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The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa



SprayPave A Team Effort on the Road to Success IMESA Asset managment

Ekurhurleni Insight Gas to energy

On hollowed ground

Horizontal directional drilling in the South African context ISSN 0257 1978 Volume 36 No.10 • October 2011 • R40.00 (incl VAT)




30 70 91 129 Urban Planning

CESA Awards

The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

Smart Engineering


Industry perspective 35 Building bridges…for the breaking


SABITA 37 41 44 50 51

When development outstrips infrastructure SABITA member listing Greenfields road upgrade Cement stabiliser for road contracts Consistency and density key elements

Ekurhuleni 53 Creating opportunities linked to the OR

SprayPave A Team Effort on the Road to Success IMESA Asset managment

Ekurhurleni Insight Gas to energy

On hollowed ground

Horizontal directional drilling in the South African context


ISSN 0257 1978 Volume 36 No.10 • October 2011 • R40.00 (incl VAT)

Since its inception 30 years ago, SprayPave has undoubtedly established and maintained its reputation as being one of Southern Africa’s leading manufacturers, suppliers and applicators of bituminous road binders and emulsions.

Regulars 3 Editor’s comment 5 President’s comment

Cover article 6 Perfecting a Recipe for Success


55 56 61 62 65

sustainable infrastructure asset management programme Asset management and municipal databases

Government perspective 30 Urban planning strategy reviewed

Tambo International Airport R15 million gravity outfall sewer line Using methane gas for energy Storm water upgrade to reduce flooding EMM’s electrification execution plan Preventing future water losses

Industry news

86 87 88 89

Winner: Young company of the year Winner: Mentoring company of the year Winner: Young engineering of the year Winner: Mentor of the year

Housing 91 Are we heading for a bright new future? 95 Sustainable social housing 101 Raising the bar 103 Concrete products showcased

SAPPMA 105 Why plastic pipe?

Trenchless technology 108 Horizontal directional drilling in the South African context

Waste 115 What does the new Waste Act mean for your business?

69 Green laws take no prisoners

Roads and bridges

CESA Awards

118 Rehabilitating the Wild Coast 121 N4 Bakwena highway upgrade 121 Road building equipment 123 Vehicle-friendly traffic calmers

70 Winner: Projects with a value of greater than R250 million

71 Commendation: Projects with a value of greater than R250 million

73 Winner: Projects with a value between 75 76

13 IMESA’s progress towards a national 25


77 81 83 84 85

R50 million and R250 million Commendation: Projects with a value between R50 million and R250 million Winner: Projects with a value of less than R50 million Commendation: Projects with a value of less than R50 million Winner: Best international project Commendation: Best international project Recognition: Visionary client of the year Accolade: Business excellence

Project 126 Optimum Coal Water Reclamation Plant

Insight 129 On hollowed ground

Competition 141 The quest to find South Africa’s oldest concrete pipe installations

Products and services 143 Road patch celebrates 25 years 143 Industry warning on sub-standard meters 144 Automated water reading an essential tool IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 1



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Fellow Of The Royal Academy Of Engineering

Liesel Kirsten Project Manager: Engenius ECSA


Vasanie Pather Chemical Engineer ESKOM

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Thandiwe Malindi Senior Control Engineer SASOL TECHNOLOGY (PTY) LTD Portia Pule Engineer JOHANNESBURG ROADS AGENCY Izendu Aghachi Senior Lecturer TSHWANE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Sibongile Nong Project Manager ANGLO PLATINUM



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EDITOR'S COMMENT PUBLISHER Elizabeth Shorten EDITOR Richard Jansen van Vuuren CREATIVE CHIEF EXECUTIVE Frédérick Danton SENIOR DESIGNER Hayley Moore Mendelow CHIEF SUB-EDITOR Cindy Maulgue SUB-EDITOR Danielle Hugo CONTRIBUTORS Candice Landie, Tony Stone, Roger Byrne, Tokyo Sexwale, Patrick Forbes, Jackie Lagus, Neil van Rooyen PRODUCTION MANAGER Antois-Leigh Botma PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jaqueline Modise FINANCIAL MANAGER Andrew Lobban (ACIS, FCIBM) ADMINISTRATION Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTION SALES Nomsa Masina PRINTERS United Litho Johannesburg +27 (0)11 402 0571 ___________________________________________________

We should be happy when it rains


HE HIGHVELD has been uncomfortably dry for spring. There have been days in Johannesburg when the smell of Syringa blossoms has been ‘heavy’ in the air, with afternoons seeing the sky built up with dark Cumulonimbus clouds, accompanied by wind storms…all to no avail. This glorious time of year, with the novelty of warm humid air replacing winter’s dry cold is, for most, very welcome. Everything just seems better. Braais and rugby on the weekend now become routine. On top of this is the expectancy of the first thunderstorm – everyone predicts when it will be and talks about how much it is needed. And when it finally arrives, as it did a couple of nights back, the cycle between winter and spring seems complete and all is well. But then, the realisation that the rain will now render most of the traffic lights in Johannesburg useless sets in. The bleak reality is that rain in Johannesburg equals horrific traffic and the possibility of there being no power at home. What exactly are the problems that cause this? I ask this sincerely. Please e-mail me at, as such a simple problem must have a simple solution. Unfortunately, I have another question to ask – this one, however, is definitely more intricate and should hopefully have you intrigued. IMIESA has partnered with the Concrete Manufacturers Association to find out from our readers if they know of any concrete piping installations older than 75 years in the country. Answers should be emailed to main.cma@ – see page 141 for more details. There are a number of cases of vintage wine to be won! This edition of IMIESA is the IMESA Conference edition of the magazine. It will be distributed at the 75th IMESA Conference being held in Kempton Park from 26 to 28 October. I am happy to report that this year’s conference edition

ADVERTISING SALES Jenny Miller Tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223 ___________________________________________________

PUBLISHER: MEDIA No. 4, 5th Avenue, Rivonia 2056 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 Fax: +27 (0)11 234 7274/5 E-mail: ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: R440.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS IMESA Administration Officer: Ingrid Botton P O Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Fax: +27 (0)31 266 5094 Email: Website: BORDER BRANCH Secretary: Melanie Matroos Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2401 Fax: +27 (0)43 743 5266 E-mail: EAST CAPE BRANCH Elsabé Koen Tel: +27 (0)41 505 8005 Fax: +27 (0)41 581 2300 E-mail: KWAZULU-NATAL BRANCH Secretary: Rita Zaayman Tel: +27(0)31 311 6382 NORTHERN PROVINCE BRANCH Secretary: Cornel Taljaard Tel: +27 (0)82 899 8341 Fax: +27 (0)11 675 1324 E-mail: SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO BRANCH Secretary: Henrietta Oliver Tel: +27(0)79 390 7536 Fax: 086 536 3725 E-mail: WESTERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Erica van Jaarsveld Tel: +27 (0)21 938 8455 Fax: +27 (0)21 938 8457 E-mail: FREE STATE AND NORTHERN CAPE BRANCH Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27(0)83 457 4362 Fax: 086 628 0468 E-mail: REST OF SOUTHERN AFRICA Representative: Andre Muller E-mail:

The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

Instit ute Africa ern zine of the al maga eerin g of South The offici cipal Engin of Muni









of IMIESA has kept in line with the tradition of being the largest of the year. On page 13 we feature an article by an author known to many of you, Roger Byrne. Byrne discusses in his article the approach being taken by IMESA towards a sustainable infrastructure asset management programme. “The cost-effective and sustainable management of a nation’s large infrastructure portfolios is critical to its citizens’ standards and cost of living. Implementing an appropriate standard of asset management cost-effectively and successfully is not easy. Many programmes have been started and dropped owing to the high cost; however, undertaking this nationally can be done very cost-effectively and quickly, with even greater benefits,” says Byrne. We have featured the Ekurhuleni Metro (from page 53) in this month’s municipal feature to tie in with the venue of the IMESA Conference. In addition, we have covered the CESA Aon Engineering Excellence Awards extensively – highlighting the winners and commended entries from this year’s competition (from page 70).



Richard Jansen van Vuuren, editor of IMIESA


Cover opportunity

All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers. INNOV



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A Team Effort on the Road to Success

Insighte •

Ekurhurleni Insight Gas to energy

On hollowed ground

Horizontal directional drilling in the South African context


In each issue, IMIESA offers advertisers the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the journal. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story on pages and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings contact Jenny Miller on tel: +27 (0)11 467 6223.

ISSN 0257 1978 Volume 36 No.10 • October 2011 • R40.00 (incl VAT)



T Every three years the International Federation of Municipal Engineering (IFME) brings the global community of municipal engineers and design professionals together.

he main theme of the congress will be sustainable communities. This allows for a comprehensive exploration of all key elements of sustainable communities, such as urban planning and municipal design, as well as solutions for transportation and energy systems. Conference topics cover both new buildings and renovation projects, together with maintenance processes. A multidisciplinary approach has been chosen to promote new ideas and to broaden discussion. Practically and scientifically oriented professional presentations, interesting case studies and excursions, together with fruitful discussions with old and new colleagues, will perfect delegates’ expertise. We warmly welcome all experts of municipal built environments – engineers, architects, administrators, contractors, operators, consultants, investors, researchers and students – to attend IFME 2012. We look forward to seeing you in Helsinki! Dan-H. Langstrom and Helena Soimakallio Chief executive officer and FAME chair of the organising committee


KEY DATES Conference: 4 to 10 June 2012 Notification of abstracts: 30 November 2011 Deadline for full papers: 31 January 2012 Registration: November 2011

CONFERENCE SECRETARIAT Jyrki Vättö • FAME • t +358 50 559 1435 Ville Raasakka • Finnish Association of Civil Engineers RIL • t +358 50 366 8687

ORGANISERS Finnish Association of Municipal Engineering (FAME) International Federation of Municipal Engineering (IFME) Finnish Association of Civil Engineers (RIL) Estonian Association of Municipal Engineering (EAME) Svenska Kommunaltekniska Föreningen (KT)




Local government infrastructure Sustainability beyond compliance


N MY COMMENT in the August issue of this Municipalities cannot afford to keep on reinventing the magazine I spoke of IMESA’s Constitution and wheel. A few examples follow: how it calls on our members actively to support • There are many different approaches being taken to initiatives that promote service delivery and the asset management in South Africa. financial well-being of our municipalities, emphasising • Asset valuations and depreciation activities are being that municipal engineers are vital to the future of South undertaken without proper guidelines. Africa. In this month’s comment, I will be examining • Condition assessments are being undertaken using a the topical issue of local government infrastrucWhat is needed is a truly national forum of all the key ture, specifically how to ensure its sustainability. role players in this country to coordinate and drive At the recent IMFO asset management throughout South Africa Conference in Cape Town, themed ‘Financial Sustainability Beyond Compliance’, the deputy minister variety of technologies. of finance stated that the management of infrastruc- • Training courses are being offered by different ture assets needed to be “significantly improved”, and groups using different approaches across identified five major challenges for local government, the country. namely: population growth, ageing assets, backlogs, • New guidelines and policies are being develcorruption and the need to appoint suitably qualified oped, yet there currently exists material that is senior managers. available in Australia and New Zealand. Roger Byrne from Australia has been a volunteer advi- What is needed is a truly national forum of all the key sor to IMESA for the past three years and has worked role players in this country to coordinate and extensively with the cities of Durban and Cape Town. He drive asset management throughout South proposed a National Programme Model for infrastructure Africa. This should go a long way towards management to the National Treasury, based on the fol- improving the management of infrastructure lowing premises: beyond GRAP 17 compliance. • The cost-effective and sustainable management of the An opportunity to discuss this and nation’s large infrastructure is critical to its citizens’ other important issues is our annual standard and cost of living. IMESA Conference. I look forward to wel• The key drivers relating to infrastructure assets are coming all our readers at the opening essentially the same all over the world. of our 75th IMESA Conference at the • The best practice management of infrastructure port- Birchwood Conference Centre in folios and the whole life cycle processes are common Boksburg on Wednesday to all infrastructure assets. 26 October 2011. • The greatest impediment to the progress of infrastructure asset management in this country is the lack of skilled resources to undertake the successful implementation of an appropriate management system (see Jannie Pietersen, also Byrne’s article on page 13). president of IMESA




PROUD MEMBER of the Basil Read Group of companies since 2006, SprayPave maintains that its role and position in the industry is, without a doubt, founded on its belief that moving forward and growing with the times is essential. “Our philosophy is quite simply to evolve relentlessly and never allow ourselves to be left in the wake of our competitors by becoming trapped in comfort zones and falling victim to antiquated policies and practices,” says commercial manager, Phil Chirnside.

Success through growth SprayPave’s head office is based in Alrode South, Johanensburg, and, following the completion of a recent major upgrade, the company is now capable of manufacturing all of the products it supplies. “The benefits of this upgrade are substantial, to both SprayPave as well as its clients,

as quality control is maximised, lead times and delivery efficiency are optimised and competitive pricing remains a certainty,” says managing director, Steven Single. These products include: • SS60: Anionic Emulsion with 60% binder content, as well as its diluted variant, SS30 • CAT60, 65 and 70: Cationic Emulsions with 60%, 65% and 70% binder content, as well as diluted variants • Opti-Prime: SprayPave’s very popular and environmentally friendly cold prime • SP1i: SprayPave’s invert cold prime • Opti-Cote: SprayPave’s answer to quality and effective pre-coating • SE-1 and SE-2: Effective and reliable polymer modified binders (SBS) • SC-E1 and SC-E2: Effective and reliable modified emulsions • Over and above these manufactured products, SprayPave also supplies all-penetration grade and cutback bitumen.

“All of these products are manufactured according to very specific industry guidelines, but what sets us apart from our competitors are our extremely high standards and exceptional house-keeping,” says Chirnside. “Along with the upgrade to the manufacturing facility, we have upgraded our storage facility to over 500 000 ℓ, ensuring that sufficient quantities of product are consistently and readily available, thus facilitating the shortest turnaround times possible,” he continues. Efficiency through versatility Naturally, success cannot be attributed to merely one variable in a company such as SprayPave. Having the ability to produce sufficient quantities of world-class product requires the ability to adequately supply that product to a vast target market. This SprayPave is quite capable of doing, and doing well, thanks to a number of tools


Perfecting a Recipe for Success Since its inception 30 years ago, SprayPave has undoubtedly established and maintained its reputation as one of southern Africa’s leading manufacturers, suppliers and applicators of bituminous road binders and emulsions.


COVER STORY at their disposal. The first such tool is its Coastal Branch in Botha’s Hill, KwaZuluNatal. Purchased in March 2010, the acquisition has proven to be beneficial not only in terms of the plant itself, but in gaining assets such as branch manager, Leslie Webb, who brings with him a wealth of knowledge from within the bitumen industry. “Our ability to extend our reach through the acquisition of our Coastal Branch has most certainly given us a competitive edge in our ability to supply a market that before was largely inaccessible due to both price and time restrictions,” says Single. Second are two of SprayPave’s most innovative assets, and the brainchild of Steven Single, that illustrate the kind of forward thinking that will continue to drive the company’s success. These are the mobile emulsion and SBS plants. Currently situated on site in Namibia, the emulsion plant is self-powered with an on-board diesel generator, has a fully equipped lab and is capable of manufacturing 6 000 ℓ of emulsion every hour. It is mounted to a double-axle trailer so it can be transported to any site, regardless of how remote the location may be, for several months at a time. The SBS plant is currently situated at the coastal branch and is soon to be fully operational. “In a region where the supply of polymermodified binders has been largely monopolised for some time, we are extremely excited to offer the market down there an alternative option for procuring a very in-demand product,” says Single. This plant, as with its emulsion counterpart, is capable of being transported to most sites for lengthy periods and can manufacture 15 000 ℓ of SE-1 or SE-2 every four to five hours. There is also the option of basing it at the Coastal Branch itself and servicing multiple clients. Either way, the introduction of this plant into the coastal market is sure to satisfy the needs of many contractors in need of this product. Point of pride Last, but certainly not least, is SprayPave’s pride, its ever-growing fleet of haulers and world-class bitumen distributors. Currently it boasts eight distributors, four of which are powered by modern and sought-after Scanias (with a fifth soon to be delivered), and all are fitted with the technically advanced Etnyre Spray-Bar system – the impressive sight of a red and white sprayer working on a road construction site is becoming ever more common. Then there are the haulers, an

ABOVE AND OPPOSITE All SprayPave trucks are fitted with the technically advanced Etnyre Spray-Bar system

indication of SprayPave’s commitment to servicing its valued clients as effectively as possible. “Where many other companies focus primarily on their distributors, they are forced to rely on sub-contracted haulers to transport their clients' bulk products. Naturally this creates the need to charge less competitive haulage rates as well as opening the door to

device, as well as a computer management system that communicates pertinent information to the cab while in transit. “We are very proud of these vehicles and are confident that they will go a long way in facilitating our logistical optimisation as well as market-leading customer service and satisfaction,” says de Ridder.

"We are extremely excited to offer the market an alternative option for procuring a very in-demand product" Steven Single, MD, SprayPave potential logistical problems that are somewhat out of their control”, says Chirnside. Operations manager, Quentin de Ridder, adds, “Although we still make use of external haulers, by not relying on them 100% we are able to plan more effectively and decrease lead times for urgent deliveries. This also allows us to mitigate any unforeseeable delays far more readily and effectively.” SprayPave’s current hauler fleet consists of six vehicles dedicated to supplying clients, as well as distributors on site and two brand new haulers that will be solely dedicated to transporting bitumen from the refinery to SprayPave’s manufacturing facility in Alrode South, Johannesburg. These impressive machines are powered by the latest R500 Scania horses and coupled with the most modern and technologically advanced tankers. These tanks have a 34 000 ℓ capacity and come fitted with electronic braking systems (EBS), Weweler air suspension and axle lifting

Innovative approach “We are very proud of SprayPave’s growth, as well as extremely impressed with the innovative approach they have taken to get to where they are today,” says Marius Heyns, chief executive officer of Basil Read. “Furthermore, there are a number of exciting initiatives currently in the R&D phase that, when unveiled in the near future, are sure to give SprayPave an even more auspicious position and reputation within the industry.” By taking a look at SprayPave’s origins as essentially a middle-man in the industry, offering bitumen distributor hire and supplying outsourced products, to now being a world-class manufacturer, supplier and applicator of all bituminous binders and emulsions required to construct quality roads, it is clear that their belief in constant evolution is not merely a thought, but a culture. SprayPave t +27 (0)11 868 5451 •

IMIESA offers advertisers an ideal platform to ensure maximum exposure of their brand. Companies are afforded the opportunity of publishing a two-page cover story and a cover picture to promote their products to an appropriate audience. Please call Jenny Miller on +27(0)11 467 6223 to secure your booking.


ABS Afri-Infra AJ Broom Arup SA Aurecon Bigen Group Africa BKS Consulting Engineers Bosch Stemele Bosch Munitech BVI Consulting Engineers CBI Consulting Engineers Civil & Blasting Solutions Concrete Manufacturers CSIR Built Environment Davies Lynn & Partners Development Bank of SA DPI Plastics EFG Engineers Elster Kent Metering EnviroServ Waste Management Geotechnologies GLS Consulting Goba Hidrostal SA Huber Technology Hydro-comp Enterprises I@Consulting Iliso Consulting Infraset Jeffares and Green

Johannesburg Water Kgatelopele Consulting Knowledge Base KV3 Engineers Lektratek Water Makhaotse Narasimulu & Associates Maragela Consulting Engineers Much Asphalt Nyeleti Consulting Odour Engineering Systems Power Construction Pragma Africa Rocla SBS Water Systems Sektor Consulting Sight Lines Pipe Survery Services SNA Inc Siza Water Company SRK Consulting SSI Syntell Thm Engineers East London TPA Consulting UWP Consulting Vela VKE WSP Group Africa WSSA WRP Zebra Surfacing


Past Achievements

IMESA is about to launch their history book at their 2011 conference that takes place between 26 and 28 October in Gauteng, as a tribute to their Golden Jubilee. Take a very special journey with IMESA highlighting the existence of Muncipal Engineering in South Africa over the last 100 plus years. Experience firsthand the trials and tribulations of the times, meet the people and engineers involved and share with them their experiences in the fields in which you yourself are so dedicated. THis journey through time potrays a “Reflection” of our past as an Institute. Secure your hard or soft copy commemorative book at the conference and have it personally autographed by the author, Professor Johannes Haarhoff.

For more information: Contact: Gavin Clunnie Tel: 082 643 5444 email:


Programme Venue: The Birchwood Hotel and OR Tambo Conference Centre, Gauteng

Tuesday 25th October 2011 12h00 - 16h00




Wednesday 26th October 2011 07h00



Master of Ceremonies: Mr Moses Maliba, Past President, IMESA SESSION ONE: WELCOME AND KEY NOTE ADDRESSES Session Chairperson: Mr Jannie Pietersen - President, IMESA


Opening Conference: Mr Jannie Pietersen - President, IMESA


Official Welcome: Councillor Mondli Gungubele - Executive Mayor, Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality


Keynote Address: Councillor Kgosientsho Ramokgopa - Executive Mayor, Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality


The Role of PPC Cement in Delivering World Class Infrastructure in South Africa: Platinum Partner Presentation




Improving Municipal Water Services Provision Through the National Benchmarking Initiative: Mr William Moraka - South African Local Government Association


Using Performance Measurement and Management Information to Improve Water Service Delivery - Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Ms Sizani Moshidi- Department of Water Affairs, South Africa


Sustainability Through Integrated Decision-Making in WDM: Mr Kobus Du Plessis - University Stellenbosch


Questions from the Floor


Keynote Address “The Long White Night”: Mr Alex Harris


Lunch Sponsor’s Address




Sustainable Low-cost Sanitation: Past, Present and Future: Dr Johan van der Walt & Mr Max Pawandiwa - Ugu District Municipality


Innovative Procurement in a Municipal Environment to Achieve Elimination of Sanitation Backlogs: Mr Peter Allen - Peter Allen Inc. Professional Engineers


Beaufort West: First Direct Water Reclamation (Toilet to Tap) Plant in South Africa: Mr Pierre Marais - Water and Waste Water Engineering. Risk Assessment and Risk Management for Beaufort West Water Reclamation: Mr Chris Swartz Chris Swartz Water Utilization Engineers


Questions from the Floor




An Integrated Solution to Solid Waste Handling and Service Delivery in Rustenberg: Mr Darryl van der Merwe - BKS (Pty) Ltd


Determination of Additional Resources to Manage Pollution in Stormwater and River Systems: Mrs Nicole Nel - PD Naidoo and Associates


Questions from the Floor



Thursday 27th October 2011 07h30



Master of Ceremonies: Mr Moses Maliba SESSION FIVE: ROADS Session Chairperson: Mr Johan Basson


Generally Acceptable Minimum Principles of Road Design and Maintenance Procedures: Prof. Wynand Steyn - University of Pretoria


Job Creation Potential of Infrastructure Maintenance: Dr Kevin Wall - CSIR Built Environment


The Gauteng Freeway Improvment Project: Mr Alex van Niekerk - National Roads Agency


Questions from the Floor




The Proposed South African National Guidelines for Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS): Prof Neil Armitage - University of Cape Town


Stormwater Systems Modelling, CCTV Inspection and Data Capturing Project for eThekwini Municipalitiy’s Coastal Stormwater & Catchment Management: Mr Colin Whittemore - Aurecon Group


A Stormwater Management System for Ekurhuleni Metro Municipality: Ms Loudene Roelofsz - Aurecon Group


Questions from the Floor


Keynote Address: Is South Africa Becoming a Failed State?: Dr Tjaart van der Walt - IMESA




The Application of Integrated Rapid Public Transport Networks (IRPTNS) in Smaller Cities: Ms Pauline Froschauer Namela Consulting


The Gautrain - Past, Present and Future: Mr William Dachs - Gautrain Management Agency


Questions from the Floor





Friday 28th October 2011 07h30



Master of Ceremonies: Mr Moses Maliba SESSION EIGHT: FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF PROVIDING INFRASTRUCTURE / SERVICES Session Chairperson: Mr Leon Naude


Financial Sustainability and Management of Public Infrastructure: Mr Chris Champion - International Federation of Municipal Engineers (IFME)


Neighbourhood Development Partnership Grant: Technical Assistance to Emfuleni Local Municipality (via Sedibeng District Municipality) - Mr Richard Kruger and Ms Lerato Sekoboto - WorleyParsons


Challenges of Global Urbanisation - Advantages of Trenchless Microtunneling: Mr Udo Gerstmann and Mr Swen Weiner Herrenknecht AG


The Engineering Profession - Regulation and Strategy: Mr Christopher Campbell - Engineering Council of South Africa


Questions from the Floor




Panel Members: Mr Jannie Pietersen (Chairperson), Dr Kevin Wall, Mr Dawie Botha, Ms Allyson Lawless and Prof. Romano de Mistro


Presentations and Appreciations





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IMESA’s vision and progress towards a national SIAM programme An article by Roger Byrne, IMESA mentor: Sustainable Infrastructure Asset Management, on the approach being taken by IMESA following the publishing of the original concept in 2009.


HE COST-EFFECTIVE and sustainable management of the nation’s large infrastructure portfolios is critical to its citizens' standard and cost of living. Implementing an appropriate standard of asset management, both costeffectively and successfully, is not easy. Many programmes have been started and dropped due to associated high costs; however, undertaking this nationally can be done very cost-effectively and quickly, with even greater benefits. More than 30 years ago, Australia and New Zealand embarked on a journey that was intended to drive improvements in the way they managed infrastructure asset management. Since then, other countries have joined the movement. However, most have done it on their own and in isolation. Many have failed to raise sufficient interest and, in some cases, even failed to start. Many have progressed, only to abandon initiatives after significant effort had been wasted. The IMESA team have been involved in all or significant parts of this journey, which has now spread to cover much of the developed world. We all know it can be done better than it has been. The discussion paper is aimed at raising discussion on the development of a national programme model for sustainable infrastructure asset management, or SIAM. This discussion paper forms the fourth in a suite of papers on a future vision for infrastructure asset management: 1. Lessons learned in infrastructure asset management from around the globe. 2. The AMPLE Tool Suite – a response to the lessons learned. 3. Taking a global approach to driving sustainable infrastructure asset management. 4. Taking a national approach to driving sustainable infrastructure asset management.

It is suggested that readers would have a better understanding of these issues if they were to have read the previous papers in the above order. The vision The idea of a national programme model for infrastructure management seems daunting, but one which, if correctly applied, could have a dramatic impact on the well-being of municipal infrastructure services in South Africa. We can manage our extensive and valuable community infrastructure assets far better than we do currently, and there is no valid excuse for not doing so, especially as we can make a significant impact on the standard of living, and its related cost of living, for millions of people in this developing nation. By getting more out of our existing infrastructure at a lower cost, we can also have a significant impact on addressing the backlogs and imbalances that exist in services to disadvantaged communities across the nation. We can also make a positive impact on our planet by looking at our infrastructure management with a triple bottom line approach, which assesses the impact of our decisions in economic, environmental (including climate change) and social terms. It seems illogical that we can have an audit process for our municipal finances, but that no process exists for the quality with which we manage the vast community wealth that is tied up in infrastructure assets. We estimate that the total replacement value of municipal infrastructure in South Africa will exceed R2 500 billion. This needs to be well managed. The problems with our current approach As with other nations, South Africa is moving towards improved asset management,

or SIAM. We have the advantage of texts and guidelines/manuals, like the IIMM, and some parts of the professions doing best appropriate practice AM. However, in general, the bulk of South Africa’s municipal infrastructure assets are being managed at below the level 1 or basic level. The author has made the following observations following his time in South Africa, his detailed work with the cities of Durban and Cape Town and a broader national experience, namely: • There are currently over 25 different approaches being taken to AM. • Only a few organisations have adopted a quality framework or maturity assessment approach to identifying a logical improvement programme. • Training programmes are being developed and undertaken by different groups using different approaches across many industry sectors. There are various private consulting groups and government departments undertaking different training for the same industries. • Ever y industr y/ser vice programme or asset type is being approached differently by different groups. • Asset valuations and depreciation activities have been under taken without appropriate guidelines and approaches that would have drastically reduced the cost of this activity and delivered a better (higher confidence) outcome that could be more easily expanded into good asset management. • Condition assessments are being undertaken using a variety of methodologies that prevent national comparisons being made, at a significant cost, over optimised (statistical) processes. • All this work has been undertaken without ensuring full integration with the


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IMESA CONFERENCE inputs/outputs required for future SIAM activities. • There is no real co-ordination in this area. IMESA has tried to direct attention to these issues in the municipal sector from a technical perspective; however, few organisations have tackled the issue logically and with a structured improvement strategy. • National co-ordination requires the participation of all key stakeholders as this is not a solely technical issue. It requires the collaboration of finance, economics, audit and regulators to work effectively. • I have watched many nations go through this process. I believe that it has been done better, and can be done better, following this suggested programme. The needs and drivers Modern society demands a high standard of living. Infrastructure ser vices provide a significant part of this standard of living, while contributing significantly to the cost of living. The effectiveness and efficiency with which these asset portfolios are managed is therefore critical to our economic performance and future standard and cost of living. Because of the environment we live in, we will need infrastructure for decades, and even centuries, to come. Many factors drive the cause of failure, but the four critical ones are: • Capacity – The increasing demand for assets due to population growth and other factors. One such capacity issue involves the backlog in services to disadvantaged communities and the huge un-met demand for basic human utilities. • Reliability – The rate of decay of our existing infrastructure assets resulting in the need for increased maintenance, rehabilitation and replacement. • New regulations – In many instances, assets require upgrades to meet new government or industry regulations. They may still be in good condition, but need to be replaced or upgraded to meet the new requirements. • Business efficiency – All well-run businesses have investments that need to be made in order to continue to provide their ser vices in the most efficient manner. • Lack of skills/human resources – We can only identify the problems and determine the best strategies if we have staff with

the necessar y skills. In South Africa, many studies have identified the lack of skills in the countr y and training is therefore a key infrastructure consideration and rich industries worldwide have recognised the need for improved knowledge and skills in the unique area of life cycle infrastructure asset management. The key issues driving this need are: • an ageing workforce, due primarily to the post-World War II baby boomers and professional emigration • greater workforce mobility, both nationally and internationally • the shift in attitude from ‘job for life’ to ‘job for now’ • demands for skilled workers from other developing sectors. Therefore, a new form of learning is required and web-based tools and distance learning offer a great avenue for this when combined with whatever on-the-job mentoring and support we can muster. Few academic institutions have recognised the need for, or developed, programmes to meet the life cycle or life extension needs of infrastructure assets. The demands on their services have included South Africa’s rapid growth and the provision of staff to design and construct new assets and assist in meeting the backlog of services. A national programme model outline/vision The basic premise for our model is: • The key issues and drivers relating to infrastructure portfolio management are

essentially the same all over the world, e.g. demand and supply at an affordable and sustainable cost. • The best practice management of infrastructure portfolios and life cycle processes are common for all infrastructure assets, from conception to end of life. • The practices related to individual asset types are different, e.g. condition assessment practices/maintenance and rehabilitation techniques, etc. • Across the nation, regional groups and individual agencies are spread across the quality spectrum. We therefore need an approach/methodology that allows any agency or jurisdiction to improve in a stepby-step manner best suited to their individual ‘best appropriate practice’ (BAP) or ‘appropriate maturity level’ (AML) in the most cost-effective and sustainable way. • We need to stop reinventing the wheel – take the best wheel available globally, work to improve it and use it in South Africa. We consider that the model should be based on the premise listed previously: • The national municipal SIAM model must be nationally driven and coordinated through a collaborative approach, with input coming from the various key stakeholders involved in SIAM activities: not just engineers, but all professions and interested parties. The model itself would: – Involve a standard basic quality framework model. An ISO-based quality framework for LCAM is being

FIGURE 1 The SIMPLE tool modules



FIGURE 2 The life cycle functions developed. Note: PAS 55 and SIMPLE/ TEAMQF/Gap Ex are examples of inputs at this time. – Reflect a common framework that covers life cycle processes for sustainable generic life cycle AM. This material is now readily available globally. – Incorporate common BAP models developed to cover all individual industries and specific asset types, e.g. industr y or infrastructure asset type models for roads, rail, water, sewer, electricity, drains, buildings, etc. These should describe the three step-by-step levels in maturity that are considered best appropriate practice for those industr y or asset types. – Involve all stakeholders via national committees (NAMS), ensuring the most effective national collaboration and uniformity. We do not have to reinvent the wheel. We should not be spending our limited research and development dollars on the same subject all around the world. The basic model The key elements of this model include: • all the generic quality framework modules (see figure 1) • the learning experience modules (shown in green) – the eLearning modules that take users through a structured training programme to suit their assets and organisation (see figure 1). The quality framework model should cover all aspects of life cycle functions as best reflected in the SIMPLE wheel (figure 2).

Industry best appropriate practice versions These versions would be the ones customised to suit the various industry or service delivery models. They would be modified to include all best practice and information relating to the individual asset types associated with a particular industry, e.g. water, wastewater, roads, bridges, etc. This is best shown in figures 3 and 4, which demonstrate how the generic model expands to a municipal industry model and then further expands into a roads model. The key advantage of this uniform national approach is that all services can be rolled up to give a clear picture of the condition, performance (levels of service), sustainable

long-term costs, utilisation/capacity issues, risks and future liabilities of all infrastructure services across the nation. This data can be viewed vertically, from an individual asset component to a ‘whole of facility’, ‘whole of service’, ‘whole of city’, ‘whole of province’ and ‘whole of nation’ perspective. All views provide a high level of confidence as the outputs are built from asset components to the whole views listed above. This is essential for all levels of strategic planning, especially national ones. It is a massive task to accommodate different requirements across different nations, but it can be done. The aim is to support and help drive sustainable improvements in sustainable (life cycle) infrastructure asset management successfully and most cost-effectively. It is only then that national governments can really address the delicate balance between keeping existing economy-driving assets going with the need to overcome the significant service backlogs that exist for much of the South African population. The key success factors The key success factors for implementing a successful national AM programme for municipalities are: • The shared understanding that SIAM is critical to our national, regional and local economies, as well as our standards and cost of living. • This understanding is backed up by a commitment from all levels of government and the private sector (where applicable)

FIGURE 3 Typical metro municipal models



to ensuring that these valuable community and national assets are managed most effectively and efficiently. All key stakeholders are involved in the co-ordinating body that will drive this national programme, e.g. the National Asset Management Steering Committee of South Africa ( An appropriate quality framework within which these assets should be managed. The framework should be based on a ‘continuous improvement philosophy’ and tailored to the individual organisation but capable of ensuring that it meets national gaols and objectives, with horizontal uniformity across all services and vertical uniformity from individual assets to national perspective. The SIAM quality framework is capable of being implemented in a step-by-step approach in such a way as to be suitable for application to assets from simple/ basic townships to metro cities such as Johannesburg, Pretoria, Cape Town and Durban. The proposed model has the capacity to cater for this step-by-step approach: – Level 1 – Basic SIAM – Level 2 – Intermediate SIAM – Level 3 – Advanced SIAM. A competency model that is based o n the quality framework maturity levels (above) for all life cycle asset management activities. This competency model would be linked to a set of certifiable training programmes that can be delivered by the normal educational authorities or via eLearning platforms. This drive for professional quality of management must be balanced with an appropriate regulator y framework that helps ensure that all assets are managed to a suitable standard. We need an audit framework and regulatory legislation that will ensure that minimum standards are achieved by all municipalities.

The key stakeholders The key stakeholders are seen as: • government and policy makers – on all levels • regulators and auditors – multiple • professional associations – multiple • industry sectors/associations – multiple (IMESA/IMFO, etc.) • government departments • educators – multiple levels • users, ratepayers and communities

FIGURE 4 Roads industry model showing all categories of asset covered and how each is broken up • council staff and consultants • contractors and suppliers. We currently have many consultants (both engineering and management), government depar tments, information system developers and salesmen, private conference/ training organisers, educational institutions and professional associations all undertaking some form of asset management awareness training. All of these organisations are developing approaches to asset management by developing training programmes and software applications. They are all reinventing the wheel in a manner which provides them with copyright potential and secures their ongoing involvement with the clients they assist. The most appropriate, cost-effective and efficient (timely) approach is for all resources to be directed towards the formulation of a single national programme and then accrediting all capable stakeholders to assist in the implementation of this single programme throughout the country. Many consultants have made wonderful contributions to the progress of asset management to date. This fantastic (but scarce) resource should be fully employed to assist in the successful implementation of improved asset management and not reinventing or duplicating processes. The National AM Steering Committee ( The NAMS committee would be responsible

to the South African Government through the Department of Strategic Planning for the development and implementation of the necessary programmes, tools, guides and other activities to ensure the successful implementation of AM in South African municipalities. The committee should include representatives of all the key stakeholders: • Department of Strategic Planning • accounting general/treasury • auditor general & governance • Department of Finance • commerce and innovation • the SIAM Division of IMESA • engineering institutions of South Africa (reps) • Institute of Financial Officers – IMFO and others • South African Local Government Association (SALGA) • Department of Education & Training • industr y associations/asset type representatives – for best practice models (three levels). It is important to recognise the importance of the municipal sector to the South African nation. With the latest restructuring, we now have over 60% of the nation’s community infrastructure (community wealth) being managed by this sector through six metro cities and nine emerging metros. Note: As a leader on the African continent, could South Africa help with the roll-out of this approach across other African nations should the opportunity arise? The approach


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IMESA CONFERENCE being put forward is easily transferable to other national groups. The export of associated expertise could represent significant economic income. The regulatory framework A fully legislated regulatory framework is an integral part of the success of any national programme. A blend of best practice management (in search of excellence), promoted by the industry and professions involved and underpinned by sound legislation, is essential to achieving success in this area. The most successful results in this area have been achieved in New Zealand, where legislation requires the following key elements from each municipality (all independently audited): • The production of a BAP set of guidelines that suit a continuous improvement philosophy and make allowance for differences between organisations in terms of their size, population served, asset values, asset service, issues/problems and financial capability. • The production of long-term (25 to 30 year) asset management plans covering growth, renewal, operations and maintenance for the entire asset portfolio. • The production of a future expenditure model (FEM), which is based on the above AMPs and includes all capital expenditure, as well as the predicted operations and maintenance costs necessary to providing the required levels of service. • The resulting future funding model (FFM) or options/strategies to derive the funds required (detailing who pays, rates versus grants, etc.). • A specified stakeholder consultation programme (SCP) that presents all these materials in 'full transparency' to all stakeholders and seeks their agreement to one of the strategies and funding models contained therein. • An independently-audited SIAM quality framework assessment or maturity model that assesses the above and develops a continuous improvement programme that ensures the organisation is continuing to aim at, and achieve over time, the ‘best appropriate practice' for their industry/ service programme and size. • Asset accounting and valuation regulations. However, we do view these as being as important as the above issues, which give a much better assessment of

the quality of management and the present and future condition/performance of the asset portfolios. • All the other typical regulations relating to occupational health and safety. The benefits of a national approach Several countries have adopted a national approach to SIAM. Not all have been successful. However, we have learnt from these and have developed ‘key success factors’ in order to ensure that the problems encountered are overcome. These factors are discussed in detail in the previous papers listed in the introduction. South Africa has the opportunity to learn from these lessons and undertake a programme that will: • Be more successful. • Be more cost-effectively implemented. • Achieve key results and benefits. • Be completed more speedily (four years instead of 10). • Be more sustainable over time. • Be ‘smarter’ by using web-based technology. • Do it as part of a national approach. Typical SIAM benefits The benefits of adopting advanced SIAM approaches have been identified as: Reduced cost of service (80%), made up of the following key elements: • extending the life of existing assets cost-effectively • optimising maintenance activities and costs • deriving better planned/unplanned maintenance blends • improving asset/system reliability and performance • optimising capital investment validation and approval processes • improving operational efficiency • better demand management processes • improving management efficiency – smart analysis and automation • reduced business risk exposure – mitigating critical failures • improved management flexibility and response times to a fast-changing world. The average savings achieved in this area are between 15 and 40% (average 25%) of future costs, depending on current maturity and issues relating to asset systems. Improved levels of service constitute 20% and are made up of the following elements: • higher levels of ser vice for less unit cost

• more reliable asset performance • faster response times for asset failures and shorter outages • improved customer (and staff) safety • greater stakeholder satisfaction (seen as great value by customers) • greater organisational accountability • greater transparency of operations and performance • higher community trust and respect • greater ability to meet changing customer expectations. It is important to realise that these benefits (savings) are based on ‘the future life cycle cost savings’, which can be achieved over the costs that would likely be involved if the organisation were to continue to manage their assets in the way the currently do. They are not savings in terms of reductions against current costs. They are reductions in future costs and better performance through the better management of these vital community assets. Additional benefits of national programmes The additional potential benefits of a national programme approach have been identified as: • the ability to roll up all organisations and services, from base assets to whole of city to provincial, and form a valid national picture • increased workforce skills, necessar y to overcome the critical shortage in South Africa • reduced mentoring and on-the-job training costs • targeting scarce resources for use in areas of greatest need • the ability of leading organisations to help drive AM improvement across industries and assist in the roll-out of SIAM nationally, e.g. larger organisations helping smaller organisations • overcoming local and regional parochial attitudes that often cause additional unwarranted costs and delays • the ability to roll out new cost-reduction programmes (smart new practices) countrywide through the power of webbased tools • better understanding of sound AM information systems and their operations • efficiency in staff transfers across all municipalities and industries in South Africa (both private and public) due to base knowledge of standard processes


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IMESA CONFERENCE • the ability of national strategic planners to better understand: – current asset performance and capabilities – current issues and risk exposures – future costs and liabilities – national infrastructure needs. What has IMESA achieved to date? In the time since this programme was first debated in 2009, IMESA has carried out the following: • A subcommittee devoted to asset management was formed under IMESA director, Leon Naude. Naude has a group of AM advisers working with him on these objectives. • Many visits and representations were made to key government stakeholders and IMESA has made significant inroads into: – auditor general – accountant generals – LGSETA and educational bodies – national planning commission – professional associations – funding agencies. • A suite of manuals to assist other municipalities in implementing a pilot programme was developed. • The web-based asset register and valuation tool suite known as IIMS was developed, for use by all municipalities in South Africa, at no charge. • A further set of pilot studies was undertaken for the national government, looking at four municipal councils in the Free State, with the intention of expanding this to all 23 organisations in the province. • They have played a key role in the Global NAMS Group representing early starter-type nations.


ABOUT THE AUTHOR Roger Byrne has recently retired following a 40-year career in asset management, during which he rose to be the international manager of GHD’s Global Asset Management Group. He has worked for many infrastructure-rich businesses in Australia, New Zealand, SE Asia, the USA, Canada, the UK, Ireland and, more recently, Africa. He was a principal author of the original Australian Manual (1993), the Advanced AM Manual (New Zealand 1997) and the International Infrastructure Management Manual (IIMM), 2000 and 2006. He led the development of the first publicly available quality framework, Gap– Ex, and the AMPLE/SIMPLE web-based tools that are assisting infrastructure asset owners and managers around the world to implement sustainable and cost-effective improvement strategies. He is now in semi-retirement, working privately on interesting and challenging initiatives. He has been an advisor, mentor and auditor to eThekwini and has been a volunteer adviser to IMESA on their approach to an asset management national programme for the last three years.




Data Capturing for Asset and Municipal Management purposes Since its inception in 1989 Global Geomatics (Pty) Ltd has always been on the forefront with data capturing technology and kept on investing in equipment and technology to supply clients with the data that they need.

WE PROVIDE THE FOLLOWING SERVICES DATA CAPTURING Data capturing consists of many facets from relatively easy tasks such as digitising from existing plans, taking photographs, walking with measuring wheels to high accuracy mapping, 3D aerial photography, GPS surveys, total stations and other. Global Geomatics invested in all the modern ground based data capturing methodologies and apart from the conventional equipment we also have:

HIGH ACCURACY 3D MOBILE MAPPING This is the most modern way to


ur view is that if you capture data it must be accurate and reliable from the onset. The often used phrase of “there is not enough money to do the project properly now and we will work with what we get” is not part of our policy. We rather try to convince the client that it is better to do the work in phases or in part over a period. Global has a staff compliment of 54 people with 18 qualified personnel consisting of professional land surveyors, project manager, engineering surveyors, GIS technologists, town planner, health and safety officers, services detection technologists and CAD technicians who understand all facets of data capturing, processing and storage of data. All data captured complies with GRAP 17 standards and are compatible with the IMESA IMS.

capture high accuracy (1cm) data at speeds of up to 70 km per hour. All visible data is captured which include all existing road furniture such as robots, power lines, lamp posts, fire hydrants, door openings, canopies and overhangs, storm water inlets, trees, road markings, bridge clearances or any other detail. The biggest advantage is that all this data is also photographed simultaneously with high resolution cameras. This further enhances the data sets and the location and componentization part of the asset register become an easy and manageable task. The system that Global Geomatics invested in is the high accuracy Street Mapper system and we are currently the only firm in RSA with this specific system. The biggest advantage of the system is that the accuracy is superior to GIS type systems and that the data is of an accuracy where it can be used for design purposes as well. This means one dataset for all purposes at a cost similar to or cheaper than traditional data capturing methods. A perfect example is 160 km road data and assets of three small municipalities where all the data was captured in one week. The data is being processed in a controlled manor with deadlines for each different data set. Another example is the inner city of Johannesburg where 14 km of road data was captured for re-design of sidewalks. This data can now also be used by the roads department for re-surfacing design purposes.

TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING This equipment is used for as-built plans of the inside and outside of buildings, structures, plant and capturing of building information management (BIM) data. Examples of executed projects are the as-built plans of an entire power station and calculation of the total lettable area of the Johannesburg Civic centre. UNDERGROUND SERVICES DETECTION The position and data of underground services have always been a problem but the latest technology assists with finding these services. Global Geomatics invested in various equipment to do this. This includes ground penetrating radar, radio detection, precision locator, leak detection, etc equipment. The advantage is that we apply survey and detection techniques to supply the municipality with a fully comprehensive service including mapping of the services. Example is 760 km of the NMPP Johannesburg-Durban pipeline where our teams went ahead of the trenching teams to identify existing services. In certain areas in Durban up to 300 services per km were detected, opened and mapped.

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GIS AND CAD All data captured is supplied in the GIS, CAD or Information Management System format of the client’s choice and includes ArcInfo, Autocad 2 or 3D, Microstation 2 or 3D, Modelmaker, Civil Designer or any industry standard format. GENERAL Global Geomatics is perfectly positioned with enough staff and equipment to capture large volumes of high quality data very cost effectively. GLOBAL GEOMATICS • t +27 (0)11 763 7173 Wynand Mulder: Altus Str ydom:




Asset management and municipal databases In the August 2011 edition of IMIESA, Jannie Pietersen, president of IMESA, included two phrases in his editorial that made me think, and to which I’d like to respond. These were:

“The reservoirs, pipes, treatment works, bridges, roads, rails, harbours and electricity distribution works must be maintained…” “We need to change our stance, however, and work together to find a proactive solution that could solve two major national problems, namely poor infrastructure asset management and maintenance and large-scale unemployment.”

My question is simply:

How can you maintain, plan and rehabilitate all these resources if you do not even know where they are and in what quantities they exist?


N AN IDEAL world, asset management would be an easy and cheap exercise and it would incorporate a municipal database with the following features:

• Updated cadastral data would be included. • There would be updated deeds data interfaced with SG data and linked to the municipal GIS (land information system) to ensure that no discrepancies exist between the datasets. • A list of council-owned properties with all zonings, structures and assets recorded would be required. • All fixed assets (sewerage, manholes, power lines, power poles, road furniture, tarred roads, etc.) would be recorded and verified by a professional land surveyor during construction and these would be accurately integrated into the GIS database.

• Electronic copies of building plans in a certain format with the as-built areas of each structure, photographs of the as-built structure with the exact position of manholes, meters, connection points, etc., would be compulsory before an occupation certificate was issued. • The municipalities would have an accurate database and accuracies would be verified by a suitably-qualified person: in this case a professional surveyor registered with PLATO. A qualified GIS professional would be in control of the GIS database. Where have things been going wrong? Mr Pietersen touched on the answer with the following words: “The status quo is typified by a reactive ‘fire fighting’ mentality … A common refrain is: we don’t have staff or resources to change things.” IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 25

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• During most rehabilitation projects, expensive underground services are damaged by excavating teams and it costs municipalities thousands of rand to hand-dig, find and repair the services. There are consultants that do not understand the accuracies that can be obtained by different data capturing methods. An excellent example is that some persons think that

The biggest advantage of this equipment is that the accuracy allows engineers to design from it.

Another problem is the ‘quick fix’ syndrome so popular in South Africa. There are numerous examples, such as: • Municipalities spend millions of rand to recapture incorrect services data from old plans only to find out that the service is not even where they anticipated it to be. • Currently, fibre-optic companies are laying hundreds of kilometres of fibre-optic cables and nobody controls where these are installed. There are no clauses in the approvals, which they are forced to supply an asbuilt plan verified by a qualified surveyor.

you can get better accuracies with a handheld GPS if you stand longer in a certain position or visit the position more than once. • Millions of rand were spent by local government during the big rush valuation process a year or two ago. Part of the process was to obtain cadastral data. Every Tom, Dick and Harry suddenly became a cadastral expert and started supplying cadastral data. Many of those data sets are worth nothing. How to start solving the problem For any new development, whether it is a township, building, rehabilitation, etc., there must be as-built data. Even if there is no GIS system in place, it is still necessary because there will be a database in which the data can be


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stored. The data must preferably be verified by suitably qualified persons. Surveyors, geographers and qualified (with the emphasis on qualified) GIS professionals have experience with map projections and accuracies that can be obtained and are more qualified than engineers and CAD operators to ensure the accurate integration of geographical data. This does not mean that there are no engineers or CAD operators who can do the work.

Existing infrastructure This is local government’s biggest headache. The difficult part is to have the self-discipline not to opt for quick-fix solutions again. The saying ‘garbage in, garbage out’ is still as true today as when somebody phrased it many years ago. Quick-fix solutions are to budget too little for the data capturing of existing data and not allow for the proper recording of existing data. Part of the budget must be for data recording. To simply capture data from existing plans without verifying it by survey is a useless exercise and not worth the money spent on it.

Is it difficult? No, and asset managers, municipal officials and all their consultants must take note of the latest technology to ensure accurate data recording. It must be understood that data is either captured from the air or on the ground and that sophisticated equipment is used for these purposes. It is therefore essential that it is done once and that it serves the purpose for which it is intended. During the past few years the survey profession repositioned itself and proved that properly qualified surveyors registered with PLATO do supply accurate and reliable data. Survey equipment (data capturing equipment) also improved, to a

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PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND MENTORSHIP Makhaotse, Narasimulu and Associates has the expertise and resources to provide project management and mentorship services on a wide range of projects

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level where high-accuracy data can be recorded at the same cost as useless data. Recent developments High-accuracy 3D mobile mapping: This is one of the most significant developments in mapping, where 1 cm accuracy data is obtained from a vehicle driving at up to 70 km/h. All visible data is recorded by scanners and 10 megapixel photographs are taken at one second intervals, meaning that all assets are visible. Data can be directly imported into any standard 2D or 3D CAD, GIS or information management system. The biggest advantage of this equipment is that the accuracy is of such a nature that engineers can design from it. This means one dataset for all purposes, from asset management to GIS to design. Google Earth and Google type V: The by now well-known Google vehicle is a perfect example of mobile mapping. The accuracy is not great but everything can be seen via 2 megapixel photographs. With some of the equipment, accuracy is in the order of 0.3 m. This is excellent for asset management and GIS, but not accurate enough for engineering design purposes. Airborne LIDAR data: This is particularly helpful in inner cities where the 3D data of buildings is captured. The accuracies are not suitable for detail design, but anything from 10 to 20 cm can be expected. A DTM can be extracted and it is suitable for the future design of new services. The quality of photography is excellent but not all data is visible from the air. There are also specialist companies that supply ‘pictometry’ 3D aerial photography, which is excellent for valuation and other purposes. Handheld GPS: There are many new models available and the most significant development is

models with a built-in camera and barcode scanner. This means direct importation of up-to-date data into any information system. Depending on the model, the expected accuracies are from 0.3 to 5 m. With a little training, municipal staff can use this equipment in-house. Conventional survey methodologies (GPS and total station): Conventional survey equipment such as GPS and total stations have built-in data recorders, which streamline the survey process and increase productivity to a level where it is a very cost-effective method for capturing highaccuracy data. Underground services detection: With equipment such as ground-penetrating radar, leak detection equipment, radio detection, precision locator, thumper, etc., it is possible to trace existing metal and non-metal services effectively. How to go about it The formula for successful municipalities is as follows: • Formulate a policy for the supply of data and enforce it. • Convince management that investment in a proper management system (GIS) is essential. (If I were central government, one of the first targets would have been to budget for proper management systems in all municipal offices and parastatals, with officials trained to use them.) • Convince management and consultants that it is cheaper to record accurate as-built data from scratch than to try and record data after the event. • Ensure that a suitably qualified mapping consultant is appointed to verify the as-built data of all new construction projects. A PLATOregistered surveyor should be in control of the verification of as-built data.



Urban planning strategy reviewed The National Upgrading Support Programme is currently being implemented to ensure that 49 municipalities have the necessary capacity. By Tokyo Sexale, minister of human settlements


OUTH AFRICA’S population is just under 50 million, more than half of which is urbanised. Our strategy on urban planning and development is therefore undergoing a radical shift in order to respond to urbanisation adequately. Many job seekers in urban areas are not looking to stay in a permanent home, but are seeking rental accommodation. Therefore, there is an increased demand for affordable and well-located rental accommodation. We have developed a project pipeline with a mix of public-private sector rental stock. The following are examples: • the Umlazi community rental unit programme in KwaZulu-Natal • the Brooklyn social housing programme in Cape Town

• the Amalinda institutional housing subsidy in Buffalo City • the Cavendish inner-city private sector rental in Johannesburg • small-scale private rental stock for back yard dwellers in Zola Township, Gauteng. All of these are aimed at creating 80 000 rental opportunities by 2014. The leadership of the Social Housing Regulator y Authority (SHRA) that was established last year must continue to play a key role in all these efforts. A great deal is expected of the board of the SHRA. It is important to note, under this deliverable, that all of South Africa’s metros with two district municipalities have recently been accredited to drive human settlements projects. This means that, for the first time ever, funds will be directed straight from the

national department into the coffers of these municipalities, which include: • City of Johannesburg • City of Tshwane • eThekwini Metro


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Rehabilitation of Roads Pretoria Tel: 012 346 2767 Fax: 086 519 5603 e-mail:

Bulk Water Pipeline Johannesburg Tel: 011 682 1247 Fax: 011 682 2127 e-mail:

Bus Rapid Transit System Rustenburg Tel: 014 592 5460 Fax: 086 519 5546 e-mail:


• Ekurhuleni Metro • Nelson Mandela Metro • City of Cape Town • Francis Baard and Pixley Ka Seme district municipalities in the Northern Cape. Regarding the improvement of access to basic ser vices, we play a supportive role to the Depar tment of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs, in the provision of basic ser vices such as water,

"According to our mandate, the department is expected to acquire 6 250 ha of suitable land by 2014" Tokyo Sexwale electricity, refuse removal and sanitation. According to our mandate, the department is expected to acquire 6 250 ha of suitable land by 2014. On a positive note, through our institution, the Housing Development Agency (HDA), the depar tment has

already achieved this target long before 2014. Beyond this, more than 20 000 ha of land for suitable housing has been identified by the HDA. By November 2010, the depar tment received over whelming support in the form


We are WSP The Civils team within WSP has extensive experience in the design, contract administration and construction supervision of civil engineering projects in the public and private sectors-providing specialised services such as Transportation, Infrastructure development & management.

GOVERNMENT PERSPECTIVE of proposals to implement the R1 billion guarantee from many private sector stakeholders. The depar tment found merit in each proposal, and while many were useful, we

The department found merit in each proposal, and opted for the Mortgage Default Insurance implementation strategy opted for the Mortgage Default Insurance (MDI) as a core implementation strategy. This insurance has a strong potential to contribute towards the attainment of the 600 000 loans of our strategy. It is envisaged that the mortgage insurance product will be available through the banks, as from April 2012. I would therefore urge the National Housing Finance Corporation and the banks to accelerate the deliver y of affordable houses in terms of the MOU they have concluded.


The accessibility and affordability of home ownership can help stimulate the construction sector, which will provide much-needed jobs. Material suppliers are cautioned to contain the cost of their products and to avoid any form of collusion, which promotes anticompetitive practices. Home builders, particularly the poorest of the poor, should never be exploited. We have established our deliver y and accountability structures, in the form of the Human Settlements Implementation Forum. Human Settlements is the coordinating department. Other participating stakeholders include: • Water Affairs • Rural Development and Land Reform • Public Enterprises • Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs • the South African Local Government Association • provinces • accredited municipalities. An investigation into procurement in the department is also currently under way, with specific emphasis on overpayments to suppliers. In one of the cases under consideration, the supplier admitted to overpayment and has opted to pay the department back an amount of almost R300 000. While this is applauded, such a situation should not have occurred in the first place. It is important that invoices and payments be synchronised. Nothing must deter us from fighting and rooting out corruption wherever it manifests itself. Our resolve remains firm. The Special Presidential Coordinating Council has identified challenges affecting the creation of sustainable human settlements in the countr y. These include: • the need to address the legislative environment that is hindering progress, focusing attention on the alignment of critical mandates and functions • the mobilisation of non-financial resources, including land • exploring alternative funding models • paying attention to capacity problems, including project management and bulk infrastructure. But of all the impediments, none keeps us awake at night more than bulk infrastructure. It poses a real risk to human settlements projects, if the following infrastructure elements are not in place: • mega water treatment plants • major electrical power stations • sewerage works for sanitation • extensive storm water drainage systems • roads constr uction, including street lights.

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The only SABS-approved dry-cast kerb in SA. At Bosun, our approach to resolving engineering challenges has always been to simplify and innovate. That’s why we’ve taken the manufacturing of kerbs further with our revolutionary dry-casting process. This allows us to compact the kerb, making a stronger, more durable end product. And, making kerbs the Bosun way is kinder to the environment. No acids and chemicals are needed as mould release agents. Another great reason to specify Bosun kerbs on your next civil engineering project. Visit for even more ideas.

Gauteng Tel (011) 310-1176

Minister of human settlements, Tokyo Sexwale

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Eastern Cape Tel (041) 405-0100 North West Province Tel (012) 250-1711




Building bridges…for the breaking! The finals of the very successful annual BKS-SAICE International Bridge Building Competition organised by the South African Institution of Civil Engineering were recently held.


HE COMPETITION attracts the participation of approximately 600 schools countrywide, as well as from Namibia. The finalists from all regions, organised by South African Institution of Civil Engineering (SAICE) branches across the country, then compete for the much sought-after shield and the cash prize for team members and their schools. This year’s finalists came from as far afield as Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, East London, Empangeni, Harrismith, Pietermaritzburg, Port Elizabeth, Uitenhage, Upington and Windhoek in Namibia.

The 2011 winners were the Domino Servite High School from Pietermaritzburg with a bridge weighing 165 g that carried 90 kg before it succumbed. Second place went to Brackenfell High School from Cape Town. Their bridge weighed 135 g and carried 63 kg. Merrifield College from East London came third with a bridge weighing 154 g that withstood 36 kg before destruction. For the three teams to reach the winning marks of 133, 117 and 68 respectively, aspects such as aesthetics, the mass of the bridge and ultimately the weight-bearing capacity were taken into account.

Domino Servite High School team members with their winning bridge


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When development outstrips infrastructure

South Africa’s histor y with toll roads star ted some 25 years ago with the introduction of a bill that allowed the then Transpor t Ministr y to fund tolls roads through loans in the form of bonds.


HIS CAME about as a result of many factors, but primarily the realisation that the fuel levy, which funded road provision and maintenance, was not keeping pace with the funds required to maintain and expand the asset so essential to South Africa’s growing development needs. It is an accepted fact that roads provide the means for economic activity, and that South Africa’s exponential economic development has, in the past two decades, outstripped the ability of its infrastructure, particularly roads, to support the volumes of traffic generated by such commercial and industrial activity. It is also an accepted fact that central governments, which face competitive demands for budget allocations, are not always able

to fund large-scale infrastructure projects such as the recently completed Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project (GFIP). For this reason, such projects throughout the world are funded by tolls, a subject that is always contentious and invariably strongly opposed. “It has been shown throughout the world that tolls, far from being the ‘additional tax’ as they are so often labelled, offer significant economic and social benefits,” says Saied Solomons, CEO of the Southern African Bitumen Association (Sabita). “Every country needs to invest in a wide range of infrastructure to promote social and economic development. World Bank figures prove conclusively that investment in roads generates a return, at an annual average of 29% between 1983

and 1992, which outstrips investment in other infrastructure such as ports, airports, water, power and rail. “By stimulating economic activity and the creation of new commercial nodes, investment in roads has a multiplier effect, which benefits people who may never use newlyconstructed roads. The GFIP, for example, has injected about R29 billion into the provisional gross geographic product and has created nearly 30 000 jobs over its life cycle.” Solomons added that additional benefits included improved road safety, shortened travelling distances, positive impact on property values, less congestion and therefore diminished air pollution, and heightened economic activity through more efficient mobility. He cited a study by California’s Transportation Corridor Agencies in which it was estimated that the economic benefit of time saved through reduced congestion on TCA’s toll roads was at least $182 million per year, not including additional savings in fuel and other vehicle operating costs. This equated to more than 10 million litres of fuel saved per year (more than $7 million) as a result of improved fuel efficiency.


switch 102011

The long and winding road


Almost three decades of experience in road projects lays testament to a solid reputation for innovation and effectiveness. It proves that Zebra Surfacing is a sought after provider of black top surfacing, road rehabilitation and road maintenance services to the public and private sector. For more information contact us at: T +27 (0)21 761 3474 E

SABITA Further examples of economic benefit can be drawn from the N2 Wild Coast Toll Highway. With a gross once-off investment in the area during construction totaling R4 773 billion,

Examples of economic benefit can be drawn from the N2 Wild Coast Toll Highway this project is expected to generate income from new business activity (after construction) of R1 666 billion and total investment in the area (during and after construction) of R6 439 billion. In addition, the following annual increase in income in the service area of the proposed road during and after construction is expected: • wages and salaries to the local population: R228.8 million • income increase to local industr y:

R171.6 million • retailers: R114.4 million • service providers: R57.2 million • number of permanent jobs: 15 880 • multiplier effect in zone of influence: 4 to 6. Tourism potential in the area: • expected tourists per annum: 1.4 million • projected new room developments: 784

• positive economic impact as a result of increased tourism volumes. “Toll road developments are directly funded by transparent off-budget means for which a sound business case must exist. This significantly different approach (versus other infrastructure projects funded external to the general fiscus) demands accountability from the road agency. This is a situation that should give us all comfort,” says Solomons.



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Innovation helps secure a sustainable future By 2025, two billion more people worldwide will need housing, places to work and the infrastructure to ensure mobility. Meeting this demand in traditional ways is not a sustainable option.


afarge feels it has a responsibility to not only understand the impact of its products over their entire lifespan, but to work closely with industry participants to promote the best construction solutions for more sustainable development. Part of this process concerns the development of quality building materials that respect the environment and the quality of life, preserve natural resources and foster the use of recycled materials, while mini-


mising energy and maintenance costs. Building products can have a considerable effect on the environmental and social performance of buildings. For example, over the course of a building’s lifetime, 90% of the CO2 emissions associated with the building stem from its use, while the manufacturing of materials used in the building generates only 10%. Innovation has always been central to Lafarge. As new challenges have emerged in rela-

tion to global warming and dwindling fossil fuels, this policy of permanent innovation is now being used to tackle the challenges of sustainable construction. Lafarge dedicates over 50% of the group’s research and development budget to sustainable development requirements. Lafarge Readymix is also a leader in providing innovative products and building services to support its contractor clients in meeting these challenges. Each new product is designed to be more effective in the building process, bringing added value and business success for customers. The company operates 52 fixed plants, strategically located throughout the country, as well as mobile ready-mix batch plants. Backed by the group’s unparalleled global technical resources, the local Readymix Concrete business unit uses its strength at innovation as a way of addressing evolving customer needs and differentiating Lafarge in the marketplace.


SABITA MEMBER LISTING 2011 Actophambili Roads Tel: +27 (0)11 894 1433

Aurecon Tel: +27 (0)21 526 9400

Chevron South Africa Tel: +27 (0)21 403 7834

Goba Tel: +27 (0)12 679 9300

Afrisam South Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 670 5500

Aurecon Tel: +27 (0)12 427 2634

Colas South Africa Tel: +27 (0)21 531 6406

Group 5 Civil Engineering Tel: +27 (0)11 409 6607

AG Thomas Tel: 268 518 4499

Beosumbar and Associates Tel: +27 (0)31 266 7494

Concor Roads and Earthworks Tel: +27 (0)83 326 6746

HHO Africa Tel: +27 (0)21 425 2870

AJ Broom Road Products Tel: +27 (0)11 454 3102

BIGEN AFRICA Services Tel: +27 (0)11 802 0560

Dick King Lab Supplies Tel: +27 (0)11 499 9400

Iliso Consulting Tel: +27 (0)31 266 2600

Akasia Road Surfacing Tel: +27 (0)12 562 9500

Bitumen Construction Services Tel: 263 430 5506

DMV Harrismith Tel: +27 (0)58 622 2676

Javseal Tel: +27 (0)31 902 5988

Aqua Transport and Plant Hire Tel: +27 (0)32 533 6883

Bitumen Supplies and Services Tel: +27 (0)11 803 9338

Dupont de Nemours International South Africa Tel: +27 (0)12 683 5600

Jeffares and Green Tel: +27 (0)11 807 0660

Arcus Gibb Tel: +27 (0)21 469 9172

BKS Consulting Engineers Tel: +27 (0)11 206 6980

Asphalt Services Tel: +27 (0)43 745 2733

Cape Peninsula University of Technology Tel: +27 (0)21 460 3074

Astec (Asphalt Technology) Tel: +27 (0)16 362 1310

Chemimpo South Arica Tel: +27 (0)11 293 2058

Durban University of Technology Tel: +27 (0)33 845 8916

Kantey and Templer Tel: +27 (0)21 405 9600

Engen Petroleum Tel: +27 (0)11 480 6389

Kaulani Civils South Tel: +27 (0)21 881 3152

GMH/CPP Consulting Engineers Tel: +27 (0)11 462 0601

Kaymac t/a Kaytech Tel: +27 (0)31 717 2303


Serving our living environment

SABITA Namibia Technical Services Tel: 264 61 215324

Roadsmart Tel: +27 (0)21 713 0129

Tar Spray Tel: +27 (0)12 669 0511

National Asphalt Tel: +27 (0)12 562 9533

Roadspan Asphalt Plants Tel: +27 (0)11 552 8505

Tor Construction Tel: +27 (0)44 694 0008

Lafarge Industries South Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 657 1156

Neil Sobotker and Associates Tel: +27 (0)21 863 2020

Salphalt Tel: +27 (0)11 823 2218

Total South Africa Tel: +27 (0)11 778 2056

Letaba Lab Tel: +27 (0)13 752 7663

Outeniqua Lab Tel: +27 (0)44 874 3274

SARF Tel: +27 (0)11 403 5603

TPA Consulting Tel: +27 (0)31 765 1907

Lidwala Consulting Engineers Tel: +27 (0)861 543 9252

PD Naidoo and Associates Tel: +27 (0)21 440 5091

Sasol Oil Tel: +27 (0)11 889 7872

Tshepega Engineering Tel: +27 (0)12 665 2722

Mdubane Energy Services Tel: +27 (0)31 304 2470

Phambili Road Surfacing Tel: +27 (0)33 346 1982

Milling Techniks Tel: +27 (0)31 792 9580

Polokwane Surfacing Tel: +27 (0)15 293 1221

Sasol Technology Fuels Research Tel: +27 (0)16 960 4068

Unitrans Supply Chain Solutions Tel: +27 (0)21 551 0636

More Asphalt Tel: +27 (0)21 975 0784

Power Construction Tel: +27 (0)21 907 1300

Sasol Wax Tel: +27 (0)16 960 2126

Van Wyk Tarmac Tel: +27 (0)12 561 1871

MTTC Tel: +27 (0)12 800 3018

Rand Roads (a division of Grinaker-LTA) Tel: +27 (0)11 923 5045

Shell South Africa Tel: +27 (0)31 571 1000

Vela VKE Consulting Engineers Tel: +27 (0)12 481 3805

Specialised Road Technologies Tel: +27 (0)31 700 4510

WorleyParsons Tel: +27 (0)12 425 6300

SprayPave Tel: +27 (0)11 868 5451

WSP South Africa Civil and Structural Engineers Tel: +27 (0)11 450 2290

SABITA MEMBER LISTING 2011 (continued)

Much Asphalt Tel: +27 (0)21 900 4411 N3 Toll Concession Tel: +27 (0)11 454 3596

Rankin Engineering Consultants Tel: 260 129 0085

Nadeson Consulting Services Tel: +27 (0)21 418 4988

Roadmac Surfacing Tel: +27 (0)31 700 8216

SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants Tel: +27 (0)11 798 6051

Zebra Surfacing Tel: +27 (0)21 761 3474


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Greenfields road upgrade in Capricorn The Esorfranki Balekane Joint Venture has been awarded a contract by Roads Agency Limpopo to upgrade 18.8 km of gravel road to a 6 m-wide tar surface in the Capricorn District of Limpopo province.


HE 18-MONTH greenfields contract was launched in March this year following the acceptance by Roads Agency Limpopo (RAL) of an environmental management plan prepared by environmental consultants EnviroXcellence. The upgrade has been divided into four sections, comprising 1.1 km from Mogoto to Moletlane, 8.9 km from Moletlane to Madika, 6.4 km from Madika to Hwelereng and a further 2.4 km offshoot from Motantanyana in section three to the Makopane-Zebediela tar road at Mmalotse. “This type of project is often described as a contractor’s dream because of its greenfields nature,” explains Esor franki Balekane contract director, Mark Green. “Undertaking such projects in builtThe project is located in up areas can be challenging because a rural environment


Actophambili Roads (Pty) Ltd ROAD CONSTRUCTION & REPAIRS, DRIVEWAYS & PARKING AREAS Tel: (011) 894 1433 | Fax: (011) 894 1412 | E-mail: | Cell: 082 548 9092

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The start of section 4 of the road upgrade project in Capricorn District, Limpopo province

of the impact associated with working in populated districts. With a greenfields project, there is a minimum of disruption to the work schedule as there is no heavy traffic, very little demolition work, minimal impact on the urban environment and only minor work required to remove existing services in the path of the road.” The fact that the project is located within the Lepelle Nkumpi local municipality, 260 km north of Pretoria, meant that logistics had to be taken into consideration in budgeting and planning. Heavy road building equipment such as bulldozers, excavators, graders and front-end loaders had to be transported to site on low-bed vehicles. Although filler and layer materials are being sourced from four borrow pits in the project area, aggregate – 19 mm for concrete work and 13.2 and 6.7 mm aggregate for road stone – will be trucked up to 80 km to site by two local suppliers, Platstone and Rooiberg Crushers. Platstone will also supply 1 000 m³ of dump rock which is being used in the construction of a 4 m culvert on section one of the contract. "This type of project “We need is often described to complete the main as a contractor's slab of dream" Esorfranki Balekane floor the culver t contract director, Mark Green before the rainy season starts towards the end of September,” states Green. “The building of the culvert should be completed within two months. Groundwater fills the work site overnight but we use that water in road tankers to manage the dust problem on the road works, with the 22 km of deviations and existing roads being used by road building equipment.” A total of 725 m³ of concrete and 65 tonnes of steel reinforcing will be used in the construction of the culvert. Limpopo Reinforcing Steel has been contracted to lay the reinforcing prior to the throwing of concrete. Esor franki will install a batch plant on site and PPC has been contracted to transport cement to site from Polokwane.


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EQUIPMENT LIMITED A member of the ELB Group HEAD OFFICE: 14 Atlas Road Anderbolt Boksburg (011) 306-0700 e-mail: • BLOEMFONTEIN: (051) 432-3594/6113 • BRITS: (012) 250-1565 • CAPE TOWN: (021) 933-2383 DURBAN: (031) 464-6522 • GEORGE: (044) 878-0874 • KIMBERLEY: (053) 841-0040 MIDDELBURG: (013) 246-2312 • NELSPRUIT: (013) 755-1003 • WOLMARANSSTAD: (018) 596-3032 POLOKWANE (015) 293-1978 • PORT ELIZABETH: (041) 581-0774 BOTSWANA: (00267) 240-4320 • NAMIBIA: (00264) 61-234-052 • SWAZILAND: (00268) 518-5348 ZAMBIA: (00260) 212-210-642 • ZIMBABWE: (00263) 4 494-871


ABOVE Workers from sub-contractor Limpopo Reinforcing Steel setting out steel reinforcing prior to the throwing of the base slab on the only major culvert on the upgrade project. A total of 725 m続 of concrete and 65 t of steel reinforcing will be used in the construction of the culvert LEFT Eskom had to dig up buried power cables and install overhead power lines before work could start on section 1 of the road upgrade

Despite the rural setting of the project, delays have been experienced in some peri-urban areas, with the removal of buried power lines and water pipes. Eskom has extracted buried power cables in section 1 of the project and has installed overhead power lines instead. Water pipes buried in the road route are being moved by Esor franki. In some instances, the route of ser vices indicated on maps supplied by the local authority does not correlate with their on-site locations and the depth at which the lines are buried varies IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 47

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This indigenous tree in the road reserve of the upgrade will be removed for safety reasons once permission has been received from the environmental consultants and consulting engineer

Esorfranki is using water tankers in the road building process to manage the dust problem on the new route, deviations and on existing roads being used by road building equipment

between 200 mm and 2 m. Esor franki is overcoming the challenge of differing qualities of soil being recovered from borrow pit one by limiting the use of better quality material for layer material and the remainder for fill. Material from all four borrow pits will be used in the upgrade project, although the outcome of tests to determine the quality and extent of material at two pits is still awaited. High-quality material from borrow pit two, an older facility, is being used for fill. Esor franki is fulfilling a contract requirement by ensuring that 50% of the team of 95 working on the project are local job seekers. Community involvement is maintained by holding monthly meetings between the site agent, engineer, community liaison officer and

project steering committee, which has the local Lepelle Nkumpi councillor among its members. This continual liaison ensured that there were no delays in the progress of the project when contractors could not access borrow pit four as a result of cultural activities in the area. Turning to environmental issues, Green says that care is being taken to get permission from EnviroXcellence and the consulting engineer before indigenous trees and aloes are removed from the construction route. All borrow pits have been fenced to demarcate the areas from which material can be extracted and material that is not suitable for road building is being stockpiled for borrow pit rehabilitation. IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 49

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Cement stabiliser for road contracts AfriSamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s CEM 11 32.5BL cement has been specified for two contracts being undertaken by Stefanutti Stocks Roads and Earthworks on the N2 highway in Mpumalanga.


HE CEMENT best met the required C3 specifications in tests conducted at the on-site Civilab laborator y in terms of unconfined compressive strength (UCS), indirect tensile strength (ITS) and wet/dr y durability (WDD). The initial consumption of cement (ICC) tests were undertaken using samples provided by various cement suppliers at mix ratios of between 1 and 6%, with G5 aggregate supplied by Rietspruit Crushers, the stone supplier that is providing aggregate for both contracts. The laborator y recommended the use of CEM 11 32.5BL at a

AfriSam CEM II being spread by hand on the N2 highway contract in Mpumalanga

2.5% cement ratio. The first of the two contracts comprises the rehabilitation of an 81 km stretch of the N2 highway from Piet Retief to Camden. The project completion date is October this year. The second contract comprises the reconstruction of a 19 km stretch of road between Ermelo and Camden. The contract was awarded in August 2010 and is scheduled for completion in May 2012.



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We work collaboratively with our clients throughout the entire asset life cycle, from pre-feasibility and business case preparation through to the operation and maintenance phases. 2XUWUDQVSRUWLQGXVWU\FRPELQHVH[SHUWLVHDFURVVHQJLQHHULQJoQDQFLDO modelling and legal systems to support excellence in the planning, design, construction, management and delivery of transportation systems, including roads and highways, rail, tunnels, bridges and structures, airports and ports. For more information contact us at tel: +27 12 427 2000 or email:

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Consistency and density key elements Density differentials are a major problem in hot mix paving. If mat temperature differentials exist after the paver screed passes, there will be density differences.


HE SAME holds true for aggregate segregation, where mat spots with segregated materials will be of differing density. Studies conducted by various governmental entities and engineering firms have noted a major difference in service life and maintenance costs on pavements where temperature differential and aggregate segregation were present. The state of Washington in the USA has reported double the normal ser vice life where thermal segregation was eliminated. This led to documented evidence of major cost savings when these problems are addressed by a change in procedures

and equipment recommended in this study. From 1996 to 2010 the hot mixed asphalt pavement budget of this state dropped

major contributor to this decrease in cost. The use of the Roadtec Shuttle Buggy in pavement placement operations restores

Studies conducted by various governmental entities and engineering firms have noted a major difference in service life and maintenance costs on pavements where temperature differential and aggregate segregation were present from over US$200 million per year to less than US$50 million per year, and all the while traffic increased. The state cites the use of the Roadtec Shuttle Buggyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mixing ability as a material transfer vehicle as a

the mix to the closest consistency to that prepared in the mixing plant and removes the problems caused by haulage and other problems before deliver y to the site of paving. IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 51


The Albertina Sisulu (R21) Expressway Creating opportunities linked to the OR Tambo International Airport The R21 forms the basis of the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality’s ‘cherry-picked’ investment opportunity for investors and developers.


TRATEGICALLY located, the planned Albertina Sisulu Expressway links the OR Tambo International Airport (Ekurhuleni) and Pretoria (Tshwane) – servicing areas such as Pomona, Bredell, Witfontein (Serengeti), Tembisa and Olifantsfontein. The planned expressway is located on the eastern side of the Albertina Sisulu Freeway (R21) and will form the backbone of the proposed Albertina Sisulu development corridor. The expressway will also play an important role in the development of the Ekurhuleni Aerotropolis. The first phase in the implementation of the expressway entails the construction of the portion between Great North Road and Constantia Avenue in Pomona. This link will provide access to the rapidly developing Pomona area to the freeway system and the eastern side of the airport precinct. The planning of this phase of the R21 Expressway system required liaison with and approvals from other road authorities, namely, SANRAL and the Gauteng Provincial Department of Roads & Transport (GPDRT), and took approximately three years to complete. The project required property acquisition, proclamation of new road reserves and deproclamation of redundant roads; complex environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies and approvals; large cadastral surveys; traffic studies and analyses and liaison with service owners such as Transnet, Rand Water, Eskom, Telkom, municipal service owners, etc. The feasibility, planning, design, tender and construction phase commenced from the date of appointment in early 2003 and will run until the final handover, which is scheduled for 4 November 2011. Due to the nature of the project, the design was, and is, a continuous integrated feasibility and planning process which will become more

and more complex as time passes. The total cost of the initial phase is R70 million and, as a result, construction was implemented in phases over several financial years. Challenges Extensive investigations regarding the environment were required owing to the existing wetland and red data species located within the project site. The scope changed the moment the wetland – with all its complexities and requirements – influenced the engineering solutions where various proposals needed to be tested in combination to ensure suitability, coordination and adjustment of design for future lane stages (configurations). The project required the development of specialised hydrologic and hydraulic models to analyse the conditions and investigate alternatives to alleviate storm water problems within the Pomona area. The engineering solutions needed to be holistic as the solutions implemented upstream impacted on the wetland as well as residential and industrial properties downstream. Apart from the sensitive environmental considerations, numerous other challenges were encountered throughout the various stages of the project, which affected the scope of works, projected budget and completion date, namely: • informal settlement relocation • traffic deviations and impacts • climatic impacts.

PROJECT TEAM Client representatives (Ekurhuleni Department of Roads & Storm Water)

Moses Maliba: Acting executive director Philip du Plessis: Regional director Norman Swart: Operations executive manager Molahlehi Marate: Manager (project implementation)

Civil and structural engineers


Consulting engineers project team representatives (Aurecon SA (Pty) Ltd)

Environmental management


Subcontractors and suppliers

Unit manager: Lukie van Staden Project manager: Brent Dewar Bridge design: Hennie Niehaus Road and stormwater design: Cornelle Dewar, Marthina Killian, Lunga Bukali and Thomas Schmitt Road signage and markings: Anton Groenewald Draughting: Helene Marasus Engineers representatives: Hennie Olivier (Bridge works) and Willie Fourie (Roadworks) Synergistics Environmental Services (led by Matthew Hemming) Moseme Road Construction (led by contracts manager Eric Brough and site agent Kobus Pitzer, under the directorship of Ernest Moloi) Bridge works: Civilcon Asphalt: Grinaker LTA Materials testing: Roadlab

Asphalt team paving 40 mm medium grade surfacing on new northbound lane






Tel: 051 435 7364

BURGERSFORT Tel: 013 231 7224


Tel: 011 323 0800


Tel: 053 723 2213


Tel: 018 469 4466


Tel: 015 293 0312


Tel: 013 752 3121


Tel: 011 462 7555


Tel: 015 292 8660


Tel: 012 653 8520


Tel: 017 631 4200


Tel: 043 736 6022

PORT ELIZABETH Tel: 041 404 1800



Tel: 031 716 2200


R15 million gravity outfall sewer line for Ekurhuleni Commissioned by the Ekurhuleni Department of Water and Sanitation, the construction of the Illiondale outfall sewer aims to minimise costs by installing a gravity sewer line.


HE SEWER pump stations in Ward 18, Edenvale, and areas around Modderfontein such as Founders Hill Township and Modderfontein Farm are currently operating at full capacity and cannot take additional flows imposed by the development of Greenstone Hills, Thornhill and Lakeside. Apart from the fact that the capacity of these pump stations and rising sewer mains is insufficient, the pipes are in a bad condition and as a result are constantly breaking and leaking owing to the erosion of supporting ground and other factors. When these rising mains break, the pumped effluent discharges into Modderfontein Spruit, which flows through the golf course and into the dam in Modderfontein. The implementation of the Illiondale outfall sewer project will also substantially decrease the maintenance costs associated with sewer pumps, as well as the health risk caused by spillages due to pump failure and over-capacity.

Project overview The R15 992 035 project includes the construction of a gravity outfall sewer line, which starts at Croydon Sewer Pump Station on Lunik Drive in Croydon and traverses open spaces in Croydon towards Illiondale – passing through two Illiondale pump stations, crossing the R25 (Modderfontein Road) and then discharging into the Modderfontein sewer plant. The sewer line then crosses over the following properties: erf 185 Modderfontein Ext. 2, erf 21 Founders Hill Township and portion 69 of Modderfontein Farm 35 IR, and connects into the existing Johannesburg Water outfall sewer main in Modderfontein. The project also involves the elimination of the Croydon, Illiondale 1 and 2, Founders View and Modderfontein pump stations and connections from these pump stations into the proposed outfall sewer line.

The project focuses mainly on the following: • Construction of the outfall sewer, consisting of approximately 5 750 m of varying diameters such as uPVC maincore for 250 mm Ø to 400 mm Ø and concrete pipes for diameters above 400 mm. • Approximately 66 precast concrete manholes of 1 250 mm and 1 500 mm diameters. Decommissioning of five sewer pump

Workers on the pipeline project

stations. In August 2010, Thabong Civils and Project Management was appointed as the main contractor on the project and the company commenced with works in September that year. The construction period is 18 months, with the physical progress currently at 25% complete.

PROJECT FACTS The following factors were taken into consideration during the detail design phase: Total peak wet weather flow (PWWF): ±787 l/s Minimum pipe diameter to flow full: 80% Pipe material selection: All pipes 250 mm to 400 mm Ø to be uPVC maincore Project design

All pipes greater than 400 mm Ø to be concrete and to be lined with calcium aluminate cement (CAC) Excavations in excess of 1.5 m to be battered back or shored to a slope ±35 degrees Manholes: 1 250 mm to 1 500 mm Ø precast concrete manholes

Crossing of major and minor roads: trenchless technology via pipe jacking All pipes 250 mm to 400 mm Ø to be uPVC maincore Materials used in All pipes greater than 400 mm Ø to be concrete and to be lined with CAC 110 mm Ø the construction Class 12 and Class 9 uPVC Manholes: 1 250 mm to 1 500 mm Ø precast concrete manholes

PROJECT TEAM Design consultant: Infraconsult Engineering Contractor: Thabong Civils and Project Management Pipes and manholes: Incledon



Utilising methane gas for energy The Kyoto Protocol requires countries to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality soon realised the benefits of introducing a CDM at its operational landfill sites.


HROUGH THE setting of such targets by the Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty to combat global warming, emission reductions have taken on economic value. To help countries meet their emission targets and to encourage developing countries to contribute to emission reduction efforts, three marketbased mechanisms were introduced to achieve the objective.

CDM projects Projects must qualify through a rigorous public registration and issuance process.


The process is designed to ensure real, measurable and verifiable emission reductions that are additional to what would have occurred without the project. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows emission-reduction (or emissionremoval) projects in developing countries to earn certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to 1 t of carbon dioxide (CO2). These CERs can be traded and sold and used by industrialised countries to a meet a part of their emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol. The mechanism

is overseen and supervised by the CDM Executive Board (EB). Ekurhuleni landfill gas recovery CDM project The Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality (EMM) operates five regional landfill sites. The natural production of landfill gas presents an opportunity to utilise the methane gas as an energy source and also leads to the creation of CERs or carbon credits. These can be sold under the CDM of the Kyoto Protocol. The table opposite summarises the main activities performed to date.

EKURHULENI After the extensive feasibility study in 2005 it was decided to implement CDMs at four of the five operational landfills sites. Landfill sites included in the project design are Rooikraal, Rietfontein, Weltevreden and Simmer & Jack. Emission reductions are achieved by the combustion of recovered methane contained in landfill gas (that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere), and in the future by the generation of electricity from the gas, which will marginally assist with the displacement of coal-fired power generation on the South African grid. It is estimated that the project will generate about 800 000 CERs between the start of operations in 2008 and the end in 2017, so reducing approximately the same amount of CO2 (measured in tonnes). Upon a project registration at the CDM EB, CERs can be verified and income can be generated. EMM signed an Emission Reduction Purchase Agreement with a Spanish energy utility in 2007. The CDM landfill gas recovery project is one of the municipality’s revenueenhancement initiatives. Landfill gas recovery systems EMM currently recovers landfill gas using both vertical gas extraction wells and horizontal gas collection systems. Wellheads connect individual gas wells to the gas collection pipework laid to grade in order to facilitate condensate management. Wellhead controls include gas monitoring points for quality, pressure and gas flow. Landfill gas is extracted from the landfill under a vacuum. Flow control valves control vacuum pressure at each well and pneumatic pumps installed in the vertical wells and the knockout pots extract leachate and condensate from the system. The collected landfill gas is currently flared for environmental benefit and to generate CERs. This is phase 1 of the project.







Feasibility study: Indicated potential for development of a CDM project. Council appointed a CDM project advisory team to assist with development and implementation of the Ekurhuleni landfill gas extraction CDM project. The bid for the sale of CERs from the CDM project was advertised (locally and internationally). December 2006: Negotiations with the preferred buyer commenced and the first project design document (PDD) was compiled for validation of the CDM project. December 2006: Council appointed SGS United Kingdom as the designated operational entity (DOE) (accredited auditors) to commence with the project validation process. Project validation by SGS commenced in January 2007. EMM signed the Emission Reduction Purchase Agreement (ERPA) for the sale of CERs to Spanish company Endesa Generacion in May 2007. South Africa’s Designated National Authority (DNA), under the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME) banner, approved the CDM project upon submitting the draft PDD and issued a Letter of Approval (LoA) in June 2008. SGS changed project auditors. The Executive Board (EB) of the CDM changed monitoring methodologies for landfill gas flaring in December 2008. The first PDD was revised and resubmitted for validation. The second PDD was completely redone to include the activity for methane gas conversion into energy, generating ‘green energy’. The second PDD was validated in July 2009. The validation report for PDD #2 was submitted to the SA DNA to re-issue the LoA. The SA DNA issued its LoA in July 2009. The Spanish DNA Project issued its LoA in October 2009. Late in September 2009, the EB suspended SGS (the DOE appointed by Council to validate the CDM project.) Since the suspension, the project lead consultant, Mike Goldblatt (PDG), assisted by Cathy Lee (Lee International), the Council’s carbon credit transaction advisor, has been communicating with SGS. SGS addressed all non-conformances and was reinstated as an accredited DOE in December 2009. The CDM project is using Monitoring Methodology ACM 0001, version 9, which was applicable for projects requesting registration before 26 October 2009. The DOE’s suspension affected the request for registration prior to 26 October 2009 and the new monitoring version (ACM 0001, version 11) is now applicable. The version changes of the monitoring methodology led to changes to the validated PDD. The third version of the PDD was forwarded to SGS for revalidation on 23 November 2009. Validation of PDD #3: 1 April 2010. Registration application: Submission confirmation received on 7 May 2010. Registration fee transferred from Endesa to the EB of the CDM. The amount paid by Endesa was US$54 969 80. The EB confirmed receipt of the registration fee on 20 May 2010. The UNFCCC secretariat notified the DOE that the completeness check for the request for registration of ‘Ekurhuleni Landfill Gas Recovery Project – South Africa’ (3677) was completed. The information and reporting check started on 5 September 2010. EMM received a request for review on 4 October 2010 and the submission due date was 1 November 2010. UNFCCC informed on 25 November 2010 that the review of the request for registration was scheduled for 2011. Review of the request for registration was scheduled to start on 10 January 2011. The project was registered on 14 February 2011, retrospective 26 October 2010.

Flare station at Rooikraal Phase 2 will involve converting the extracted landfill gas into energy. Phase 2 will be championed by the municipality’s Electricity and Energy Department. EMM intends to move into phase 2 after the gas quantity and quality are well defined. Phase 1: Project implementation Weltevreden Eighteen vertical wells were installed in the closed cell 1. The three existing pilot





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Manufacturing Facility The Facility comprises of a 3500 square meter covered factory with extensive loading facilities and stacking space as well as 500 square meters of office space. The faciluty is well equiped with extensive plant and machinery for the handling and processing of steel plate as well as all other steel work required for the production of Monopole type structures. The production facility employs some fifty persons including qualified boiler makers, coded welders and machine operators. Quality The production facility is EN ISO 9001:2008 certified by Dekra International Engineering All monopoles and structures fabricated by the company are designed by a professional structural engineer, and detailing for fabrication is done by our own experienced staff, making use of the latest CAD drawing facilities Track Record Lighting Structures has designed and fabricated Masts for numerous customers in the Ligthting and Electrical sectors both in South Africa as well as many other countries in Africa. Services • Design and fabrication of masts from a standard range or special design to suit client specifications • Erection of Masts • Design and construction of Mast foundation • Inspection and maintenance of existing Masts and foundations • Turnkey capabilities for full site build • Technical support and as built documentation

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ABOVE AND BELOW Horizontal gas collection system: installation

wells were also connected to the gas collection network. Of these 18 wells, seven

Flare station at Rooikraal

Flare station at Weltevreden

pilot wells were also connected to the gas collection network. Of these 36 wells, 15 of them were equipped with pneumatic pumps. Five knockout pots were installed. Three horizontal wells were installed in the active stage 2A and three knockout pots were also installed. A 3 000 Nm3/h flare unit was installed. Overall there are 1 251 m of installed wells at the site, producing an average of 1 348 ERs per month at a flow rate of 344 Nm3/h.

network. Of the 20 wells, six were equipped with pneumatic pumps. Three knockout pots were installed. Five horizontal wells were installed in the active phase 5 and three knockout pots were also installed. A 2 000 Nm3/h flare unit was installed. Overall there are 898 m of installed wells at the site, producing an average of 2 538 ERs per month at a flow rate of 960 Nm3/h.

The collected landfill gas is currently flared for environmental benefit and to generate CERs were equipped with pneumatic pumps. Four knockout pots were installed on the gas collection network to extract leachate and condensate from the system. The vertical wells were commissioned immediately and started extracting landfill gas. Six horizontal wells were installed in the active cell 4. These wells were then covered with a 10 m thick layer of waste before they could be commissioned. Two knockout pots were installed. A 2 000 Nm3/h flare unit was installed to destroy the collected landfill gases. Overall there are 846 m of installed wells at the site, producing an average of 2 012 emission reductions (ERs) per month at a flow rate of 532 Nm3/h.

Simmer & Jack Twenty vertical wells were installed in the closed phase 4. One existing pilot well was also connected to the gas collection

Rietfontein Eight vertical wells were installed in the closed cell 1. Two existing pilot wells were also connected to the gas collection network. Of the eight wells installed, three were equipped with pneumatic pumps. One knockout pot was installed. No horizontal wells were installed at this site. A 1 300 Nm3/h flare unit was installed. Overall there are 146 m of installed wells at the site, producing an average of 644 ERs per month at a flow rate of 189 Nm3/h.

Rooikraal Thirty-six vertical wells were installed in the closed stage 1. The three existing Implementation phase: Construction works at Weltevreden landfill site IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 59

Saving Water, Saving Lives YARD WATER METER OVERVIEW


The Intelligent Water Meter and the supporting Meter Management System (MMS) provides a revolutionary approach to Water Demand Management. The Intelligent Water Meter ensures signiÀcant water savings through consumption management and leak detection with the added beneÀt of no billing costs. Bad debt is reduced and the lower consumption contributes towards reduced demand on reticulation and treatment plant.

• Intelligent Meter options • Optional metered Lifeline Áow (40 ȳ/hr) when credit runs out • High air Áow detection and correction • Insensitive to lightning, freezing water, ambient temperatures up to 700 C, water hammer and dirt particles in water • Optional built in radio for AMR (no loose wires or antenna) • Arrears collection via User Tag (mode dependent)



The Community Standpipe Water Meter and supporting Meter Management System (WAS) is designed to offer a solution to the provision of water at communal water supply points. It requires low capital investment and can be used in both rural areas and informal settlements. One Meter can typically serve up to 40 households. The unit consists of a Class B multi jet water meter with electronic read out and built in Áow control valve. A patented valve system ensures extended battery life. The unit is meteorologically sealed and provides a high level of resistance to physical tamper and is immune to magnetic tamper. Should the meter become faulty, it can be replaced in the Àeld within ten minutes.

• Eight programmable tariff steps • Physical tamper resistant. Full encryption and copy protection • Immune to magnetic interference • Meter accuracy unaffected by sand particles • High air Áow detection and correction • Adjustable Free Basic Water • Daily consumption limit for water-scarce areas • Full calendar clock • Patented low power consumption system • Battery can provide 90 000 valve applications • Robust metal housing with security screws • Delivered fully assembled and pressure tested to 20 bar • SANS 1529-1 and SANS 1529-9 approved



The Handheld Vending Unit is used in conjunction with the Intelligent Water Meter and Community Standpipe. It provides the link between the Meter and the Meter Management System (MMS). A network of conveniently located Vending Units provides the customer with easy access to “point of sale” where credit can be purchased. Each transaction is supported by a receipt printed from a dedicated printer.

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56 MB internal data memory, LCD display Single membrane keypad with standard key functions Built in battery with battery charge-level indicator Charged batteries provide 8 hours continuous operation Re-chargeable from a 220V AC source using the supplied charger. A car charger can also be used • High level of security with password protection • Theft risk is low as only dedicated functions are provided • Weighs approximately 350 g • Supplied with dedicated printer • Optional increased internal data memory (up to 2GB) • Optional GPRS module for automatic real-time downloading of data and online transactions • Optional collection of capital repayments and service charges



Storm water upgrade to reduce flooding The main objective of the Meadowdale/Klopperpark/Harmelia/Buurendal bulk storm water upgrade is to minimise the occurrence of flooding of properties from high-intensity rainfall. IMIESA takes a closer look.


WING TO the nature of the project, it was decided to divide it into two parts, with two separate contractors appointed for each phase. The scope of works predominantly comprised the upgrading and rehabilitation of existing storm water infrastructure, namely existing storm water open channels, retention dam, etc., and the construction of new storm water infrastructure, such as the extension of a new storm water open channel and new storm water structures. Phase 1, initially an informal channel in the Klopperpark area between Finger and Herman streets, included the construction of a formalised earth channel that started and ended with gabion lines, making. Fifty-two local labourers and 18 of the contractor’s personnel were employed. Work included the construction of approximately 1 522m³ of Reno mattress and gabions, the supply, lay and installation of pre-cast concrete portal culverts and the rehabilitation of existing inlet and outlet storm water structures. Work on the remaining channels is as follows:

Gabion walls under construciton

Upgrading of Buurendal Dam • Excavation, removal and spoil silt from dam floor. • Construction of 200 mm thick mesh reinforced concrete floor. • Construction of ± 58 m of 0.5 m deep x 5 m wide Reno mattress lined channel. • Construction of ± 51 m of 0.5 m deep

x 8 m wide Reno mattress lined channel. • Construction of 200 mm thick mesh reinforced concrete lined access ramp. • Reconstruction of damaged dam embankment wall with imported G5 material. • Hydroseeding of dam wall. • Construction of brick silt trap sumps.

Meadowdale Channel extension • Bulk excavation, controlled filling and haulage of materials to spoil/stockpile. • Construction of approximately 1.2 km of earth berms varying in width from between 1.2 m and 2 m and in height from between 0.8 m and 2 m. • Construction of approximately 472 m³ of Reno mattress and gabions. • Installation of approximately 460 m of 2.2 m-high palisade fencing.

PROJECT TEAM FOR PHASE 1 Meadowdale Channel extension and upgrading of existing Channel No. 1 (between Finger and Herman streets, Klopperpark) Client: Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality: Roads Transport And Civil Works Department Client representative: Mr E Marais • Project manager: Mr I Marate • Civil engineering consultant: Infraconsult Engineering cc • Project engineer: Mr M Jansen • Resident engineer: Mr T Kent • Civil services contractor: Moseme Road Construction (Pty) Ltd • Construction manager: Mr E Brough • Site agent: Mr T Moloi • Environmental control officer (ECO): Envirolution Consulting • ECO: Mr M Tshisikule • Occupational health and safety agent: Ebenaeser Environmental Consultants cc • Safety representative: Mr R Strauss • Community of Meadowdale/Klopperpark/Harmelia/Buurendal • CLO: Ms M Simon • Ward councillor: Councillor G Gersbach

Upgrading of existing Channel No. 2 (between Minauch Street and Shelton Avenue, Harmelia) • Bulk excavation, controlled filling and haulage of materials to spoil/stockpile. • Construction of approximately 2 443m³ of Reno mattress and gabions. • Connect to and rehabilitate existing inlet and outlet storm water structures.

PROJECT TEAM FOR PHASE 2 Upgrading of existing Channel No. 2 (between Minauch Street and Shelton Avenue, Harmelia) and upgrading of Buurendal Dam Client: EKURHULENI METROPOLITAN MUNICIPALITY: Roads Transport and Civil Works Department Client representative: Mr E Marais • Project manager: Mr I Marate • Civil engineering consultant: Infraconsult Engineering cc • Project engineer: Mr M Jansen • Resident engineer: Mr T Kent Civil services contractor: GT Masilela Trading cc • Contracts manager: Mrs D Chitsike • Site agent Mr M Tembe • Environmental control officer (ECO): Envirolution Consulting • ECO: Mr M Tshisikule Occupational health and safety agent: Ebenaeser Environmental Consultants cc • Safety representative: Mr R Strauss • Community of Meadowdale/Klopperpark/Harmelia/Buurendal • CLO Ms M Simon • Ward councillor: Councillor G Gersbach



EMMâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s electrification execution plan The electrification of Palm Ridge contributes to eradicating the municipality's backlog and providing services to the community.


COMPLETE NEW substation was built according to the master plan in order to provide sufficient capacity for new household connections in the Palm Ridge area. The work entailed a complete new substation platform with one Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality (EMM) control building and one Eskom control building. There are three transformer bays, but only two were equipped with new 30 MVA 88/11 kVA transformers. The centre bay (bay 2) is for future use only. The 11 kV and 88 kV switchgear and control equipment were supplied and installed by the contractor. The two transformers were supplied by EMM as free issue items to the project. The 88 kV electrical supply to


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this substation is dependent on the Eskom 88 kV supply line, which is in progress, but not yet completed. Therefore, the installed panels and transformers are back-energised by 6.6 kV via the Palm Ridge 33/6.6 kV substation close by in order to reduce the risk of theft. The 11 kV feeder panels are therefore also not yet connected to any load. All feeder cables will only be installed after the Eskom supply is in place and during the electrification of the new area. The Palm Ridge Electrification Project consists of 14 278 stands from Palm Ridge Proper to Palm Ridge Extension 9 and is to be completed in five phases from 2009/10 to 2013/14 (subject to budget availability).

Overall, the total estimated budget required for Palm Ridge is approximately R363 million, ensuring the provision of electricity, which contributes to the improvement of social and economic development within communities. Scope of works Due to the insufficient capacity experienced in the area, the EMM Department of Energy embarked on a project to build a new intake 88/11 kV 2 x 30 MVA substation, which will be taking supply from Eskom. The department also upgraded the existing Palm Ridge Proper substation from 33/6.6 kV 2 x 2.5 MVA to 33/11/6.6 kV 2 x 20 MVA capacity, to continue with the electrification projects while

EKURHULENI waiting for Eskom to complete the 88 kV lines which will supply the new Intake 88/11 kV substation. The scope of work (high level) is as follows: • Installation of MV (6 600 V) electrical network consisting of underground cables, miniature substations and substation indoor switching equipment. • Testing: connecting the newly installed MV network to the existing MV network and commissioning. • Installation of an overhead LV (400/240 V) electrical network throughout the area, including street lighting. • Testing and commissioning the newly installed LV network. • Installation of underground LV (230V) service connection cables and split pre-paid meters with ready boards to consumers. • Coordination registration and switch-on of consumers with the EMM appointed metermanagement company in the area. The project scope was defined in the tender document EE 02/2009 and a pre-construction The Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality's electrification backlog is valued at R2 billion

meeting was held on site with all stakeholders during which the scope was discussed and agreed upon. Regular site visits and construction progress meetings ensured that no unexpected risks occurred and challenges could be dealt with successfully. The contractor provided regular progress reports, as was agreed during the pre-construction meeting. Owing to the high-risk classification of the project, round-the-clock security was deployed. Progress report as per department plan Substations new and upgrade Building of New Intake Palm Ridge 88/11 Kv Substation done in financial year 2009/2010: Ekurhuleni is 100% complete and Eskom is 30% complete. Upgrading of Palm Ridge Proper 33/6.6kV substation in financial year 2009/10 to 2010/11: 100% complete. . Electrification • Electrification of Phase 1 (extension: x4, part of x3, x5 and x6) done in financial year 2009/10 (1799 stands): 100% complete and energised.

• Electrification of Phase 2 (extension: x2) in financial year 2009/10 to 2010/11 (849 stands): 100% complete and energised. • Electrification of Phase 3 (extension: x1, part of x3 and x6) in financial year 2010/11 to 2011/12 (3 198 stands): 40% complete. • Electrification of Phase 4 (extension: x7 and x8) in financial year 2011/12 (4 144 stands): procurement process. • Electrification of Phase 5 (extension: part of x5 and x6) in financial year 2012/13 (3 321 stands): designs complete. • Electrification of Phase 6 (extension: x9) in financial year 2012/13 to 2013/14 (6 000 stands); houses still under construction: designs complete. Although the project was not completed within the original timeline, it was still considered successful as the total budget was not exceeded and came in at a total expenditure of 102.6% of the original budget. Only 2.6% of the 10% contingency was used. The final product is sufficient for use and the necessary quality standards were achieved. Due to the dependency on the Eskom supply line, the original timeline being exceeded did not have a negative impact on the project success.



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Preventing future water losses The old midblock water pipelines in Thokoza and Kathelong had either reached or exceeded their life span and, as a result, burst and leaked regularly. IMIESA takes a look at the upgrade project.


HE PURPOSE of the upgrade project is to relocate midblock water pipelines and water meters to the road reser ve (outside er f boundaries) and the decommissioning of old midblock pipelines (pipes in back yards). Commissioned by the Department of Water and Sanitation as part of the metro’s IDP Project, the project will ser vice wards 54 and 56 in Thokoza and wards 48 and 59 PROJECT FACTS Project design

Materials used in the construction

in Katlehong in the south-west district of Ekurhuleni. During the upgrade and replacement, it was important that these lines be placed in the road reser ve for ease of maintenance and better access for meter reading. The project will help minimise water loss, ser vice disruptions and ‘un-accounted’ for water usage due to burst pipes. In addition, the upgrade will also ensure that meter

Minimum main pipeline size is 110 mm Ø uPVC Class 9 and Class 12 at road crossings. All new pipes to be 110 mm Ø, except where CES (consultants responsible for EMM master planning) indicate a bigger size on the master plan. Main pipelines 1.5 m from erf boundaries, where possible, or as lead by other existing services. House connections to be 32 mm Ø Class 16 high-density polyethylene (HDPE) for double connections and 25 mm Ø Class 16 HDPE for single connections. All road crossings to be drilled – no open trenching for road crossings. 110 mm Ø Class 12 and Class 9 un-Plasticised Polyvinyl Chloride (uPVC). 32 mm and 25 mm Ø Class 16 HDPE connection pipes. Above-ground pilla- type meter box, complete with 15 mm water meter. Fire hydrants. PROJECT TEAM Consultant: Marobeni Consultants Contractor: Galaxy Pipelines Pipes: Incledon Valves, clamps, VJ couplings and fire hydrants: Cascade Specially-made trees: Hisco Water meters: Davies and Deale Galvanized materials: Faber Pipes Concrete, soil, sand and cement: Noags









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readers have access to water meters, which in turn will ensure that water meter readings are accurate and the billing of water is accurate in order to guarantee the Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality (EMM) recover y in costs of water usage. Scope of the project Coming in at a construction cost of R6 505 038.55 (excl. VAT and CPA), the project entails the following: • Relocation of midblock water pipelines ± 7 000 m of 110 mm ø Class 12 unplasticised. • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and Class 9

The project construction duration is 10 months and the physical progress is currently at 98% un-plasticised polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes. • Construction of house connections to ± 923 houses, including ± 23 075 m of Class 16 High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pressure communication pipes to connect new house connections. • Installation of new water meters outside the er ven and disconnection of old meters in the midblocks for ± 923 stands. • Supply and installation of gate valves and fire hydrants. • Disconnecting/decommissioning of the old/existing midblock asbestos pipes. • Connecting (tie-in) to the existing water network. Galaxy Pipelines was appointed in September 2010 as the main contractor on the project and commenced work in October 2010. The project construction duration is 10 months and the physical progress is currently at 98%. The project is mostly labour intensive and the following labour was sourced from the local community through community liaison officers (CLOs): • Males: 32 • Females: 9 • Total labour: 41.



Green laws take no prisoners The National Environmental Management Act and its regulations provide for an environmental impact assessment to be conducted to ascertain the effect that a particular ‘listed’ activity will have on the environment. Patrick Forbes, Garlicke & Bousfield


HIS ENABLES the authorities to make an informed decision on whether the activity should be allowed. However, what if the information placed before the authorities is incomplete or fraudulent? In a recent criminal case, the North Gauteng regional division of the Magistrate’s Court had to decide whether an environmental assessment practitioner (EAP) had been fraudulent in making representations contained within his assessment or had contravened the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Regulations by submitting

incorrect or misleading information that a wetland did not exist on a site for a development when, in fact, it did. The National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) Regulations require the EAP to be “independent; and have expertise in conducting environmental impact assessments, including knowledge of the Act, these Regulations and any guidelines that have relevance to the proposed activity”. A proposed development known as the Pan-Africa Parliament required a basic assessment report (BAR) under the NEMA

Regulations. Mpofu Environmental Solutions compiled the report, which expressly stated that a “river stream or wetland does not occur within a 500 m radius of the site”. On the strength of the BAR, the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) granted the go-ahead to develop the site. Construction began but was later stopped owing to construction difficulties being experienced on site and concerns were raised regarding the possible existence of a wetland on site. Two criminal charges were then brought against the EAP. IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 69

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Projects with a value greater than R250 million

Bedford Dam

Bedford Dam is a 49m-high concrete-faced rockfill dam (CFRD) with an 810 m crest length, and forms the upper reservoir of the Ingula Pumped Storage Scheme (IPSS).


HE DESIGN of the dam was divided into three phases. Phase 1 was the basic design, in which detailed geotechnical investigations were conducted, a dam type selection study was performed and the dam layout was optimised and finalised. Phase 2 comprised the tender and construction designs, and phase 3, construction supervision. The Braamhoek Consultants Joint Venture (BCJV) was successful in its bid for phase 1 and a contract was signed in May 2004. The BCJV was later also awarded the remaining phases 2 and 3 of the project. The construction of the CFRD was

undertaken using state-of-the art techniques developed worldwide for this type of dam. A fairly new and innovative kerb system was used. This entailed placing a kerb using a modified road kerb machine. Once the kerb concrete had achieved initial set, filter/transition material layers were placed behind it and these were compacted with a smooth-drum vibrating roller. The kerb concrete also provided a much stronger surface to erect face slab formwork and reinforcement mats than the mortar skin method used previously. The concrete face slab was slip formed. As the face slab acts as a relatively thin concrete

Representatives of the Braamhoek Consultants Joint Venture (GIBB,SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants and Knight Piesold) receive their award from CESA president, Zulch Lötter


membrane (only 300 mm thick), it is essential that good-quality concrete is produced. Other factors that were taken into account when the face slab concrete mix was designed included the sub-zero ambient temperatures experienced in winter, strong winds of up to 120 km/h that could easily result in concrete drying shrinkage cracks and harsh crushed concrete sand. Workability of the concrete is of the utmost importance as concrete that is too dry will block the discharge chutes down the face and concrete that is too wet will result in sagging behind the slip form screed and potentially weak concrete. Concrete that is too wet will also result in a wavy surface finish and potential large financial losses by the contractor as they compensate on the theoretical design quantity. An extensive programme was therefore followed to optimise the mix design. Optimisation measures included the following (per cubic metre of concrete): • Water was reduced from 160 to 137 ℓ, resulting in the w/c ratio dropping from 0.5 to 0.43. • The total cementitious content was 320 kg, with 70% cement and 30% fly ash. • 38 mm aggregate was reduced from 615 to 550 kg. • 19 mm aggregate was increased from 615 to 734 kg. • The sand portion was reduced from 925 to 807 kg. • A super plasticiser was introduced and the quantity added was increased from 1.1 to 3.5 ℓ/m3. • The air entrainer was decreased from 1.6 to 0.35 ℓ. Of particular importance is the addition of an air entraining agent. Entrained air, unlike entrapped air, is not removed from concrete by vibration. In fresh concrete, entrained air reduces internal friction and increases the workability of the mix. This increased workability allows for a reduction in water content for a given slump. The project was exceptionally well planned and executed. Close co-operation between client, consultant and contractor, combined with the high expertise and professional attitude of the contractor, resulted in Bedford Dam basically being completed on time and well within budget.



Projects with a value greater than R250 million

Optimum BedfordColliery Dam Mine Water Reclamation Project Although acid mine drainage poses a significant threat to the environment, it also constitutes a significant resource for the production of highquality drinking water through desalination.


PTIMUM COLLIERY, a wholly owned subsidiary of Optimum Coal Holdings, together with Golder Associates, has harnessed this resource in a sustainable manner at the Optimum Water Reclamation Plant. In 2008 Optimum Colliery contracted Golder as the lead engineering, procurement and construction management service provider for the project. An initial review of Optimum Colliery’s overall mine water balance prior to

the initiation of the project suggested that urgent measures were required to address the mine’s excess water intake from underground and open-cast mine workings. The projectt proposed the construction of a mine water treatment plant and associated infrastructure that would treat up to 15 Mℓ/d of this excess mine water to potable standards. In addition to providing a solution to Optimum Colliery’s excess mine water problem, the Optimum Water Reclamation

Project would also address the dire shortage of potable water in the Steve Tshwete Local Municipality (STLM). Both the Middelburg/ Mhlazi and Hendrina/KwaZamakuhle areas within the STLM have been facing curtailed water availability for some time. Under this project, up to 30% of the potable water coming from the treatment plant would be bound for the Hendrina/KwaZamakuhle areas, with the rest being a possibility for the Middelburg/ Mhlazi area in the future.. IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 71

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Projects with a value between R50 m and R250 m

The water supply in the Mossel Bay supply area was critically stressed owing to an extended drought, which resulted in the town being declared a disaster area in 2009.


RADITIONALLY THE water supply is even further stressed during the peak holiday season. The municipality embarked on an emergency desalination project to augment traditional sources of supply that would provide 15 Mℓ/d of treated seawater: 10 Mℓ/d to the municipal domestic supply and 5 Mℓ/d to PETROSA. This was to relieve the stress on the raw water supply from the Wolwedans Dam. Mossel Bay Municipality, PETROSA and the DWA are the funders of various emergency water projects that include water reuse – a process in which WWTW water is processed to acceptable industrial standards for PETROSA, the exploration of groundwater and the desalination of seawater. These alternatives will also enhance the municipality’s capacity to supply potable water during peak seasons, especially if it coincides with the drought periods experienced in the area. As PETROSA is a strategic supplier of petroleum to South Africa it cannot scale down its production capacity and needs a guaranteed supply of desalinated seawater to reduce the risk of running out of water, which is required for the operation of the plant. The project was implemented as an emergency project and had an accelerated programme. The objective was to commission the desalination plant as soon as possible, before the region runs out of potable water. SSI was the overall project manager to ensure

Mossel Bay Desalination Plant

all projects are closely monitored and coordinated. What made this project very special was the fact that Mossel Bay Municipality was the official client, but PETROSA as a cofunder also acted as part of the client representative team. All designs and drawings had to go through a very thorough HAZOP study and design review parallel to the construction being executed. Some mechanical and electrical equipment had to be imported from Europe and delivered by airfreight and not sea shipment to expedite the delivery of material to arrive in time for construction on site.

The Mossel Bay desalination plant has been designed to produce 15 Mℓ/d (625 m3/h average) of permeate over a 24-hour cycle, which will be pumped to the two users, i.e. 10 Mℓ/d to Mossel Bay Municipality and 5 Mℓ/d to PETROSA. In order to achieve this production volume, approximately 37.5 Mℓ/d of seawater will be abstracted from the ocean, of which 22.5 Mℓ/d will be returned as brine. Two clear-water pipelines depart from the SWRO plant, one destined for PETROSA and one for the Mossel Bay water supply reservoirs. The PETROSA clear-water pipeline is a 150 m long by 500 mm diameter OD HDPE

Representatives of SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants receive their award from CESA president, Zulch Lötter



pipe that departs from the PETROSA clearwater pump station, crosses the depot road and enters the existing PETROSA tank farm site. From there, the pipeline connects with an existing water supply pipeline connecting the tank farm with the PETROSA GTL refinery.


This pipeline will deliver 5 Mℓ/d at an average flow rate of 69.4 ℓ/s. The municipal rising clear-water pipeline is a 2 250 m long by 500 mm diameter class 16 HDPE pipeline that will deliver 10 Mℓ/d of clean water at an average flow

rate of 138.8 ℓ/s to the existing Langeberg municipal reservoirs. The entire design for the marine components of the project was based around the available plant and vessels in Mossel Bay. The construction during the installation made use of tried and tested methods to limit the risk to the client during the installation. The desalination plant for Mossel Bay is a single pass reverse osmosis (RO) system consisting of six 2.5 Mℓ/d RO modules. The feed water abstraction and the disposal of concentrate (brine) will be achieved by direct abstraction from the sea intake structure and pumped by a seawater abstraction pump station and the final disposal of brine from a pipeline into a diffuser structure in the sea. The production of 15 Mℓ/d of potable water from the plant requires the supply of more than twice that amount of raw seawater, with approximately 40% being harvested as product and 60% being returned to the sea as concentrate (brine).



Projects with a value between R50 m and R250 m

Granger BayDam Boulevard and Green Bedford Point Traffic Circle Aurecon was appointed for the design and construction supervision of the new Granger Bay Boulevard and Green Point roundabout/ traffic circle.


WING TO the development of the new stadium for the 2010 FIFA World Cup, provision had to be made for access to the stadium for large numbers of the pedestrians in a manner that removed the vehicle/pedestrian conflict and satisfied the requirements to provide efficient public and private vehicular access to the stadium and the waterfront. The innovative solution to giving large


numbers of people safe access to the stadium was to provide a pedestrian concourse under an elevated traffic circle. In conjunction with the urban planners and the architect, a concept was developed for a circle structure providing access from every direction, having features more like a building than an elevated motorway.The concourse would then become the focal point of an urban park, which would also form part of

the redevelopment of the area. During the project it was decided to expand the contract to include the design and construction of the parking and pedestrian areas surrounding the new circle. The additional work also included the integration of the traffic circle with the bus rapid transport system through the construction of two bus stations, one of which was linked directly to the pedestrian concourse under the circle.

Projects with a value between R50 m and R250 m

The RhodesfiDam eld Station Project Bedford GIBB was contracted by PRASA in 2008 to provide consulting engineering ser vices for the engineering of the Rhodesfield Railway Station.


HIS PROJECT involved relocating the existing four railway tracks to accommodate two new landing platforms. The construction needed to be specifically designed so as not to cause disruption to the existing operating trains. The conceptual station design was completed in early 2009 by the GIBB team. PRASA explored various procurement strategies but eventually decided to procure the development of the station through the conventional method. This methodology included appointing GIBB as the professional team for the design and construction supervision, and through a tender process appointing a

main contractor (Rainbow Construction) for construction services. The remodelling of the existing rail infrastructure consisted of the realignment of the four railway lines and associated signalling and overhead electrification works to create space for the construction of two island platforms, each 275 m long and 9 m wide. The station consists of an aerial concourse over the two new island platforms, with the eastern station entrance connecting to the Gautrain station precinct via a 32 m long by 6 m wide enclosed steel truss pedestrian

footbridge, spanning the railway lines and Anson Street. The western station entrance connects to a dedicated intermodal facility. The roof consists of steel trusses and is unique in that a large portion is exposed visually and has an aesthetic appeal.

Representatives of Gibb receive their award from CESA president, Zulch Lรถtter




Projects with a value less than R50 million

Blackburn Bridge


HE VILLAGE lies adjacent to the National Route 2 Section 26 (N2-26), a 120 km/h four-lane dual-carriageway freeway carrying more than 32 000 vehicles per day.

The bridge and pedestrian walkway were identified as a community development project for the Blackburn area and SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants was tasked with providing a design. In addition to the extra length of the structure required to meet the needs of the community, the natural valley contained in the median

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In 2001, the development of Umhlanga Ridge New Town Centre created additional economic opportunities for residents of Blackburn Village, causing the area to grow dramatically. offered some technical challenges. Aesthetic considerations were given to the impact of multiple columns, but additional constraints were offered by the stream and adjacent wetland, as well as poor founding materials disclosed by the geotechnical investigation. The bridge deck is 177.5 m long and 4.9 m wide (with a 3.0 m walkway width) and has an average walkway slab thickness of less than 200 mm. The walkway slab is supported by 750 mm deep and 900 mm wide concrete edge beams that contain the deck posttensioning ducts and provide bearing anchor points for the stays. Stiffener ribs at 4 m spacing provide transverse strength to the deck and form a deck underside that is similar to a coffer slab. The edge beams also serve as raised kerbs, on which the 2.1 m tall mesh safety screens are fixed. The bridge span comprises two 70 m cable-stay supported spans on either side of the pylon, with an additional 18 m back span between the right abutment and pier column. The bridge deck is primarily supported on the central pylon’s base, a 9.5 x 9.5 x 1.8 m spread footing founded over 7 m below existing ground levels onto sound shale, with an allowable bearing capacity of 500 kPa. The large spread footing used a slower-curing concrete mix to minimise curing temperatures and avoid cracking. The spread footing supports the 60 m tall pylon, which at the base consists of four 900 x 900 mm reinforced concrete columns. Representatives of SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants receive their award from CESA president, Zulch Lötter

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Projects with a value less than R50 million

Demise of the Athlone Cooling Towers Bedford Dam The Athlone Power Station and Cooling Towers were completed in the 1960s, according to the structural design codes of the day.


OLLOWING THE collapse of similar towers in the United Kingdom, a decision was made to review the structural integrity of the Athlone Cooling Towers. Kayad Knight Piésold recommended that the towers be strengthened to resist the high wind conditions prevalent in the Western Cape and in line with the modified codes. In 1993 the company was appointed to design this stiffening ring solution. This solution was effective; however, 17 years later, on 14 February 2010 (many years after the cessation of power generation) the

top ring on Tower One failed and came crashing down, taking the other rings with it. The city called for an inspection and evaluation of the towers and the recommendation was that both towers be demolished as a matter of urgency. Following a highly competitive bidding process, Kayad Knight Piésold Consulting Engineers was awarded the project on 10 March 2010. The company immediately performed an exhaustive analysis, which included a risk evaluation of the towers, protection of services and environmental

and heritage issues. The tender document was subsequently prepared, targeting the best demolition contractors in the world. The tender was awarded to Jet Demolition from Gauteng, incorporating high-level expertise from the UK. On 22 August 2010 the towers were imploded and collapsed exactly onto their footprint, as designed. The demolition was a world first in terms of stiffening rings being imploded, and regardless of all the initial concerns and issues raised, the results were technically perfect. IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 77

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• A section of the Kimberley Prison for Grinaker-LTA/Karen Kula JV • New Library in Richmond • Car park at the Diamond Pavillion Mall in KBY • Huis in Kathu on the Kalahari Golf en Jag Landgoed • Current projects for BHP Billiton in Hotazel • Renovations to Barkley West Police Station • many more.


Markgraaf Pedestrian bridge • Ulco STP Facility and Douglas Civil services • Sewer and Water Reticulation of Breipaal Township.



Projects with a value less than R50 million

Markgraaf Bridge Bedford Pedestrian Dam At the gateway to the Bloemfontein CBD, the un-braced steel network arches of the bridge’s 31 m main span have become a point of pride.


T WAS constructed within budget for R9 100 000. Developed for the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup, the bridge is an important link for pedestrians walking from public transport nodes towards Bloemfontein’s stadium and commercial centres. The final developed length of the structure, including the approach ramps and back-spans, was 152 m. On the eastern side the back-spans are 30 m long and consist of a continuous composite steel and concrete section that is supported by steel Y-shaped piers at 7.5 m intervals. On the western side the

back-spans are 22.5 m long and supported at similar intervals. The main span is 31 m long and is a structural steel-tied arch with a 3.5 m-wide concrete deck slab. As it was situated in the midst of the 152 m-long structure, it was important to connect the arch visually to the approaches. A solution by which the arch appeared to flow out of the approach spans was developed. Representatives of Vela VKE Consulting Engineers receive their award from CESA president, Zulch Lötter


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Best International Project

The UN Millennium Development Goals include to ‘Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation’ (GoaI 7.C).


HE OMDURMAN Water Supply and Optimisation Scheme in Sudan has recently been completed. This project, which has provided safe, clean and potable drinking water for about 1.5 million people in Omdurman, a suburb of Khartoum, goes a long way towards improving the poverty-stricken population’s access to basic services. The project comprised the development of a 240 Mℓ/d intake works in the Nile River, a 200 Mℓ/d water treatment works, pump station, reservoir and related pipelines outside Omdurman, all of which illustrated how the project team successfully addressed the following challenges in taking on this project: • Design and construction in dry, desert-like conditions. • Extreme variations in turbidity in the Nile River. • Extreme variations in water quality in the Nile River. • Pipeline construction in extremely limited spaces. Sudan, the 10th largest country in Africa, has been working to implement macroeconomic reforms since 1997 and began an economic boom in 1999 with the initiation of crude oil exports. However, several factors, such as the Darfur conflict, the aftermath of 20 years of civil war in its southern regions, its general lack of basic infrastructure and the reliance of most of its population on subsistence agriculture have prevented Sudan from

Omdurman Water Supply and Optimisation Scheme achieving economic freedom and prosperity, and have kept the majority of the population at or below the poverty line. The scheme was initiated in 2005 to develop the infrastructure required to improve access to clean, safe drinking water in Omdurman, where the majority of the population comprises low-income households that rely on water vendors selling untreated water drawn from boreholes for their regular supply of domestic water. The state-owned Khartoum State Water Corporation (KSWC), responsible for providing potable water in the capital city and Khartoum State, identified the need for additional potable water supplies and

distribution systems. Biwater was appointed to undertake this huge project on a turnkey basis and appointed BKS for the conceptual and detail design and construction supervision of a 200 Mℓ/d water treatment plant and distribution systems to supply water to parts of Omdurman. The aim of this project was therefore to provide a sustainable and economical water treatment and distribution network that would maximise the social and health benefits of an accessible and affordable supply of clean, safe drinking water for the medium to long term in Omdurman. The project increased the production of treated, safe water and extended the service coverage through an optimised distribution

Representatives of BKS receive their award from CESA president, Zulch Lötter



network. The result is likely to be a marked improvement in the health and productivity of the population served by the scheme. BKS undertook the design of the 200 Mℓ/d AI Manara Water Treatment Works (WTW),

pump stations and bulk pipelines. The detail design work included water quality analysis, process, hydraulic, geotechnical, civil, mechanical, electrical and structural design, as well as seismic design

for a Zone 2A seismic area. The design had four main components: • The 240 Mℓ/d raw water intake works • The 200 Mℓ/d AI Manara WTW • The 210 Mℓ/d treated water pump sta tion, a 40 Mℓ prestressed reservoir and 200 Mℓ/d booster pump station. • More than 20 km of bulk treated and raw water pipelines. • More than 34 000 m3 of concrete was poured, requiring 4 100 t of steel reinforcing. All design work was done in accordance with international standards and practices, and was in line with BKS’s in-house quality management system, which is ISO 9001 certified. Sudanese standards were utilised, where applicable and available, to ensure compliance with local regulations. Based on probabilistic methods, Omdurman (and Khartoum) is in a seismic zoning area of between 1 and 2A. The seismic design was done in accordance with Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1997.


designed and built by ASW Group of Companies. ASW HEAD OFFICE 53 Gerhardus Street, Strijdom Park, Johannesburg, South Africa Tel: (0027)11 793 1330 Fax: (0027)11 793 4829 Email: Branches - Cape Town and Durban




Best International Project

Amoma Pit Dam infrastructure Bedford Over five years ago, Newmont Gold Ghana Limited began conceptualising its last pit in the Ahafo South permitted mining area.


HE AHAFOAMOMA pit is a greenfields opencast, gold cyanide-processing mining site. The development of the AhafoAmoma necessitated the detailed design, engineering and construction of all infrastructure related to the pit. Golder Associates was chosen as the contractor of choice to carry out this work. Golder secured the contract, in part, as a result of previous work completed for Newmont Gold Ghana Limited in Ghana by Golder’s stakeholder engagement team. Included in the scope of work was the design,

engineering and construction of an 8.7 km haul road and associated infrastructure; the waste rock dump and the sedimentation control structures (SCSs) and associated controlled outlet structure. Golder Associates handed the project over to NGGL US$9 million under budget, three months ahead of schedule and with an exemplary safety record of no reported incidents. Representatives of Golder Associates receive their award from CESA president, Zulch Lötter IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 83

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Visionary Client of the Year

eThekwiniDam Bedford Municipality

Moses Mabhida Stadium precinct


HE OVERALL vision behind the Moses Mabhida Stadium was not only to address adequately the immediate needs relating to 2010, but also to identify a longer-term development framework broader than the immediate precinct. The entire area features additional sporting arenas and facilities, as well as restaurants, shops, play areas for children and a pedestrian walkway linking the stadium complex to the beachfront and promenade. The central Durban beachfront upgrade has remodelled and rejuvenated Durban’s famous beachfront, extending it and transforming it into a feature the city can be proud of. eThekwini Municipality is probably the only public sector client to enter successfully into a number of framework agreements with consultants, following a competitive selection process. The municipality’s objective in entering into framework contracts to provide a range of

professional services over a three-year term anywhere in the eThekwini municipal area, on an as-and-when-instructed basis, is to have available a pool of qualified consultants who are contracted to serve the employer’s needs and requirements for commonly encountered professional services whenever such services are required. eThekwini Municipality is achieving an outstanding reputation for reusing existing resources in a sustainable way. Probably the most visible way in which it is doing this is through the reuse of aged asphalt that is recovered from the municipality’s roads as part of its road rehabilitation strategy. eThekwini Municipality has also led research into the reuse of sewage for agriculture and human consumption. Research and test facilities are also fully operational with respect to producing energy from sewage, and particularly noteworthy is the municipality’s oil from algae plant.


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Business Excellence

BIGEN AFRICA Services Bedford Dam BIGEN AFRICA is a committed corporate citizen, adhering to all facets of King III.


HROUGH THE company’s commitment to leadership development, sound financial practices and an ongoing focus on the ‘triple bottom line’, while at the same time complying with international best practices, BIGEN AFRICA has transformed itself into one of the country’s leading infrastructure development activists, committed to improving the quality of life of all people through appropriate and sustainable infrastructure development solutions. The company has a network of 14 offices across South Africa and is represented in various African countries. BIGEN AFRICA’s

management and leadership focus is on aligning the interests of all managers within the organisation. The group maintains a flat management structure geared towards empowering all tiers of management and ensuring effective lines of communication. Based on its commitment to BBBEE, management structures are developed to fasttrack the career development of identified black managers, particularly females. This focus culminated in the appointment of Dr SJ Khoza as chief executive officer of the group with effect from 1 May 2011. In line with its stated objective of becoming

an infrastructure development activist, the board has re-emphasised its approach of not only measuring economic performance, but also including environmental and social performance (the triple bottom line). To be successful, the triple bottom line cannot be enforced from the top down – it must be inculcated in the value system of the group. Committed leadership has ensured that the triple bottom line is an integral part of the BIGEN AFRICA culture. ABOVE Clock Tower Precinct, V&A Waterfront, Cape Town IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 85



Young Company of the Year

Ero Engineers Bedford Dam Ero Engineers, established in May 2006, is based in the Western Cape and specialises in the roads and roads-related field of engineering.


RO ENGINEERS is a member of Consulting Engineers South Africa (CESA) and the South African Roads Federation (SARF). The vast experience of the personnel of the company has assisted in establishing a reputation of excellence in providing engineering services to clients in roads and roads-related projects. ERO Engineers strives to appoint personnel of above-average ability and potential, and is committed to personnel training at all levels. The company has a bursary scheme in


place to assist both personnel and students in advancing their education. The company is an independent entity, with no ties to any commercial concern which may influence decision making. The company is committed to achieving excellence in all aspects of consulting engineering by providing clients with an effective consulting engineering service, based on innovation, integrity and knowledge. The firm’s motto, ‘for innovative ways’, was chosen to reflect this. ERO Engineers is currently

involved in 10 projects on national roads with the South African National Roads Agency Limited (SANRAL) as the client, and five projects on provincial roads with the Provincial Administration Western Cape as the client. The company is also involved in one project with a private developer as client.

ABOVE Representatives of Ero Engineers receive their award from CESA president, Zulch Lötter



Mentoring Company of the Year

SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants Bedford Dam SSI, as part of the DHV Group, launched the DHV University – Africa Chapter. The university is an integral part of the SSI Strategy.


HE CORE services are dependent on the intellectual capacity of staff and the challenge is therefore to nurture and grow young talent through career development programmes. Mentorship, as an entrenched philosophy and practise within SSI, which forms an integral part of SSI’s learning culture and value system, is one of the focus areas of the university. To this end, it is SSI’s desire to transfer essential knowledge and experience from senior personnel to young staff to grow and equip them for their future careers. The mentorship programme in SSI is a long-running one. In line with best practice, it has been developed to meet the specific needs and requirements of the business and industry. SSI’s mentorship programme addresses both technical (with a focus on professional registration) and career or professional development. The programme includes, but is not limited

to, the formal and informal transfer of knowledge and psychosocial support. Mentorship is therefore a vehicle for all employees to enhance their personal skills and professionalism in the workplace. At SSI, mentoring is a learning relationship between individuals. The mentor shares his or her knowledge, experience and insights with less experienced persons, the mentees, who are willing and ready to benefit from the exchange. Mentorship is regarded as an important tool to assist in the development and career growth of young employees. Mentorship outside the firm Mentorship has become an integral part of the SSI culture, as can be seen by the variety of related initiatives that form part of SSI. Not only is there the formal programme for the company’s employees, but they also assist their clients and business partners with mentoring and development of their employees on their request. In addition,

initiatives such as the SSI Bursary Scheme, Saturday School and Sunday Soccer all include a strong mentorship element. SSI mentorship programme SSI’s mentorship programme addresses both technical (with a focus on professional registration) and career or professional development. The mentorship programme is thus a vehicle for all employees to achieve their career development objectives and enhance their personal skills and professionalism in the workplace. Key SSI mentoring programme points: • In 2010, there were 44 employees participating in the formal mentoring programme. • In 2011, this figure is in excess of 80 employees. • In 2010, there were 33 mentors on the formal mentoring programme. • In 2011, this figure is closer to 50. • There are 72 ECSA-registered mentors at SSI.

Representatives of SSI Engineers and Environmental Consultants receive their award from CESA president, Zulch Lötter




Young Engineer of the Year

Mpho Ramphao from Aurecon An Aurecon associate based at the company’s Cape Town office, Mpho Ramphao obtained his BSc engineering degree with honours from the University of Cape Town and an MSc engineering degree specialising in water and wastewater treatment in 2004.

ABOVE Mpho Ramphao receives his award from CESA president, Zulch Lötter


E REGISTERED as a professional engineer with the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA) in 2008. Ramphao has notable experience in the design, construction, commissioning and operation of wastewater treatment plants, conventional facilities and nutrient removal (biological and chemical) plants, as well as membrane bioreactors. He is also Aurecon’s most experienced BioWin modeller and was recently responsible for setting up models and modelling the processes for four wastewater treatment plants operated by Yorkshire Water. Ramphao is currently responsible for the design and implementation of the second major membrane wastewater treatment plant in South Africa, currently under construction at Malmesbury the Western Cape. The project has a value of approximately R120 million. In collaboration with internationally acclaimed researchers, Ramphao has authored and co-authored seven technical papers and has presented at conferences. He has recently been accepted to present a paper at a conference in Australia, which will serve to uphold South Africa’s reputation for excellence in wastewater treatment technology. Ramphao’s extra-curricular activities add to his stature: a part-time study programme in nation building he undertook in 2010 demonstrates his passion for building South Africa and the leadership role he strives to play in it. His selfless commitment to the betterment of others was displayed in his taking two weeks' leave to tutor matric mathematics and science at his high school in rural Polokwane. The success of the students was in no small measure owing to his efforts, considering the otherwise dysfunctional conditions and teacher absenteeism. Since 2010, he has been an external examiner for the fourthyear civil engineering wastewater course at the University of Cape Town. The skill demonstrated by Ramphao in managing his projects and dealing with Aurecon staff, as well as other professionals and contractors, provides ample evidence of his competence in management and his natural aptitude for effective leadership.




Mentor of the Year

Ric Snowden from Arup Bedford Dam At ARUP, mentoring plays a significant role in developing and retaining talented candidate engineers.


HE MENTORING process at Arup is in line with the Key Speech by Sir Ove Arup, whereby staff members are given the â&#x20AC;&#x153;opportunity to do interesting and rewarding work, use creative ability, be fully extended and to grow and be given responsibilityâ&#x20AC;?. This sums up Ric Snowdenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dedication and commitment to the mentoring process. Snowden has worked at Arup for 37 years and has a deep understanding of the core values the company has been built on. Snowden started working at Arup in 1974 and was appointed as a divisional director at the age of 28. He has a wide range of experience and is currently the director of Special Projects. Snowden is involved in the selection process of graduates applying at Arup and along with HR he personally interviews all the shortlisted bursary applicants. He is known as the mentor of choice at Arup and is currently the mentor with the most mentees under his guidance. Snowdenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s approach to mentoring is based on the requirements outlined in the ECSA Policy Statement: R2/1A, Section 7.13. Mentors are expected to meet certain obligations and it is the responsibility of both the mentee and the mentor to drive the mentoring process. Snowden has always ensured that enough time is set aside for the quar terly

mentor meetings. During these meetings, mentees discuss personal ambitions, both in and outside of work, career development goals, working relationships with colleagues and team members and training needs. He suggests new ways of working, offers insight into Arupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s culture and reviews progress made during the training period in question. Snowden also offers advice based on his past experiences, on a personal and professional level.

Meetings are always confidential and there is a sense of trustworthiness from Snowden which allows critical topics to be discussed, if necessary. At Arup, mentees approach a person with whom they feel comfortable and whom they respect. He takes his role extremely seriously and sets his mentees on the correct path in terms of experience and training. Ric Snowden from ARUP receives his award from CESA president, Zulch LĂśtter



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Are we heading for a bright new future?

Smart engineering may be changing the way in which our cities are built.


N THE 19TH century, industrialised Europe struggled to cope with the influx of impoverished rural people into urban areas. As the urban sprawl grew, innovative counter-measures started creating initiatives that provided better housing, better living conditions and, ultimately, better towns, designed to create a new urban future. Centuries later, the rapid urban influx of the rural indigent and inter-urban migration patterns are similarly placing pressures on cities in the developing world, particularly in Africa. The result has been a seemingly unabated spread of poorly-serviced slums on the outskirts of cities in countries across the region.

is a conscious and deliberate move away from the RDP township mind-set, says André Olivier, a technical director in the company's Business Unit for Infrastructure Development Services. “We are passionate about finding new and creative ways of overcoming previous constraints and generally improving living conditions. Our focus on quality rather than quantity is relentless.” Creating this new urban landscape may sound utopian, yet BIGEN AFRICA’s approach makes it possible, practical and executable.

Creative cooperation between public and private sector resources, with flexible financial arrangements and opportunities for all parties to benefit, takes the solution well beyond the mere design of functional suburbs. “We converge design, finance and infrastructure solutions to optimise benefits for our development partners and all other role players,” adds Olivier. FIGURE 1 The Lerato Park Integrated Housing Development

Urbanisation approach South Africa’s initial response to rapid urbanisation, arguably the most significant social trend of our generation, resulted in the now infamous, poorly located and sterile RDP townships. Similarly to the 19th century European experience, and not unexpectedly, initiatives to counter this historic phenomenon and significantly improve the urbanisation outcome in South Africa are gaining momentum. Currently at the forefront of conceptualising integrated suburbs of the future, BIGEN AFRICA’s business approach is creating a significant footprint in improving the quality and infrastructure of urban sprawl with integrated new developments. “Our approach


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Above all, we are a trusted partner to millions, committed to carrying out our businesses responsibly, supporting development and enhancing the quality of life. With more than US$8 billion in assets and over 9,000 employees, Sembcorp delivers the collective expertise, seamless support and commitment you require. We provide essential solutions to meet your needs and the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s.

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HOUSING Sol Plaatje development The Lerato Park Integrated Housing Development component of the Lerato Park Integrated Housing Development and Sol Plaatje Bulk Infrastructure Project Preparation Project in Kimberley consists of 4 654 building opportunities, comprising subsidised housing, institutional housing, bonded housing, commercial building opportunities and other social amenities (such as schools, police stations, sport fields, public open areas, etc.). The Lerato Park Integrated Housing Development consists of six phases. The construction of the main access road for the Lerato Park Integrated Housing Development is 90% complete and the installation/construction of civil service amenities for Phase 1 of the Lerato Park Development is currently progressing well. The advertisement of the installation of the electrical services, as well as the construction of the subsidised top structures for Phase 1 of the Lerato Park Integrated Housing Development is also in process. The Lerato Park Integrated Housing Development is an

‘pools’ to provide labour for projects, designing tenders to involve (and create opportunities for) the local construction and supplier industries, using alternative building technologies with community involvement, introducing

Lerato Park is a mixed income, multi-modal housing development example of how the coordination of effort and cooperation between government, municipalities and the private sector can create a solution from which all parties can benefit. About Lerato Park The Lerato Park Integrated Housing Development is a mixed income, multi-modal housing development with amenities supported by high service levels. In addition to its innovative project preparation methodologies, BIGEN AFRICA is spearheading other approaches to changing the way in which our cities are built. These include using local skills

green products in top structure packages and finding innovative project finance solutions to resolve land and infrastructure bottlenecks and assist municipalities in overcoming bulk infrastructure constraints and releasing land for inclusive development projects. “Our determination to transcend traditional boundaries is helping to drive integrated urban development in South Africa towards a bright new future. We are constantly in a ‘think smart’ mode in order to deliver increasingly innovative solutions to achieve ever-improving urban development outcomes," concludes Olivier. IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 93




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Sustainable social housing At the time of its proposal more than a decade ago, the Cosmo City housing development was seen as a pioneering prototype for the post-1994 challenges to redress urban spatial inefficiencies in South Africa. By Jackie Lagus


HIS WAS to be achieved through an overhaul in the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s legislative and policy framework for land-use planning. The project was seen as a benchmark for a new model of low-cost housing that aimed to create integrated and mixed land use closer to urban and transport centres, rather than on the metropolitan edges, which effectively reinforces marginalisation and poverty. In 1996, the Northern Metropolitan Local Council (now the City of Johannesburg), in the preparation of its Land Development Objectives, identified the need to provide

housing for two large informal communities, Zevenfontein and Riverbend. These informal settlements were characterised by substandard living conditions with limited access to basic services. Mixed-use planning The idea was to relocate the communities onto land that would be earmarked on the basis of access to economic opportunities and public transport in a mixed-income and mixed-use development. A public and private sector partnership with strong community involvement and

An aerial view of Cosmo City

buy-in was seen as a way to facilitate a better balance between social responsibility and financial sustainability for the long-term success of the housing development. After identifying land for public use, the City of Johannesburg had to use existing legislation to appropriate the 1 200 ha on which Cosmo City would be built. A protracted period of legal and consultative processes preceded the eventual development framework and technical studies for the project. By 2000, the now City of Johannesburg


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HOUSING and the Gauteng Department of Housing had invited tenders for development proposals for Cosmo City, with its location being northwest of Randburg. A team headed by Basil Read and Kopana Ke Matla was the successful bidder, and together these formed a company called Codevco. They then brought in the expertise of professional teams, including consulting engineers KV3, now known as WorleyParsons. The final go-ahead for the project was given in October 2004 and the pegging of the first phase began in November of the same year. Construction of the infrastructure and ser vices started in Januar y 2005 and the first beneficiaries took occupation of their homes in November 2005.

Marius Kannenberg, technical director at WorleyParsons. The Cosmo City development was therefore apportioned according to house values comprising a split among 4 992 fully subsidised houses, 2 959 finance/credit-linked units ranging from R180 000 to R280 000 and 3 337 bonded houses in the R380 000 to R800 000 price range. Breaking new ground As the first development of its kind and scale in South Africa, Cosmo City has become a point of reference for the kind of public housing envisioned under the government’s Breaking New Ground programme, in which the emphasis has evolved to assert the idea of subsidised homes as assets, with title deeds assisting in the development of the secondar y market.

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Installation of storm water pipes

Integrating housing typologies One of the key objectives at the time of planning the Cosmo City project was to bring together people of different income groups that would be living in the same area. The intention was to achieve this through the provision of different housing tenure and price types in the same area, linked through schools, crèches, clinics, transport, parks and public spaces. “The integrated approach means bringing different housing typologies in one area together, yet creating some demarcation with the use, for example, of streams or natural wetland areas so that the respective property values remain intact,” says

The Department of Housing’s 1997 Urban Development Framework sets out the government’s mandate to develop environmentally sustainable urban settlements in conjunction with a regulator y and environmental policy that enables the most efficient trade-off between building affordable and quality housing and using renewable and non-renewable resources to balance consumption needs. Sustainable strategies In line with the broader vision contained in South Africa’s National Sustainable Development Strategy, the Urban Development Framework looks at the

Tel: +27(0) 11 441 1111 IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 97


CESA 2011 CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION 13 to 15 November, ICC, East London ‘PARTNERING FOR GROWTH’ CESA will be hosting its annual conference this year in East London at the ICC from 13 to 15 November 2011. The primary goal of this year’s conference is to promote the theme adopted by CESA for 2011 of “Partnering for Growth” between the private and public sectors. Beside strategic inputs from both national and international speakers, the programme will include practical methods and examples for achieving partnerships. During the conference,

national and international engineering trends will be explored with a view to optimising the pace and scale of infrastructure service delivery. The conference offers excellent networking opportunities in the form of golf at the East London Golf Club, welcome cocktails and a formal gala dinner. Our Exhibition will ensure that you have access to the latest in product development. Two CPD points will be awarded for the full attendance of this conference.

NB: For those wishing to learn more about the `Procurement of Consulting Engineering Services´ and the `Road to Registration (Pr Eng)´, one-day workshops have been arranged for the day following the conference for the convenience of the delegates and to minimise travelling costs.

This is a `not to be missed´ event for clients and service providers in the Infrastructure Service Delivery sector.

HOUSING sustainable use of resources and the protection of ecologically sensitive areas as a focal point for future urban development. Integral to environmental planning is the creation of green belts, open spaces and parks – features previously confined to the affluent suburbs of the countr y. Prior to construction on Cosmo City, an environmental management plan set out a list of criteria for fulfilment by the developers and professional teams on the project. These included the development of: • an ecological management plan for the conser vation areas • environmental management plans for construction and operational activities on site • an environmental impact assessment report (focusing on heritage, geology, soil, hydrology and storm water attenuation) • a biodiversity report. Cosmo City environmental management Once these had been completed and construction started, all building activities on the site had to be strictly monitored by a full-time environmental control officer, prescribed in the environmental management plan and approved by the Gauteng Department of Agriculture, Culture and the Environment (GDACE). According to Kannenberg, ahead of the construction work nearly 21 000 protected and medicinal plants were transplanted to the Suikerbosch Rand Nature Reser ve and the indigenous vegetation on the Cosmo City site was preser ved in a 300 ha conser vation park, protected by a 42 km palisade fence. While it was inevitable that large tracts of natural vegetation would be lost in the development process, this was compensated for by planting trees and shrubs throughout the area. “The fact that the terrain was sandy was a challenge because of erosion. However, the grassing of municipal parks by the city council and the establishment of gardens throughout Cosmo City reduced the impact of this dramatically.” Basil Read Developments established a pilot nurser y at Cosmo City and trained staff to propagate trees and shrubs as part of its Green Projects programme. Using the latest innovative technology, the nurser y conducts ongoing research on, for example, the use of microorganisms

and earthworm farming to help create and maintain sustainable ecosystems. There is also continual cross-linking between these kinds of private programmes and municipal schemes aimed at making Cosmo City an environmentally cohesive development. For example, the City of Johannesburg, in its Climate Proofing of Urban Communities Project, installed 700 low-pressure solar water heater (SWH) units, distributed compact fluorescent lamps and fitted insulated IsoBoard ceilings in all the subsidised houses. This follows the first phase of

Construction of the main access road in progress

downstream properties along the banks of the Zandspruit,” explains Kannenberg. Using the Civil Designer software helped WorleyParsons facilitate the shared design of Cosmo City’s civil infrastructure, which the other joint venture partners also used. Cosmo City has nearly 130 km of internal streets and similar lengths of water pipes. The City of Johannesburg manages the essential services and maintenance of park and environmental areas. In its entirety,

Cosmo City is the kind of development envisioned in the city's Spatial Form and Urban Management Sector Plan installation of 170 SWHs in 2007 as part of the Department of Energy’s target for the provision of one million SWH units throughout the countr y within five years. The low-cost units have also all been fitted with prepaid water and electricity metres. Storm water management One of the most important aspects of the development, and critical to the first stages of the environmental impact assessment, was the storm water management. This was designed by WorleyParsons and its joint venture partners using Civil Designer’s storm water module application with its multiple pipe layer functionality for the capture of pipe layer data according to dimension and material. “The increased storm water runoff is attenuated by a series of carefully designed and placed attenuation dams, thus mitigating the effect thereof on the

Cosmo City is the kind of development envisioned in the city’s Spatial Form and Urban Management Sector Plan, of which the aim is to “create a physical environment that meets the current needs of communities, but also protects the interests of future generations”. As a point of reference for similar development models, the significant elements of Cosmo City’s success have been the strength of the public-private partnership, combined with the buy-in of the communities, whose ownership of the development, through the Cosmo City Residents Association, has created a sense of pride and sustainability. Talking of this key project in his 33-year career, Kannenberg maintains that it was a unique development at the time of its conception, and it has since been replicated as a model for integrated, mixed-use and sustainable housing.



Raising the bar in affordable housing standards In response to the government’s challenge for quality, inexpensive and maintenance-free clay bricks for affordable housing, Corobrik’s CoroJem face bricks are fast becoming a product of choice.


HE COMPANY has to date secured orders for over 40 million CoroJem face bricks to build 11 000 plus affordable homes in the Free State and Northern Cape, and further specifications are being negotiated. "Against these orders we have completed supplies of over five million to the Free State projects and next month we are scheduled to commence delivery to projects at Hartebeesfontein, 30 km from Klerksdorp in the Northern Cape,” says Corobrik’s managing director, Dirk Meyer. Meyer says that investigations undertaken by WSP Green by Design show that a brick building is the most viable way forward for house construction in South Africa. While double skin clay brick construction is clearly the ‘optimal’ way forward, the CoroJem fits the bill in this competitive segment as it is an excellent performer with all the functionality of a face brick. The well-respected

performance attributes of clay brick are underpinning the demand. “Double skin walling runs at approximately 20% more expensive in the wall than CoroJem’s through-the-wall format. This translates into a substantial saving on mortar and labour, reducing the overall costs,” explains Meyer. “Life cycle costs are also very low consequent to the maintenance-free qualities of the CoroJem and the well-recognised thermal performance attributes of clay bricks to slow the transfer of heat through the walls supporting indoor thermal comfort during the long hot summer days and low cooling fan energy usage. The incombustibility and hence

fire-resistant qualities of the CoroJem provide an added peace of mind benefit for persons living in close proximity,” he continues. “We are constantly looking for ways to support sustainable development and the CoroJem is proving a best-fit solution for this segment, meeting the important quality, affordability and sustainability criteria and people’s aspirations to live in ‘proper’ houses at the same time,” maintains Meyer.

RIGHT Corobrik CoroJem is proving to be a best-fit solution BELOW Corobrik has received orders to supply CoroJem bricks for 4 000 houses in the Northern Cape alone


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Concrete products showcased in Mandela Legacy Project Concrete Manufacturers Association members are par ticipating in the Mandela Legacy Housing Project by donating modular concrete masonr y blocks and other precast concrete building materials.


HE MATERIALS will be used for the construction of one of the project’s four affordable double housing units and will demonstrate the costeffectiveness of building with proper modular masonry and precast concrete products. The other three units are being built using alternative building materials and methods. “This project is not only for a worthy cause – the units will be given to particularly needy people on the government’s waiting list for subsidised housing – but also gives us the opportunity to showcase our members’ concrete products side by side with other building methods,” says Concrete Manufacturers Association (CMA) director, Hamish Laing. The project was officially launched by the minister of human settlements, Tokyo Sexwale, earlier this year. Also in attendance were Cape Town’s mayor, Patricia de Lille, and acting CEO of the NHBRC, Jeff Mahachi. The houses are being built as a tangible legacy to the International Housing and Home Warranty Conference (IHHWC), an event hosted by the NHBRC and taking place on African soil for the first time this year. The actual conference was held in Cape Town from 25 to 28 September 2011. Besides the donation of building material by CMA members, the CMA has appointed local professionals and modular masonry experts to ensure the success of the project. The CMA is sharing the cost of the design and erecting the concrete masonry unit with the NHBRC on a 50/50 basis. The houses are being built in Blue Downs, a suburb of Cape Town some 30 km from the CBD. Each double housing unit comprises two 60 m² semi-detached doublestorey apartments. Two types of modular masonry, one manufactured from recycled material, are being used to build the CMA unit, one using conventional mortar (10 mm thick) and the other a thin-bed mortar process.

ABOVE Tokyo Sexwale, minister of human settlements, addresses visitors, professionals and construction workers at the Mandela Legacy Housing Project on Madiba Day, at the project’s sod turning ceremony. Also present were Cape Town’s mayor, Patricia de Lille and acting CEO of the NHBRC, Jeff Mahachi LEFT The CMA Mandela Legacy Housing Project house under construction in Cape Town, using two types of modular masonry and precast hollow-core slabs

“One of our objectives with the Legacy Project is to demonstrate how modular masonry and precast concrete building materials offer anyone investing in entry-level or affordable housing a building system which is difficult to beat in terms of productivity, durability and aesthetic appeal,” explains Laing. Besides masonry blocks, other precast concrete products being donated by CMA members include precast hollow-core slabs for the first floors, precast concrete staircases, concrete roof tiles, polymer concrete door and window frames and concrete blocks for the paved area around the house and driveway. Precast hollow-core slabs speed up the entire

construction process, allowing masonry and other construction work to continue as soon as they are laid. Another advantage is that they are made in a controlled manufacturing environment, which ensures the structural integrity and quality of the product. Concrete roof tiles, besides offering thermal and weather-proof properties, can convert a very ordinary-looking house into something really special, simply through their outstanding aesthetic appeal. The main contractor on the CMA’s Legacy Project house is Breekon Construction, a construction company that is familiar with and committed to modular construction.



Why plastic pipe? SAPPMA recently hosted its fifth Plastic Pipe Conference. The event had record attendance and organisers received excellent feedback from delegates.


N KEEPING with the theme ‘Why Plastic Pipe?’ the programme offered topical presentations by 13 speakers, of which seven were international. The keynote speaker was economist Mike Schussler, who proved to be hugely popular with delegates. A question and answer session was introduced at this year’s conference, which resulted in added interaction between delegates and speakers. Sponsors within SAPPMA’s ranks were great in supporting the event and the exhibition stands were sold out. SAPPMA chief executive officer, Jan Venter, said in his foreword that SAPPMA applies a considerable amount of effort and cost to present these events on an annual basis and to achieve the highest possible standards. The purpose of the event was to convey accurate technical information to specifiers, design engineers and those who have to procure plastic pipe systems. In addition, the

SAPPMA applies a considerable amount of effort and cost to present these events annually conference informed on issues relevant to the industry, especially focusing on SAPPMA’s mission of ‘guaranteed quality’. SAPPMA members, in keeping with world trends of Industry Codes of Best Practice, have removed heavy metal additives (primarily lead) from their workplace environments. This set new standards for local industry, despite no regulatory programme promulgated in South African law. The discipline adds value to SAPPMA’s life cycle thinking, taking into account end-of-life issues and waste management options. Representing a

socially responsible industry, SAPPMA already embarked on this programme in 2006, as a voluntary policy of heavy metal-free stabilisers for the manufacture of PVC pipes. The initiative was based on health and environmental considerations, at considerable cost. The policy was fully implemented by July 2009 and applies to drinking water systems as well as sewer, drainage and mine pipes. The implication is that all PVC pipe manufactured by SAPPMA members is lead free and instead stabilised with environmentally friendly materials such as calcium zinc or organics-based stabilisers. Adherence to the policy is a

Dr Predrag Micic made a presentation on the ‘Selection of Pipe Materials for the Wimmera-Malee project’

requirement for SAPPMA membership and as such forms part of the regular SAPPMA factory audits. This initiative places SAPPMA members right up front with other global leaders in the rest of the developed world. In the interest of the consumer and good business practice, SAPPMA strongly promotes the highest possible product quality standards, as well as environmentally friendly manufacturing processes and materials.

LEFT TO RIGHT Katiso Molapo (winner of the lucky draw); Renier Snyman (Bronze Stand Certificate: DPI Plastics); Michael Pretorius (Silver Stand Certificate: Hydrodifusion) and Louis Albertyn (Gold Stand Certificate: Marley Pipe Systems)




Operational effectiveness without compromise Fiberpipe is the only sub-Saharan fibre reinforced pipe (FRP) manufacturer. Its products are manufactured in accordance with internationally accepted standards and meet the requirements of ISO 9001:2000 and relevant SABS specifications.


he company’s combination of manufacturing and sales engineering services enables it to deliver value-added services based on customer requirements. Through partnerships, it finds workable solutions aimed at achieving the maximum use of pipe systems where operational effectiveness is sought, while not compromising on quality. Fiberpipe has its own quality control department to ensure: • All products are produced in accordance with specified requirements. • Continual improvement of product quality and services is provided. Fiberpipe’s aim is to provide customers with pipe solutions for potable, raw, sea, industrial, waste, sewer and bulk water applications. In addition to products of high quality, Fiberpipe assists with advisory services for a choice of materials and calculations for projects. Additional assistance in the form of onsite technical field support is provided during installation to ensure that correct installation procedures are followed for the optimal use of

the company’s products. This assistance, as well as installation training, is provided free of charge to the client within South Africa. Fiberpipe also provides maintenance training should it be required, to ensure that the full lifespan of the product is achieved.

FLOWTITE™ is Fiberpipe’s leading product for water, sewage and industrial applications. The FRP systems are a cost-effective piping solution. The pipes are corrosion free and have a proven resistance to acidic environments in water and sewage systems. They are lightweight and therefore easy to handle. FLOWTITE™ pipes and fittings are suited to several applications, such as: • potable water transfer • fire fighting • sea and desalinated water • power plants • chemical and industrial wastes • sewer and irrigation. The product can be found in siphon lines or equally in seawater outfalls, bridge dewatering, desalination projects or as protection line for cables. Standard and special fabricated fittings, such as bends, tees and reducers, are available.

Technical information • Diameters: DN 300 – 1 800 mm • Pressure classes: PN 1-6-10-16-25-32 • Stiffness: SN 2 500, 5 000, 10 000 • Length: Standard length 12 m *Large diameters available on request

The VECTUS pipe system is manufactured from fibre reinforced polyester and vinylester. The production method is a discontinuous double helix reciprocal filament winding process that gives the pipes a balanced combination of axial and hoop mechanical properties. The VECTUS pipe systems are free of corrosion, lightweight and a well-documented product with good references worldwide. In addition to the civil and industrial markets, the pipe systems are also used in the oil and gas, shipbuilding and offshore industries. Within the industrial market, the pipe system is used widely as a cost-effective solution due to biaxial pipe systems with well locked joint solutions for pipe and fittings. These locked joint systems are also successfully used in municipal water, cooling water and pressure sewerage systems in combination with FLOWTITE™ pipes to avoid thrust blocks. The VECTUS pipe system also includes a complete range of standardised specialised fittings. Technical information • Diameters: DN 150 – 2 000 mm • Pressure classes: PN 4-6-10-16-25-32 • Stiffness: SN 2 500, 5 000, 10 000 • Length: Standard length 12 m *Large diameters available on request

FIBERPIPE t +27 (0)11 864 2040 •


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Horizontal directional drilling in the This paper seeks to outline the various aspects of horizontal directional drilling in South Africa, contextualised by three case studies: Berg River duct installation, Diep River water pipeline installation and the bulk water main installation under various roadways for the Mossel Bay Desalination Plant project. By Neil van Rooyen from TT Innovations

Case study 1: Berg River duct pipeline installation Location: Berg River, Velddrift (approximately 145 km north of Cape Town) Diameter of pipeline installed: Multi-duct â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 4 x 160 mm diameter HDPE ducts (installed in two parts) Length of installations: 168 m and 164 m Obstruction traversed: Berg River â&#x20AC;&#x201C; approximately 140 m wide and 9 m deep (approximate measurement taken along the bore path) Client: Local power utility Main contractor: Racec Electrification Drilling contractor: TT Innovations


HE INSTALLATION of the duct pipelines under the Berg River formed part of an initiative to upgrade the existing power supply to the Velddrift area. Two existing power feeder cables, suspended below the Carinus Bridge, ser ved as the main power

supply to the town and local fish factories. As this section of road (including the bridge) was scheduled for future upgrading, it was decided to install the new power supply cables beneath the river instead, using horizontal directional drilling (HDD). Apart from the obvious construction constraints with regard to trenching across a river of this magnitude, the importance of this water body to the local fishing industr y, tourism and its ecology played a major role in the decision-making process regarding the method of construction. Any diversion of the river course or activities which could cause flooding of the river banks would result in dire consequences for both the natural habitat and human inhabitants along the river. As part of the project planning, incremental measurements of the river invert were taken using a boat and sur vey equipment. The depth of the river was determined to be approximately 9 m at the deepest point. A

bore plan was derived using this data with a maximum pilot bore depth reaching 3 m below river invert level. The initial pilot bore (150 m) proceeded without incident, apart from intermittent navigational signal losses and after various steering corrections, reached the target. Reaming commenced immediately thereafter. The drill rods were attached to the rear of the reamer, trailing it during reaming. During one of these reaming stages, the spindle of the reamer detached due to a suspected bearing failure, causing metal fragments to be left behind in the bored tunnel. The tunnel was consequently abandoned and a new pilot bore installed adjacent to the previous tunnel. With the new tunnel successfully bored and all the reaming stages completed, the original three-pipe, 160 mm diameter HDPE duct configuration was attached to the reamer and inserted. The installation, however, ground to a halt just as the reamer and product pipe passed the pivot point along the final incline of the curved bore bath. The rapidly increasing forces had exceeded the rigâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pulling capacity. Later investigation revealed that this was largely due to the bentonite being degraded by the high salt water content of the insitu soil. The drilling fluid (water and bentonite mixture) could therefore not per form its primar y function of transporting the soil cuttings to the sur face. The resultant soil build-up in the tunnel (increasing the friction along the pipe), in conjunction to the steep final incline, ultimately led to the rapid increase in pulling force. The salinity FIGURE 1 View of the drill rig positioned alongside the Berg River and opposite perspective of the Carinus Bridge



South African context of the ground-water was never considered as the Berg River is a freshwater river. A nearby freshwater lake also seemed to support this notion. It was however later learned that the river becomes salty at high tide and fresh again during the low tide due to the close proximity to the sea. After numerous unsuccessful attempts at getting the pipe unstuck, the only apparent solution was to free the product pipe from the reamer. To do this, the contractor manufactured a device that attached to the end of the drill rods, which extended a set of cutting blades when forced outward by the drilling fluid pressure. The drill rods and cutting head were then inserted from the rear of the HDPE pipe. With the blades extended, the drill rods were rotated, severing the HDPE pipe and releasing it from the reamer. This option rendered the HDPE pipe unusable as any attempts to remove the partially installed pipes resulted in over-stretching, which deformed and restricted the useable cross-sectional area of the pipe. The reamer was retrieved and reused. Despite these tr ying circumstances and set-backs, the contractor persisted. Salt water compatible bentonite was used for this attempt and the bore path lengthened to 168 m to allow for a flattened incline cur ve. It was also decided to increase the tunnel size and change the pipe arrangement from a three-pipe to a two-pipe configuration. The client duly elected to also install a fourth duct for future use. These measures were successful and culminated in two successful installations measuring 168 m and 164 m each.

Case study 2: Diep River water pipeline installation Location: Adjacent to Gie Road, Table View – Cape Town Diameter of pipeline installed: 315 mm diameter HDPE PN12 Length of installation: 200 m Obstruction traversed: Diep River – seasonal river and wetland ecosystem Client: City of Cape Town – Water and Sanitation Department

Main contractor: TT Innovations Drilling contractor: TT Innovations


250 MM diameter asbestos cement pipeline formed part of the distribution network emanating from an upstream reser voir which fed the residential area of Table View. Technicians traced a major leak to a section of this pipeline situated within the river stream. Due to the high groundwater table, wetland area, location and depth of the deteriorated pipeline, the local authority decided to replace this pipeline section using pipe bursting. This option was however discarded due to various bends along this section of the pipeline, its depth and the associated dewatering required. HDD was proposed as an alternative installation method and subsequently met the client’s objectives from an environmental, technical, financial and projectduration perspective. With the contractor appointed, the first task was to determine the actual alignment of the existing AC pipeline to ensure that the new pipeline was installed as close as possible to the existing line. The drill rig was set up on the residential side of the river embankment, alongside a communal swimming pool. The actual water stream was minimal and enabled the pilot bore to be tracked by conventional walkover methods. Due to the urgent nature of the project, extensive geotechnical investigations were not per formed but the insitu soil conditions were largely considered to be argillaceous. The actual tracking of the pilot bore proved to be the most challenging aspect of this project. Major inter ference was encountered along sections of the bore path, leading to an erratic signal

FIGURE 2 Aerial view and layout of AC pipeline (source: Google Maps 2011) and improper drill head location. A large portion of the pilot bore was installed ‘blindly’ as the rig operator lost signal as well as navigation visuals on the drill rig on-board instrumentation. Being closer to the signal source (sonde located within the drill head), the field operator was able to receive the signal and view the visual display on the hand-held navigation instrument. This enabled the field operator to relay vital information, such as the drill head position, inclination and location, to the drill rig operator via two-way radio. After much correction and adjustment, the pilot bore eventually exited on target at the pre-constructed exit pit. At this point, the 315 mm diameter class 12 HDPE pipe was already welded, pressure tested and in position for the installation. The pipeline itself was also filled with water to counteract buoyancy – in an effort to reduce frictional resistance. A suitably oversized tunnel was bored and the pipeline installed without any further complication. The pipeline was then re-connected to the existing network and the water re-routed through the newly installed pipeline.

Case study 3: Mossel Bay Desalination Plant pipeline installations Location: Mossel Bay, Southern Cape (approximately 392 km from Cape Town when heading east along the coast) Diameter of pipelines installed: 800 mm diameter


TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY FIGURE 3 View of the final reamer size and 800 mm diameter HDPE sleeve

Length of installations: 46 m and 50 m Obstruction traversed: Two main roads – Louis Fourie Road and Alwyndal Road Client: Mossel Bay Municipality and PetroSA Main contractor: Entsha Henra Drilling contractor: TT Innovations


WING TO A spate of droughts in the Southern Cape area, the local municipality of Mossel Bay and private sector stakeholders financed and approved the construction of a desalination plant along the nearby coastline. This consequently necessitated new bulk water pipeline installations (greenfields) – which also crossed two main roads. The local roads authority, however, insisted on the use of trenchless technology for the main road crossings. HDD was decided on as the trenchless solution to be employed and various contractors were invited to submit bids for the installation of these works.

The project consulting engineers selected the approved drilling contractor on the basis of its technical ability and previous project experience. The pilot bore under Alwyndal Road commenced without incident and was completed on schedule. Operations, however, ground to a halt during the early hours of the morning when the effluent water supply valve failed, causing a disruption to the supply. Without an alternative water source, work was halted until the supply could be restored. By midday the following day, the water supply was restored and drilling re-commenced. Reaming proceeded at a slow but steady pace, with the reaming rate of progress slowing as the reamer size increased. A temporar y holding ‘pond’ was created adjacent to the drill site to house the drilling mud spoil and a TLB was utilised to remove the drilling mud from the drilling pits. Owing to the large diameter of the pipe which needed to be installed, the frictional force caused by buoyancy had to be counteracted. Instead of the conventional closed front end, where the pulling head connects to the pipe, it was decided to leave this front end open – thereby creating an open-ended pipe and cancelling any buoyant forces. After installation, any drilling mud or spoil which collected within the pipe could be removed by conventional pipe cleaning methods. Further to this, the shallow cover over the pipe also increased the risk of drilling fluid escaping to the sur face through the above soil layers due to excessive fluid pressures within the tunnel (frac-out). Once all the reaming stages were successfully completed, the 800 mm diameter HDPE pipeline was installed. The actual installation duration of the pipe was minimal compared to the various reaming stages. Using the drill rig, the 630 mm diameter HDPE product pipe was inserted within the 800 mm pipe. The product pipe simply displaced the drilling mud and no additional pipe cleaning was required. The Louis Fourie installation proceeded in a similar fashion, without any complications.


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Serving the infrastructure value chain

Aveng Grinaker-LTA is an operating unit in the Aveng Group – the largest infrastructure development company in South Africa, with a proven track record and a presence in more than 30 countries.

Alice Lane


he Aveng Group has a history spanning more than 100 years and was listed on the JSE in 1991. With its broad exposure across the infrastructure value chain, the Aveng Group has the capability to deliver multi-disciplinary projects in construction, engineering, mining, water, power, steel and manufacturing. A balanced business portfolio, solid business model, capability to deliver complex projects and a strong balance sheet positions the Aveng Group to extend its proven record of delivery in its target markets. In regional terms, the Aveng Group mainly focuses on Africa, Australasia and the Pacific Rim. Aveng Grinaker-LTA, one of the largest operating groups in the Aveng stable, has been playing a principal role in the development of Southern Africa’s infrastructure for decades, and continues to be involved in some of the most significant projects today. The distinguished product and service offerings are provided in the following sectors: Commercial, retail and industrial, infrastructure, oil and gas, mining and power. Aveng Grinaker-LTA employs some 16 000 people and the highly skilled professionals within the company enable it to respond timeously and efficiently to complex projects.

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Outstanding health and safety Safety is a core value of the Aveng Group and integral to the way it does business. Aveng Grinaker-LTA is committed to ensuring that, during the execution of its projects, the health and safety of its employees, clients and the public, as well as the reduction of any environmental impacts, is a priority. These important aspects are managed through an integrated ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 system, which has been internationally certified. The Aveng Group’s safety culture is cultivated through the following key factors: • entrenching safety as a value for its people • identifying, assessing and managing risks to employees, contractors, service providers and communities • striving to achieve industry best practice • meeting and, where appropriate, exceeding applicable legal and other requirements. Unsurpassed quality Aveng Grinaker-LTA is committed to a policy of effective quality management and has implemented a quality management system in



Environmental matters The Aveng Group has been part of the JSEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Socially Responsible Investment Index since its inception in 2004 and has consistently been recognised as a best performer in the high environmental impact category. Its commitment to sustainable development has

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Building Civil Engineering Earthworks Engineering Mechanical & Electrical Mining Africa/International Concessions





Lasting relationships Ensuring that the company understands and exceeds client expectations and objectives is a core value within Aveng Grinaker-LTAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s business. This


Transformation Aveng Grinaker-LTA recognises the importance of transformation as a business and cultural imperative. Transformation is prioritised within the Aveng Group. The business constantly maintains its commitment to developing and increasing the representation of black professionals and leaders across its operations. Aveng (Africa) Limited is a value-added level three contributor, with a 138% procurement level. It is the strategic objective of the Aveng Group to extend organisational transformation to effect sustainable cultural change. The Aveng Group has advanced the financial independence and sustainability of black-owned enterprises, with a number of enterprise development programmes in place. The Aveng Group also continues to contribute towards community development through various social upliftment projects, which focus on education and training in particular.


also seen the Aveng Group participate in the Carbon Disclosure Project Survey and implement an organisational footprint study on the input material of its products.


accordance with ISO 9001:2008, to which the company is accredited. Aveng Grinaker-LTA undertakes to identify the needs of customers and to deliver products and services conforming to their specified needs.


constantly expands the company’s knowledge and capabilities, and applying this expertise is of benefit to its clients. People Aveng Grinaker-LTA recognises the importance of skill retention through its recruitment and retention programme by incorporating a BBBEE transformation strategy and addressing gender equality. Aveng Grinaker-LTA is committed to providing ongoing training and development to all staff, as this is fundamental to the future success and sustainability of the group. Various initiatives have been introduced to up-skill both current and future employees and local communities. As highlighted in government, a hindrance to the development of South Africa is the current skills gap that precludes many people from securing work. Addressing this issue is seen as a priority to the business, and accordingly various initiatives have been introduced to upskill both current and future employees and local communities. This includes learnerships, bursaries and apprenticeships across a range of functions. Additional initiatives, focussed on addressing gaps in base education, are offered through the company’s corporate social investment programme. Capability matrix Aveng Grinaker-LTA provides construction and engineering products and services across the value chain in a broad range of industry sectors.

RAND ROADS A division of Aveng Grinaker-LTA Earthworks Engineering An in-house division, Rand Roads, offers an end-to-end capability, which includes asphalt manufacturing, paving, chip and spray, supply of bituminous binders and the distribution of these. The in-house business expertise allows us to respond successfully to market needs in this highly technical environment. Aveng Grinaker-LTA t +27 (0)11 578 6000 • f +27 (0)11 578 6161 •

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What does the new Waste Act mean for your business?

Waste management in South Africa is currently undergoing a major shift following the release of the new Waste Management and Classification Regulations earlier this year.


HIS NEW approach to waste classification was developed in response to the increasing challenges associated with managing the changing waste landscape in South Africa, and to address the shortcomings of previous waste management legislation, which favoured landfill, co-disposal and dispersion of waste. This is particularly evident as the incidences of contamination of soil and water by hazardous waste are increasing. Waste disposal on river banks is polluting and changing river courses and the creation of open dump disposal areas is threatening bordering residents. General burning of waste causes air pollution and unauthorised waste processing involving hazardous substances frequently makes headline news. These escalating problems sparked the introduction of the new National Environmental Management: Waste Act (No. 59 of 2008) or NEMWA. Promulgated in July 2009, the act provides a much

FIGURE 1 Waste management hierarchy

more structured approach to waste management and offers a comprehensive legal framework for more effective regulation of waste management practices. The perception of what ‘waste’ is has also changed so the focus is on diverting waste streams designated for landfill. The basis of the framework is to support management practices according to the waste hierarchy approach – an expansion of the three Rs ideology (reduce, reuse and recycle), with disposal as the last resort. The approach encourages cleaner production

(i.e. prevention) and waste minimisation through reuse and recycling before waste treatment and disposal. The essence of this approach is characterised by a need to avoid, eliminate, prevent or significantly reduce the causes of environmental problems, as opposed to managing the impacts, wastes and emissions arising further down the product or ser vice life cycle. This suggests a fundamental change in the nature of environmental inter ventions in terms of rationale, timing and specific approach, and ensures that all levels of risk associated with the disposal of waste to landfill are


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The Mercedes-Benz Axor. Best practice just got better. In the area of waste management, the Mercedes-Benz Axor is synonymous with best practice. It now boasts a number of improvements that make it even more HIÃ&#x20AC;FLHQW7KHQHZLQVWUXPHQWFOXVWHUZLWKJUDSKLFGLVSOD\KDVEHHQUHORRNHGIRU EHWWHUYLVLELOLW\DQGLVERWKPRUHLQIRUPDWLYHDQGIXQFWLRQDO$XWRPDWLFGHSDUWXUH FKHFN LV DOVR DYDLODEOH ZKLOVW WKH VWDWHRIWKHDUW PXOWLIXQFWLRQ VWHHULQJ ZKHHO



fully assessed as well as diminished as far as possible. The aim of NEMWA is the protection of human health and the environment by delivering socio-environmental outcomes in support of a sustainable future. The innovative approach to waste classification utilises the international United Nations Globallyy Harmonised System of Classification in SANS 10234, which classifies chemicals

The introduction of these regulations has had major implications for many businesses and industries according to the potential health and environmental hazards they pose, in addition to their physical parameters (i.e. flammable, oxidising, corrosive or water reactive). Appropriate management of a waste substance (reuse, recycling or disposal) is then determined according to this overall classification of the waste, and falls within two primar y categories â&#x20AC;&#x201C; general waste orr hazardous waste. General waste is defined as pre-classified waste that does not require treatment and includes domestic, building, business and garden waste, waste tyres and postconsumer packaging (plastic, cardboard, etc.). Hazardous waste is by definition anyy waste that contains organic or inorganic elements or compounds that may, owing to the inherent physical, chemical or toxicological characteristics of that waste, have a detrimental impact on health and the environment. It is therefore essential for waste generators to classify waste prior to disposal, which in some instances may require that specific analyses be conducted

to determine the innate characteristics of the waste produced. The introduction of these new regulations has had major implications for many businesses and industries, which may not have traditionally regarded the by-products produced as a consequence of their daily

activities as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;wasteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; or necessitating further treatment. Furthermore, the regulations require that waste substances be separated as far as possible in order to provide oppor tunities for reuse and recycling, as well as to simplify the analysis of all components for classification. However, help is at hand. Specialist laboratories, such as Talbot Laboratories, are well equipped to assist with the pre-classification of hazardous waste. They offer a full spectrum of analyses in accordance with national standards, as well as scientific understanding of the potential threats posed by a wide range of substances used in industrial processes to assist with waste classification and risk profiling. Accordingly, accurate analysis and waste classification is crucial for identifying new opportunities and markets, particularly as certain substances become valued resources through reuse, rather than wastes. Analysis and classification also ser ves to address possible options for minimising waste produced so as to reduce any unavoidable waste to landfill, which is undesirable and will incur considerable costs.



Rehabilitating the Wild Coast During the Transkei’s so-called ‘independence’ from South Africa, the homeland was largely abandoned to its own devices by the apartheid government and this resulted in its social, economic and infrastructural neglect.


HE WILD COAST, part of the former Transkei, an ‘independent’ homeland in apartheid South Africa but now part of the Eastern Cape, stretches 280 km from the Kei River in the south to the Mtamvuna River in the north. Its blue-green rondavel-dotted hills, remote villages, thick forests, jagged cliffs and empty beaches give it a unique character, as does the hospitality and openness of the local Xhosa people. During the Transkei’s so-called ‘independence’ from South Africa, the homeland was largely abandoned to its own devices by the apartheid government and this resulted in its

Mqanduli to Coffee Bay road Last season’s heavy rainfalls, along with the ongoing increase in traffic on the Mqanduli to Coffee Bay road (DR08031), caused the road to deteriorate to such an extent that it was almost classified as unnavigable by traffic. While the entire 73.4 km length of the road is badly potholed, one 14.4 km section (work parcel) was particularly bad. The word ‘chronic’ comes to mind. Given the road’s economic importance and its carriage of large volumes of traffic as a feeder route to various villages and clinics, the local police station and a number of schools, as well as it being an important tourist access

road. The project includes the construction of a safe all-weathered road, complete with a functioning drainage system. As part of this project, a select few from the local community were trained in the various aspects of road construction applied in this project. The road’s rehabilitation is being done using a half-width construction approach. The existing road surface is being ‘ripped’ and re-compacted, in the process recycling, mixing and stabilising the existing base layer to ‘C’ standards. The application and spraying of baselayer primer is specifically suited to wet region conditions. By 30 August 2011, a 30 mm fine grade asphalt layer painted with permanent road markings, along with cleared and cleaned pipe culverts, will present a finished, durable road for locals and tourists alike. Site progress (% complete) • Stabilised base-course – half-width: Left 49%; right 57% • Prime – half-width: Left 49%; right 57% • Surfacing – half-width: Left 49%; right 57% • Gravel shoulders: Left and right: 47% • Trimming: Left and right side: 47%

AfriSam CEM II being spread by hand on the N2 highway contract in Mpumalanga

social, economic and infrastructural neglect; underdevelopment that has left a legacy of substandard infrastructure and services. At least that was the case. MEC Thandiswa Marawu and her Eastern Cape Department of Roads and Public Works are determined to change this legacy.


route to the ‘Hole in the Wall’, among other tourist destinations, the road is in need of urgent rehabilitation. The department’s objective with this work parcel, besides keeping costs down, was to enable its in-house construction team to undertake the rehabilitation of the badly damaged 14.4 km Mancam to Mncwasa village section of the Mqanduli to Coffee Bay

Project budget (as at 1 August 2011): • Budget: R50.5 million • Expenditure: R32.7 million • Accruals: R0 • Cost variance: R17.8 million N2 construction approval Good news for the impoverished residents in and around the Wild Coast was the announcement by the minister of water and environmental affairs, Edna Molewa, that the construction of the N2 Wild Coast Road was approved – after 10 years of consideration

ROADS AND BRIDGES through government processes and public participation. Molewa said that in the light of extreme poverty and unemployment in the Wild Coast, a balance should be sought between strict preservation of the environment on the one hand and the promotion of development on the other. She added that the N2 Wild Coast Road is one of the priority projects earmarked for accelerated development. Once complete, this road will open up one of the most impoverished regions in South Africa – currently with 11 km of road per 100 km2, compared to the 49 km/100 km2 of the rest of country. The project was presented at the International Transport Investor Conference in Cape Town in June 2011 at an estimated capital cost of R8 billion to R10 billion. It will have nine new bridges and will effectively shorten the travel distance and time between East London and Durban. The N2 Wild Coast Road will be a crucial link between logistics platforms in the Eastern Cape and those in KwaZulu-Natal. In developing this route, with a major detour

from Mthatha joining the current R61 towards Port St Johns and diverting before the town, a new road network, which will make it easier to access coastal reserves such as the Mkambati Nature Reserve and tourist attractions such as the Mzamba Resort, will have been created. The Eastern Cape, through the departments of transport and economic development, is actively working together with the South African National Roads Agency Limited (SANRAL), which is the tendering authority for this road and will ensure that preferential procurement policies are enforced while promoting local beneficiation for local contractors. Construction is expected to be carried out over 36 months, and create jobs for unemployed locals. The Eastern Cape is

Africa Transport Award The prestigious Africa Transport Award for the Leading Road Construction Development Programme in Africa was recently awarded to the Eastern Cape Department of Roads and Public Works for the rehabilitation of the district road DR18031/DR08323 T-junction to Zithulele Mission Hospital. MEC Thandiswa Marawu, joined by all members of staff, is extremely proud of the initiative that led to this award. “It proves that we are steering in the right direction,” she said.

actively pursuing a plan to move freight via rail by developing a rapid coast rail belt linking the two ports in KwaZulu-Natal (Durban and Richards Bay) with the Eastern Cape’s key logistics platforms, which include but are not limited to the three ports (East London, Port Elizabeth and Ngqura (Coega)) as well as key economic hubs such as Mthatha, which are more inland.



N4 Bakwena highway upgrade Following its successful completion of Section 1 of Phase 1 of the Bakwena N4 toll road upgrade in May 2011, Esorfranki Civils has been awarded Sections 2, 3 and 4 of Phase 1 of the N4 highway upgrade.


HE NEW contract from Bakwena, the Platinum Corridor toll concessionaire, is worth in the region of R400 million. Work has already begun on the 23 km of eastbound carriageway between Pretoria and Rustenburg. This second carriageway runs parallel with the existing N4 highway and includes the construction of nine bridges, 10 in situ culverts and 147 storm water culverts. Sections 2, 3 and 4 will comprise 700 000 m3 of cut-to-spoil and 1.1 million cubic metres of fill and will use 18 000 m3 of concrete, ranging from 15 MPa to W40 MPa concrete. Some 250 000 m3 of crushing will be required. Esor franki Civils director Mark Green reports that the project, which began in May 2011, is well on track and on schedule. Section 4 is expected to be completed by November 2013. “We have maintained an impeccable safety record on our roads

projects, which exceeds the standard requirement,” Green says. “This is a particularly noteworthy achievement, since we have recruited local labour from the project area, in line with Bakwena’s requirements.” In 2010 Esor franki Civils completed the Kameeldrift Interchange upgrade for Bakwena, involving the widening of on- and off-ramps. The Bakwena toll highway consists of a 95 km section of the N1 running from Pretoria northwards to the town of Bela Bela and a 290 km section of the N4 running from Pretoria westwards to the Botswana border. During the first four years of managing the concession, Bakwena was required to undertake a series of initial construction works that included the upgrading of the existing roads and the construction of two new sections of the N4. The cost of the initial construction works was approximately R2.3 billion.

Bomag range of road building equipment expanded In its drive to become a one-stop shop, Bell Equipment is increasing its Bomag product offering to include the Bomag MPH 125 soil stabiliser/ asphalt recycler, as well as the Bomag BF 600 paver/finisher.


HE BOMAG MPH 125 is currently being demonstrated at sites across the countr y and recently generated keen interest in the Tongaat and Verulam areas of KwaZulu-Natal, pulverising old, damaged road sur faces and using foam bitumen technology for soil stabilisation for Milling Techniks. “These machines have been part of the Bomag stable for some time and were developed in cooperation with contractors around the world to allow Bomag’s engineers to develop the highest power, reliability and efficiency in these machines. Government is making a huge drive to rehabilitate existing roads and build new ones so we saw this as an ideal opportunity to introduce these machines locally. Many of our South African roads are in desperate need of rehabilitation and soil stabilisation and we believe these machines are well suited for this work,” explains Bell Equipment’s product marketing manager for Bomag, Sathie Chetty. The BF 600 has an operating weight of 16 to 18 t and an engine output of 120 kW. It has a maximum placing capacity of 600 t/h

and a maximum placing thickness of 300 mm. An advantage is the 12.4 t capacity hopper, which is able to handle extra-large paving jobs.

RIGHT A live demonstration highlights the MPH 125’s capabilities



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Vehicle-friendly traffic calmers A new traffic-calming system that slows vehicles without the risk of damage has been launched following months of research.


HE RIPPLESETT block consists of a base concrete paving block with a contoured abrasion-resistant concrete top sur face, which when laid in a prescribed pattern slows speeding traffic without causing vehicle damage. Technicians at Technicrete researched a range of existing traffic-calming and speedreduction systems, including the conventional humps encountered at traffic circles and suburban roads, rumble strips and the metal and rubberised devices most often found in parking areas. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We established that some traffic-calming

systems can be rather aggressive. They certainly reduce speed â&#x20AC;&#x201C; sometimes at the cost of damage to a vehicle, especially if it is a low-slung car,â&#x20AC;? says Taco Vogt, Technicrete product development manager. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Design parameters for Ripplesett were a concrete block system which would be at least as effective as any existing device, but was less aggressive to a vehicle.â&#x20AC;?

Ripplesett is laid like a conventional rumble strip, and has proved very effective in extensive tests with all kinds of vehicles IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 123






Proudly bringing water to local communities Speed of erection, all-terrain suitability and durability are making SBS Reservoirs the solution of choice for municipal water storage in KwaZulu-Natal and beyond. Mava Gwagwa, sales director at SBS Water Systems, cites three main reasons for SBS tanks’ attractiveness to municipal supply schemes: their rapid on-site assembly, their suitability for inaccessable areas and their superior performance – as a result of which they bear a 10-year no-leak warranty. All these factors make SBS tanks a far more cost-effective and efficient solution than concrete reservoirs, and the result is significant service delivery improvements in areas where SBS tanks have been installed. A sample of SBS’s recent municipal projects gives a sense of the scope of the company’s current involvement in municipal infrastructure development.


member of WISA, IMESA and ASIB – and the only recognised water tank supplier on ASIB’s Independent Equipment Supplier list – SBS Water Systems manufactures and installs Australiandeveloped Zincalume® panel reservoirs with internal proprietary liners internationally approved to store potable water. These are fast becoming recognised by local municipalities as the ideal solution to their water storage needs.

Sisonke DM’s Spring Protection Programme As part of the Sisonke District Municipality’s (DM’s) Spring Protection Programme, SBS reservoirs were installed in six Umzimkulu villages: four 50 kl tanks in Mthintwa, Elukhasini/Ocingweni, St Michael/Ndabayilali and Esibomvini, and two 110 kl tanks in Nongingqa and Ziqalabeni/Mangeni. “In addition to assisting the DM to deliver a prompt and effective water storage solution, the programme also assisted local SMMEs by encouraging them to do the water catchment for the scheme,” explains Gwagwa.

" The programme also assisted local SMMEs by encouraging them to do the water catchment for the scheme" Mava Gwagwa, sales director, SBS Water Systems 124 - IMIESA OCTOBER 2011


Rauka Village, Rietvlei Immediately following the above project, SBS installed a 77 kl reservoir for Sisonke DM in the Rietvlei area of Umzimkulu. An SBS tank was recommended by engineer Adriaan Roets of Scientific Roets, who had been impressed with SBS’s performance on the Cut Flower Project at Goxe Village under the Mount Ayliff Local Municipality. With the local community around Rauka Village putting pressure on Sisonke DM to speed up service delivery, an SBS reservoir was the ideal solution for the client in terms of speed of erection and cost-effectiveness. Ngqumane Water Supply Scheme, Mount Frere (Alfred Nzo DM) The lack of proper access roads made SBS tanks the obvious solution for the Ngqumane Water Supply Scheme at Mount Frere. Lubalalo Mbulawa of Flux Development Scientists recommended SBS for the installation of three tanks – 28 kl, 159 kl and 250 kl – as an alternative to concrete tanks, which would have required the client to construct expensive access roads first. The cost-effectiveness and suitability of the tanks led to the brief being extended to include the installation of an additional 28 kl tank. Vierkant Water Supply Scheme, Umzimkulu (Sisonke DM) Difficult terrain and a lack of access roads also ruled out the use of a concrete reservoir for the Vierkant Water Supply Scheme in Umzimkulu. Mabele Mrwentyana of Izizwe Consulting recommended the installation of a 110 kl SBS tank and the client was impressed by the efficiency of the tank’s installation.

Greytown housing project One of SBS’s most recently completed municipal projects, the 492 Housing Project in Greytown, saw three 250 kl reservoirs installed in just 13 days. “The unique thing about this project was that we were given a very tight time frame and were able to deliver within a short space of time,” says Gwagwa. Representatives of both consultants involved, i.e. Pradeep Ramlall of AB Projects and Colin Johnston of FC Consulting Engineers, recommended SBS’s services, and the client (Umzinyathi DM, with uThukela Water as the implementing agent) was impressed by the smoothness of the installation. “Having worked in the remotest areas, SBS has pretty much been to the ends of the earth to serve its customers,” maintains SBS Water Systems managing director Delayne Gray. “We are particularly proud to play a role in serving local communities by providing safe, effective and efficient water storage solutions.”

TRADE ENQUIRIES Delayne Gray, MD, SBS Water Systems t +27 (0)31 716 1820 •

"Having worked in the remotest areas, SBS has pretty much been to the ends of the earth to serve its customers" Delayne Gray, MD, SBS Water Systems



Three million litres of water a day through water treatment project

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The towns of Hendrina and KwaZamokuhle endured 18-monthlong water restrictions up until February this year, when Optimum Coal began supplying the communities with 3 million litres of potable water a day.


TEVE TSHWETE Local OPPOSITE PAGE An aerial view of the water reclamation Municipality (STLM) plant at Optimum Colliery and Optimum Coal signed a contract where, on behalf of STLM as a water services authority, the mine – through a bulk water supply agreement – was delegated as a water service provider for the Hendrina and KwaZamokuhle communities. The Optimum Coal Water Reclamation Plant has been designed to treat affected mine water produced through mining activities at

The water reclamation plant is licensed and registered with the Department of Water Affairs as a Class B water works. Optimum Collieries. The affected water is collected in an evaporation dam of about 45.5 Mm3. This water serves as feed stock for the water reclamation plant. The water reclamation plant is designed to an operational production of 15 Mℓ/d of potable water at SANS 0241 quality, supplying the town of Hendrina with drinking water. The water reclamation plant is licensed and registered with the Department of Water Affairs as a Class B water works. The plant is designed as a very low effluent discharge plant and only 1% of the total feed to the plant is discharged as brine, while another approximately 1% is disposed of as sludge. The final product of water produced from the combination of the various RO units is centrally collected in two 5.5 Mℓ concrete reservoirs after being stabilised in terms of aggressiveness and chlorinated with chlorine gas to disinfect the product water. Two transfer pumps deliver the potable product water to Hendrina town reservoirs of 1.5 and 2.5 Mℓ respectively, from where it is distributed to the population. 126 - IMIESA OCTOBER 2011


The water reclamation plant is in the process of preparing for Blue Drop status.



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On hollowed ground When the rock beneath you is not as solid as you thought, it is understandable that you will be fearful, unless you are ignorant of the fact. By Tony Stone

This sinkhole was formed as a result of water ingress




SUALLY, WHAT you see on the surface is but a small part of the bigger picture. This is true of Khutsong, a community of more than 25 000 families on the far western border of Gauteng, near the mining town of Carltonville. Like an unwanted child, they were ostracised by their mother province, Gauteng, and fobbed off onto a neighbour, the North West province. After a four-year battle and violent protests, which included burning tyres, torching homes, breaking traffic lights and a constitutional court battle, they were taken back into their maternal home. Was this a mere issue of demarcation or was it something a little more sinister? Given all the facts, conspiracy theorists would be jumping for joy – having been proved correct. The Khutsong demarcation dispute overshadowed a far bigger problem. Built in a dolomitic area in the 1950s, engineers used explosives to blast open trenches for pipelines and other infrastructure. With all the mining activity in the area, the underlying dolomitic structures have weakened over time. Two houses have had to be completely demolished owing to sinkhole damage and a third stands with a gaping hole in front of it, its walls cracked and unstable. Forced to leave their homes, luckily without loss of life, these families relocated to Khutsong South across the river. Only one neighbour knew of the cause. None were aware that the entire Khutsong community is to be relocated, yet people continue to improve their homes, many with major investments. As to the Wonderfonteinspruit, which runs between Khutsong and Khutsong South, it is so polluted by mining and industrial activity that municipal signage warns residents not to drink or use the water for cooking. According to locals, the river ‘never runs dry’. Much of the water used and discharged by

the mines flows into the Wonderfonteinspruit up river from Khutsong. No doubt, much of this water finds its way back into the ground from which it came. After its reintegration into Gauteng in 2009, the then Gauteng Housing MEC, and now

This sinkhole was caused as a result of dewatering

Jomo Mogale, the local councillor, was not available for comment. In speaking to his family, even they were unaware of the mag-

The Wonderfonteinspruit is so polluted that municipal signage warns residents not to drink the water Gauteng premier, Nomvula Mokonyane, said: “Geological studies determined that 90% of the current residential area of Khutsong is situated on high-risk dolomite zones, which are unsuitable for human settlement.” “They will get new homes. A R2 billion housing relief project has been launched,” she added.

nitude of the Khutsong problem. Ignorance, it seems, is bliss, and convenient for some, although it may be better that way in the short-term given the past volatility of the community. Nonetheless, honesty and timely communication are critical. Be that as it Sinkhole formation


INSIGHT may, if and when serious action is taken to address the issue, the entire Khutsong community will have to be moved to new townships nearby. According to Mokanyane, 60% of the 18 000 houses built will not cost the homeowners a cent. Some will have backyard rooms and ablutions so that these can

settlement which will accommodate people of different incomes. We will have rental housing, bonded houses and governmentsubsidised housing. This project will transform Khutsong into a modern township with economic and social facilities like clinics, schools and playgrounds.â&#x20AC;?

If and when serious action is taken to address the issue, the entire Khutsong community will have to be moved be let out to generate a monthly income for the homeowner â&#x20AC;&#x201C; economic empowerment in action, courtesy of the taxpayer. There will also be affordable rental units. And, as Mokonyane said, back then, â&#x20AC;&#x153;We are going to build an integrated human TABLE 1 Dolomite risk characterisation zone definition

Merafong Municipality, under which Khutsong falls, states, in its 2011 spatial development planning report, that the resettlement of Khutsong to a safer geological area, across the river adjacent to Khutsong South and along the Carletonville-Welverdiend corridor, has received major attention and has been adopted as a Presidential Project,

receiving central government attention and funding. A total of R100 m was allocated to the project in the 2010/11 budget year and another R400 m has been allocated to the project for the 2011/12 budget year. What causes sinkholes? Dolomite rock is soluble, i.e. it dissolves in water. It is a mineral comprising the chemical combination of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). When carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolves in dihydrogen monoxide (ordinary water (H2O)), as in rain, the two form a chemical equilibrium thus producing carbonic acid (H2CO3), which makes the rainwater weakly acidic. Even so, this rain water, collecting as weakly acidic groundwater, circulating along tension fractures, faults and joints in dolomite, causes carbonate


Ground movement events anticipated per hectare in a 20 year period (statistics based on inappropriate and poor service design and maintenance)


Typically 0 events/ha anticipated but occurrence of events cannot be totally excluded therefore up to 0.1 events/ha


0.1 to 1 events/ha


> 1.0 events/ha or more


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ABOVE A large sinkhole near Krugersdorp OPPOSITE Khutsong â&#x20AC;&#x201C; nobody lives here anymore

minerals to be leached (taken out) in the form of bicarbonates. This leaching, most pronounced in the first few tens of metres within the bedrock, or below the water table, leads to the dissolution of dolomite and gives rise to cave systems and voids. Soils covering the rock can collapse into these caves or voids, resulting in catastrophic ground movements on the surface, such as sinkholes or dolines, which can occur unexpectedly with little or no warning. In nature this can take years to happen. However, human activity greatly increases the risk of sinkholes forming. The ingress of water from leaking water-bearing services, poorly managed surface water

Soils covering the rock can collapse into these caves or voids, resulting in catastrophic ground movements on the surface drainage, groundwater level drawdown and agricultural or mining activity can trigger a subsidence. Carltonville, and surrounds, is a hub of mining activity. Surrounded by at least six gold mines, these mines are responsible for a significant amount of underground dewatering. One mine purposefully uses filtered fissure water for its cooling processes to reduce its costs and dependence on potable municipal water. As already mentioned, discharged mine water is pumped into the Wonderfonteinspruit, among other natural water courses.


Through our multi-disciplinary team we are competent in the design and project management of water and wastewater treatment plants, township and civil services development, bulk services, solid waste disposal facilities, environmental impact assessments and permit applications. OFFICES Mpumalanga PO Box 13614 Leraatsfontein, 1038 Tel: 013 697 6050; Fax: 013 697 6060 E-mail:

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Fax the below form to 011 880 6789 or for more information call 011 771 7000 or visit Title: _________________ Name: __________________________________________________________________________________________ Company:______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Job title: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Tel. no: ____________________________________________________ Fax no: ____________________________________________________ Email address:__________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Please send me further information about Contract Management Forum 2011

INSIGHT A typical sinkhole.This one is 50 m deep

Lessons learned So, what lessons have we have learned from Khutsong, given that it is a high-risk area? 1. When laying out a township, carry out a thorough, site-specific geotechnical investigation, as summarised below, that will ensure whatever development is to take place is appropriately designed and constructed. Such an investigation should meet minimum requirements, including: • The excavation, profiling and sampling of representative test holes. Samples should be appropriately tested in a soils laboratory. • An assessment of the dolomite stability of the site, described in terms of risk zones (see table 1) • The assessment of dolomite stability measures where infrastructure is to be located within 1 000 m of a dolomite outcrop/subsurface structure, or on it. • An assessment of the residual geophysical integrity on completion of all geophysical work. • The location and assessment of boreholes, and probable impacts. 2. Use appropriate construction methods and techniques when building on dolomite. Reference is made to the Department of Public Works’ Appropriate Development of Infrastructure on Dolomite Guidelines, which points out that any high-risk dolomite area should be avoided – unless absolutely unavoidable. When designing infrastructure on dolomite land, in general, avoid: • Gardens within 5 m of buildings. • Water features, such as garden or fish ponds, within 15 m of buildings. Water features with automatic replenishment systems should not be permitted. • Courtyards that necessitate sub-floor level drainage systems. • Construction of buildings or services over natural watercourses. • Construction of buildings over wet services. • Creating unlined rerouting of natural drainage paths. • Concentration or disposal of storm water onto high-risk land. • Wet services running parallel and close to buildings, and poor maintenance. • High concentrations of subsurface services near buildings. • Using rigid, short-length piping (promote long, un-jointed, flexible piping). • Subsurface water storage tanks.

• Disturbance of surficial soil whenever

Further information The contact details of the Council for Geoscience’s Dolomite Stability Unit are: Greg Heath (Manager, Dolomite Stability) Tel: +27 (0)12 841 1165 Fax: 012 841 1148 E-mail: Tharina Oosthuizen Tel: +27 (0)12 841 1160 E-mail: Judith Grobler (Administrator) Tel: +27 (0)12 841 1152 E-mail: Important note: Both the 2004 guideline for engineering geological characterisation and the 2007 consultants' guide will, more than likely, be surpassed by the proposed South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) guidelines, instituted mid-2009. These standards will be known as: SANS 10400-B: The Application of the National Building Regulations, Structural Design SANS 1936 -1: General Principles and Requirements SANS 1936-2: Geotechnical Investigations and Determinations SANS 1936-3: Design and construction of buildings, structures and infrastructure SANS 1936-4: Risk Management SANS 633: Profiling, percussion borehole and core logging in Southern Africa SANS 644: Geotechnical investigations for township development SANS 2001: Part BE3: The repair of construction works



feasible (ensure disturbed areas are properly compacted and reinstated). â&#x20AC;˘ Septic tanks, soak-aways or pit latrines. â&#x20AC;˘ Site features with poor drainage characteristics. Buildings: Locate buildings on low and medium risk areas and place sports facilities/parking lots/parade grounds/radio masts, etc. on medium- to high-risk land, with the exception of swimming pools. Grassed facilities are to be placed on the most favourable portions of medium- to high-risk land, whilst dry facilities such as surfaced parking areas, etc., can be placed on most problematic land, providing no structures are erected and depending on the specific geological conditions. Swimming pools may only be placed on low-risk or medium-risk land with special precautions. Alterations: Additions to existing infrastructure or buildings, particularly in high-risk areas, require the same level of investigative procedures as for new infrastructure. When

linking structures, potential differential settlement between old and new components must not be permitted as it may induce failure of, or leaks in, any linking wet services. Boreholes: Careful consideration, to control


Photo credit Donan Engineering

Consequently, if blasting is necessary, it is essential that appropriately experienced blasters be appointed to determine the

Careful consideration must be given before permission is granted to sink boreholes for water abstraction dewatering, must be given before permission is granted to sink boreholes for water abstraction. If the water table is above bedrock, a blanket ban on exploitation of the groundwater should be imposed. Approval should be subject to an evaluation of the implications by an engineering geologist specialising in dolomitic-related matters. Blasting: Experience on dolomite indicates that blasting may lead to severe disturbance of the metastable dolomite environment, giving rise to sinkhole formation.

particular method and specification for blasting, regarded as appropriate in the context of the geological conditions. Special safety requirements: Personnel executing work in or around sinkholes are to be strapped into harnesses and safety ropes secured away from the sinkhole or suspended from a crane or excavator parked at a safe position. Personnel shall be informed of the hazardous conditions pertaining to working in or around sinkholes (contractor to keep records of information sessions) and be



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INSIGHT made aware of the need to report any: • surface cracks • cavities (irrespective of size) • ground movement • sudden variation in soil profiles. Should any of the above occur, stop work immediately and clear the site of all personnel until the resident engineer inspects the site. 3. Think about the future, and its implications, particularly the long-term effects of chemicals on soil and rock, such as dihydrogen monoxide (H2O) mixed with carbon dioxide (CO2) and other chemical combinations that acidify water. 4. Human activity, usually carried out with blind arrogance, typically creates imbalances in nature and more problems for humanity. 5. Look outside (above, below and around) your area of responsibility and at neighbouring areas. These areas may well influence your area of responsibility in negative ways. A final consideration An even greater problem is manifesting itself. Acid mine drainage (AMD), a deadly cocktail of toxic chemicals in water, including heavy metals and radioactive uranium, as well as high levels of sulphates, is leaking from disused mine workings into dolomitic areas underground, infiltrating groundwater and overflowing to the surface, into water sources. Besides contaminating water sources, which is the key focus of authorities at present, little (apparent) thought is being given to the effect on dolomite itself. Marius van Biljon, a geohydrologist who had calculated the rise of acid mine water on the West Rand back in the mid-90s had,

by 1998, and at the behest of the old JCI, recomputed his model. He predicted that by early October 2002 the first mine water would flow from the old Swartrif shaft in Randfontein. He was wrong. He was out by just two weeks. The acid mine water started to flow out in September 2002. It is this source of acid mine water that is the cause of the massive pollution of river systems in

low-lying dolomite, destroy it and cause sinkholes. This will happen in the centre of the country’s most populous areas. In the meantime, life goes on. People go about their daily business ignorant of what is happening beneath their feet. The mining houses and government, on the face of it, apparently do nothing but talk. Given that this is now in the public domain, communica-

Acid mine drainage is leaking from disused mine workings into dolomitic areas underground the Krugersdorp Game Reserve, Cradle of Humankind and Sterkfontein Caves today. Van Biljon’s model shows that the acid mine water will reach critical environmental level (CEL) by February 2012. The CEL is the point at which the acid water will reach the

tion and keeping the public informed is very important. Yes, it will be a costly problem to sort out and this is perhaps why nobody wants to take ownership of the problem. But, how many lives will it take to spur them into action?

IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 139 Tel: 011 824 0202


Quest for SA’s oldest concrete pipe installations

Concrete is one of the most durable materials known to man and its success as a medium for water and sewer piping is legendary. To highlight this achievement, the PIPES division of the Concrete Manufacturers Association (CMA) and IMIESA are running a joint campaign to identify concrete piping installations that are 75 years and over. The intention is to write articles on some of the more interesting projects, illustrating that the faith placed in concrete piping by civil engineers during the early part of the 20th century was by no means misplaced. “We are hoping to find at least one installation which has been operational for 100 years or more,” says CMA director Hamish Laing.

“No other material comes close to concrete piping’s track record for the conveyance of water using pipes with diameters greater than 150 mm and identifying specific installations will prove the point.” “One of the reasons for the success of concrete piping is that it is both a conduit and a self-supporting structure as opposed to flexible plastic piping, which as a conduit only requires an on-site supporting structure to be built around it,” explains Laing. If any IMIESA readers are aware of piping installations that fall into the above category and can substantiate them with some form of documentary evidence, the CMA would be delighted to hear from you. The first 10 submissions that qualify will be rewarded with a case of vintage wine; however, preference will be given to the oldest projects.

All submissions should be sent to by 31 October. IMIESA OCTOBER 2011 - 141

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BRP Road Patch celebrates 25 years The BRP Road Patch was launched 25 years ago, and has a history of providing long life, successful repairs in varying climatic conditions and adhering to various conflicting surfaces, such as concrete, base-course, asphalt, pavers, steel and timber.


he patch is a factor y prefabricated road maintenance product manufactured using bitumen rubber, which ensures a waterproof seal and precoated aggregates of various sizes. The simple installation process dispenses with expensive tools or machinery. This is ideal for local labour-intensive installations using unskilled labourers, irrespective of gender, which in turn guarantees job creation as the product requires virtually no training or skills to apply. The prefabricated sheet comes in a set standard of 750 mm x 1 000 mm, ensuring that it is easy to handle. The BRP Road Patch guarantees ‘zero’ rework and zero wastage.

Industry warning on sub-standard meters The SA Water Meter Manufacturers’ Association has cautioned municipalities and water utilities about the “questionable quality and sub-standard performance” of some water meters reportedly being introduced to the local market.


ssociation chairman Friedrich Draxl said in a statement that the industr y had been noting complaints from users about the per formance of some imported products. The statement added: “It appears that some utilities and municipalities are unknowingly and innocently installing meters of questionable quality, with no proven per formance records and which are delivering inaccurate water consumption readings. This is resulting in inaccurate billing, and in the end it’s the ratepayer who is being penalised. “There are minimum legally prescribed metrological standards which must be complied with, but meters are being installed which do not conform.” The Water Meter Manufacturers’ Association (WMMA), established primarily as a customer watchdog body to ensure that meters conform to legal metrology standards, also monitors service levels and quality issues. It is made up of representatives of six leading local and international meter manufacturers and acts as official spokesman for the water meter industr y, coordinating

its activities with the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS), the South African National Accreditation System (SANAS) and the National Regulator for Compulsor y Specifications (NRCS).



Automated water reading an essential tool Water is probably the country’s most precious resource, yet is under constant threat from wastage and mismanagement. New technology is being used to conserve water reserves, but is it going far enough? Basil Bold, MD of Sensus South Africa


ASIL BOLD, managing director of Sensus South Africa, the largest supplier of bulk water meters and related water management systems, says smart technology can make a major contribution to averting a future water shortage crisis. For increasing numbers of South African municipalities and water utilities, automated meter reading (AMR) is delivering critically important cost and environmental benefits. Now AMR is being complemented by a new ‘smart’ abbreviation – AMI – which is taking water conservation and management to new performance levels. AMI stands for advanced meter infrastructure, which involves a dedicated long-range radio data communications network system designed to make current mesh networks and GSM/GPRS systems even more efficient in the management of water resources. One such system is Sensus’s revolutionary FlexNet, a long-range radio system that can ride on the back of existing AMR smart metering and smart grid applications. It is already achieving significant success in major cities of the UK and US for leak detection, meter reading and resources

management, slashing operating costs in the process. Bold tells IMIESA: “Water meters are getting smarter, more efficient and more accurate. But in a climatically changing world, where fresh water is becoming an increasingly threatened commodity, it’s now realised that however smart the meter may be, metering alone is not going to be enough to avert water shortages in the future.” “In addition to the ecological and environmental spin-offs, the greatest business gain for water utilities is the development of systems to manage their water networks more smartly to avoid waste and ensure maximum billing accuracy. It’s been demonstrated that saving water – rather than developing new sources – is

often the best next source of water,” he adds. Even in some of the most developed countries, 20% of treated water is lost through waste, Bold says. Early results from the performance of a FlexNet system in the populous Reading area of southern England, where more than 200 000 homes are monitored by four long-range radio base stations, have proven extremely positive,” Bold reports. In the American city of Santa Maria, California, a pilot programme has shown AMI’s value in quickly identifying leaks in individual homes, supplying hourly usage data to identify consumer consumption patterns and alerting individual customers to excessive water use – all this while dramatically reducing the city’s operational costs. A further advantage is that the system is being used to monitor electricity and gas consumption simultaneously. “I believe AMI could reap major benefits for South Africa, too,” says Bold. “Sensus is equipped to develop partnerships with municipalities and water utilities to bring this new technology to South Africa.”

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS Actomphambili Roads Afrisam South Africa Akasia Road Surfacing Altech Fleetcall Amatola Water Aquatan Lining Systems ARUP ASW Engineering Aurecon Aveng Grinaker – LTA Bell Equipment Bentley Betram BIGEN Africa BKS Bosun Bricks BTW Consulting BVI Consulting Camjet Cement and Concrete Institute CESA Conference 2011 Concrete Manufacturers Association Contract Management Forum 2011 Corobrick Development Bank of Southern Africa DPI Plastics Durban Instrument Specialists EFTEC ELB Equipment Elster Kent Metering Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA)


44 42 47 77 34 127 96 82 50 111-113 29 12 18 48 80 33 133 25 26 119 98 90 134 100 16 104 IBC 22 46 107 14

Envitech Solutions ERO Engineering Esorfranki Geotechnical Fiberpipe Fibretex Global Geomatics Goba Golder Associates Africa Hlanganani Engineers & Project Managers HSH Construction Incledon Integral Laboratories Jan Palm Consulting Engineers Jeffares & Green Jetvac South Africa Kaytech Keyplan/Aveng Water Lafarge Industries Le Blanc Jasco Lighting Structures Lekwa Consulting Engineers & Project Managers Lesira Teq Makhaotse, Narasimulu & Associates Martin East Meissner Mercedes Benz Model Maker Systems Monitor Engineering More Asphalt Much Asphalt National Asphalt NETGroup

65 86 120 106 136 24 52 126 30 78 54 20 35 32 93 64 94 40 58 66 60 28 84 140 116 23 IFC 45 43 49 62

OMB Waste Logistics Osborn Engineered Products SA Precision Meters Rainbow Reservoirs RLH International Engineering Consultants Sabita Saint-Gobain Pipelines SBS Water Systems Sembcorp Sensus South Africa SIKA Spray Pave SRK Consulting SSI Structural Systems Africa Talbot & Talbot The Waste Group Thusanang Gast Trenchless Technologies TT Innovations Turf Ag UWP Consulting Vela VKE Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies Vermeer Volkswagen Water & Sanitation Women In Engineering Convention WSP Zebra Surfacing

114 51 71 88 74 36 102 124-125 92 85 79 OFC 97 41 76 128 89 138 OBC 110 56 123 39 72 68 122 130 2 31 38

AQUA DIRT TRAP/STRAINER Patent No. RSA 95/9706 Unit 2, Zone 5, Murrayfield, 4 Prospecton Road, 4115 . P.O. Box 357, Umbogintwini, 4120 Tel: +27 (0)31-902 6550 Fax: +27 (0)31-902 1349 Email:

Web Address: MAKE THE INTELLIGENT CHOICE Install before every water meter and pressure relief valve (PRV)






x x x

The Aqua Strainer is used and stocked at several Municipalities and water authorities. The water departments have specified the Aqua Strainer for all its projects and installations. The Strainer/Dirt Trap is an essential protection for all water meters in order for it to operate efficiently.

The Aqua Dirt Trap/Strainer was designed for the protection of turbine-type flow meters and pressure relief valves. In order to eliminate the issue of damage and blockages, the Aqua Strainer was developed using mild steel pipes and flanges. The main feature of this strainer is the sight glass, situated on the top flange. The sight glass enables one to see directly into the pipeline. Blockages can be identified by merely looking into the sight glass. Consequently, the water flow can be observed and monitored. Blockages can be observed and removed by simply unbolting the top flange and cleaning the stainless steel grid, thereby reducing the downtime and make troubleshooting and fault finding, easier.


250 000 metres of

TRENCHLESS PIPE Successfully Installed


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Imiesa Oct 2011  
Imiesa Oct 2011  

IMIESA is the official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa (IMESA), focusing on engineering and constructi...