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IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT • SERVICE DELIVERY • ROADS • BUILDING • MAINTENANCE

Municipal Focus

INDUSTRY INSIGHT

City of Tshwane

Taking Tshwane’s waterloss programme to the bank Dr Erik Loubser

Renewable Energy

Senior Executive, GLS Consulting

SA’s hybrid power solution

Geomatics

The arrival of the digital twins

Innovation that Glows

IN THE HOT SEAT As geologists, we’ve known about the Table Mountain Group and related aquifer systems for decades; however, we’ve never really started to demonstrate their true potential until now.” Dr Chris Hartnady Technical Director, Umvoto Africa I S S N 0 2 5 7 1 9 7 8 Vo l u m e 4 5 N o . 1 1 • N o v / D e c 2 0 2 0 • R 5 5 . 0 0 ( i n c l . VAT )


Human-centred solutions

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YOUR PROJECT We take all aspects of the project into account, and take a leading role through all phases, concluding with an extensive maintenance focus, making sure everything keeps working perfectly.


INSIDE

VOLUME 45 NO. 11 NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2020

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15

www.infrastructurenews.co.za

IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

Water & Wastewater

Regulars

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT • SERVICE DELIVERY • ROADS • BUILDING • MAINTENANCE

Municipal Focus

INDUSTRY INSIGHT

City of Tshwane

Taking Tshwane’s waterloss programme to the bank Dr Erik Loubser

Renewable Energy

Senior Execu�ve, GLS Consul�ng

SA’s hybrid power solution

Geomatics

Editor’s comment

3

Planning for KZN’s bulk water needs 35

President’s comment

5

Save water this festive season

Index to advertisers

64

The arrival of the digital twins

Thought Leadership

Cover Story

Innovation that Glows

IN THE HOT SEAT As geologists, we’ve known about the Table Mountain Group and related aquifer systems for decades; however, we’ve never really started to demonstrate their true potential until now.” Dr Chris Hartnady Technical Director, Umvoto Africa I S S N 0 2 5 7 1 9 7 8 Vo l u m e 4 5 N o . 1 1 • N o v / D e c 2 0 2 0 • R 5 5 . 0 0 ( i n c l . VAT )

ON THE COVER Established in 1999, Naidu Consulting’s growth has been founded on innovation and excellence, with success driven by a core investment in talent and mentorship. Along the way, this winning formula has been acknowledged by various industry associations, the most recent being the 2020 CESA Aon Engineering Excellence Awards. P6

IN THE HOT SEAT Dr Chris Hartnady, technical director at Umvoto Africa, outlines how geophysical surveying, geological mapping and hydrogeological monitoring techniques are helping shape a sustainable water supply model. P22

32

GEOMATICS The arrival of the digital twins

The way forward hinges on creativity 6

Infrastructure as a driver for economic growth

Industry Insight | Tshwane

Consulting Engineers

Taking Tshwane’s water-loss programme to the bank

8

Tshwane 14

Reigniting excellence

15

Engineering for the community

17

Integrated mobility for a highly effective city

18

Housing a strategic integrated project 20 21

Hot Seat | Geomatics Monitoring, modelling and managing groundwater

40

CESA Awards honour the best in engineering

New V&A bridge swings into operation

46

Sustainable Infrastructure Restoring an iconic reservoir

49

Precast systems that blend in

50

The evolution of the student pod

52

Renewable Energy 22

Geomatics

South Africa’s hybrid power solution 54 Energy storage no longer optional

56

Energy round-up

58 59

The future of surveying

24

Paving SA’s renewable future

Engineering software trusted by professionals worldwide

26

Vehicles & Equipment

The true value of spatial data professionals

27

The pitfalls and Acts that affect sectional title schemes

28

A leading provider of geospatial technologies and value-add services 31 The arrival of the digital twins

50

43

Roads & Bridges

Empowering SA through sustainable transport solutions

All systems go for TASEZ

39

32

SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE Precast systems that blend in

Precision spreaders

61

Emerging contractor sets strong example

62

Cement & Concrete Concrete courses via e-learning

64

Ageing infrastructure, non-revenue water, non-payment for services and rising water demand present myriad challenges for the City of Tshwane. Dr Erik Loubser, senior executive, GLS Consulting, discusses the development of a multipronged intervention that provides a viable return to profitability model and a bankable document for potential IMIESA November/December 2020 1 funders. P8

INDUSTRY INSIGHT


Tracking water consumption is made easy by Water Wise

The Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) aims to reduce water demand and increase supply to our growing population and economy to ensure water security by 2030. Currently, our waterstressed country faces economic water scarcity due to issues with the country’s water infrastructure, an ever-increasing demand on a limited supply and other environmental factors.

leaks, which can be easily detected if households monitor their water use by taking regular water meter readings. To assist people with this, Rand Water’s environmental brand, Water Wise, has developed a Water Wise calculator, which serves as a simple tool to estimate household water use and assist people in detecting high water-use activities and even leaks. The calculator, through a question–answer system, generates a water usage chart and an estimated cost (R) of the household’s water bill in a month. This estimated value should not be used to dispute municipal bills, however, as the value generated is based on general South African water use statistics. This calculator aims to assist the end-users to be responsible in ensuring optimal use of the water they receive.

Keeping track of water usage through the Water Footprint Assessment, founded by Arjen Hoekstra, is a step in the right direction that shines light on water use patterns in different aspects of society. With a deeper understanding of water consumption patterns and water balance, water utilities and municipalities can work towards improving their existing water-supply models, as well as addressing Achieving this will contribute to the bigger picture water wastage such as non-revenue water, and excessive use and leakages, in order to reduce of reduced water demand, ensuring a sustainable supply water losses in large distribution networks. of water for South Africa. End-users such as homeowners also encounter

www.randwater.co.za and click on the Water Wise logo FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON WATER WISE, PLEASE CONTACT US ON: 0860 10 10 60


EDITOR’S COMMENT MANAGING EDITOR Alastair Currie SENIOR JOURNALIST Danielle Petterson JOURNALIST Nombulelo Manyana HEAD OF DESIGN Beren Bauermeister CHIEF SUB-EDITOR Tristan Snijders CONTRIBUTORS Glynis Coetzee, Chris Kirchhoff, Erik Loubser, Gundo Maswime, Kevin Meier, Peter Newmarch, Ivan Reutener, Bhavna Soni, Altus Strydom, Carel Viljoen PRODUCTION & CLIENT LIAISON MANAGER Antois-Leigh Nepgen PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jacqueline Modise GROUP SALES MANAGER Chilomia Van Wijk BOOKKEEPER Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS subs@3smedia.co.za PRINTERS Novus Print Montague Gardens ___________________________________________________

New beginnings

T

he increasing sound of air traffic overhead is a welcome sign that we’re beginning to see a new form of normality returning. The happenings of 2020 were certainly unprecedented in our lifetime, but we know there are endless examples in history of wars and disease that have challenged us. Despite the cost, humanity has always persevered. In most cases, major events like these also serve as catalysts for positive change, shaking up the status quo, especially in terms of science and technology. In the immediate term, South Africa faces a shrinking tax base and a burgeoning public debt burden, compounded by continued policy uncertainty, which heavily dampens business confidence. During his 2020 Medium-term Budget Policy Statement, Minister of Finance Tito Mboweni put a new set of numbers on the table. This makes provision for a five-year fiscal consolidation pathway with the goal of stabilising the ratio of debt-to-GDP at around 95% during this period. Currently, South Africa borrows at a rate of some R2.1 billion per day, but where is the return on investment? What is clear is that there’s a high degree of volatility and unpredictability in the economic data coming in. That’s not surprising given the abnormal experiences and repercussions of the hard and extended lockdowns. As a result, the trends are now much harder to predict. South African economists, for example, are now talking about a return to pre-Covid-19 levels around 2025. But who really knows?

ADVERTISING SALES KEY ACCOUNT MANAGER Joanne Lawrie Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 / +27 (0)82 346 5338 Email: joanne@3smedia.co.za ___________________________________________________

PUBLISHER Jacques Breytenbach 3S Media 46 Milkyway Avenue, Frankenwald, 2090 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 www.3smedia.co.za ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: R600.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2020. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS HEAD OFFICE: Manager: Ingrid Botton P.O. Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Email: admin@imesa.org.za Website: www.imesa.org.za BORDER Secretary: Celeste Vosloo Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2433 Email: celestev@buffalocity.gov.za EASTERN CAPE Secretary: Susan Canestra Tel: +27 (0)41 585 4142 ext. 7 Email: imesaec@imesa.org.za KWAZULU-NATAL Secretary: Ingrid Botton Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Email: imesakzn@imesa.org.za NORTHERN PROVINCES Secretary: Ollah Mthembu Tel: +27 (0)82 823 7104 Email: np@imesa.org.za SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO Secretary: Henrietta Olivier Tel: +27 (0)79 390 7536 Email: imesasck@imesa.org.za

That’s why we must focus on the things we can control in making the Economic Reconstruction and Recovery Plan a resounding success. That includes a complete change in thinking on public procurement and SOE investment.

FREE STATE & NORTHERN CAPE Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27 (0)83 457 4362 Email: imesafsnc@imesa.org.za

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So much depends on the private sector to help drive South Africa’s recovery. For this reason, we must move into 2021 with a new participative approach that allows for joint stakeholder decision-making on how our socioeconomic landscape unfolds. Looking for similar solutions, a record number of voters turned out for the USA 2020 Presidential Election. We can hope for a similar result for South Africa’s 2021 municipal elections as voters push for change within their towns and cities. In the meantime, a special thanks to all our readers and advertisers for their support during 2020. Here’s wishing you a well-deserved festive season and a happy and constructive 2021.

Alastair To our avid readers, check out what we are talking about on our website, Facebook page or follow us on Twitter and have your say.

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Infrastructure News

IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

INFRASTRUCTURE

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Engagement

Zero-based budgeting

WESTERN CAPE Secretary: Michelle Ackerman Tel: +27 (0)21 444 7114 Email: imesawc@imesa.org.za

All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced either in whole or in part without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of the authors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers. _____________________________________________

For example, government’s proposal to move to zero-based budgeting is a sound one and will be piloted at the Department of Public Enterprises and National Treasury during 2021. To make expenditure work, it makes sense to prioritise funding on a project-by-project basis. That will also help to reduce the risk of recurring wasteful and fruitless expenditure. In this respect, Tsakani Maluleke’s appointment as the new Auditor-General (AG) of South Africa is a crucial one to take forward the commendable role played by the late outgoing AG, Kimi Makwetu. Let’s put his recommendations into practice.

DEVELOPMENT •

SERVICE DELIVERY

• ROADS • BUILDING

Taking Tshwane’s the bank loss programme to Dr Erik Loubser Senior Execu�ve, GLS

Geomatics

The arrival of the

Consul�ng

• MAINTENANCE

Municipal Focus

INDUSTRY INSIGHT water-

City of Tshwane

Renewable Energy SA’s hybrid power

digital twins

Glow Innovation that

solution

Cover opportunity

In each issue, IMIESA offers advertisers the opportunity to get to the front of the line by placing a company, product or service on the front cover of the journal. Buying this position will afford the advertiser the cover story and maximum exposure. For more information on cover bookings, contact Joanne Lawrie on +27 (0)82 346 5338.

s

IN THE HOT SEAT

and related Table Mountain Group known about the started to As geologists, we’ve we’ve never really decades; however, aquifer systems for now.” true potential until Umvoto Africa demonstrate their Technical Director, Dr Chris Hartnady

. 0 0 ( i n c l . VAT ) ec 2020 • R55 No. 11 • Nov/D 8 Vo l u m e 4 5 ISSN 0257 197

IMIESA November/December 2020

3


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(Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa & International Association of Water, Environment, Energy and Society)

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PRESIDENT’S COMMENT

IMESA

Ethics and engineering On 1 November 2020, I took over the role of IMESA President for the 2020-2022 period. This was a defining moment for me, personally, and for our institute, as I am the first woman president in its 60-year history.

N

ormally, the inauguration would have taken place at our annual conference, with Outgoing President Randeer Kasserchun handing over the chain of office. Instead, a small ceremony was conducted at our Durban head office, together with exco and branch representatives. I would like to thank everyone for their vote of confidence.

The early years Reflecting on my formative years, I’m not sure if I chose engineering, or engineering chose me. My vocational journey began as a civil engineering student at South Gujarat University in India, the country of my birth. In those days, it was less common for women to study any field of engineering. In fact, of the 500 firstyear undergraduates registered for my class, only 12 were women, 11 of whom graduated with me in 1987. Since then, a number have gone on to complete their doctorates. After university, my early career in India was in the structural engineering field, which provided me with an excellent grounding in concrete technology. On immigrating to South Africa, I continued in the same field, designing a range of structures – from high-rise buildings to bridges and silos. I joined eThekwini Municipality in 1997, again as a structural engineer, designing structures such as reservoirs. My manager at the time could see the passion I had for hydraulics and encouraged me to accept a position in bulk infrastructure planning. That was a major turning point for me, and I’ve been fortunate to work on some of the city’s most iconic projects

in recent times, especially the Northern and Western Aqueducts.

A holistic process The impact of Covid-19 has highlighted the key service delivery gaps. As municipal engineers, our task is to execute the best solutions available for communities and the environment. In my current role as deputy head: Engineering Services at eThekwini Water and Sanitation, I’m acutely aware of this responsibility. From experience, I know that engineering cannot take place in isolation. We must also take cognisance of the financial and social implications of good and bad service delivery. Perfecting the right model is a holistic process and one to which IMESA is firmly committed in finding the right balance.

infrastructure delivered must also provide a good return on investment. If a system design subsequently fails to deliver, the municipal engineer needs to be able to defend their decision to specify a product or process. Adhering to a code of conduct is the norm in any professional discipline, and ours is an especially onerous, yet highly rewarding, one that directly affects how our communities and economies function. That’s leadership in practice.

Code of conduct The quest for excellence can only be achieved through ongoing mentorship and training. That remains a core focus going forward, and we’ll be making greater use of virtual platforms to reach as many municipalities as possible through e-learning and continuous professional development (CPD) programmes. In addition to this, we want to make ethics a compulsory CPD component, because adhering to an ethical code directly influences how current and future infrastructure projects are funded, managed and delivered. As municipal engineers, we have a responsibility to ensure that the best solutions are delivered at the best price. Projects need to be managed professionally, on time and within budget. The future operating costs of the

Bhavna Soni, president, IMESA

IMIESA November/December 2020

5


COVER STORY

The way forward hinges on creativity Established in 1999, Naidu Consulting’s growth has been founded on innovation and excellence, with success driven by a core investment in talent and mentorship. Along the way, this winning formula has been acknowledged by various industry associations, the most recent being the 2020 CESA Aon Engineering Excellence Awards.

M

eeting the objectives of South Africa’s National Development Plan 2030 is a longer-term priority for all industry sectors and an imperative for micro- and macroeconomic growth. The more immediate one, however, is the execution of the Economic Reconstruction and Recovery Plan as a strategic response to the socio-economic fallout caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. Major infrastructure investments are a core part of the response and the construction sector is standing by to deliver. Implementation is the key, which makes selecting the most practical and efficient design and construction methodologies essential. “Rather than dwelling on the problems that constrain infrastructure delivery, we focus on creating value-engineered solutions that work. The emphasis is on getting the job done, on time and on budget, and bringing the community on board at all stages,” says Devan Govender, Pr Eng, Technical Executive: Economic Development. “For this reason, we’re especially proud of our 2020 CESA Aon Engineering Excellence

6

IMIESA November/December 2020

The longest composite bridge over the Tugela River: Mabhobhane River Bridge

Awards since they affirm the success of our operating philosophy. We know we faced tough competition so, in accepting these awards, we’d like to acknowledge and thank all CESA firms for their invaluable role in collectively rebuilding and recapacitating South African infrastructure. It’s a winning team approach,” Govender continues.

Delivering for the community Tackling South Africa's triple challenge of inequality, poverty and unemployment presents major opportunities for creative engineering. This includes the more widespread adoption of alternative techniques like labour-intensive construction (LIC). The latter is a core specialisation for Naidu Consulting, which was instrumental in implementing LIC for the first time on several Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) projects for the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Transport (DoT). LIC positively changed the DoT’s understanding and acceptance of this approach for SAQA training and SMME development within disadvantaged communities.

“We constantly research the best-fit technologies. Historically, for example, we designed the first green roads rehabilitated highway in Africa through several innovative recycling techniques, including the adoption of recycled asphalt,” says Govender.

A ‘glow in the dark’ bridge The eZimbokodweni Pipe and Pedestrian Bridge is a classic example of how Naidu Consulting’s out-of-the-box thinking adds value. The project won the category ‘Projects with a value less than R50 million’ at the 2020 CESA Aon Engineering Excellence Awards. Although delivering a new sanitation service was the main mandate from eThekwini Municipality, Naidu Consulting saw the opportunity to further enhance the community experience by incorporating photoluminescent ‘glow in the dark’ polymer concrete handrails and posts in its design proposal. A first-time application in South Africa, the technology was envisaged by Naidu Consulting and developed by Resocrete Polymers. In addition, the footpaths leading to the bridge also incorporate the same material. The final execution can best be described as an exceptional interpretation of social engineering. “Using photoluminescent polymer concrete as a lighting solution will eliminate conventional electricity costs, as well as vandalism and cable theft,” says

2020 CESA AON ENGINEERING EXCELLENCE AWARDS Category: Projects with a value less than R50 million Winner: eZimbokodweni Pipe and Pedestrian Bridge Category: Projects with a value between R50 and R250 million Commendation: Mabhobhane River Bridge Category: Business Excellence Winner Category: Mentoring Company of the Year Winner Category: Mentor of the Year Recognition: Pierre Cronje (Pr Eng)


COVER STORY

FUTURE LEADERS THAT SHAPE OUR WORLD

ABOVE Mentorship is applied throughout the organisation, including the flagship Academy of Excellence Programme targeting student technicians

Once placed, the steel trusses were used to temporarily support the construction of the concrete deck slab, completing the composite deck section. This facilitated the construction of ABOVE RIGHT Using photoluminescent polymer concrete as a lighting solution for the the deck without the constraint of falsework and eZimbokodweni Pipe and Pedestrian Bridge formwork supported from the riverbed, which is known for flash flooding. Josh Padayachee, Pr Eng, Director: Bridges and Buildings. “It’s also a solution that is maintenance-free with a long-term cost saving to the client.” Standing approximately 10 m above the existing riverbed, the 160 m long box girder deck accommodates a 1 000 mm diameter HDPE gravity sewer pipeline. The deck is prestressed and comprises six equal spans.

Mabhobhane River Bridge In the same vein, Naidu Consulting’s Commendation Award at the 2020 CESA Aon Engineering Excellence Awards for the Mabhobhane River Bridge is another prime example of community empowerment. The project was entered in the category ‘Projects with a value between R50 and R250 million’. Naidu Consulting was also the first company in South Africa to win both the CommunityBased Projects Award and Technical Excellence Award for this bridge at the SAICE Branch Awards in 2019. Historically, members from the Bangindoda community, situated on the Eshowe side of the Tugela River, had to cross the river by boat to access basic services such as schools, clinics, and pension pay points. When the boat was out of operation or the river was impassable, community members had to travel approximately 28 km to the nearest town of Eshowe. The client’s brief was to develop an economical solution that would accommodate the environmentally sensitive area and accelerate the construction process. The final design entailed the construction of a 330 m long composite structural steel truss and reinforced concrete slab deck, with spans of up to 40 m. This is the longest composite bridge to be constructed over the Tugela. Selecting a composite, modular bridge deck solution meant that the 350 t of structural steel could be prefabricated off-site, concurrently with the construction of the substructure.

The talent that drives innovation Training and mentorship to professional registration are the foundations for engineering excellence. Without a sustained talent pool, firms cannot operate. And without a steady supply of technicians, technologists and engineers, the construction industry cannot function. At Naidu Consulting, mentorship is key, transferring skills at every level via a top-down and bottom-up approach. Transformation is central to this, providing a platform for men and women from previously disadvantaged backgrounds to imagine and achieve a career in engineering. Receiving the Mentor of the Year Award at the 2020 CESA Aon Engineering Excellence Awards validated this commitment. The focal point was the recognition award bestowed on Naidu Consulting’s Perrie Cronje, Pr Eng, as Mentor of the Year. “We’re one of the few consulting engineering companies in South Africa to establish an Empowerment Unit as well as a formal training programme that assists other professional firms to enhance job creation through virtual and augmented platforms. We also run LIC courses for industry because Naidu Consulting’s philosophy is to capacitate industry to make a real difference,” says Morag Horne, Pr HRP, HR Executive. “Consulting engineers play a pivotal role in assisting government to ensure the best spend on infrastructure projects and to deliver on government’s corridor development strategies. Our commitment as consulting engineers is to unpack and mobilise delivery,” Govender concludes.

Nokwanda Khumalo, B Tech, Project Manager Nokwanda is an aspirant young engineering technologist who leads from the front. After completing her practical training for a National Diploma in Civil Engineering with Naidu Consulting, Nokwanda was subsequently awarded a bursary to complete her BTech. She is currently registered for an MTech, with a key focus on LIC. “At Naidu Consulting, the emphasis is on out-of-the-box thinking. The company is constantly looking for ways to evolve. That suits my personality perfectly. It’s an exciting experience working here and seeing the real difference our engineered responses make for communities.” Hhlengiwe Cbekhulu, BTech, Youth Programme Leader Hhlengiwe joined Naidu Consulting through the Academy of Excellence Programme and overcame major personal challenges to become an engineer, having grown up in a traditional, rural environment. “I realised the challenges facing women, particularly the negative perception of our ability to perform in a historically male-led industry. I drew inspiration from women who have gone against the grain and gained success in the industry.” Hlengiwe receiving her completion certificate from Mentor of the Year Pierre Cronje

Philani Mkhize, Pr Tech Eng, BIM Lead: Roads and Highways Business Unit Philani joined Naidu Consulting as a designer. “BIM has revolutionised the way engineers can design, interrogate and refine buildings and structures using virtual and augmented reality. Working for Naidu Consulting exposes me to the latest smart technologies. It’s great to work for such a futuristic company.”

www.naiduconsulting.com

IMIESA November/December 2020

7


TSHWANE | INDUSTRY INSIGHT

Ageing infrastructure, non-revenue water, non-payment for services and rising water demand present myriad challenges for the City of Tshwane. Dr Erik Loubser, senior executive, GLS Consulting, discusses the development of a multipronged intervention that provides a viable return to profitability model and a bankable document for potential funders.

Taking Tshwane’s water-loss programme

S

outh Africa’s largest municipality in terms of landmass, the City of Tshwane (CoT) has 240 water distribution management zones (DMZs) either supplied by a reservoir, water tower or direct connection to a bulk pipeline. The supporting infrastructure network is extensive, comprising 658 km of bulk pipeline, 9 943 km of reticulation pipes, 183 pumping stations, 151 reservoirs and 31 water towers. The construction value of the system is estimated at more than R20 billion. From the onset, the scope of our water-loss reduction feasibility study was to analyse each DMZ as the starting point for system improvements. To achieve this, a DMZ database was compiled and populated with all the requisite water-use/billing, water-loss, water pressure, customer debt and water system condition information. Once completed, this was then used to develop a set of rulesbased decision-trees to determine first-order, optimal water-loss interventions and costs for each DMZ.

to the bank

The capex, opex and water-loss reduction benefits associated with each indicated intervention (Table 1) were formulated in a 20-year cash flow model. These incremental cash flows were then discounted to net present value (NPV) terms. Each DMZ model considered their unique characteristics, including average tariff earned, collection rate and water balance. City-wide modelling was also performed to evaluate the impact of four alternative DMZbased intervention implementation strategies.

The evaluation was based on the projected cash flows of the city’s water services as a whole. This evaluation considered its ability to service the resultant debt, and to generate future excess cash for future interventions without the need for external funding.

Water resource

Most of CoT’s bulk water is purchased from Rand Water via the Vaal River system, but there are also minor supplies from Magalies Water, plus 13 water treatment plants (WTPs), various boreholes and fountains. TABLE 1 Possible water-loss interventions Developing or extending CoT’s own POSSIBLE WATER-LOSS INTERVENTION WHEN APPROPRIATE water resources would reduce the load Install bulk meter(s) for SIV/water-loss calculation No bulk meter/for loss calculation on the Vaal River system. On the other Log bulk meter No logging/determine MNF/calibrate AADD hand, though, increased sewer return Pressure management High static and/or dynamic pressures flows into the Crocodile River basin are Leak detection and fixing Indication of high real losses/high MNF important for current and future Pipe replacement Indication of deteriorating pipe condition downstream users, which include proposed Eskom coal-fired power plants Meter audit/replacement Indication of old and/or improperly sized meters in Lephalale via the Mokolo Crocodile Connection replacement Indication of old and/or deteriorating connections Water Augmentation Project. Retrofitting Indication of high MNF/UWDs and cost recovery risk Water management devices

Indication of excessive UWDs

Billing data clean-up

Indication of many unbilled stands/areas

Check DMZ boundary discreteness

Indication of cross-boundary flows

Rezoning/sectorisation

Large zone or potential PRV sub-zone

Punitive tariffs

Indication of excessive UWDs (overconsumption)

(AADD = Annual Ave. Daily Demand; SIV = System Input Volume; MNF= Minimum Night Flow; UWD = Unit Water Demand)

8

IMIESA November/December 2020

Current (actual) water demand and water balance Data from the 2017/18 financial year was available as the basis for this study. The actual water balance for CoT as shown in Table 2 was determined using invoices from Rand Water and Magalies


TSHWANE | INDUSTRY INSIGHT Water, inputs from own water sources, bulk meter data, billing data, and estimated supplies to unbilled areas. The authorised consumption includes supply to informal areas (44.3 Mℓ/day) and unbilled unmetered customers (33.7 Mℓ/day). The total water loss was thus determined at 27.3% or, on average, 244.3 Mℓ/day (for 2017/18). It is not possible to ‘measure’ the contributions of real versus apparent loss, and the worldwide accepted metric is to assume that 72% is real loss and 28% apparent loss. Thus, in the case of CoT, real loss is estimated at 175.9 Mℓ/day and apparent loss at 68.4 Mℓ/day. The unavoidable real loss (URL) for CoT is estimated per industry-standard formula as 35 Mℓ/day, meaning that the estimated recoverable real loss (RRL) is 140.9 Mℓ/day.

Cost of water supply An analysis of the costs of water input by the city was conducted and revealed the actual current cost of water input to be R12.73/kℓ. If this is adjusted to account for water losses (27.3%) and collection rate (86.3%), the total cost of water per kℓ billed and collected amounts to R20.39/kℓ. CoT’s actual cost (R12.73/kℓ), before adjusting for NRW and collection risk, aligns with that of other South African metros, such as Cape Town, Johannesburg and Nelson Mandela Bay.

Current weighted average water tariffs billed (R18.47/kℓ) only partially cover the equivalent actual cost of water supply. In light of deteriorating infrastructure and staff capacity constraints, the current weighted average water tariffs billed are unlikely to be sustainable, as repairs and maintenance spend increase and vacant posts are filled.

Water demand and cost recovery risk Using bootstrap techniques on the empirical data, rather than fitted probability density functions, the actual empirical distribution of demand in each DMZ was determined, with confidence bands for annual average daily demand (AADD) and billed income for stress testing the financial modelling of the NPV of water-loss interventions in each DMZ. The same technique was also used to determine the actual empirical probability density function of current billed income. The various DMZs were categorised into a cost recovery risk matrix shown (per Figure 1) as: High Consumption/Low Recovery Risk (Green); Low Consumption/Low Recovery Risk (Light Green); Low Consumption/High Recovery Risk (Yellow); and High Consumption/High Recovery Risk (Red).

Future water demand and risk The available Spatial Development Framework (SDF) at the time of this study represents more

than a doubling of the city over approximately 45 years at a rate of around 2% per annum. For this study, a 20-year horizon was considered. Based on future assumptions, a 95% confidence band for the additional future anticipated 20-year AADD was established as between 304 Mℓ/day and 612 Mℓ/day. This information was requisite input into the stress testing of the financial viability of proposed water-loss reduction interventions in each DMZ and was also aggregated input to the city-wide analysis.

Detailed terms of reference per DMZ After the first-order intervention analysis, a much more detailed analysis per DMZ was done to ensure the appropriateness of each indicated intervention and to refine the scope of works for each DMZ. Each DMZ was considered a ‘subproject’ and this resulted in detailed terms of reference (ToR), capital and recurring operational costing. For each DMZ, a detailed map showing all capex works required and other relevant information, a detailed bill of quantities, and a scope of works were developed.

Potential benefits per DMZ In order to evaluate the bankability of each intervention subproject, an estimation of the benefits of the intervention was required. Potential benefits considered were: • reduction in SIV

TABLE 2 Water balance for CoT in 2017/18 (in Mℓ/day)

Billed authorised 617.5 69% Authorised consumption 651.2 72.7%

Unbilled authorised 33.7 4%

SIV 895.5

Billed metered consumption 573.1 64% Billed unmetered consumption* 44.3 5% Unbilled metered consumption 0 0% Unbilled unmetered consumption 33.7 4% Unauthorised consumption 10% 24.4 3%

Water loss 244.3 27.3%

Commercial losses @28% 68.4 8%

Revenue water 617.5 69%

Customer meter inaccuracies @10% 24.4 3%

Non-revenue water 278.0 31%

Data transfer errors @8% 19.5 2% Real losses @72% 175.9 20%

Real losses 175.9 20%

* Informal supply

IMIESA November/December 2020

9


TSHWANE | INDUSTRY INSIGHT technical interventions: all DMZs or only those DMZs that revealed a positive project NPV, and whether the suite of interventions should include pipe replacement or not (per Tables 3 and 4). A recommended feasibility scenario was developed after rigorous financial analysis and consultation with CoT officials, engagement with the technical work stream members on the practical roll-out recommendations of interventions, and consideration of the funding implications of staggered implementation over a five-year period. This final selected scenario is based on the roll-out of interventions, excluding pipe replacement, to all 240 identified DMZs in CoT. The aggregate capex requirement of this scenario amounts to R471.4 million.

Funding timeline to 2033/34

FIGURE 1 DMZ recovery risk categorisation

• reduction in water demand • increase in metered/billable water consumption. The ToR, costing and benefits were used as inputs into a financial model, which determined the NPV for each DMZ subproject. This allowed for the subprojects to be ranked in accordance with their ‘bankability’ (i.e. their NPV). The interventions, and their respective costing breakdowns are listed in Table 3. These include leak detection and repair, pressure management and pipeline replacement. It is clear from Table 3 that pipe replacement, as it is done in CoT (wholesale replacements per suburb), requires significant capex but results in a relatively minor impact on water-loss reduction benefits.

DMZ level financial modelling The DMZ level financial model calculates both a project and equity NPV based on the net incremental cash flows over the envisaged 20-year period. Project NPV is based on only the present value of incremental cash flows between costs and revenue potential benefits of the interventions. The equity NPV is based on project cash flows after indicative funding terms for the capex required for interventions per DMZ. All interventions were assumed to be implemented in project year 1 for comparability across the results of the 240 DMZs evaluated. These project NPV results were used to rank the financial preference of each DMZ for implementation of the technical suite of interventions. The results of the 240 DMZs with all the technical interventions, as recommended based on the technical decision-trees explained earlier, revealed an aggregate funding

10

IMIESA November/December 2020

requirement of R3 422 million. The majority of the DMZs, however, do not achieve a financial viable cash flow profile that can be expected to settle the debt required to fund their interventions. This funding requirement is significantly reduced with the exclusion of the pipe replacement intervention. The number of DMZs with a positive project NPV increased and the ability to settle debt funding is also improved as a result. Table 4 shows a summarised comparison of the key results of the DMZ modelling, including and excluding the pipe replacement intervention.

City-wide financial modelling The city-wide study was based on the projected cash flows of CoT water services as a whole. It considered CoT’s ability to service the resultant debt and ability to generate future excess cash to allow for future interventions to be implemented without the need for external funding. Four implementation strategies were considered for the roll-out of the suite of

The profile for the five consecutive annual tranches of project finance to fund the capex requirements of the suite of recommended interventions shows a funding peak of R404.4 million in 2024/25. Once all the facilities have been drawn, the maximum required repayment per annum occurs in 2026/27 at R95.2 million. All funding tranches are projected to be repaid by the close of 2033/34, and a consolidated NPV in excess of R2.3 billion is projected for all cash flows over the 20-year horizon. While pipe replacement has been excluded from the financial packaging of the recommended scenario, it remains a very important intervention in the context of proper asset management, and CoT is encouraged to consider the recommended pipe replacements in each of the DMZs indicated, should other sources of funding be available. The same applies to the implementation of master plan items, where required, to eliminate capacity backlogs in parallel with the waterloss interventions.

FIGURE 2 Recommended five-year feasibility scenario – Funding exposure


TSHWANE | INDUSTRY INSIGHT TABLE 3 Summary of interventions and benefits (with costs)

POSSIBLE WATER-LOSS INTERVENTION

Estimated Estimated Number capex PV of opex of DMZs (R million) (R million)

Install bulk meter(s) for SIV/ water-loss calculation Log bulk meter Pressure management Leak detection and fixing

129 55

R6,205 R96,259

15

R6,373

Potential AADD saving (kℓ/d)

Potential increase in AADD (kℓ/d)

Potential billing cleanup (kℓ/d)

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

Min

Max

R7,32

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R11,337

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R37,202 11 970 23 156

4 781

9 270

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

R39,68

111

Potential SIV saving (kℓ/d)

R10,042

2 810

5 619

Pipe replacement

36 R3 006,325

R0,000

Meter audit/replacement

97

R63,439

R0,000

6 208 15 219

Connection replacement

41

R139,729

R0,000

Retrofitting

13

R23,531

R70,594

3 250 11 766 7 165 10 236

7 165 10 236

0

0

2 789

5578

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 8 912 11 691

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3 250 11 765

0

0

0

0

Water management devices

13

R33,616

R53,786

0

0

0

0

Billing data clean-up

71

Internal

Internal

0

0

0

0

0

0 9 890

24 514

Check DMZ boundary discreteness

21

R7,409

R0,000

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Rezoning/sectorisation

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Punitive tariffs

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

R190,28 34 177 71 549 15 197 31 271 8 913 11 689 9 890

24 514

R3 422,57

TABLE 4 Comparison in NPV and funding requirement between including and excluding pipe replacement

Scenario

Incl. pipe replacement

Full funding requirement

Excl. pipe replacement

Comment

R 3 422 million

R 416 million 88% reduction funding requirement

DMZs with project NPV≥0

106

143 29% increase in DMZs with pos. NPV

DMZs with Project NPV<0

134

Monitoring and evaluation of results As and when the proposed water-loss intervention projects are implemented, the success (or not) of the interventions will have to be monitored. The primary key performance indicators (KPIs) in this regard have been identified as: • SIV • Authorised AADD (billed, unbilled) • MNF • Water loss (volume, %) • SIV saving (kℓ/day, ZAR/a) • Total billed amount (ZAR/a) • Customers with 60d+ debt (%) • Total collected revenue (ZAR/a) • PRV/Critical point/Average pressures. The identified KPIs have been calculated in this feasibility study (where possible) for each DMZ in base year 2017/18, using an analysis of the billing and bulk meter data, and analysis of data loggings. CoT currently has a web-based platform on which all information related to water and sanitation is stored, including models of

existing systems, master planning of systems (based on SDF), and all billing and waterbalance-related data. There is an existing contract to maintain this data (on a monthly update frequency basis). This platform also links to an existing remote monitoring system for flows and pressures, and is ideally suited for the monitoring of the proposed water-loss KPIs. It is envisaged that the DMZ data, which is already available and being updated on the web platform, be extended (where necessary) to include the KPIs that need to be monitored. The proposed SQL database is designed so that all KPIs can be date-stamped in order to allow for trend monitoring over time. All this detailed data collection and analysis now opens the door to the next most critical phase, namely implementation. We believe the models presented have been stress tested and are highly workable and bankable. According to a CoT press statement issued on 11 November 2020, the Mayoral Committee approved the implementation of this waterloss reduction strategy and programme.

97 25% reduction in DMZs with neg. NPV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The following team members were an integral part of this study: Niel Meyer (WRP Consulting) Herbert Dreyer (Pegasys) Kerry Fair (GLS Consulting) Lesego Lekubu (City of Tshwane) Konstant Bruinette (DBSA)

The interventions/projects identified from this feasibility study will, however, require more resources for long-term operations and maintenance, specifically for plumbing teams, where CoT faces major resource constraints.

www.gls.co.za

IMIESA November/December 2020

11


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Empowering SA through sustainable transport solutions As an award-winning South African transport solutions provider, SIYAZI offers public transport planning, development and traffic engineering solutions for everything from municipal to residential and commercial developments.

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IYAZI was founded in 1996 and has grown into a professional transport engineering solutions specialist operating throughout South Africa, with offices based in the Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga and the North West. A registered member of the Engineering Council of South Africa, SIYAZI offers the following professional services: • data surveys •  database analyses and geographical information systems (GIS) development • development planning •  public transport planning and project management • travel demand management and modelling • traffic engineering •  community service (conflict handling, mediation and facilitation) • training and capacity building • economic analysis, municipal finance • public transport management • policy and strategy development • development of cooperatives.

Empowering communities SIYAZI places a strong emphasis on empowering communities and individuals through the implementation of sustainable transport solutions. “Our solutions offer sustainable approaches that empower local communities. Together with the various role players in the projects we work on, SIYAZI makes a difference in the delivery of effective solutions to meet the needs of people from grassroots level all the way up to executive management,” says Sias Oosthuizen, CEO, SIYAZI. “It is in working together that we will build a strong, equitable and prosperous South Africa,

14

IMIESA November/December 2020

characterised by effective and convenient mobility solutions.” This view is embraced within the organisation as well. SIYAZI’s holding company, SIYAZI Legacy Holdings, has a 40% shareholding by previously disadvantaged individuals through Ukusebenzisana Investments, 91% of which, in turn, belongs to a SIYAZI workers’ trust. The company is strongly committed to ensuring sustainable Broad-based Black Economic Empowerment and has formulated a strategy aimed at establishing local offices in provinces across the country in order to empower and develop previously disadvantaged individuals. “We strongly believe that knowledge shared is knowledge gained, and skills development is key to unlocking the sustainable wealth contained in a resilient South African economy,” says Oosthuizen.

as a transport and traffic engineer. Roets has extensive experience working with private and municipal entities – and in ensuring cooperation between the two – and has also been involved in projects concerning the taxi industry for most of his career. “SIYAZI was founded with the express goal of empowering communities and individuals through the implementation of sustainable transport solutions. Our mission is to become a key transport specialist in South Africa and the continent through effective, sustainable empowerment and skills transfer to provide transport solutions that favour job creation,” concludes Oosthuizen.

Solid foundations SIYAZI’s service offering is built on solid in-house skills. As CEO, Oosthuizen has more than 40 years’ experience in the transport sector. He has been instrumental in the planning of numerous integrated “Together with the public transport plans for various various role players in the municipalities, the development projects we work on, SIYAZI of guidelines for the first Current makes a difference in the Public Transport Record surveys done in Gauteng, and negotiating delivery of effective solutions and managing transport provision to meet the needs of people for the 2010 FIFA World Cup from grassroots level all in eThekwini. the way up to executive Oosthuizen was also involved in the development of the first taxi management.” liaison committees in the East Rand, and SIYAZI has gone on to design several Sias Oosthuizen, taxi ranks for the City of Ekurhuleni. CEO, SIYAZI He is backed up by technical director Leon Roets, who has over 25 years’ experience


Reigniting excellence

THE 10-POINT SERVICE DELIVERY INTERVENTIONS ENTAIL:

Elected to the office of Executive Mayor of Tshwane in November 2020, Cllr Randall Williams has mapped out a plan of action to move the city for ward. A 10-point ser vice deliver y inter vention spearheads these initiatives.

F

rom the onset, Williams and the Members of the Mayoral Committee (MMCs) will focus on turning around major financial shortfalls. For the financial year ended 30 June 2020, the city recorded a deficit of approximately R4.4 billion. “A crucial objective of mine is to enhance project management in the city by developing a robust internal capacity to ensure that city projects are completed,” said Williams. “I have even gone so far as to develop specific key performance indicators (KPIs) that I want departments to track. This will ensure that they report on exactly what I ask of them,” Williams explained. According to the city, capital budget spending for the past financial year was one

-P  rioritising the electrical grid and water infrastructure - Implementing a robust Covid-19 management strategy -C  reating a reliable waste and refuse removal service -P  roviding stringent financial management and oversight - E nhancing city safety and emergency services -P  romoting employment and economic growth in the city - S upporting the vulnerable and providing social relief - F ast-tracking development by cutting red tape -A  pplying expansive financial cost-cutting across city processes -M  aintaining and expanding road infrastructure

of the lowest in recent years. Going forward, the emphasis is on making sure available funds are tracked and spent in stimulating growth and job creation. Key strategic projects include stabilising operations at Wonderboom Airport, which has been under the ownership of the city since 2000, and the ongoing refurbishment of water and sanitation infrastructure. In terms of the latter, this includes the ongoing upgrade of the Rooiwal Wastewater Treatment Works. The city has also approved a strategy to address non-revenue water losses, which in the past financial year had risen to approximately 30.2%. This programme will be backed by infrastructure investments within the city’s 240 water distribution management zones.

Cutting the red tape To help combat administrative bottlenecks that constrain effective delivery, the city is implementing a Development Application Management System (DAME). Phase I commenced in November 2020 and will progressively transition the city to an automated online planning system. Key areas will include zoning applications and township establishment. At this stage, the DAME launch date is scheduled for April 2021. Revenue collection is another top priority as the city strives to manage a mushrooming debtor’s book, which has increased by over R5 billion during 2020. The situation has been compounded by the financial pressures placed on households and businesses during the Covid-19 lockdown.

IMIESA November/December 2020

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ENGINEERING FOR THE COMMUNITY Based in Potchefstroom and working nationally, Korone Engineers is a BBBEE Level 1 consulting engineering firm that is committed to building sustainable infrastructure for South African communities. IMIESA speaks to the company's founder, OB Adejinmi (George), about the unfolding vision.

A

multidisciplinar y company, Korone Engineers was founded in 2009 and is now a well-established consulting and project management firm offering core services in the civil and structural engineering, project management, development ser vices, electrical and mechanical fields. “We believe in a process-driven approach when planning projects that combines bestfit technologies with the right construction methodology,” says Adejinmi. “Time and cost management are priorities, as is developing the best return on investment (ROI) for our predominantly municipal clients. Within our engineering teams, we support this through the ongoing training, development and mentorship of our personnel.”

Following local and international trends, Korone Engineers specialises in the delivery of turnkey contracts that package and produce efficient results. “To achieve this, project and financial management are core skills we’ve focused on,” says Adejinmi. “With turnkey, we can manage the full process holistically.”

These comprise two wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) and a water treatment plant, all of which are in North West province. Korone Engineers is also in the process of upgrading the Ekangala WWTW in the City of Tshwane. In addition, a new reservoir is under construction in Fortwest, Pretoria West.

Design, build, operate and maintain

Roads market

Since inception, water and sanitation projects have numbered among Korone’s milestone contracts. Ageing water and wastewater treatment facilities need critical attention. Developing new facilities is equally important to meet population growth in urban centres. Alongside new construction works, Korone Engineers has responded by providing an operations and maintenance (O&M) service, which includes the technical training of municipal maintenance personnel. Here, researching the best technology options is a core priority. “Selecting the right technologies when it comes to pumps, motors and systems automation is essential. We always stress the need to install locally proven components that have full service and parts backup,” Adejinmi continues. “We also believe that an existing treatment works or pump station must be fully refurbished and brought to its original design operational capacity before soliciting for an upgrade. This approach inhibits fruitless expenditure for government,” he continues. Currently, Korone Engineers is managing three treatment works on an O&M basis.

The roads construction market is a major business area and is vital in supporting South Africa’s socio-economic growth. This is especially the case for rural communities, where low-volume road networks are a vital element in enabling communities to access markets, jobs, educational and medical facilities. “Rebuilding gravel and secondary municipal roads is listed as an immediate priority in government’s Economic Reconstruction and Recovery Plan and, as such, this is a key focus for Korone Engineers going into 2021,” says Adejinmi. On Korone Engineers’ current roads projects, labour-intensive construction techniques form part of the design in accordance with Expanded Public Works Programme guidelines. Four projects are currently in progress – one in North West and the balance in Tshwane. The North West project entails the upgrading and resurfacing of an approximately 10 km road in Moretele Local Municipality. “We have a reputation for value engineering, with a major emphasis on socially engineered outcomes. That’s always been the foundation for Korone Engineers’ growth to date,” Adejinmi concludes.

IMIESA November/December 2020

17


TSHWANE

Pretoria, South Africa’s capital, is beautiful this time of year. Imagine cycling through purple streets, lined with Jacaranda trees, and arriving at work refreshed and energised for the day. By Ivan Reutener*

Integrated mobility for a highly effective city

A

nd yet the City of Tshwane’s roads are clogged with too many private cars that emit unnecessary greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cocoon their single occupants from the beautiful landscape around them. Globally, transport accounts for around a quarter1 of global CO2 emissions. Shifting transport to more sustainable and suitable modes for the specific trip required (e.g. walking or cycling when travelling less than 500 m or catching a bus for a 10 km trip) and number of people is vitally important. Let’s consider how we can achieve that in a single city. According to the Tshwane Household Travel Survey (THTS) 20132, the main modes of transport back then were:

• Train: 3.0%

Leveraging urban mobility to create better cities This is the focus of my research after completing a Massachusetts Institute of Technology course. Using data from the THTS and other readily available sources, preliminary results from my desktop study on ‘Leveraging Urban Mobility Disruptions to Create Better Cities’ indicates that a 40% reduction in GHGs is achievable. We achieved this result using shared mobility principles6, integrating transport modes for different parts of the journey, and introducing appropriate modes of choice depending on the distance travelled. Here, I discuss four key elements of the study: transit, micro-mobility, electric vehicle share, and remote work.

• Bus: 5.7%

Transit

• School bus: 4.6%

Mass public transit must form the backbone of an integrated public transport system, which should also include shared and on-demand modes. This redefinition of public transport is necessary to provide seamless, door-todoor journeys that eliminate the need for a private car. Cities with efficient, integrated and accessible public transport systems reduce

• Minibus taxi: 22.1% • Private car: 33.1% • Walking: 29.3% • Other (cycling, skateboard, etc.): 2.1%

18

Since the survey – the most recent official data available – additional transport modes have been established, like the A Re Yeng (meaning ‘Let’s go’) bus rapid transit system. Disruptive transport and mobility technology, such as e-hailing services (e.g. Uber and Bolt), micro-mobility solutions (e.g. electric bikes and scooters for hire), and CASE (connected, autonomous, shared and electric) mobility, would have also altered this landscape. And then there’s the impact of Covid-19 on the global workforce, with many more people working from home today than in 2013. I look forward to the results of the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS 2020)3, which took place between January and March 2020, to see how things have changed.

Until then, we need to investigate how disruptive technology can be integrated into the city’s existing transport network to ease the CO2 burden in line with the Paris Agreement – which South Africa is a signatory to4 – to reduce GHGs and limit the global temperature increase to below 2°C. The Climate Action Tracker5 currently rates South Africa’s target as ‘Highly Insufficient’.

IMIESA November/December 2020


private car ownership and, therefore, traffic congestion and emissions. There are a number of advantages to having public transport as a main line. Commuters can travel longer distances, transport operators can carry more people, and a strong transit stop serves as an ideal catalyst for a mobility hub. Open application programme interfaces have created a new class of transit apps for route discovery. They not only calculate the best routes for trains and buses, but are also increasingly including micro-mobility options, transportation network companies (TNCs) like Bolt and Uber, and private vehicle-sharing. To work efficiently, transit services must be frequent and reliable, with the ability to comfortably support high-capacity passenger loads. To promote public transport as the transit backbone, policies that drive the city’s goals and objectives must be in place, with a commitment to make transport safe and equitable. For example, free Wi-Fi on transit modes will make these solutions more accessible to more people, and integrated safety features, like an in-app panic button, ensure safety.

Micro-mobility Transit as a main line is not flexible and must be supplemented by various feeder services. Micromobility is ideal, with its flexibility as a first- or last-mile service to and from the mobility hub. It creates the opportunity to include other services and is also key to reducing GHGs in urban areas. The Three Revolutions in Urban Transportation report7 identifies vehicle electrification, automation, and widespread shared mobility as the three revolutions that will change urban transportation across the world and help to reduce GHGs by a staggering 80%. Bicycle- and e-bike-sharing systems can reduce and shorten vehicle trips, and congestion pricing and technology can discourage single-occupant private car use within high-density core areas. Micro-mobility services are the disruption within the disruption and are ideal for multimodal integration. According to The New Automobility report8, TNCs and microtransit services can be valuable extensions of – but not replacements for – fixed-route public transit. There are, however, issues with fare integration and the perception that micro-mobility will poach commuters from main transit lines. This is why promoting the benefits of micro-mobility is important.

substantial uptake of EVs9 because of affordability concerns. Among the key factors are battery costs, which will make EVs more attractive if reduced. In fact, some manufacturers, like Volvo, have halted R&D on internal combustion engines, but have left their EV budgets intact. However, the Three Revolutions report found that while vehicle electrification and automation may produce potentially important benefits, without a corresponding shift toward shared mobility and the greater use of transit and active transport, these two revolutions could significantly increase congestion and urban sprawl, while also increasing the likelihood of missing climate change targets.

Remote working The THTS indicated that 33.5% of people were already working from home in 2013. The Covid-19 pandemic significantly increased this number, forcing many people to work from home (WFH), even though businesses were concerned about productivity, engagement and workforce monitoring. However, communications technology and inclusion are shaping the future of remote work. Covid-19 allowed for a real test of the practicality of implementing a WFH policy. A LinkedIn survey10 found that 82% of workers want to work from home at least once a week, and 57% want to work from home at least three days a week. In the desktop study, we used a flexible working scenario with 60% of workers working from home and 40% working from the office at any given time. To allow for successful implementation of the WFH scenario, various company policies and agreements must be put into place.

Electric vehicles (EVs) are the future of transport. But market forces alone will not support the

*Ivan Reutener, Pr Tech Eng, is a leading professional: Smart Mobility at Royal HaskoningDHV.

References: 1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Electric vehicle share

Policies should cover things like monthly data communication allowances, flexi-desk office arrangements, daily remote check-in sessions with managers and team members, and online training. From a behavioural aspect, some personal changes will have to be made to ensure a healthy work-life balance, not only from a mental aspect, but also from a physical health perspective. It’s important to organise virtual coffee dates with colleagues, as limited office interaction will be experienced. As major contributors to climate change, cities are also the ideal starting point to turn things around. But we need buy-in from citizens, the government, and businesses, and a renewed collaboration and commitment to be the change the world needs right now.

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h ttps://www.bbc.com/future/article/20200317-climate-change-cut-carbon-emissionsfrom-your-commute https://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P0320/P03202013.pdf http://nhts.statssa.gov.za https://www.environment.gov.za/mediarelease/southafricasignsparisagreementonclimate https://climateactiontracker.org/countries/south-africa https://www.sharedmobilityprinciples.org https://itdpdotorg.wpengine.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/UCD-ITDP-3R-Report-FINAL.pdf http://www.schallerconsult.com http://energy.mit.edu/insightsintofuturemobility https://financesonline.com/work-from-home-trends

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TSHWANE

Housing a strategic integrated project The result of a successful public-private partnership between Balwin Properties, the Gauteng Provincial Government and the City of Tshwane, the Mooikloof Mega City will provide housing for the region’s ‘missing middle’.

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ith a total project value of over R84 billion, Mooikloof Mega City is one of the 62 Strategic Integrated Projects (SIPs) that were gazetted at the end of July 2020. These SIPs, which are backed by R340 billion in private sector funding, are part of government’s plans for an infrastructure-led recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic. Marking the importance of the Mooikloof Mega City development, President Cyril Ramaphosa officially launched the project earlier this year.

President Cyril Ramaphosa and ministers Lindiwe Sisulu and Patricia de Lille at the Mooikloof Mega City launch (Credit: GCIS)

“The success of any future mega housing development rests with public-private sector collaboration. Private sector resources and expertise will aid government’s efforts to meet the housing demand. The public sector can incentivise further investment by providing the necessary bulk infrastructure to enable development. It is this approach that has made it possible for this development to take off,” said the president. “The reality is that the fiscus cannot on its own support the rising housing demand in the country. Covid-19 has only worsened an already dire situation. We will be looking at how best to leverage private sector resources and skills to help government deliver [on] its mandate to provide decent housing to our people. Mooikloof is an excellent example [of] how public-private sector interests can be aligned and work for mutual benefit.”

Project overview Mooikloof Mega City is situated in the eastern part of the City of Tshwane’s municipal area and covers approximately 200 ha across two townships. Balwin Properties sees this as a significant project to incorporate a large portion of previously disadvantaged South Africans into the mainstream economy. “This development has all the key features of spatial

integration. It is located in one of the most sought-after addresses in the City of Tshwane, with some of the highest average house prices. It is a nodal development, giving residents and tenants easier access to vital transportation corridors,” said Ramaphosa. The development will be undertaken by Balwin as part of its Green Brand Initiative, with the external bulk infrastructure publicly funded. The City of Tshwane has facilitated the approval of appropriate zoning and the provision of water, wastewater and energy bulk infrastructure, while the Gauteng Provincial Government is funding the expansion of Garsfontein Road to accommodate the projected increase in vehicle traffic generated by the development. The mega development will be built in line with green building principles, making use of recycled materials and solar energy technology. It will also make optimal use of green belts and green spaces for residential recreation. With 50 000 sectional title units planned, the mega city will consist of a mixture of studios, and one-, two- and three-bedroom apartments, which will sell for between R499 000 and R799 000 each. These are targeted to assist the ‘missing middle’ – people who earn too much to qualify for fully subsidised housing but who don’t earn enough to afford debt-financed housing in areas of their choice. Potential homeowners will also be able to apply for assistance from government’s Finance Linked Individual Subsidy Programme. “Once completed, the Mooikloof Mega City may end up becoming the world’s largest sectional property development, with land also earmarked for schools, shops and offices,” said Ramaphosa. The first phase will see 16 000 apartments constructed over the next few years.

President Cyril Ramaphosa lays a brick at the launch of the Mooikloof Mega City development (Credit: GCIS)


TSHWANE

ALL SYSTEMS GO FOR TASEZ The Tshwane Automotive Special Economic Zone (TASEZ) in Silverton is a hive of activity as construction companies race to meet the June 2021 deadline to complete the economic zone.

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ASEZ is ‘Africa’s First Automotive City’ and is envisaged to become the preferred investment destination for the automotive industry on the African continent. Its proximity to an established automotive industry allows for increased economies of scale and scope, and lowers the cost of doing business. The special economic zone will also serve as a catalyst for employment, transformation, socio-economic development and industry growth.

Automotive investment As the largest manufacturing sector, vehicle and component production accounted for 27.6% of South Africa’s manufacturing output in 2019, while the broader automotive industry’s contribution to GDP stood at 6.4%. Receiving significant foreign investment, the automotive industry plays an increasingly important strategic and catalytic

role in the overall South African economy. TASEZ therefore forms part of government’s automotive master plan that is geared towards shaping Tshwane as a smart city, while creating over 20 000 jobs. The R4.3 billion project was launched by President Cyril Ramaphosa in November 2019 and brings together the Department of Trade, Industry and Competition, the Gauteng Provincial Government, and the City of Tshwane in a public-private partnership with Ford Motors Company South Africa (FMCSA).

Local development Strategically situated next to the Ford headquarters in Silverton, TASEZ will house a number of automotive component manufacturers, who will supply parts to FMCSA, and is set to boost Ford’s ambition to create the world’s largest Ford Ranger plant. According to Msokoli Ntombana, executive manager, TASEZ, the project currently has 12 investors, who, combined, make up the investment of R4.3 billion. Government will

TASEZ’S UNIQUE VALUE PROPOSITION: • Over 162.6 hectares of ideally located real estate • Access to over 60 000 graduates in the City of Tshwane and the rest of Gauteng • Access to regional markets in subSaharan Africa • Three minutes to Ford Motor Company, 30 km to BMW, Nissan, TATA and IVECO • 30 km from the Rosslyn Automotive Supplier Park, which provides good opportunities for collaboration

invest a further R3.8 billion. At least R1.5 billion of the procurement spend has been set aside for SMMEs that reside within the area, and construction is expected to create 8 557 jobs.

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HOT SEAT | GEOMATICS

Monitoring, modelling and managing groundwater Day Zero crisis “At that stage, no one imagined In recent years, the City of Cape that Cape Town would be hit Town and other municipalities have with a near ‘Day Zero’ drought commissioned exploration studies of event that would make groundwater abstraction such the Table Mountain Group (TMG) a crucial response to the city’s aquifer system. Dr Chris Hartnady, security,” Hartnady continues. technical director at Umvoto Africa, With the situation looking speaks to IMIESA about how increasingly dire, in 2017, Umvoto was appointed to geophysical surveying, geological undertake the emergency mapping and hydrogeological groundwater development of the monitoring techniques are Cape Flats Aquifer, upgrading of existing wellfields within the Atlantis helping shape a sustainable Aquifer, and undertaking long-term water supply model.

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urrounding parts of Cape Town’s sprawling urban footprint, the TMG aquifer system has been developing over millions of years and stores vast volumes of water rising from depths exceeding 10 km. It is a layered and interconnected system that includes the upper Nardouw and lower Peninsula aquifers. Further afield, the TMG extends for over 100 km via fractured fault lines interspersed with thermal springs. There’s also evidence of potential seismicity in some areas. “As geologists, we’ve known about the TMG and related aquifer systems for decades; however, we’ve never really started to demonstrate their true potential until now,” says Hartnady. Umvoto’s involvement with the city began in 2002, as a member of the professional team working on the TMG Aquifer Feasibility Study and Pilot Project. Groundwater exploration was undertaken at various target sites. These included Steenbras Dam, located in the Hottentots Holland Mountains above Gordon’s Bay, Nuweberg near Eikenhof Dam in Grabouw, and Wemmershoek Dam near Franschhoek. Umvoto’s final exploration reports were submitted to the city in 2011/12. While the proposed pilot phase was placed on hold, the essential groundwork had been completed.

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development of the TMG aquifers in areas easily accessible to the City of Cape Town. This entailed implementing the drilling and testing contracts for the boreholes, designing wellfield layouts, monitoring drilling and testing programmes, and analysing the hydrogeological data collected. During the initial feasibility study, Umvoto focused exclusively on the deeper Peninsula Aquifer. Although more expensive to reach and abstract, the deeper water – being isolated from surface wetlands when in deep confined basins – was deemed less environmentally sensitive. However, given the urgency of the drought emergency project in 2017, the decision was taken to abstract from the shallower Nardouw Aquifer as well. The purpose is to augment water supply to the city and for aquifer storage to be managed conjunctively with water stored in the dams of the Western Cape Water Supply System (WCWSS). Borehole drilling depths for the Nardouw Aquifer ranged from 150-300 m. In contrast, the deepest Peninsula Aquifer boreholes exceed 900 m. The longer-term planning will continue to target the deeper-lying Peninsula Aquifer groundwater as the primary source.

(Mℓ/day)) of the WCWSS, the SW is initially focused around the two Steenbras reservoirs to facilitate relatively easy integration with Cape Town’s surface water supply infrastructure. Further wellfield development is anticipated north-eastwards in the form of the Eikenhof-Nuweberg Wellfield (ENW) towards Grabouw and the Klipfontein Wellfield (KW) near Theewaterskloof. “In the absence of the original pilot phase, an extended commissioning period for the Steenbras Wellfield is under way. Monitoring of water levels will continue during the commissioning phase, when groundwater is discharged into the Steenbras Dam, and will provide valuable information to refine aquifer properties and update numerical models, in line with the ‘monitor, model and manage’ approach. This is planned for the summer of 2021,” says Hartnady.

Fractured fault lines The SW and ENW both target a large-scale hydrotect of high hydraulic conductivity and geothermal significance, namely the SteenbrasBrandvlei Megafault Zone (SBMZ), as a source of deep artesian groundwater from the TMG aquifer system. The Brandvlei thermal spring lies along this potentially hydroseismic fault line. Within the Western Cape, Brandvlei is the strongest (≈4 million cubic metres per annum or ≈11 Mℓ/day) and hottest (≈70°C) thermal spring and is located along the northeastern segment of the SBMZ. Another thermal spring, Toorwater, located along the Cango Fault near De Rust, is linked to a major earthquake that occurred around 11 000 years ago.

Steenbras Wellfield Allied to the City of Cape Town’s Water Strategy is the ongoing development of the Steenbras Wellfield (SW) as a further contingency response in the aftermath of the city’s 2015-2018 drought emergency. Intended as a large-scale augmentation (≈20-25 million litres per day

Dr Chris Hartnady, technical director, Umvoto Africa


HOT SEAT | GEOMATICS

potential for the reactivation of this fault and to establish and monitor any interactions between long-term groundwater abstraction and movement on associated hydrotect structures within the TMG, not only in this area but also elsewhere.

Monitoring via GNSS

FIGURE 1(a) Footprint of the SW showing the geodetic network in relation to the geology

FIGURE 1(b) A 3D schematic of the Table Mountain Group aquifer system

“The historical record of large earthquakes in the south-western Cape, namely in 1809-1811 near Milnerton, Cape Town, and in 1969/70 in the Tulbagh-Ceres region, demonstrates a need for a better seismotectonic understanding of

large-scale TMG hydrotect structures in the Western Cape,” Hartnady explains. Due to the link between thermal springs and earthquakes, it has been recommended that the SBMZ is monitored to assess the

The stability of the Lower Steenbras Dam wall is currently monitored by a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) network within close proximity to the permanent Steenbras (SBAS) station. SBAS is part of the national, continuously operating reference station (CORS) array, TrigNet, into which the planned SW geodetic network will be tied. Umvoto’s SW GNSS monitoring network development follows the company’s pioneering study in Hermanus and implementation near Oudtshoorn. The main hydrogeological function is to measure the surface deformation induced by confinedaquifer depressurisation and vertical compression during groundwater abstraction. By employing GNSS, the bulk compressibility and storage properties of the aquifer can be estimated and compared with data obtained during test pumping. Within the SW footprint, CORS equipment is being installed on the Nardouw and Peninsula Aquifer production sites (H1A2, H1A3b, H8A13, H8A4, H8A5) and monitoring (H3A2) boreholes (see Figure 1). The SW geodetic system will be supplemented by a seismographic monitoring network (Figure 1, white circles) as an essential element in the safe and prudent management of SW infrastructure. This will be a permanent monitoring system that will contribute to a future ‘critical zone observatory’ in the region. “Using GNSS technology, we’ll be able to precisely determine the storage coefficient and better calibrate the theoretical and computer-based numerical models using the real data coming out of the boreholes,” adds Hartnady. “Once we have the full picture provided by continuous monitoring and modelling, we’ll have developed the predictive basis for managing this critical resource in a sound and sensible way,” Hartnady concludes.

Peninsula Aquifer production borehole drilling in progress, with a view of the Lower Steenbras Dam in the background

www.umvoto.com

IMIESA November/December 2020

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GEOMATICS

The future of surveying The future of the surveying profession hinges on a question: “What is its relevance to society or to a consumer?” Without relevance, one has no future. By Peter Newmarch*

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ur veyors, also known as geomatics practitioners, have had relevance for centuries. Many people, however, now ask about the future of geomatics given the rapid rate of technological advancement and automation. Little really changes – at the core remains the position of a thing, right, restriction or responsibility. How we survey it has of course dramatically changed, as well as the speed. Coupled with such new tools is the value add that can be extracted from that data. Advances in technology have simply added more work possibilities/opportunities for the surveyor. It has recently been determined that – in order to solve poverty, land issues and many others – meeting the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is required to ensure a better world for all. Geomatics is a key requirement to almost all 17 SDGs,

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IMIESA November/December 2020

which have highlighted the importance of positional information to society’s problems and, in turn, the future of surveying. As the world transitions to thinking in new ways, as governments address SDGs with a tangible means of benchmarking progress – geomatics comes to the fore in it all. We have moved into a visual world where designs need proper placement and management. It is estimated that 70% of all economic activity happens on land (in its broadest sense). The management and visualisation of such activity is becoming vital for the proper functioning and administration of society. Land management, land administration and data management are moving into the fore. Be it a bridge, road, pipe, house, farm or dam – all need management – either from the public or private sector. We now have advanced tools such as lidar, radar, drones, ground-penetrating radar,

Peter Newmarch, president, South African Geomatics Institute

near-infrared and infrared satellite imagery, GPS, and robotic total stations. No doubt such terms will evolve with new technologies we have not yet thought of or invented. But they are just tools and can only yield the desired results when used by a qualified professional. Otherwise, the adage of “junk in, junk out” remains. That is what surveyors are trained for – to correctly apply fundamental theory and practice of position to the project at hand. Automation or artificial intelligence cannot do the higher-level job functions of a surveyor and this will remain the case for many years to come.

Digital twin New technologies have allowed for faster


GEOMATICS

workflows and vastly more data collection possibilities, which has now yielded the concept of a digital twin – where the physical world can be modelled almost exactly in the digital world. As models become more complex, the ability to translate these back to the physical world will be vital for projects. A relatively simple case in point is the recording of an underground pipe. Some 20 years down the line, the pipe is no longer in the same position due to tectonic plate movement. Data needs maintenance and management to remain relevant. In the world of autonomous cars (and their mapping sensors), non-maintenance and nonmanagement of the digital twin will be fatal to human life! With the advances in autonomous vehicles and data collection sensors – real-time swarm mapping possibilities are likely just a few years away, which will require advanced skills from the surveyors.

Good and bad data Data overload from a vast array of sensors by all manner of persons acquiring data will lead to what we call data pollution. What is good data and what is bad data? Only a professionally trained person will have the skills to determine whether the data represents the physical world correctly and vice versa. Once again, data management skills will be critical. Companies don’t want to be basing their decisions on non-certified data – even if it ‘looks good’ or the accompanying report says it is good. I have seen many a report

Automation or artificial intelligence cannot do the higher-level job functions of a surveyor and this will remain the case for many years to come

playing more of a management role, with mass collected geospatial data, extracting value-added services and taking this further with analytics into a host of related issues – more so on an international stage, if the ‘global professional’ comes to the fore to address different rates of development around the world.

saying the mapping is accurate to 3 cm while, in reality, it was actually incorrect and a complete waste of money. Office investment will increase, as access to a vast array of data sets (public and private) becomes available. Software investment and utilisation will increase, along with specific tool sets. This will be a niche market area for use by surveyors, as they would be the only ones to understand certain intricate information.

Geospatial outlook

Change is inevitable All professionals, across the built environment, bemoan the rapid changes happening in their professions. It is not unique to South Africa – it’s a worldwide issue, as is the shortage of skilled professionals. This has motivated the discussion in some forums of the possibility of a ‘global professional’. The theory is that professionals should have country-entry status similar to ‘diplomatic’ persons, free of visa requirements and work permits, allowing them to freely offer their skills on the world stage as development demand ebbs and flows in specific regions. So, returning to the ‘future of surveying’: this is extremely positive, with the surveyor

From a cadastral perspective, land or land administration will be the core future focus; from an engineering perspective, it will be data management and analytics. The tools and workflows will evolve, but the future is indeed an exciting and expanded one for surveying. The surveyor will take a commanding data role in almost every sector of society – be it engineering, health, human settlements, finance, agriculture, aviation or mining (among many others). And as consumers get used to the digital twin world, they will increasingly demand it for everything, leading to data overload and big data issues. Once again, this presents a further need for surveyors to filter and manage the data. Data is clearly becoming a commodity of value and needs professional management – some would even say auditing and certification. And perhaps ‘geospatial auditors and certification professionals’ may be the future name of surveyors – it would be the same job, just wrapped up in a modern term. *Peter Newmarch is the president of the South African Geomatics Institute (SAGI).

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GEOMATICS

Engineering software trusted by professionals worldwide Model Maker Systems is a proudly South African company providing advanced software to sur veyors, contractors and civil engineers in 89 countries since 1989. CEO and founder Carel Viljoen expands on the evolutionar y benefits.

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odel Maker Systems is committed to the development of the highest-quality software in the fields of surveying, engineering, mining, town planning, landscaping, quantity surveying, irrigation design and construction. Initially, the Model Maker, Road Maker and Pipe Maker suite of survey and engineering software programs were developed. Then, at the end of 2004, the development of Survey Maker started.

only those modules required for their application.

The competitive edge

- Our marketing policy is based on fair pricing and outstanding technical support. - Development is guided by user requests and practical application. - An annual support subscription is During 2014, the Point Cloud optional, and the lowest in the IT Viewer program and a limited industry for similar software, at 9% version of our IrriMaker program, of the original purchase value. named IrriExpress, were added. With close cooperation from clients, - The software may be purchased with a perpetual licence or it may the software was developed to be leased on a month-to-month provide end-users with an easy-tobasis. Below is a brief rundown of use, high-productivity tool. our products: A commitment to outstanding user support has made Model Model Maker Maker Systems a leader in the Originally, Model Maker was field of survey, engineering and construction software development. developed to reduce tacheometric survey data to XYZ points and The programs consist of individual generate contour plans. Today, it modules. Users need to purchase has 21 modules enabling the user to do basic digital terrain modelling, CAD drawings and various design and quantification functions in survey, mining, engineering and construction disciplines. Some of the specialised functions are irrigation design, rural powerline design, mass earthworks volume calculations in mining and construction, mine planning and rehabilitation, a geological borehole manager, township infrastructure design, and coordinate conversions. Data exchange formats allow for the transfer of data to and from other software packages.

Road Maker Not only roads, but any project involving cross and long sections can be handled by Road Maker. Complex single- and dual-carriageway roads can be designed by the engineer and the contractor can do setting out and quantification of all types of projects. Networks of roads are intelligently managed to ensure intersection levels are correct and construction drawings are easily created.

Pipe Maker Sewer, stormwater and water networks, together with other services, can be designed with full clash checking, quantification and drawings. Networks are intelligently managed to ensure levels and connecting lines tie up.

Survey Maker Although all basic survey calculations for technical and land surveyors are catered for, Survey Maker specialises in the quick and easy generation of township development, as well as sectional title plans and diagrams. From town planning drawings to final submissions to the Surveyor General, we believe there is no other product that can match Survey Maker.

Point Cloud Viewer New survey technologies, generating millions of survey points, are becoming available. In response, we identified the need for a utility that can easily manage huge data sets in various formats and audit and convert them for easier use in conventional digital terrain modelling packages like Model Maker. Point Cloud Viewer is an inexpensive alternative to the costly software supplied by scanner manufacturers to filter and audit point cloud data.

IrriMaker/IrriExpress Four modules from Model Maker make up the IrriMaker package for the complete design and quantification of irrigations systems. It is perhaps the only package in the world that caters for digital terrain modelling, CAD and irrigation design of pivots, drip and solid set systems in one integrated package. IrriExpress is a scaled-down version but can produce almost the same results as the full IrriMaker package. For more information on the different packages, pricing, getting a 30-day trial version or an obligation-free quote, visit www.modelmakersystems.com or email info@modelmaker.co.za


GEOMATICS

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The true value of spatial data professionals

and surveying instrumentation and associated software technologies are constantly evolving, making it faster and easier to capture data. However, the professional skill set required to interpret the vast quantities of spatial data collected remains constant. In fact, it’s becoming more complex, says Terrence Elliott, marketing director for GeoAfrika Surveys, given the unprecedented growth in data volumes produced by tools like drones and other remote sensing technologies. “Well-informed clients fully appreciate the value that spatial data experts bring to the table from a risk management, project execution and asset management perspective,” says Elliott. “That all depends on cadastral and engineering data accuracy, which has to start from the inception of any planned construction works. For example, unexpected land legal issues can derail a project before ground is ever broken. “Collecting the data is one thing, professional interpretation and verification is another –

tasks that only specially trained and registered spatial data professionals are equipped to perform,” he continues, adding that every member of GeoAfrika’s data analytics team is registered with the South African Geomatics Council. Professional indemnity insurers also increasingly specify that their clients retain the services of a registered and competent survey specialist to verify cadastral, design and build parameters. “It’s a proven fact that poor data accuracy poses a major risk to the entire project outcome,” says Elliott. For larger clients, GeoAfrika offers a survey consulting service. This includes drafting survey specifications and procuring survey service providers for public infrastructure projects.

Quality assurance GeoAfrika’s quality assurance programmes place major emphasis on accurate representations of aerial and land-based surveys and these are backed by a certification

system. Certification reports clearly state that data accuracy and tolerances have been verified according to the brief supplied. “Certification is important because it’s a confirmation of the true accuracy that can be achieved for a specific outcome – the final data analysis having been verified by field checks,” says Craig Silva, CEO of GeoAfrika Surveys. “To get the best result, the right technology is essential.” Within industry, there’s often confusion and misinformation regarding the differences between the measuring accuracy of equipment used for data capture and the actual accuracy of the final survey data handed as a deliverable to the client. This again emphasises the importance of employing experienced spatial data professionals. “Going forward, surveyors will increasingly become the custodians of spatial data on projects, ensuring consistency and one point of data truth for the professional team to rely on,” Silva concludes. IMIESA November/December 2020

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GEOMATICS

The pitfalls and Acts that affect sectional title schemes The role of the professional registered land surveyor in rectifying the extension to and addition of structures on an existing scheme are legally governed and complex. The municipal planning and building departments play a big role in this process. This is Part 1 of a two-part series. By Altus Strydom*

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ectional title ownership is a legal way of owning part or parts of a building. Many schemes are quite old and extensions and additions to units are a basic need to some owners. Unfor tunately, many extensions have been executed but do not adhere to the Sectional Titles Act, building standards, regulations and town planning schemes, as prescribed by the different Acts. New legislation, which can lead to legal action against individuals, places a big onus on members of the body corporate and trustees to follow the correct procedures to approve the extension of units and extra buildings. The land surveyor is the person that must ultimately confirm via certificates issued to the Surveyor General that all building plans are correct and in compliance with the town planning scheme. One of our biggest problems is that body corporates appoint non-qualified persons or agents to do the work and, at the crucial stage, the land surveyor cannot certify the plans and the process starts from scratch.

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Potential pitfalls What pitfalls can be expected with buildings and property in a sectional title scheme? • Levies are calculated incorrectly. •  The bank can demand an up-to-date building plan and sectional title plan. • The municipality can force you to demolish illegal parts of buildings (new additions with no approved plans). • In case of fire or any other disaster, you might find that the insurance company may use it as reason not to compensate for damages. • The body corporate and/or trustees will be held responsible for anything going wrong (which is clearly stated in the Sectional Titles Management Act). •  It becomes a costly exercise if every unit that does an extension lodges their own application. Bond holders’ consent (10% rule), according to the Sectional Titles Act – Section 24 (6) (d) (i), prescribes that a land surveyor or architect must confirm that the proposed extension does not exceed the 10% extension to a unit. According to Section 24 (6) (d) (ii), should the extension exceed 10% then the conveyancer must provide a certificate confirming that all mortgagees have consented to the sectional plan of extension of the scheme.

Acts that affect sectional title schemes There are principal Acts that affect sectional title schemes and these all have an influence on the participation quota schedules, management rules, duties, actions, responsibilities and risks of body corporates and trustees.

SECTIONAL TITLES ACT (NO. 95 OF 1986) Definition To provide for the division of buildings into

sections and common property and for the acquisition of separate ownership in sections coupled with joint ownership in common property. A sectional title scheme must comply with the Sectional Titles Act sooner rather than later. This means that all buildings and their extensions must be represented on the sectional plan and all participation quotas are correct. A sectional plan of extension of the scheme plan must be lodged with the Surveyor General. In terms of the Sectional Titles Act, you may increase, subdivide and consolidate units. Exclusive use areas If the scheme has no exclusive use areas, it is necessary to have this attended to before extension of the units and approval of structures in gardens (exclusive use areas) can be dealt with. Extension of the sectional title scheme The Sectional Titles Act allows for extending a scheme, as well as the consolidation and subdivision of units on condition that the scheme legally complies with other Acts. Town planning schemes Every municipality has a registered town planning scheme that regulates the use of property. The scheme is enforceable and regulates certain aspects of the property, such as the use, coverage, building lines, floor area ratio, future planning and many more aspects. Additional buildings or structures might cause the buildings on-site to exceed the allowable coverage or floor area ratio, or encroach over building lines. The land surveyor must survey and confirm whether the specified criteria are met. In the submission to the Surveyor General, the surveyor must certify that the town planning criteria were met. The land surveyor might appoint other professionals to assist with the process.


GEOMATICS

Common terms that need to be understood comprise the following: • Coverage: Every structure with a roof is part of coverage (bird’s-eye view). It is expressed as a percentage of the area of the property. • Floor area ratio: The total floor area of all buildings is used for the floor area ratio calculation. It is expressed as a percentage of the area of the property. • Building line: The distance from the boundary where no buildings are allowed. If necessary, a rezoning must be done to legalise the scheme.

NATIONAL BUILDING REGULATIONS AND BUILDING STANDARDS MANAGEMENT ACT (NO. 103 OF 1977) Definition To provide for the promotion of uniformity in the law relating to the erection of buildings in the areas of jurisdiction of local authorities; for the prescribing of building standards; and for matters connected therewith. Illegal buildings and structures Any addition to an existing or new building needs body corporate approval, an approved site development plan (SDP) and building plan. Owners can be instructed to attend to this individually before a certain date. If not done, the body corporate can take action by informing the municipality about the illegal buildings on the terrain. The worst-case scenario is that it will be demolished. This phase is necessary before the survey may be lodged at the Surveyor General. When is a building plan required? The relevant explanation to clarify the national building regulations is found in SANS 10400-A: 2010. ‘Minor building work:’ (p17) describes minor building works in B10 (p57), which states that building plans are not required for minor works. In general, anything with a foundation is a structure and requires a building plan. The council requires a building plan for any permanent structure: • Wendy houses, pergolas with a slab, are considered a permanent structure. If no slab is installed, then it is not considered a permanent structure

• For swimming pools, an approved building plan is required, and the SDP needs to be updated. Compulsor y safety features are required, such as a boundar y fence or safety cover. A de-mountable swimming pool above ground level does not need an approved plan. • A garden wall is a structure. •  Carports and lapas with roofs are structures. As pertains to permanent structures, the following steps should be taken: •  Obtain confirmation as to whether the town planning scheme will allow further extensions (coverage, floor area ratio, building lines). • Appoint an architect or technologist to draw up plans. • Appoint an engineer to certify plans. • Get plans approved by the body corporate and lodge with city council.

SECTIONAL TITLES MANAGEMENT ACT (NO. 8 OF 2017) Purpose of Act To provide for the establishment of bodies corporate to manage and regulate sections and common property in sectional titles schemes and for that purpose to apply rules applicable to such schemes; to establish a sectional titles schemes management advisor y council; and to provide for matters connected therewith. The effect of this

is that the body corporate and not the trustees or managing agent is ultimately responsible if any illegal actions occur.

SPATIAL PLANNING AND LAND USE MANAGEMENT ACT (NO. 16 OF 2013; SPLUMA) SPLUMA aims to develop a new framework to govern planning permissions and approvals, sets parameters for new developments, and provides for different lawful land uses in South Africa. SPLUMA is a framework law, which means that the law provides broad principles for a set of municipal laws that will regulate planning. Certain municipalities have included sectional titles in their by-laws. SPLUMA cannot override the Sectional Titles Act, but the scheme must comply with all town planning scheme stipulations. In general, these by-laws are much stricter when it comes to compliance with the Sectional Titles Act and building regulations. If there are illegal structures, the council might require additional actions like new building plans, environmental impact studies and the upgrading of ser vices.

COMMUNITY SCHEMES OMBUD SERVICE ACT (NO. 9 OF 2017; CSOS) The CSOS is the ombudsman for all

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GEOMATICS

DEEDS REGISTRIES ACT (NO. 47 OF 1947) Once all criteria have been met and the sectional title plan has been approved at the Sur veyor General, the extension of the scheme can be registered in the Deeds Office.

community schemes in South Africa. It provides a dispute resolution ser vice, regulates and monitors the quality of all community scheme governance documentation, provides training and consumer awareness. (This Act will not be discussed in Part 2 of this article series.)

Way forward To ensure compliance, the following steps must be followed in conjunction with the ser vices of a professional, registered land sur veyor: - Obtain a copy of the approved sectional title plan from the Sur veyor General. - The body corporate must supply a copy of the approved building plan and zoning certificate to the land sur veyor. - The land sur veyor will scrutinise the sectional title plan, site development plan, building plan and town planning requirements. (Land sur veyors per form these tasks because they are ultimately responsible for sign-off before issuing certificates.) The land sur veyor might

appoint an architect, town planner and other officials to assist. - Appoint an engineer and fire specialist to do a site inspection to identify any areas that needs attention or any problems that might arise. - The body corporate is required to assist the land sur veyor by preparing a bill of quantities for various professionals for quotation purposes. Body corporates must ensure that the necessar y funds are available for the various processes. Property ownership founds and builds societies. This is the rationale for the multifaceted legislation that exists in South Africa and worldwide. Employing a professionally registered land sur veyor ensures that owners have security of tenure. The same applies when it comes to the legal approval of any building or extension. *Altus Strydom is a professional land sur veyor and chairperson: Northern Provinces at the South African Geomatics Institute (SAGI).

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n partnership with Trimble, OPTRON supplies and supports geospatial products and services in most countries across subSaharan Africa, directly and indirectly through a select network of local resellers and agents. Over the past 34 years, the company has been specialising in location-based products and services – helping geospatial professionals improve performance and supporting best practices in various industries, as well as local municipalities. OPTRON provides end-to-end solutions through an in-depth understanding of customer requirements and challenges. This includes professional services like technology consultation, software development, workflow integration, data and IT architecture, and business process design – to ensure that organisations derive maximum business benefit from the latest technologies on offer. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau once said: “The pace of change has never been this fast, yet it will never be this slow again.” This statement rings especially true in the geospatial environment, where some amazing technologies have matured over the past few years.

Trimble SiteVision An example of this is the new Trimble SiteVision augmented reality system. This solution unlocks and simplifies the use of geospatial information by allowing you to see your data in the real world – from property lines to underground services to conceptual designs – making it the ideal tool for public and contractor engagement during the planning process, as well as throughout the project life cycle. SiteVision enables you to confidently access and visualise the full potential of your data, both above ground and below in real time and in the real world – using your mobile device. With the demand to capture and update geospatial data accurately and reliably, SiteVision helps to create efficient deliverables and drives good decision-making based on the best information available. Whether it’s planning, inspection, collaboration or reporting, SiteVision enables the user to quickly access data to view and share – no more searching for plans and drawings. If it’s in the model, the user can simply tap and view the attributes to confirm database integrity, improve safety and enhance awareness on-site. The solution promotes engagement and collaboration between government offices, inspectors and public stakeholders, which ultimately helps save time and money.

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The arrival of the digital twins Imagine Fornite meets Minecraft meets the real-world city you live and work in – what a computer game that would be. Imagine working in a data-rich 5D on-screen world that updates in real time and in which you can play ‘what if’ scenarios. We’re actually there right now. By Chris Kirchhoff*

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ake an accurate 3D representation of reality, be it your factory, sewage works, a portion of the CBD or an entire city. Now add to this the fourth dimension of how this world and its surrounding environment – such as weather, traffic, population growth and supporting services – drive changes over time. Then, layer behind this income, expenses and flow of money, as the fifth dimension, and you have yourself a digital twin. The growing internet of things (IoT) enables data to stream backwards and forwards between our real world and our computers. That enables this ‘game’ to work. The IoT enables us to livestream data from the urban environment. This is what’s moved our old-fashioned 3D maps into live digital representations of the real world. This is how a digital twin becomes a dynamic everchanging representation of reality, providing us with both reactive and predictive feedback. For reactive feedback, we can consider that as live traffic data comes in, we can adjust

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traffic flows to ensure better peak-time use of the current roads in our city. Predictive feedback is when we use our digital twin to do future planning. Examples include simulations of population growth or cost increases or droughts to understand how best to allocate the finite resources available in the most sustainable manner. You can look at a digital twin as a Wi-Fi-enabled Lego set. Are you considering a new taxi rank? Imaging putting together a Lego model of the planned rank. As you make changes, you have a dashboard of data showing you how many people you can move through the rank, how peak-time traffic flows around the rank will change and, critically, how your residents can save time moving through the rank. Once the taxi rank is built, you can add sensors such as traffic count, temperature, water and sewage flows, and cameras. This allows for your digital twin to suggest, in real time, how to reactively use the resources in the rank most efficiently.

Modelling evolution In the last century, the first digital 3D models of our environment began to emerge. Over the past 40 years or so, the 3D CAD model has grown into a building information model (BIM). The latter includes a 3D illustration of our building or environment, as well as implanted metadata about the components that make up the model. So, what are the tools needed to create a digital twin? As a foundation, you need accurate, up-todate geospatial data – the ‘where’. The upside is that mapping has become super-efficient. By combining laser or lidar scanning with aeroplaneor drone-based aerial mapping, a 3D model of the built environment can be efficiently collected.


GEOMATICS

There are three main mapping tools to consider. Within the subsurface world, ground-penetrating radar is the main one. Radar and electromagnetic pulses reveal the location of services such as electrical and communication cables. Above ground, terrestrial laser scanning enables you to collect accurate street- and ground-level information such as roads, building footprint service access points, street furniture and terrain models. For larger areas, traditional aerial mapping – using a combination of lidar (laser) and photogrammetric techniques – is the best way to build the 3D model upwards from ground level. Recent advances in cameras now allow for the vertical view and the sides of buildings to be captured. This means the digital model can now accurately depict building façades and provides more understanding on how a building interacts with its outside world.

The ‘what’ and ‘why’ The beauty of drone mapping is its costefficiency and data collection simplicity, as well as the continual updating of the digital twin as the environment changes. Without a strong foundation of good, continually updated 3D data, the trust in the predictive ability of the digital twin will be eroded. The next step in the twin is the ‘what’. What is changing in the data flow? To understand this, a collection of sensors and data-gathering tools are positioned in the real world. The digital twin is then updated with these sensor positions. Again, this highlights the importance of good 3D mapping. If the 3D model is poor, it will be hard to understand where the sensor data is coming from. Sensors will measure parameters like weather information, pedestrian foot flows, traffic counts, services use (such as water, sewage and electricity) and internet data use, which

are all fantastic for determining human density and rate of movement. This data can be combined with social media monitoring for feedback on how the cityscape is being used, as well as user behaviour. Think of these as the nerves of the twin. The third step is the ‘why’. Why is the world changing? The resultant changes, shown in the sensor information, are the basis for informed decisions taken by the users of the digital twin model. This is where the changing relationship between people and the built environment is being modelled in real time. A combination of machine learning and artificial intelligence allows for the insights being collected by the geospatially positioned sensors to be converted into actions. This is the last step in the data value chain that has been created by the building of a digital twin. Multiple data sources with position, time and cost information are now combined and synthesised into actionable data. This is the ‘brain’ of the twin. “The influence of a digital twin is in its ability to help decision-makers derive new insights and inform better decisions, providing a holistic visualisation of infrastructure asset information and performance,” says Robert Mankowski of Bentley Systems.

Benefits for municipal infrastructure To appreciate the influence that digital twins can have on improving municipal management, consider the following possibilities: • Clear insights for improved infrastructure: instead of different departments each having some form of spreadsheet that shows costs and work done, this is all combined and the historic data can be used to predict growth bottlenecks and the allocation of limited resources. The decisions made are based on data-driven insights. • Make infrastructure last longer and be more resilient: by understanding how the built environment is being used and where the pressure points are, it is possible to plan for early maintenance that will allow for the infrastructure to last longer. Rather than reacting to failures in infrastructure, the digital twin will model the cost of early maintenance and

assist in the justification of an improved maintenance budget. • Public feedback: municipalities can export the digital twin dashboards into a public forum where communities can provide feedback in an interactive manner that promotes buy-in from residents. • Improved planning: by using the historic data collected by the digital twins, with predictive modelling methodologies, far better scenario planning can be carried out. Using 3D visualisation techniques from virtual gaming, it is possible to provide a far clearer future vision and to test these models with different financial and resource inputs. Virtual testing of scenarios minimises wasted physical materials, labour and energy. •  Improved team coordination and communications: by having a central realtime data source, all departments can look at and understand operational decisions as they are made. In closing, by breaking down existing silos and combining them into a single source, digital twin information is democratised and becomes a facilitator. A recent smart cities report prepared by Sue Tabbitt perfectly summarised this, stating that “A state-of-the-art digital twin is essentially an integrated, centralised platform (or ‘nerve centre’), where diverse information about assets and associated services is combined, monitored, analysed and acted upon. It can be a critical facilitator of transformation – delivering benefits across all phases of the life cycle of designing, running and maintaining/ improving local infrastructure, whether within a single organisation or across an entire city.” *Chris Kirchhoff is a professional land surveyor (PLS0962) at 5DGEO Professional Land Surveyors. Email: chris@5dgeo.co.za

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WATER & WASTEWATER

Planning for KZN’s bulk water needs The approximate 30-year projection for potable water supply in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) is 3 000 Mℓ/day. In order to meet this, Umgeni Water compiles an annual Bulk Water Infrastructure Master Plan (IMP) to highlight the infrastructure needed and ensure adequate planning. By Kevin Meier*

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he total bulk water supply capacity for KZN at present is only about 1 500 Mℓ/day. The shortfall between demand and supply can be attributed to the following: •  increasing water demand as service levels in communities improve •  ageing infrastructure and lack of maintenance causing high levels of water loss •  insufficient resource or infrastructure supply capacity constraints

•  unserved (backlog) areas that still require a reliable source and supply of water. In June 2020, an update of the Umgeni Water IMP was published to include not only planning within Umgeni Water’s supply area, but also the remaining areas within KZN. This IMP is available on Umgeni Water’s website: www.umgeni. co.za/infrastructure-master-plans. The pragmatic approach to developing this IMP follows below.

Identification of supply systems Water resource supply considerations are as important as the infrastructure supplying the demand. The raw water source must be planned to supply the present and future demand of an area for the full length of the planned forecast period. In compiling the Bulk Water IMP for KZN, Umgeni Water divided the province into supply systems (as shown in Figure 1). These systems include water resource areas (catchments) and the water supply ‘footprints’

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WATER & WASTEWATER

FIGURE 1 Systems as defined in the Umgeni Water IMP

Water resources yield determination

(homogeneous areas supplied with water from a node/reservoir). Unfortunately, municipal boundaries do not follow water resource/supply system boundaries and the plans for supply to a municipality may have to be drawn from more than one of the 10 volumes of the Umgeni Water IMP.

Demand assessment and forecast Umgeni Water has determined supply footprints (as shown in Figure 2) throughout the province. A supply footprint is a FIGURE 2 Situational analysis: demographics and growth rates

homogeneous supply area that has the same source of water and same level of service. In areas where water supply is metered, the actual volume of supply is used as a baseline and a 30-year forecast is determined from that baseline. In backlogged or unreported rural areas, demographics were used to determine an expected demand based on a minimum supply of 100 â&#x201E;&#x201C; per capita per day. The 30year forecast is determined for each of the supply footprint areas using natural growth estimates, migration to or from the area, and potential development of the supply footprint.

It is important to determine the amount of water that can be supplied within a supply system or subsystem during drought years. Whether the source of water is run of river or from a dam or a borehole, the amount of water that can be abstracted during a drought is affected by the size of the catchment, dam, river or aquifer, as well as the capacity of the catchment to return water to these sources. The amount of water that can be abstracted in a drought year is termed â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;yieldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and should be determined for all water resource supply areas at a minimum of a 1:50 return period drought (worst drought in 50 years). These yield values were identified from studies or were estimated for supply notes when compiling the IMP. As an example, the yield of the Mgeni System at a 1:100-year return period is presented in Figure 3, together with the projected demand of the system. It is clear that the current resource has to be augmented to increase the yield so that the future demands can be supplied (increased yield in 2015 as a result of the construction of Spring Grove Dam). The project identified to increase this yield is the uMkhomazi Water Project.

Development of water supply schematics Water supply schematics are developed for each supply system or subsystem. These schematics include a base case, which depicts the infrastructure that currently exists to supply the area and additional schematics to show the infrastructure that should be developed over the 30-year forecast period.

Specific infrastructure capacity constraints Within each supply system, the capacity constraints of each individual infrastructure component are assessed and recommendations are made as to whether these components should be upgraded over the demand period. In the example shown in Figure 4, the historical supply from the Midmar Water Treatment Plant is analysed to determine how often the plant has operated above the optimum operating capacity and how often it has operated above the design capacity (0% of the time in this scenario), so that potential augmentation can be planned well in advance.

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WATER & WASTEWATER

schemes are recommended for supply to areas that do not have a reliable supply.

Universal access to water supply throughout KZN

It must be noted that details of much of the infrastructure positioned outside of Umgeni Waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s operating area are not well documented and hence this type of analysis could not be undertaken for many of the plants managed by water services authorities (WSAs). However, this in itself has highlighted a need to confirm infrastructure attributes or operating parameters and discussions have and will continue to be held with WSAs to ensure adequate metering of supply points such as water treatment plants.

FIGURE 3 Yield of the Mgeni System showing the projected growth in forecast demand

Recommended projects Using the information and analysis described above, recommendations are made as to infrastructure that should be developed to meet the 30-year supply need for all areas. Some of these projects take the form of infrastructure to augment existing systems. In other cases, entire bulk water supply

As a parallel process to the development of the IMP, Umgeni Water has commissioned three phases of a Universal Access Plan (UAP) for water in the province, which can be found here: www.umgeni.co.za/ infrastructure-planning. The UAP is a strategy that has been developed by Umgeni Water, the Department of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs (CoGTA) and the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS). The first phase of this UAP was completed in 2014 and included recommended short-term interventions that could be developed to ensure universal supply throughout the province. The second phase highlighted potential bulk supply schemes that could be developed to ensure universal access to water throughout the province. This version only included the source of water, the water treatment plants and the supply to a command reservoir. The third phase of the UAP, to be completed in


WATER & WASTEWATER

FIGURE 4 Twelve-month operating statistics for the Midmar Water Treatment Plant

the Umgeni Water IMP and, where possible, detailed feasibility studies will be undertaken to start these projects along a path that will ultimately lead to full construction. The real challenge now is to determine not only how this infrastructure can be funded, but also how it can be maintained once it is developed, as many of the WSAs in the province do not recover sufficient funds from water sales to support even the operating costs of this infrastructure. October 2020, further extends the bulk water supply components to include the secondary bulk infrastructure required to deliver water to specific water supply footprints/nodes. Many of the plans developed in the UAP phases have formed or will ultimately form recommended projects in the future updates of the IMP. The total estimated cost of developing bulk water supply infrastructure

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to achieve universal access in the province is approximately R100 billion. This includes the capital needed to construct bulk and secondary bulk infrastructure but does not include estimates for reticulation. The above plans are a good starting point to developing the infrastructure needed to supply all consumers in the province. These plans will be further developed in the future updates of

Acknowledgements: Umgeni Waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Planning Services Department and other staff for developing the format and content of this valuable plan. The team of Umgeni Water, DWS and CoGTA for facilitating development of the UAP phases. *Kevin Meier is a manager: Planning Services at Umgeni Water.


Save water this festive season As companies shut down and families head off on holiday, it is impor tant to ensure continued water conser vation over the holiday season.

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he National Water and Sanitation Master Plan states that, in order to achieve water security, all water users in all sectors in South Africa must use water more efficiently. It also states that, on average, each person in South Africa uses 64 litres per day more than the global average. It is, therefore, vital to practise water-wise behaviour over the holiday period, when domestic consumption often rises.

Tips at home: - Turn off the tap while brushing your teeth. - Take short showers. - Install water-efficient showerheads and faucets.

- Fix leaking taps and toilets, which are major water wasters. - Use hand sanitiser where possible. - Check for leaks regularly and monitor your water consumption on your meter. - Only run your dishwasher when it’s full. - Minimise how often you wash your car. - Collect rainwater in buckets or tanks for watering the garden and flushing toilets. - Only water your garden before 06:00 or after 18:00 and use a rain meter to monitor how much water you use. - Don’t allow children to use water-based toys, such as slip-and-slides, which waste large amounts of water. - If you have a pool, don’t fill it to the top – splashing leads to waste – and use a pool cover to reduce evaporation by up to 90%.

Tips while travelling and staying in holiday accommodation: - Ensure all taps are tightly closed before leaving home and check for any leaks. If possible, shut off the supply at the water main to prevent any water wastage.

WATER & WASTEWATER

FOR MORE INFORMATION ON HOW TO BECOME WATER WISE, VISIT: facebook.com/WaterWiseRSA twitter.com/water_wise www.waterwise.co.za/site/home.html

- If you have a sprinkler system, install a timer and set it to turn on after 18:00. - Don’t use bottled water – it requires significantly more water to produce. Use a refillable water bottle instead. - Turn off the tap while brushing your teeth. - In hotels or holiday accommodation, use your towels for three days before asking for them to be washed. - Use hand sanitiser where possible. - Report leaking taps and wasteful water usage to the facilities/hotel management. - When in hotels or other accommodation, practise the same water saving that you do at home – e.g. take short showers rather than bathing. Every drop spared helps the country save water. - Dispose of all disposable masks in a responsible manner to help reduce pollution.

Changing attitudes With most water systems in South Africa already at the point of overutilisation, changing the attitudes and behaviour around water use and conservation is vital. To achieve this goal, Rand Water’s Water Wise campaign has been forging partnerships and developing relationships for over two decades, bringing its messaging to Gauteng and South Africa. All water users – from bulk customers (such as municipalities and mines) to business, the hospitality industry, local authorities and individual households – must use water efficiently and sustainably.

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THOUGHT LEADERSHIP

Challenges, opportunities and practical implementation The president has made an audacious undertaking in placing infrastructure at the centre of the Economic Reconstruction and Recovery Plan. By Gundo Maswime*

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he Economic Reconstruction and Recover y Plan will involve a deliberate removal of regulator y barriers that increase costs and create delays and inefficiencies in infrastructure delivery. This intervention should, according to the plan, unlock private sector investment and enable massive infrastructure roll-out with a strong localisation drive. The plan was announced with impressive detail and follows on the

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back of an unprecedented infrastructure investment summit and a launch of an infrastructure development fund based at the Development Bank of Southern Africa. Over the last six months, Dr Kgosientso Ramokgopa, head of the Infrastructure Investment Office in the Presidency, has graced more than 30 virtual interactions with various stakeholders on the sharpened vision the state has for the development of the construction sector. On each

platform, the theme is succinct, and the message consistent: â&#x20AC;˘  The government will make it easy for the public sector to raise money from the private sector and is thus calling all private sector players to the table. â&#x20AC;˘  The government is calling on all municipalities to be more coordinated and deliberate in their infrastructure plans within their regions to optimise the impact of the projects.


THOUGHT LEADERSHIP

• The government will do this using local material and will ensure transformation even on the supplier’s side of the value chain. • The government will ensure that wateruse licenses and environmental impact assessments are not causing delays in project commencement.

Removing barriers There is no doubt that infrastructure can anchor sustained economic growth and provide employment opportunities, more so noting the direct reference to labourintensive construction and localisation targets for construction materials. However, the drive to transform the country into a construction site has brought into sharp focus the main issues that limit the optimisation of the construction industry. It was therefore a relief to the sector that the president had something to say about the main impediments to the optimisation of the sector’s contribution to the industry. To this end, the diagnostic abilities and the policymaking acumen of the state are commendable. But there is a certain type of anxiety that the sector can be excused for having. Listening to the president outline the Economic Recovery Plan, it is unsettling to realise that there is no issue raised in the speech as a challenge in the industry that was not already covered by the 1997 green paper entitled Creating an Enabling Environment for Reconstruction, Growth and Development in the Construction Industry. In the 2020 Economic Recovery Plan, the president refers to removing regulatory barriers and approving a waiver on stringent and unnecessary licence approvals. The 1997 green paper already noted that the regulatory framework inhibits innovation, initiative and impedes industry development. In fact, on 30 April 2015, the Office of the Presidency issued a statement saying that “regulatory delays were being improved through efficient issuing of water-use licences and more focused environmental impact assessment”. The president refers to adapting an infrastructure procurement framework to enable private funding and public-private partnerships. The 1997 green paper had

already noted the “ambiguity in the legal framework governing procurement as a reason for lack of innovation and inability of the sector to attract external funding”. In practice, it remains impossible to raise funding from the public sector for infrastructure development without exposing the municipality to an audit finding or internal strife being found to have overlooked one of the many requirements that seem to be intended to ensure external funding doesn’t happen. In government, any ‘avantgarde’ transaction such as private funding for infrastructure will be scandalised by the media. Smart meters will be an immediate example that Dr Ramokgopa (as mayor of Tshwane) can relate to and bus rapid transit is one that Minister Patricia de Lille (as mayor of Cape Town) can attest to. For this reason, all self-preserving officials would rather do nothing and be accused of a lack of service delivery rather than unauthorised expenditure, which is called corruption in the media.

the contractors that had tasted real money decided to recruit thugs to take the fight to various construction sites. That was the birth of the so-called construction mafia. Today, these have managed to cost the industry billions of rand in stoppages and contract cancellations. I suspect that this risk has a significant sway in the delay of the expansion of the Gautrain rail network because the investors are not sure how they will resolve the problem of violent stoppages that have become the norm in Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, the Eastern Cape and many other regions. Even the police do not seem to know what to do about the issue. The industry’s self-regulation includes professional associations that, in their proliferation, are characteristic of the industry’s damaging fragmentation. There are many role players laying claim to self-regulation. All past attempts at standardisation have yielded very limited success. Now, this whole scenario is also straight out of the 1997 green paper but is probably just as true today.

Major challenges Perhaps one of the biggest mistakes that we have made as a country on the infrastructure front was to fail to differentiate infrastructure procurement from general procurement. Infrastructure projects worth billions of rand sit with supply chain departments across the country, waiting in the queue with furniture, stationery and fleet tenders to be evaluated and adjudicated. It is the same supply chain personnel that do both. The constant stoppages of projects by subcontractors are the other albatross on the neck of the construction sector. This problem was also clearly anticipated by the 1997 green paper and the state allowed a decentralised contractor development process to unfold. The KwaZulu-Natal Provincial Government led the pack with its well-organised Vuk’uphile Contractor Development programme. But just when thousands of emerging contractors were starting to develop and assert themselves as future construction industry champions, National Treasury promulgated a regulation prohibiting set-asides. All contractor development programmes were frozen in mid-air and

Moving forward There are three important pointers that inspire confidence that, this time around, there is hope for success. The first one is that the government has shown an appetite to confront the ghosts that have spooked the industry for a while. The second one is the appointment of a head of infrastructure investment in the presidency that is evangelising the industry and becoming a pivotal point for the industry to anchor itself. Dr Ramokgopa and Minister De Lille have become a new axis for all things infrastructure. This is an open policy window that the sector must take advantage of to make lasting changes to the industry. State officials can take the message literally by finding ways to pay contractors on time. Onerous requirements and elaborate documents and approvals must be put into perspective. Alternative dispute resolution mechanisms must be adopted to eliminate delays in project completion. *Gundo Maswime is a lecturer at the University of Cape Town and a researcher in public infrastructure.

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Joint International Conference with IMESA & IAWEES

2021

(Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa & International Association of Water, Environment, Energy and Society)

IMESA

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS for paper and poster presentations

THEME

SYNERGY THROUGH ENGINEERING

CATEGORIES • Environment

• Energy

• Water and Sanitation

• Financial, Legal and Regulatory

• Transport, Roads

• Data management

and Stormwater

A B S T R AC T S S U B M I T T E D BY

09 April 2021 (poster presentations and abstract submissions)

marketing@imesa.org.za | tel +27 031 266 3263

Contact Melanie Stemmer for an entry form or download it from the website. CONFERENCE ENDORSED BY

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t: +27 (031)266 3263 e: conference@imesa.org.za marketing@imesa.org.za www.imesa.org.za IMIESA November/December 2020

IMESA ORGANISER

THE INSTITUTE OF MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING OF SOUTHERN AFRICA (IMESA)


CONSULTING ENGINEERS

Awards

honour the best in engineering The country’s leading built environment professionals recently gathered for the 2019 CESA Aon Engineering Excellence Awards to celebrate South Africa’s excellence in engineering. SMEC South Africa delivered over 430 communal ablution facilities in eThekwini

settlements, serving more than 118 000 people across the city. The overall project budget exceeded R1.7 billion and continued over a fourand-a-half-year period. The project was geared towards contributing to the municipality’s social and economic agenda and demonstrated this successfully through the inclusion of labour-intensive construction methods and thereby the provision of economic opportunities for the local community.

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his year’s awards, hosted vir tually by Consulting Engineers South Africa (CESA) and sponsored by Aon South Africa, celebrated innovation, quality, outstanding workmanship, and professionalism. “The awards focus on consulting engineers and their clients who participate in or initiate projects that promote the advancement of our nation and the people of the continent. CESA recognises contributions of young professionals to the engineering profession and initiatives to transform and sustain the future,” says Chris Campbell, CEO, CESA. The project entries and winners are as follows:

OTHER ENTRIES: Zutari | Lower Thukela Bulk Water Supply Scheme

Settlements and Schools in eThekwini Municipality (Phase 3) Before 2007, the eThekwini Health Department was tasked with rolling out a project aimed at providing communal ablution share blocks to informal settlements. The Sanitation Phase 3 project directly addresses the need to remedy the severely adverse conditions experienced by the inhabitants of numerous informal settlements within eThekwini Municipality through the provision of basic water and sanitation facilities. This is demonstrated through the delivery of over 430 communal ablution facilities to over 34 informal

Projects with a value between R250 million and R1 billion WINNER: Zutari | Upgrade and Extension of Stellenbosch Wastewater Treatment Plant In 2011, the Stellenbosch Wastewater Treatment Works (WWTW) was operating over-capacity, dilapidated and struggling to meet effluent compliance. With the limited funds at hand, Stellenbosch Municipality appointed Zutari (formerly Aurecon) as consulting engineer, to upgrade the plant in 2014. The project comprised an upgrade of the plant to a full biological nutrient removal process that is capable of handling up to

Mega projects with a value greater than R1 billion WINNER: SMEC South Africa | Provision of Water and Sanitation to Informal

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CONSULTING ENGINEERS

35 Mℓ/day average dry weather flow. This upgrade comprised a new inlet works, a new 27 Mℓ/day membrane biological reactor (MBR) lane, the rejuvenation of the existing plant to an 8 Mℓ/day conventional activated sludge (CAS) plant with UV disinfection, and new sludge treatment facilities. The plant is fully automated with a stateof-the-art control system and is designed to be energy efficient. In addition, it was designed so that it can be easily retrofitted with a direct potable reuse facility and biogas-to-energy facility in the future. The Stellenbosch WWTW was commissioned in March 2019 and is currently the largest MBR WWTW in South Africa. COMMENDATION: Zutari | 144 Oxford Road, Office Building OTHER ENTRY: SiVEST SA | Sappi Saiccor Mill – Woodyard Upgrade

Projects with a value of between R50 million and R250 million WINNER: Tirisano Consulting Engineers | Additional Shopping Area for Wonderpark Spar Despite constrictive workspace, the construction of the superstructure experienced no downtime and activities could be staggered to accelerate the programme, so that the client was able to

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open its doors for business two days sooner than the original deadline. Ingenuity, originality and innovation are displayed by the utilisation of the extremely limited space: three entrances, lower-level parking, and a first of its kind ‘travellator’ in Middelburg to transport customers – especially the disabled – under cover. Effective utilisation of the ‘plan, do, check, improve/act’ planning cycle and values embraced by the Tirisano team prevented unnecessary and costly mistakes. The implementation was smooth and effortless due to the modular design philosophy and detailed information on the drawings. In turn, complex problems were solved by simple solutions – the trademark of an experienced designer. As testimony to these and allied elements, the project was awarded ‘Super Spar of the Year’ on the criteria of innovative design, aesthetic appeal, energy and resourcesaving concepts. COMMENDATION: Hatch | Midmar Water Treatment Works Upgrade COMMENDATION: Naidu Consulting | Mabhobhane River Bridge over the Tugela River OTHER ENTRIES: • Hatch | uMshwathi Regional Bulk Water Supply Scheme Phase 2

The newly upgraded Stellenbosch Wastewater Treatment Plant, completed by Zutari

• Knight Piésold | Stock Road: Govan Mbeki to R300 • Nathoo Mbenyane Engineers | Lusushwana Bulk Water Scheme

Projects with a value less than R50 million WINNER: Naidu Consulting | eZimbokodweni Pipe and Pedestrian Bridge Located in the Philani valley of uMlazi, a sewer trunk line encased in reinforced concrete and acting as a low-level pedestrian crossing was rendered vulnerable and impassable. Restoring and protecting the existing sewer line from further damage was not cost-effective, and a pedestrian crossing was desperately required by the communities. eThekwini Municipality appointed Naidu Consulting to deliver a much-needed solution for the safe crossing of the eZimbokodweni River in conjunction with an upgraded sewer line. The deck of the resultant 160 m long eZimbokodweni Pipe and Pedestrian Bridge is pre-stressed and comprises six equal spans. The bridge stands approximately 10 m above the existing riverbed, with a box girder deck that accommodates


CONSULTING ENGINEERS

a 1 000 mm diameter HDPE gravity sewer pipeline. The bridge is the first bridge in South Africa to utilise photoluminescent ‘glow in the dark’ polymer concrete handrails and posts. This illuminates the bridge and approaching foot paths at night, increasing pedestrian safety and eliminating the high costs of conventional electricity, as well as vandalism and cable theft. It is also a solution that is maintenance free, with a long-term cost saving to the client.

The eZimbokodweni Pipe and Pedestrian Bridge uses photoluminescent polymer concrete handrails and posts

OTHER ENTRY: SMEC South Africa | V&A Waterfront Swing Bridge

Best international project WINNER: MPAMOT Ruben Reddy Architects JV | Cote D’Or National Sports Complex The Cote D’Or National Sports Complex was initiated to provide Mauritius with world-class venues for the 2019 Indian Ocean Island Games. It now provides legacy sporting facilities for Mauritius and the wider Indian Ocean region. The Indian Ocean Games JV, formed by Mott MacDonald Africa (now MPAMOT) and Ruben Reddy Architects, was responsible for the complete architectural and engineering design services for the project, and drew on team members based in nine countries. Ingenuity was crucial in dealing with the limited resources available in Mauritius. Much of what was needed to make the project a reality had to be imported from a dozen countries, and meticulous management of intercountry

logistics ensured they were on-site exactly when needed. Despite facing multiple challenges, the Côte D'Or National Sports Complex was inaugurated on 15 July 2019. OTHER ENTRIES: • Knight Piésold | Construction of Neckartal Dam and Phase 1 Bulk Water Supply • Zutari | Kashimbila Multipurpose Dam and Hydropower Station, Nigeria

Lifetime industry achievement award RECOGNITION: Llewellyn Pike

Visionary client of the year RECOGNITION: Western Cape Department of Health

Constructing the additional shopping area for Wonderpark Spar in a very constrictive workspace

Engineering technology and innovation | HVAC in building design COMMENDATION: AOS Consulting Engineers | New Orange Data Centre and Office, Botswana Business excellence WINNER: Naidu Consulting OTHER ENTRY: BVi Consulting Engineers

Small/medium company of the year WINNER: ROMH Consulting OTHER ENTRY: Daveng Consulting Engineers

Mentor of the year RECOGNITION:

Pierre Cronje | Naidu Consulting Mentoring company of the year WINNER: Naidu Consulting OTHER ENTRY: Nathoo Mbenyane Engineers

Young engineer of the year JOINT WINNER:

SMEC South Africa | Yolan Pillay JOINT WINNER: Zutari | Lloyd Fisher-Jeffes OTHER ENTRIES: •H  N Consulting Engineers | Ntembeko Zifuku • ROMH Consulting | Kholwani Dube

Publisher of the year WINNER | TRADE PUBLICATIONS: Creamer Media WINNER | DAILY NEWSPAPERS: Independent Online (IOL)

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ROADS & BRIDGES

New V&A bridge

swings into operation Both fixed and moving bridges within South Africa’s oldest working harbour, the V&A Waterfront, have become a memorable part of any visitor’s experience. To keep up with increasing foot traffic, a new 4 m swing bridge was commissioned to replace a smaller, much-loved 2 m wide swing bridge built in 1997.

The new bridge being placed into position

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s the V&A Water front expanded, the number of people crossing the swing bridge was increasing yearly; by 2016, the previous 2 m wide walkway was carrying 2.4 million people annually. To keep pace with the demand, a new, wider bridge was commissioned. The challenge set by the client was: • The new bridge had to be as quick, efficient, effective and reliable as the existing one. •  The construction cost had to stay within a tight budget. • The works had to limit disruption to the public, the V&A and the environment.

Selecting the right design SMEC South Africa was appointed to design the new bridge, and the team worked through various options for the new link. The bridge had to be capable of operating in wind speeds of up to 60 km/h, designed for impact by a

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vessel from both directions and swing free in such a way as to protect the mechanical equipment. A swing bridge was deemed to still be the best solution in terms of the speed of operation and electrical energy needed to operate it. Two different types of swing bridges were considered and compared. The first option was to replace the existing bridge with a wider version of itself, while the second option was to design a completely new swing bridge that used a conventional slewing bearing to rotate the bridge deck. In the final review, the slewing bearing option was preferred, as it was considered to offer a more sustainable solution. Slewing bearings are tried and tested in both pedestrian bridge and industrial applications. Their large diameter provides greater overturning moment resistance and hence a cablestayed bridge with no backstays could be conceived. This was attractive in that


The recessed lighting effects

it limited the works that had to be done on the quayside. It also allowed for the bridge superstructure to be fabricated and assembled off-site and then barged and lifted into place, complete, on a single day. This was important, as the existing bridge had to remain operational for as long as possible during the construction of the new bridge, in order to minimise disruption to the V&A and its visitors. It was decided that the new bridge should be positioned adjacent to the original one, allowing for the new foundations to be constructed while the original bridge remained operational. The nose of the new bridge had to, however, land at the same spot as the existing one.

Final design After considering the functional aspects of making the bridge move, the design team took on the task of developing a final form that would add to the experience of the

South Africa

Water front. Both architect and engineer had the idea to combine the pylon and spine beam into a single form, tensioned by the stays. The desired effect of a continuous sweeping line was created by running a continuous capping element along the length of the pylon and spine. The capping element was detailed to sit proud of the structure so that its lines could be easily followed. The recess created was used for architectural lighting that would accentuate the continuous line at night. The deck is cable-stayed with a single plane of four locked coil cables connecting to the central, upstand spine beam. The reclining pylon is in the continuity of the main central beam and its stiffness transfers the cable loads into the piled substructure. The steel with timber deck is rotated on a slewing bearing, which is stressed down on to a doughnut-shaped pile cap by 34 vertical Freyssibars.

The bridge is supported on eight piles, positioned in a ring. The slew bearing and hydraulic motors are in a plant room, created by the pile cap ring. By forming the pile cap in this way, it was possible to house the mechanics within the depth of the foundations, reducing the required excavation depth and keeping the foundations above sea level.

Construction challenges Two of the unique difficulties experienced by the contractor were the limited available space on-site and the proximity to the public. Piling a metre away from pedestrians using a functioning moving bridge comes with challenges. Noise, vibrations and debris therefore had to be closely monitored throughout the process. One of the key considerations during the piling operations was the stability of the quay wall. The 19th centur y quay is a stone-packed wall positioned on the


Pile cap reinforcement

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Final installation

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edge of a rock shelf. The fill material behind is mostly loose rocks, sand and stones. The piling operations were carefully considered and monitored to ensure that the quay wall would not be compromised during construction. The ODEX (eccentric overburden drilling) piling technique with predrilled and grouted pilot holes was chosen at this bridge site due to the ground conditions. The pilot holes were grouted up to: improve the drill hole integrity; reduce the potential for the piling bit becoming ‘stuck’ within the loose fill material; and prevent blowing out the quay wall through the air pockets within the fill. The steel superstructure was fabricated off-site and brought to the V&A Water front in three pieces where it was assembled and welded together on a nearby jetty. A trial assembly at the fabrication yard ensured a good fit on-site. The deck was fully assembled on the jetty, complete with stay cables, handrails and timber decking. The cables, however, could not be stressed until the deck was stressed down on to the foundations. While the deck was being completed on the jetty, the adaptor ring and slewing bearing were installed.

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On Tuesday 21 May 2019, the existing bridge was decommissioned, and disassembly began. That Friday, the new bridge deck was loaded on to a barge parked adjacent to the jetty. Early the next morning, the barge transported the bridge deck to site where it was lifted and placed in position. For one month, the public was ferried across the channel while the cables were stressed, the deck level adjusted, the deck and handrail details completed, the pier head side abutment constructed, and the new barriers and gates installed. The new V&A Water front swing bridge was officially opened to the public on 11 July 2019. The new 4 m wide walkway has improved pedestrian flow, while the mechanical system is able to open and close the bridge at the same high speed as its predecessor, which was shipped to Mauritius where it will continue its life at the Port Louis Water front. The bridge’s integrated form is simple, unique and ser ves as an important link that is considered a positive landmark for both the V&A Water front and Cape Town.


SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE

Restoring an iconic reservoir Constructed in 1971, Durban Heights Reservoir 3 is one of the largest concrete structures of its kind in Southern Africa. With a storage capacity of 350 Mℓ, it supplies potable water to over 500 000 people in the surrounding area. This makes optimising its design life a key priority. Durban Heights Reservoir 3 was recently restored following an approximately 14-month refurbishment programme

S

haped like a circus tent, the reservoir’s design is unique, with the roof made up of 120 steel post-stressed cables that radiate from the centre roof to the outer base support. In 2003, a full diagnostic survey of the concrete roof panels was done. A variety of issues were identified, but of interest was the existence of a microclimate within the reservoir. This microclimate, with wet-dry cycles, creates a favorable environment for contaminants to be absorbed into the reinforced concrete panels, causing corrosion of the reinforcing. Umgeni Water appointed Royal HaskoningDHV as the project engineer for the rehabilitation programme, with the works carried out by Smart Civils Construction. Based on the original diagnostic survey, rehabilitation proposals and the subsequent product trials, Sika’s solutions and products were deemed optimal for the project. To gain access to the underside of the reservoir’s roof, Smart Civils erected some 550 tonnes of scaffolding

An internal view of the reservoir

Repair process To gain access to the underside of the reservoir’s roof, Smart Civils erected some 550 tonnes of scaffolding, in a bird-cage configuration, from the floor to just under the soffit. The scaffolding provided access to a quarter of the roof at any given time, before being dismantled and re-erected as the works progressed. A decision was made to use SikaTop Armatec-110 EpoCem as the primary rebar protective coating for the concrete repair to protect the reinforcing of steel and inhibit corrosion. Due to the difficult conditions, Sika MonoTop-610 was used as a primer to the concrete substrate. The decision to use Sika MonoTop-412 NFG as a repair mortar was due to its unique properties as an excellent wet spray mortar. This application method improved the compaction of repair mortar and increased the application rate of the product. Sika MonoTop-412 NFG also differentiates itself

as a one-component, polymer-modified, fibre-reinforced, low-shrinkage, structural repair mortar with Sika’s world-renowned Sika FerroGard-903 Plus corrosion inhibitor. Sika FerroGard-903 Plus delays the start of corrosion and reduces the corrosion rate when it occurs. It also increases the service life of a reinforced concrete structure Sika’s carbon fibre fabric, impregnated with structural epoxy resin SikaWrap-230C, was used due to the age of the structure and minimal concrete cover. The perfect product for refilling the ducts was Sika Injection-307 – a low-viscosity, elastic, polyacrylic injection resin that can be adjusted to set at a predetermined time, forming a passivating, permanently elastic matrix.

Panel coatings Two protective coating systems were applied to the panels, namely Sika FerroGard-903 Plus and Sikagard-705 L, as the final protective coating. The latter is a singlecomponent, low-viscosity, solvent-free and reactive impregnation product for concrete and cementitious substrates based on silane. Its unique properties allow for moisture vapour to escape from the concrete panels, ensuring that they stay dry – thus preventing further ingress of contaminants. The end result of all these interventions is a fully functional reservoir with a new lease on life.

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SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE

Precast systems that blend in Unlike monolithic cast in situ structures, the precast concrete products designed for environmentally engineered projects are purpose-built to match the terrain. Two classic examples are permeable pavers and retaining-wall block systems.

The wall reaches up to 7.1 m at its highest point

HARBOUR BAY SHOPPING PRECINCT Space created for a large parking area Corner detail as the wall follows site contours

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SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE

GLEN DIRK ESTATE The blocks were placed on a layer works comprising a 100 mm sand fill, 100 mm G5 sub-base and a 50 mm laterite layer A section of the Terracrete driveway

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ermeable precast pavers not only promote effective stormwater drainage, but add an important aesthetic element to low-volume road designs. The installation techniques are also well-suited to labour-intensive construction techniques and SMMEs for a wide range of other project requirements. In addition to residential and commercial developments, these include riverbank erosion protection and steep embankment stabilisations, such as bridge abutments. “A key feature of hard-lawn pavers is the way they blend in, providing a unique parklike or pastoral effect that adds value to any living space at a competitive cost compared to conventional, impermeable concrete block pavers,” says Holger Rust, founder of precast concrete manufacturer Terraforce. “Within the residential space, this makes our TerracreteTM interlocking hard-lawn blocks equally applicable for affordable housing and upmarket projects.” Manufactured locally and internationally by Terraforce licensees, Terracrete was introduced to the South African market in 2002 and has a well proven track record for durability. The units, available in varying shapes and sizes, can be laid in different patterns and used with or without ground anchors, depending on the application.

Glen Dirk Estate case study Terraforce evaluates the durability and sustainability of its installed products on an ongoing basis as part of its research and development programme. A recent example is a site visit to the Glen Dirk Estate in Constantia, Cape Town.

Late in 2017, 4 000 Terracrete blocks were installed to form driveway and parking areas. Some three years later, the vegetation is well established, and the system is functioning optimally. For this installation, the blocks were placed on a layer works comprising a 100 mm sand fill, 100 mm G5 sub-base and a 50 mm laterite layer, cut to shape as needed around corners, and neatly finished with E1 edging. For the grass planting phase, the blocks were filled with topsoil and seeded with Cynodon dactylon, also known as Bermuda grass, which is a hardy, water-wise species. “Acting as a natural filter, these versatile blocks positively contribute to the biodiversity and ecological value of the area, as well as provide a practical engineered solution,” adds Rust.

Harbour Bay Soil retention strategies are the mainstay of environmental engineering. Property developments, for example, often require cut and fill slopes that consequently need to be stabilised to prevent erosion by the elements. A prime example is a project in Simon’s Town, which entailed the construction of a new lifestyle and shopping complex. Built into a hill in the Dido Valley, several steep and exposed cut slopes had to be stabilised. Terraforce’s retaining-wall system was subsequently specified and installed by the appointed contractor, Dassenberg Retaining Systems. “The platform was handed over to us by Civils 2000 in late 2017,” comments Georg Brand of Dassenberg Retaining Systems. “We then hand excavated the footing and filled it with 25/19 MPa reinforced concrete. The bottom

third of the structure was installed with a double skin of Terraforce L11 blocks, which were also filled with 25/19 MPa concrete.” Added reinforcement comprised Findrain 2 m c/c, Rockgrid 200/200 as tiebacks, and 3% sand-/cement-stabilised backfill. As a result, the Terraforce wall can carry a surcharge of 10 kN/m², 1.5 m away from the top, which comes in at 7.1 m above the parking area. “One of the challenges we faced on-site was presented by a natural spring situated in the hill above the development,” adds Brand. “A soak-away had to be designed by Fred Laker of ICOS Engineering and a long-time Terraforce wall design specialist to effectively redirect the excess water towards the subsurface drainage. In total, 11 400 Terraforce L11 blocks were installed by our team, expertly overseen by team lead and foreman Rudi De Klerk,” Rust adds. Finally, landscaping of the wall focused on the water-wise and indigenous vegetation of the area. Today, the sour figs trailing over the top and fynbos shrubs lining the foot of the wall add a softening touch to the retaining systems. “Greening structures is a growing trend locally and internationally. Here, our systems provide the perfect balance in terms of engineering, aesthetics and the environment,” Rust concludes. Available in varying sizes and shapes, Terracrete blocks can be laid in different patterns and used with or without ground anchors, depending on the application

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Nkosi Johnson House, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Campus

The evolution of the student pod

South Africa’s backlog in student housing, estimated to be around 300 000 beds, presents new oppor tunities for innovative building technologies (IBTs) that can accelerate the process without compromising on quality and the living experience. Spearheading the change is STAG African, a multidisciplinar y leader in student accommodation. By Alastair Currie

T

he starting point for any student housing project is the cost of construction and how much clients can afford to spend. Other key considerations include the future operational and facilities maintenance expenses, plus the return on investment for property owners.

“We don’t introduce a product or building system without first researching what the market can afford,” explains Sean Kenealy, director and professional architect, STAG African. “Our starting and end point is to ensure absolute efficiency in terms of the design, technology and methodology, whether the client opts for a

FIGURE 1 Permeate flow per element

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Sean Kenealy, director, STAG African

conventional concrete-framed brick and mortar structure, or an IBT prefabricated approach,” he continues, adding that STAG African is a signatory to the African Green Campus Initiative. Worldwide, the demand for IBT systems is growing, largely due to their lower cost and faster build times. “The scale and scope of the project will best determine the construction technique; however, in the case of both conventional and IBT, green technologies still apply,” adds Kenealy. Within the IBT space, STAG African has gained extensive experience over the past decade in executing light steel frame buildings (LSFBs). This has had a major influence on the direction of its research and development (R&D) initiatives on student pod accommodation designs. Since many components of these systems are made to order in the factory, the key advantage of LSFBs is a major saving on construction waste


SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE

Precast pods

– typically less than 0.1% of building bulk. That compares to some 25% for traditional brick and mortar. Being made of steel, LSFBs are also recyclable.

Facilities management However, the construction cost is just one part of the equation. Institutional building administrators also need to know what it costs per month per bed to run student residences. When STAG African designs its projects, the future operating cost projections are incorporated into the model. That has a direct bearing on the materials and products specified during construction, as well as the energyefficient technologies employed. Examples of the latter include STAG African’s specification of alternative hot water heating systems. For recent projects, these have included heat pumps. Now, the company is investigating the potential of inline water heating, which only activates on demand, passing on electricity savings. “Including the facilities management team at the initial project planning stage is a crucial part of optimising the overall life-cycle costing,” Kenealy explains.

Stellenbosch University LSFB milestones for STAG African include

The Nkosi Johnson House project has a facility to recycle greywater

the development of three residences for Stellenbosch University. The most recent is Nkosi Johnson House, completed in 2017, which received an EDGE green building rating. An innovation of the World Bank Group’s International Finance Corporation, EDGE stands for ‘Excellence in Design for Greater Efficiencies’ and is a highly soughtafter accolade. “Our design for Nkosi Johnson House incorporates a host of green features. These encompass the use of natural ventilation, solar energy, greywater reuse, rainwater harvesting, low-flow water fittings, and LED lighting, with the LSFB cladding panels manufactured from recycled materials,” Kenealy explains. Each self-contained pod within this three-storey building caters for eight separate, singleoccupancy bedrooms. By ruling out the use of mechanical ventilation, and optimising thermal efficiencies, the heating and cooling costs have been reduced by almost 70%. Then, from a facilities management perspective, all services are mounted externally to maximise ease of maintenance.

While LSFBs clearly have their advantages, STAG African’s R&D team has been investigating even more affordable and efficient IBT alternatives for pod designs. Working with Cape Town-based manufacturer Concretex has led to the development of a lightweight, cellular, concrete-wall-panel system. Each 150 mm thick wall panel is formed in a mould under strict quality control conditions, with the final product incorporating electrical conduits and plumbing connections according to specific building design layouts. “We’ve built a prototype two-storey building using the wall technology, so we know it works in terms of concept and assembly,” says Kenealy. The ground-floor surface bed is established conventionally by forming a concrete slab and brickwork foundation wall. The panels are then installed in their planned sequence, without the need for any scaffolding on-site.

Proof of concept Having brainstormed and refined the optimal building methodology with the contractor, structural engineer and its technology partner, STAG African is now moving to the proof of concept stage. This will entail the construction of a 24-bed, three-storey building in Rosebank, Cape Town, which will aim to attract University of Cape Town students. Each floor will comprise one self-contained pod, comprising eight doubleoccupancy beds. Construction is scheduled to commence in January 2021. STAG African will be using the same contractor currently employed on its 2 050-bed student accommodation village project for the University of Fort Hare in Alice. This is believed to be the largest student housing project undertaken at a public university to date in South Africa. The final phase of the project is due for completion in December 2020. “On every project, our objective is to create a living environment that promotes student well-being and a sense of community, as well as contributes to academic success. Our latest pod design meets these performance criteria and presents one of the most affordable solutions to date in the IBT field,” says Kenealy. “Ultimately, we believe it’s going to be a game changer in helping to fill the student housing gap, providing a proven, credible and affordable alternative to conventional walling,” he concludes.

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RENEWABLE ENERGY

The Reisa Kathu Solar PV installation designed by Zutari

South Africa’s hybrid power solution Globally, growth in the renewable energy market is rapidly gaining momentum. In South Africa’s case, however, there’s a greater sense of urgency, as power utilities and municipalities struggle to meet the growing energy gap. Janice Foster, technical director: Energy Generation at Zutari, expands on key regional trends. By Alastair Currie

S

outh Africa’s Integrated Resource Plan 2019 presents a realistic forecast of the future energy mix, which includes the evolving renewables segment. Given the abundance of South Africa’s coal reserves, though, and the major investments that

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have been made in newer power stations like Kusile and Medupi, the plan clearly states that thermal energy will be with us for decades. A similar scenario exists for other developed and developing nations that have existing large-scale thermal power capacity – prime examples being the USA and India. (As an aside, the latter remains a major coal export market for South Africa.) However, most countries, including South Africa, remain committed to the Paris Climate Agreement signed in 2016 and acknowledge the need to transition to greener power sources. Alongside renewables, these include natural gas, cogeneration, hydroelectric power and hydrogen. “In addition to climate change concerns, the spiralling cost of fossil-fuel-based energy is another factor motivating the switch to renewables. Solar and wind plants are prime examples, since they are much more affordable power generators,” Foster explains. For South Africa, renewable and alternative forms of power are part of the medium- to

longer-term solution to the current energy crisis, as Eskom struggles to maintain and run its ageing coal-fired plants and distribution networks. “As power generation experts, our role is to work with public and private sector clients to manage and build existing and future capacity via a multiplatform approach,” Foster continues. “The transition from conventional coal-fired energy to a wider application of renewable power is a complex process. It must be able to integrate and deliver consistently in terms of national baseload and peak demand.”

RMIPPPP opportunities The Department of Mineral Resources & Energy’s Risk Mitigation Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (RMIPPPP) will certainly help to simulate activity in that direction. To meet South Africa’s power gap, the RMIPPPP makes provision for the purchase of some 2 000 MW from the open market for activation during 2022. Janice Foster, technical director: Energy Generation, Zutari


RENEWABLE ENERGY

The Cookhouse wind farm development

“While not exclusively focused on renewables – gas and cogeneration being among the alternative options – the RMIPPPP could potentially be a game changer for the South African grid in terms of how power is supplied,” says Foster. Zutari (previously trading as Aurecon) has extensive experience in renewable energy projects. This is underscored by the fact that Zutari has played a role in approximately 70% of the solar and wind projects awarded so far in terms of South Africa’s Renewable Energy IPP Procurement Programme (REIPPPP). This includes present REIPPPP Round 4 projects being installed.

Reisa Kathu solar project One of South Africa’s first utility-scale solar PV projects was the 75 MW Renewable Energy Investments South Africa (Reisa) Kathu development in the Northern Cape. Zutari was appointed as the owner’s engineer in 2012 and was responsible for construction, commissioning super vision

and the provision of technical assistance during commercial operations. The production of the first kWh took place in August 2014. As part of its ongoing asset management support strategy, Zutari is using advanced digital diagnostics to analyse plant per formance. This analysis will help further refine the return on investment model for IPPs and municipal clients.

determines the tarif fs charged to residential and commercial users. As a rule of thumb, a 20-year PPA is a realistic model, but each project needs its own individual assessment. “In most instances, municipalities are unlikely to have the capital on hand to build their own renewable plants, so IPPs are the obvious choice,” Foster explains. “Here, Zutari’s power generation team works with municipalities to develop the best approach. This includes possible power studies or tariff analysis, so we can develop the best fit from a service delivery and profitability perspective. To work effectively, contractual and performance guarantees must be agreed on and adhered to.”

The viability of going off the grid

Storage, and more storage

For renewables investors securing Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs), the key issue is about the financial viability of their projects, whether it be a REIPPPP or RMIPPPP project. With numerous municipalities securing the right to go the renewables route, the question will be how best to make this commercially viable for all parties. To make it attractive, investors need a realistic payback period from their PPAs. Here, the terms of the PPA period are especially important since this ultimately

The good news is that batter y technology is constantly improving, and prices are dropping as technology and efficiency improve and demand continues to grow worldwide. This is opening the door to new opportunities for both utility-scale storage solutions and renewable energy projects. “For South Africa, the roll-out of renewable energy, coupled with energy storage solutions, will take major pressure off South Africa’s coal-dominated grid and prepare the way for a carbon-free energy mix,” Foster concludes.

Zutari’s Stortemelk hydropower project

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RENEWABLE ENERGY

Energy storage no longer optional The advancement of technologies employed to sustainably release stored energy for practical use, and the efficient utilisation of that energy storage, is fundamentally changing where and how the energy industry is moving, both locally and globally. It is the key to unlocking our 100% renewable energy future. By Glynis Coetzee*

G

lobal renewable energy capacity is set to expand by 50% between 2019 and 2024, led by solar energy, and the proportion of clean energy storage to clean energy generation is a key indicator to predict how fast the world will achieve 100% renewable energy provision. Installed energy storage capacity across the world doubled between 2017 and 2018 to 8 GWh. Globally, the move to energy storage is happening faster than anticipated. In 2019, the International Energy Association (IEA) estimated that, in order to keep global warming below 2°C, the world needs 266 GW of energy storage by 2030. Bloomberg New Energy Finance predicts that the global energy storage market will hit that target, and grow quickly to a cumulative 942 GW by 2040.

Renewable technologies Pumped hydro storage still makes up the bulk of the global energy storage capacity, accounting for 96.2%. However, because it is not transportable, work is being done

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to advance other technologies that are not limited by specific conditions of location. With these developments in the storage market, as with renewable-energy-aligned technologies in general over the past decade, the cost of energy storage has dramatically decreased, and will continue to decline. Technologies employed globally are pumped hydro, compressed air, thermal storage (molten salt and other), ‘solid state’ lithium-ion, sodium sulfate (NaS) and lead acid batteries, as well as vanadium flow batteries. Hydrogen, which is a relatively recent entrant to the energy storage market, is rapidly gaining traction. Each technology has its strengths and weaknesses. Factors to consider of the various technologies include initial cost, lifespan, energy density and consequential cost per kilowatt hour, positive by-products (such as hot water from the thermal system), and environmental damages caused by the original material required, among others. Table 1 highlights technologies that can currently provide large storage capacities of at least 20 MW.

Table 2 details the use case and appropriateness of application for energy storage across the segments of utility and behind-the-meter scale and the various technologies. It is this range of ancillary, grid and customer services that are starting to provide a compelling business case for the inclusion of storage into projects, even at a mini- and micro-grid scale, facilitated by the advancements in IoT (internet of things) in the renewable energy space. With the advent of micro- and mini-grid IoT intelligence technology, which soundly integrates renewable generation with energy storage, systems are now able to provide reliable, dispatchable energy, at a distributed local level to communities, commercial and industrial, as well as agriprocessing environments, at a viable cost.

South African context South Africa’s IRP 2019 contemplates that storage will play a significant role in


RENEWABLE ENERGY

TABLE 1 Characteristics of selected energy storage systems (Source: World Energy Council, adapted by TouchPoint Research)

Max cycles or lifetime

Energy density (watt-hour per litre)

Efficiency

Max DOD

3 000

4h – 16h

30 – 60 years

0.2 – 2

70 – 85%

80%

n/a

22.5

2h – 30h

20 – 40 years

2–6

40 – 70%

100%

10 – 30

150

hours

30 years

70 – 210

80 – 90%

100%

350 – 550

85 – 80%

100%

Max power rating (MW)

Pumped hydro Compressed air CAES Thermal (molten salt

Price / kWh Operating (turnkey) ex. temp °C VAT

Discharge time

Renewable technology type

20 – 40 years

R13 520

R1.57

290 – 300

R4 512

R0.70

R4 360

R0.74

NaS

22.5

Li-ion battery

22.5

1 min – 8h

1 000 – 10 000

200 – 400

85 – 95%

100%

-20 – 60

Lead-acid battery

100

1 min – 8h

6 – 40 years

50 – 80

80 – 90%

50%

25

Flow battery

100

hours

12 000 – 14 000

20 – 70

60 – 85%

100%

15 – 55

Hydrogen

100

600 (at 200 bar)

25 – 45%

100%

500

mins – week 5 – 30 years

the energy mix in both the short and long term and makes provision in years 2022 and 2029 for the introduction of additional energy storage capacity of 513 MW and 1 575 MW, respectively. Eskom recently releasing its first Battery Energy Storage System-only RFP for the Skaapvlei facility in the Northern Cape indicates the utility’s recognition of the urgent need for large-scale battery storage on the grid, to compensate for both the unreliability of the ageing fossil fuel fleet and the variable dispatchability and intermittency of renewable energy. The IRP has identified this battery-storage pilot project as the test

case for the assessment and development of the technical applications, benefits and regulatory matters associated with a utility scale energy storage technology. All these factors suggest that any immediate and future planning of renewable energy infrastructure, whether at grid level or behind-the-meter, must include storage. Developers of systems must also place flexibility – not individual technologies – at the core of policy design. Not to do so would be to ignore the inevitable and rapidly changing market, at your peril. Genesis Infrastructure Renewable Energy Group subsidiary TouchPoint Energy has

TABLE 2A Energy storage services per segment (Source: FEL 100 – Energy Storage Monitor Team 2018)

LCOES / kWh

recognised this need and is developing small- and medium-scale projects for residential and mixed-use developments, C&I applications, agri-processing, and mining applications, which include batter y storage as part of the hybrid solutions, for load shifting, mini-grid forming and stabilisation, and inclusive of all the ancillar y ser vices (Table 2) applicable to the scale of the projects. *Glynis Coetzee (B.AS (UCT), Member CIOB (UK)) specialises in project development at TouchPoint Energy. Email: projects@ touchpointenergy.com

TABLE 2B Applications (Adapted from US DOE Grid Energy Storage 2013 report)

IMIESA November/December 2020

57


RENEWABLE ENERGY

ENERGY ROUND-UP WIND FARM ADDS 110 MW TO GRID

NXUBA WIND FARM OPERATIONAL Despite the challenges of the Covid-19 lockdown, the 140 MW Nxuba Wind Farm in the Eastern Cape has begun generating and delivering energy. Nxuba Wind Farm is one of five projects awarded to Enel Green Power (EGP) South Africa in the fourth round of the country’s Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement (REIPPP) Programme. The wind farm boasts a full production capacity of 460 GWh per year, to be added to the grid. “Nxuba Wind Farm is yet another example of EGP’s commitment to renewables and sustainability in South Africa and globally. We are particularly excited about unlocking the potential of the abundant renewable energy sources in South Africa, as well as supporting the local economy,” says William Price, head of EGP in South Africa. Price explains that the pre-assembly stage involves the installation of as many as 17 concrete tower keystones (portions of sections). This is followed by the main erection of the structure that includes the installation of the five pre-assembled tower sections and other related operations (horizontal joints and tensioning cables), which can take up to two weeks to complete in optimal weather conditions. The completion of the project amounted to 2 million man-hours with zero incidents and involved significant skills transfer. EGP enlisted the services of individuals and SMEs from the Blue Crane Route and Raymond Mhlaba local municipalities, which comprise Adelaide, Cookhouse, Somerset East and Bedford, to help construct the plant.

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IMIESA November/December 2020

The first wind farm from Round 4 of the REIPPP Programme to begin commercial operations, Perdekraal East Wind Farm, will add 110 MW to South Africa’s national grid. Situated in Witzenberg Municipality near Matjiesfontien in the Western Cape, Perdekraal East has 48 turbines generating approximately 360 GWh of energy each year – enough to supply power for 111 000 South African homes. The facility, which is co-owned by renewable power-generation company Lekela and the local community, which has a shareholding though a community trust, has a 20-year power purchase agreement with Eskom. The wind farm will eliminate approximately 410 000 tonnes of CO2 emissions annually compared to traditional fossil-fuel power plants. Perdekraal East is one of Lekela’s eight projects on the continent, with four in operation in South Africa, and a further four under construction or development in South Africa, Senegal, Ghana and Egypt. The 140 MW Kangnas Wind Farm in the Northern Cape will reach its commercial operations date later this year. It will use 61 turbines, each producing 2.3 MW, to add around another 500 GWh of clean, economic and renewable energy to the national grid each year. Perdekraal East and Kangnas will join Lekela Power’s three other South African operations already in operation: the 80 MW Noupoort, 140 MW Loeriesfontein 2, and 140 MW Khobab wind farms, all in the Northern Cape.

SA’S SECOND SIGNIFICANT GAS CONDENSATE DISCOVERY Total has made a significant gas condensate discovery on the Luiperd prospect, located on Block 11B/12B in the Outeniqua Basin, 175 km off the southern coast of South Africa. This follows the adjacent Brulpadda play discovery in 2019, which proved to be a significant new petroleum province in the region. Block 11B/12B covers an area of 19 000 km2, with water depths ranging from 200 m to 1 800 m. The Luiperd well was drilled to a total depth of about 3 400 m and encountered 73 m of net gas condensate play in well-developed, good-quality Lower Cretaceous reservoirs. Following a comprehensive coring and logging programme, the well will be tested to assess the dynamic reservoir characteristics and deliverability. “We are very pleased with this second discovery and its very encouraging results, which prove the world-class nature of this

offshore gas play. With this discovery and the successful seismic acquisitions, Total and its partners have acquired important data on the Paddavissie fairway, which will help to progress development studies and engage with South African authorities regarding the possible conditions of the gas commercialisation,” says Arnaud Breuillac, president: Exploration & Production at Total.


RENEWABLE ENERGY

Paving SA’s renewable future The fourth round of the Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme has proved busy for Concor, which is now completing its 10th wind farm project.

A

ccording to Joe Nell, contracts director, Concor, the company was awarded five projects during Round 4, and was able to successfully implement four of them at the same time, mainly under EPC contracts. “This performance is testament to our highly skilled and experienced teams on the ground, and our strong balance sheet to apply all necessary resources to each project’s particular demands,” says Nell. The company’s contracts began with one of the country’s first wind farms – the 60-turbine project at Jeffreys Bay. More projects followed near Noupoort, De Aar and Loeriesfontein – often remote and with challenging conditions

related to geology or weather. Four projects were then run concurrently, namely Perdekraal East in the Witzenberg district, Excelsior near Swellendam, Golden Valley near Cookhouse, and Kangnas near Springbok. “The most recent wind farm is Roggeveld, in the mountains between Matjiesfontein and Sutherland, where cold conditions and snowfalls forced the site’s closure on numerous occasions,” says Nell. “This

ABOVE Preparing the levels to cast a wind turbine base at Perdekraal East Wind Farm ABOVE LEFT Casting of foundation WTG 6 at Roggeveld Wind Farm

created its own challenges, which added to the experience of our teams.” The wind farms Concor has constructed now contribute over 1 000 MW of electricity to South Africa’s grid capacity.

World-class impact. At Zutari, our motivation isn’t awards. Rather it’s the impact we create. And when it’s truly exceptional, it gets noticed. It’s confirmation that our clients are getting the world-class engineering they deserve.

zutari.com

Zutari was recognised by ENR as #1 international design firm in Africa for 2020.

Zutari was recognised by Fortune magazine on the global Change the World list for 2020.


IMESA

IMESA AFFILIATE MEMBERS PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATES


AECOM siphokuhle.dlamini@aecom.com AFI Consult banie@afri-infra.com lunga@alakeconsulting.com Alake Consulting Engineers AQUADAM (Pty) Ltd sales@aquadam.co.za ARRB Systems info@arrbsystemssa.com Asla Construction (Pty) Ltd johanv@asla.co.za Aveng Manufacturing Infraset werner.booyens@infraset.com Bigen Africa Group Holdings otto.scharfetter@bigenafrica.com BMK Group brian@bmkgroup.co.za Bosch Munitech info@boschmunitech.co.za mail@boschprojects.co.za Bosch Projects (Pty) Ltd BVI Consulting Engineers marketing@bviho.co.za Civilconsult Consulting Engineers mail@civilconsult.co.za Corrosion Institute of Southern Africa secretary@corrosioninstitute.org.za Development Bank of SA divb@dbsa.org.za Dlamindlovu Consulting Engineers & Project Managers info@dlami-ndlovu.co.za DPI Plastics Farhana@dpiplastics.co.za EFG Engineers eric@efgeng.co.za Elster Kent Metering Mark.Shamley@Honeywell.com ERWAT mail@erwat.co.za GIBB marketing@gibb.co.za GIGSA secretary@gigsa.org GLS Consulting nicky@gls.co.za Gorman Rupp Cordeiro@gormanrupp.co.za Gudunkomo Investments & Consulting info@gudunkomo.co.za Hatch Africa (Pty) Ltd info@hatch.co.za Herrenknecht schiewe.helene@herrenknecht.de Huber Technology cs@hubersa.com info@edams.co.za Hydro-comp Enterprises I@Consulting info@iaconsulting.co.za Infrachamps Consulting info@infrachamps.co.za INGEROP mravjee@ingerop.co.za Integrity Environment info@integrityafrica.co.za IQHINA Consulting Engineers & Project Managers info@iqhina.co.za iX engineers (Pty) Ltd hans.k@ixengineers.co.za JBFE Consulting (Pty) Ltd issie@jbfe.co.za JG Afrika DennyC@jgafrika.com KABE Consulting Engineers info@kabe.co.za Kago Consulting Engineers kagocon@kago.co.za Kantey & Templer (K&T) Consulting Engineers ccherry@ct.kanteys.co.za Kitso Botlhale Consulting Engineers info@kitsobce.co.za general@lwt.co.za Lektratek Water Makhaotse Narasimulu & Associates mmakhaotse@mna-sa.co.za Malani Padayachee & Associates (Pty) Ltd admin@mpa.co.za Maragela Consulting Engineers admin@maragelaconsulting.co.za Mariswe (Pty) Ltd neshniec@mariswe.com Martin & East gbyron@martin-east.co.za M & C Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd info@mcconsulting.co.za Mhiduve adminpotch@mhiduve.co.za Mogoba Maphuthi & Associates (Pty) Ltd admin@mmaholdings.co.za Much Asphalt bennie.greyling@muchasphalt.com Mvubu Consulting & Project Managers miranda@mvubu.net NAKO ILISO lyn.adams@nakogroup.com Nyeleti Consulting merasmus@nyeleti.co.za Odour Engineering Systems mathewc@oes.co.za amarunga@prociv.co.za Prociv Consulting & Projects Management Rainbow Reservoirs quin@rainbowres.com maura@re-solve.co.za Re-Solve Consulting (Pty) Ltd Ribicon Consulting Group (Pty) Ltd info@ribicon.co.za francisg@rhdv.com Royal HaskoningDHV info@sabita.co.za SABITA mberry@safripol.com SAFRIPOL info@salga.org.za SALGA SAPPMA admin@sappma.co.za / willem@sappma.co.za SARF administrator@sarf.org.za.co.za SBS Water Systems mava@sbstanks.co.za Sembcorp Siza Water info-sizawater@sembcorp.com Sigodi Marah Martin Management Support lansanam@sigodimarah.co.za garths@sivest.co.za SiVEST SA Sizabantu Piping Systems (Pty) Ltd gregl@sizabantupipingsystems.com SKYV Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd kamesh@skyv.co.za capetown@smec.com SMEC gen@sobek.co.za Sobek Engineering director@sasst.org.za Southern African Society for Trenchless Technology jomar@srk.co.za SRK Consulting Star Of Life Emergency Trading CC admin@staroflife.co.za Syntell julia@syntell.co.za TECROVEER (Pty) Ltd info@tecroveer.co.za TPA Consulting roger@tpa.co.za V3 Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd info@v3consulting.co.za Vetasi south-africa@vetasi.com VIP Consulting Engineers esme@vipconsulting.co.za VNA info@vnac.co.za VUKA Africa Consulting Engineers info@vukaafrica.co.za Water Institute of Southern Africa wisa@wisa.org.za Wam Technology CC support@wamsys.co.za Wilo South Africa marketingsa@wilo.co.za WRP ronniem@wrp.co.za WSP Group Africa ansia.meyer@wsp.com Zutari Rashree.Maharaj@Zutari.com

VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT The Streumaster SW 318 MC has an 18 m3 container capacity

Precision spreaders

S

treumaster’s latest-generation MC and TC binding agent spreaders set a new standard for performance in the roads market when to comes to soil stabilisation and cold recycling. Key features include a new highspeed pneumatic filling device and container design. Each of the unit’s two filling connectors is designed to handle up to 2 t of binding agent per minute. In addition, an optional automatic filter system is available to make the filling process dust-free. A fully automatic metering system ensures that the binding agent is discharged precisely, irrespective of the machine’s travel speed. In combination with the Weightronic electronic weighing device, it is possible to simultaneously calculate both the distance travelled and the area covered with binding agent. A further plus is that the metering feeders are self-cleaning. This guarantees an even, high-performance process with high spreading accuracy. “In addition, the spreading unit’s three partial spreading widths can be controlled separately, making it possible to adjust the spread rate of each section individually,” explains Waylon Kukard, sales manager, Wirtgen South Africa. (Streumaster forms part of the Wirtgen Group.) Streumaster’s new control panel combines all the binding agent spreader’s operating elements into a single unit. Individual operating values and function keys can be created via the 12-inch colour display’s user interface. In addition, the control panel features a split-screen mode, which enables the operator to display different camera images from the optional camera/ monitor system. “Designed either as truck-mounted or trailer units, the Streumaster series challenges the conventional practice of manually spreading binders by hand. Going the Streumaster route ensures consistent, high-precision spreading results, which is an essential requirement in achieving quality pavement structures,” adds Kukard. Models in the TC and MC series are capable of spreading up to 60 ℓ/m² at a maximum spreading width of 2 360 mm.

IMIESA November/December 2020

61


VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT

Emerging contractor sets strong example Enterprise development beneficiar y assistance plays a key role in transforming South Africa’s construction sector, as well as suppor ting SMME growth. For Cape Town-based company SR Civil Contractors, it’s been a major factor in growing business.

S

idney Rober ts considers himself fortunate to be part of this initiative, but his journey has not been an easy one. While studying towards a BTech in Civil Engineering at Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Roberts worked for a wellknown Cape Town-based roads construction company as an intern.

62

IMIESA November/December 2020

“After spending three months in the mechanical workshop learning how ear thmoving and materials handling equipment worked, I was sent to Namaqualand to work on a roads project,” he explains. Once he qualified, Roberts worked with other contractors and gained valuable experience in roads and ser vices

SR Civil Contractors’ Bell 315SL backhoes deployed on a Cape Town infrastructure project

construction all over the Western Cape. A stint with JVC Plant taught him a lot about the contractual side of the business and, as a senior site agent, how to work to the highest standards of quality. “But, in the back of my mind, I had a long-held dream of being self-employed and I actually registered my future business, SR Civil Contractors, in 2013 – while still


VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT

Sidney Roberts (left) with Fiona Johnson, sales representative, Bell Equipment

employed,” he says. “I only resigned from full-time employment after landing a solid contract in 2014 for a water pipeline in Cape Town’s Tokai suburb.”

A turning point SR Civil Contractors focused on finding work in roads, paving, water reticulation and related ser vices fields, subcontracting to larger, more established contractors. “And so it happened that one Friday afternoon I received a call from Enrico Bossi, managing director of Umzali Civils, and he told me my name had been mentioned as a possible replacement for another small contractor who was battling to complete subcontracting work and so holding up a major project,” he says. “I grabbed this oppor tunity and successfully completed our side of the contract, building concrete manholes for Drakenstein Municipality.” Enrico identified that Roberts’ company needed earthmoving equipment and he called Fiona Johnson, sales representative: Cape Town, Bell Equipment, to find out whether the OEM could assist. With input from John Collins, GM: Cape Region and Namibia, Bell Equipment, and Bruce Ndlela, director: Business and Public Sector Development, as well as the Bell Equipment factor y in Richards Bay, Roberts took deliver y of a Bell 315SL tractor loader backhoe (TLB) and a Bomag BW120 AD-5 tandem vibrator y roller in 2017. The deal was structured so that he could pay it off within 36 months. “I really have to thank Enrico Bossi of Umzali Civils for making this happen.

We’re getting continued suppor t from his company with subcontracting work,” Rober ts adds. “Not having to hire in equipment creates better cash flow for us and has assisted us in steadily moving up the CIDB competency scale to now reach Grade 5.”

Machine performance The equipment has expanded SR Civil Contractors’ repertoire of skills and the young company has been engaged in diverse projects such as pipeline, paving and parking area construction, where both the Bell 315SL TLB and Bomag roller are used extensively.

“I’ve been impressed with the Bell 315SL’s fuel consumption of between six and seven litres an hour, although that does increase slightly when we use the backhoe for trenching when installing pipes and other ser vices,” Roberts says. “The Bomag BW120 AD-5 roller gives us great compaction over a 1.2 m width; for our type of work, we really don’t need any heavier compaction at this time,” he adds. The year 2018 saw SR Civil Contractors land more work. To this end, Sidney bought another Bell 315SL TLB and, later in the same year, a Bomag BW 65-H pedestrian double-drum vibrator y roller. Both these machines were bought using Bell Finance through Wesbank. “I have happily stayed with Bell Equipment for a number of reasons besides the great design and ruggedness of the company’s products,” Roberts says. “I have a good relationship with Bell personnel – from Fiona Johnson in sales to all the product suppor t and workshop and spares department staff. I feel I can speak to anyone at any time, which matters to me. “I will be looking to fur ther expand my growing fleet of Bell machines and will possibly look at acquiring a small excavator in the near future, which could be useful to hire out on a plant hire basis as well,” Roberts concludes.

IMIESA November/December 2020

63


CEMENT & CONCRETE

Concrete courses via e-learning The Concrete Institute’s School of Concrete Technology (SCT) has finalised its programme of online training courses for 2021. Four teen courses are planned, including the star t of the pinnacle of concrete diploma courses: Advanced Concrete Technology.

J

could offer 10 different courses online. These courses, where applicable, have been granted the same CPD accreditation as the lecture-roombased courses,” he continues.

ohn Roxburgh, senior lecturer at the SCT, says the school ran its last lecture-driven course at the end of March 2020 and was forced, due to lockdown regulations, to abandon lecture room training after that. “But we fortunately had experience in delivering e-learning courses through SCT41 and SCT42 – the UK’s Institute of Concrete Technology’s General Principles and Practical Application courses – which the school has presented on an e-learning basis for several years,” Roxburgh explains. “This proved invaluable for a fast conversion of the more popular SCT courses on to an e-learning platform. Within two months, the SCT

Online advantages Roxburgh says the SCT quickly learnt that the online course versions offer some surprisingly good advantages. These include: • substantial reduction in costs (major online discounts will still apply next year) •  flexibility for the student with work or time constraints • no travel and accommodation needed • more time available to study • better understanding of the subject through a three-pronged approach that includes selfstudy with tests, videos that can be watched repeatedly, and face-to-face contact with the lecturer on electronic meeting platforms. “Because of these significant benefits, the concrete and concrete-related industries have welcomed online training and the school’s training has resulted in many satisfied students graduating and receiving online course certificates in 2020,” says Roxburgh.

John Roxburgh, senior lecturer at TCI’s School of Concrete Technology

Preparation for Advanced Concrete Technology course The school is gearing up to present its

next Advanced Concrete Technology (ACTSCT50) course for the Institute of Concrete Technology at the beginning of 2022. As acceptance for this prestigious programme requires a pass in the SCT41 and SCT42 courses, it is advisable for prospective ACT-SCT50 students to complete the SCT41 and SCT42 courses next year. The examinations for these will be written in May 2021. “For those looking for a career in concrete technology, there are many opportunities available. South Africa has a massive need for competent concrete practitioners in admixture sales, laboratories, construction companies, readymix and precast concrete suppliers, concrete repair facilities, cement and aggregate production, and mining, to name just a few sectors,” adds Roxburgh. “The SCT has structured a progression of course levels that will allow for a prospective student to enrol at a level that matches their competency. There are no shortcuts to becoming a good concrete technologist. Study is essential. The SCT has all the educational requirements to help meet these goals,” he concludes. For more information and the full 2021 online training programme, visit www.theconcreteinstitute.org.za.

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS

34

Model Maker Systems

APE Pumps

38

Naidu Consulting OFC

Circuit Water Engineering GeoAfrika Group GLS Consulting IMESA Korone Engineers

64

26

African Utility Week/POWERGEN

IMIESA November/December 2020

OBC 27 8

Optron

31

Quality Filtration Systems 37 Rand Water

2, 39

Sizabantu Piping Systems

IBC

SMEC

47

Structa Group

30

Tirisano Consulting Engineers IFC

22

4, 42, 60

Rocla

48

Umvoto Africa

16

Siyazi

12

Zutari 59


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