Project Managers EFG Engineers Elster Kent Metering EMS Solutions ERWAT GIBB GIGSA GLS Consulting Gorman Rupp Gudunkomo Investments & Consulting Hatch Africa (Pty) Ltd Herrenknecht Huber Technology Hydro-comp Enterprises Infrachamps Consulting INFRATEC IQHINA Consulting Engineers & Project Managers iX engineers (Pty) Ltd JBFE Consulting (Pty) Ltd JG Afrika KABE Consulting Engineers Kago Consulting Engineers Kantey & Templer (K&T) Consulting Engineers Kitso Botlhale Consulting Engineers KSB Pumps and Valves (Pty) Ltd Lektratek Water Makhaotse Narasimulu & Associates Malani Padayachee & Associates (Pty) Ltd Maragela Consulting Engineers Mariswe (Pty) Ltd Martin & East M & C Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd Mhiduve Much Asphalt Mvubu Consulting & Project Managers NAKO ILISO Nyeleti Consulting Odour Engineering Systems Prociv Consulting & Projects Management Rainbow Reservoirs Re-Solve Consulting (Pty) Ltd Ribicon Consulting Group (Pty) Ltd Royal HaskoningDHV SABITA SAFRIPOL SAGI SALGA SAPPMA / SARF SBS Water Systems Sembcorp Siza Water SiVEST SA Sizabantu Piping Systems (Pty) Ltd SKYV Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd SMEC Southern African Society for Trenchless Technology SRK Consulting Star Of Life Emergency Trading CC Syntell TECROVEER (Pty) Ltd TPA Consulting V3 Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd VIP Consulting Engineers VNA Water Institute of Southern Africa Wam Technology CC Wilo South Africa WRCON WRP WSP Group Africa Zutari


A Hamm HP 180i equipped with thermal aprons

One pneumatic platform for all markets


or the latest-generation HP series, Hamm has developed a uniform platform as the basis for all its pneumatic tyre model variants worldwide. The HP 180i and HP 280i models (both with the Easy Drive operating concept) comply with EPA Tier 4 and EU Stage V emissions standards, while the HP 180 and HP 280 models are designed for Tier 3 markets. Hamm’s HP 180 and HP 180i models have minimum and maximum working weights of 8 t and 18 t respectively. In turn, the larger HP 280 and HP 280i models have a minimum and maximum range of 10 t to 28 t. Among the new optional features available on the HP 180i and HP 280i models is diesel-powered tyre heating with automatic temperature control.

Innovative additive sprinkling system Hamm has also completely redesigned the additive sprinkling system on the HP series. A prime feature to note is the time-saving filling of the additive concentrate, with no premixing required. The water and additive are mixed automatically. It is also possible to switch the sprinkling system from water to additive at any time from the driver’s platform to achieve precise compaction results.

IMIESA September 2021



Attractive and functional retention pond revamp

The capacity of the pond is now greater than ever and has been improved in terms of aesthetics and functionality


he retention pond at the Bellville Campus of Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT) was recently extended and upgraded to comply with the City of Cape Town’s by-laws and regulations for stormwater management. It now ser ves a vital erosion, flood control and storage function. Designed to catch stormwater from higher elevation areas, algae, bacteria and other biological organisms established in the pond further aid in the removal of pollutants such as fertilisers, hydrocarbons and animal droppings. In CPUT’s case, the treated effluent water is also being used to irrigate green areas on the campus. The main contractor on the pond’s upgrade was Ruwacon, with Westcoast Retaining Systems subcontracted to install a 420 m long Terraforce L12

interlocking concrete retaining block wall system along the edges of the pond. Other key inter ventions included the demolition of the existing inlet and outlet structures, earthworks and excavations to increase the size and depth of the retention pond, and gabion installations. New stormwater inlets and outlets were also constructed, while the finishing touch entailed the reinstating of grassed areas around the pond. The blocks were installed on a 750 mm x 300 mm, 25 MPa concrete foundation, with drainpipes running behind the entire length of the wall. All blocks were concrete filled for extra stability. Visually, the pond now showcases a lush, green, and peaceful setting. On a functional level, leakage is curbed, and more water will be available for future water shortages.

The existing pond was losing a lot of water, which is why CPUT decided to build a 420 m long retaining wall around its circumference In some places, the retaining wall had to be built higher to accommodate some big trees growing along the pond boundary to protect their roots from too much water ingress

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS APE Pumps Barloworld Equipment


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