IMIESA April 2022

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www.infrastructurenews.co.za

IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT • SERVICE DELIVERY • ROADS • BUILDING • MAINTENANCE

An agile approach adds quality to transportation projects Roads & Bridges The critical role of maintenance and management

Water & Wastewater Generating hydropower within municipal water networks

Trenchless Technology Deep tunnel sewerage systems

IN THE HOT SEAT We are experiencing a definite improvement in activity so far in 2022. The number of contract awards is encouraging, although not at pre-pandemic levels.”

Riaan Odendaal National Operations Executive, AECI Much Asphalt

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CELEBRATING 20 YEARS OF PLASTIC PIPE SOLUTIONS AND GOING STRONG, SIZA STRONG!

Message from our CEO, Don Coleman: The past 20 years has been a journey filled with fun and interesting challengers. This wonderful journey has been made possible by the enthusiastic, entrepreneurial character, which has encapsulated the Spirit of our amazing team. The road we have travelled was not without its challengers, but with the positive competitive nature of our management and staff, we managed to scale each mountain that was in our way. It has been an absolute pleasure serving with our adopted family and may we take this opportunity thanking the Good Lord for his Grace and many Blessings. May we all look forward to the next 20 years of this exciting journey. To our Dear Loyal Customers and Suppliers. Thank you for travelling this long road with us over the past 20 years. We have been truly privileged to be included as part of your supply team. Without your success and support, we would have surely stumbled along the way. We look forward to continuing our journey with you, into a bright new future.

#Siza20Strong #Since2002 #SizaExcellence

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INSIDE

VOLUME 47 NO. 04 APRIL 2022

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20 www.infrastructurenews.co.za

IMESA The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT • SERVICE DELIVERY • ROADS • BUILDING • MAINTENANCE

ROADS & BRIDGES | MAINTENANCE & MANAGEMENT

Regulars

Energy

Editor’s comment

3

President’s comment

5

Index to advertisers An agile approach adds quality to transportation projects

56

Cover Story

Roads & Bridges

An agile approach adds quality to transportation projects

The critical role of maintenance and management

Water & Wastewater Generating hydropower within municipal water networks

Water & Wastewater Generating hydropower within municipal water networks

Riaan Odendaal National Operations Executive, AECI Much Asphalt

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ON THE COVER Mariswe has a large and diverse team of technical experts with a proud reputation of excellence in designing and managing transportation construction projects in South Africa and several other African countries. P6

HOT SEAT As an industry leader, AECI Much Asphalt’s reputation for product innovation and quality is backed up by proactive supply chain management to meet current and future demand. IMIESA speaks to Riaan Odendaal, National Operations Executive, about the road ahead and research into carbonneutral binder alternatives that could eventually replace conventional bitumen. P12

38

WATER & WASTEWATER

Municipal Focus | Nelson Mandela Bay

Hot Seat Bitumen faces an uncertain future

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Road Construction | Technologies, Standards & Specifications Getting it right the first time

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Roads & Bridges | Maintenance & Management Remodelling the Westwood Interchange underpass

Nooitgedacht Low Level Water Supply Scheme achieves ‘first water’

Dams Dams with a safety risk

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Breathing new life into a historic building

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Implosion clears way for redevelopment

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Ensuring security of bitumen supply

24

Fit-for-purpose flooring solutions

N2 Wild Coast investments benefit communities

25

Cement & Concrete

Training

BUILDINGS

Stemming leaks on a tailings thickener

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Versatile scalper performs optimally

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Bell starts roll-out of JCB roller demos

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ELB adopts telematics across its range

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EIE Group becomes CFAO Equipment

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Information & Communications Technology

Gabion Architecture Weld mesh sets new gabion trend

Building Systems

Vehicles & Equipment 27

Infrastructure Development Labour-based construction in Zambia: recent policy developments

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Plein Street revamp revitalises an old landmark

Concrete pavements have come a long way

Remote learning connects and empowers

40

Buildings

Road Maintenance Forum committed to best practices 20

47

38

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Deep tunnel sewerage systems We are experiencing a definite improvement in activity so far in 2022. The number of contract awards is encouraging, although not at pre-pandemic levels.”

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Trenchless Technology

IN THE HOT SEAT

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Trenchless Technologies Deep tunnel sewerage systems: Singapore’s success story

Africa Round-up Infrastructure news from around the continent

Enabling a just transition and sustainable communities

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Design just about anything, faster

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INFORMATION & COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY


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EDITOR’S COMMENT MANAGING EDITOR Alastair Currie SENIOR JOURNALIST Kirsten Kelly JOURNALIST Nombulelo Manyana FEATURES WRITER Ziyanda Majodina HEAD OF DESIGN Beren Bauermeister DESIGNER Jaclyn Dollenberg CHIEF SUB-EDITOR Tristan Snijders CONTRIBUTORS Robert McCutcheon, Kevin McRae, Bhavna Soni, Frank Stevens, Swen Weiner PRODUCTION & CLIENT LIAISON MANAGER Antois-Leigh Nepgen PRODUCTION COORDINATOR Jacqueline Modise GROUP SALES MANAGER Chilomia Van Wijk BOOKKEEPER Tonya Hebenton DISTRIBUTION MANAGER Nomsa Masina DISTRIBUTION COORDINATOR Asha Pursotham SUBSCRIPTIONS subs@3smedia.co.za PRINTERS Novus Print Montague Gardens ___________________________________________________ ADVERTISING SALES KEY ACCOUNT MANAGER Joanne Lawrie Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 / +27 (0)82 346 5338 Email: joanne@3smedia.co.za ___________________________________________________

PUBLISHER Jacques Breytenbach 3S Media Production Park, 83 Heidelberg Road, City Deep Johannesburg South, 2136 PO Box 92026, Norwood 2117 Tel: +27 (0)11 233 2600 www.3smedia.co.za ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION: R600.00 (INCL VAT) ISSN 0257 1978 IMIESA, Inst.MUNIC. ENG. S. AFR. © Copyright 2022. All rights reserved. ___________________________________________________ IMESA CONTACTS HEAD OFFICE: Manager: Ingrid Botton P.O. Box 2190, Westville, 3630 Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Email: admin@imesa.org.za Website: www.imesa.org.za BORDER Secretary: Celeste Vosloo Tel: +27 (0)43 705 2433 Email: celestev@buffalocity.gov.za EASTERN CAPE Secretary: Susan Canestra Tel: +27 (0)41 585 4142 ext. 7 Email: imesaec@imesa.org.za KWAZULU-NATAL Secretary: Narisha Sogan Tel: +27 (0)31 266 3263 Email: imesakzn@imesa.org.za NORTHERN PROVINCES Secretary: Ollah Mthembu Tel: +27 (0)82 823 7104 Email: np@imesa.org.za SOUTHERN CAPE KAROO Secretary: Henrietta Olivier Tel: +27 (0)79 390 7536 Email: imesasck@imesa.org.za WESTERN CAPE Secretary: Michelle Ackerman Tel: +27 (0)21 444 7114 Email: imesawc@imesa.org.za FREE STATE & NORTHERN CAPE Secretary: Wilma Van Der Walt Tel: +27 (0)83 457 4362 Email: imesafsnc@imesa.org.za All material herein IMIESA is copyright protected and may not be reproduced without the prior written permission of the publisher. The views of the authors do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa or the publishers. _____________________________________________

Rebuild and maintain More responsive infrastructure

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he importance of a strong construction sector is crucial for South Africa’s current and future economic prosperity, with government’s approval of the National Infrastructure Plan 2050 (NIP 2050) – prepared by Infrastructure South Africa – forming a solid foundation for implementation. In turn, the NIP 2050 aligns with the achievement of the National Development Plan 2030. Phase I of the NIP 2050 focuses on four platforms – namely energy, digital communications, freight transport and water – all of which are crucial for South Africa to remain competitive and sustainable. Water security remains an overriding priority, as South Africa’s population grows, and the urbanisation trend intensifies. While the present status for South Africa’s dams is generally favourable – following heavy rainfall patterns experienced nationally – past extreme weather patterns have shown that drought conditions can return at any time. Conservation and management remain key, as does addressing the maintenance backlog on water and wastewater treatment works, reservoirs and pipeline infrastructure. How stormwater is managed also needs intensive focus as floods become more common and river systems become overwhelmed. In the case of the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) floods, and the City of Durban in particular, the sheer volume of rainfall was out of all proportion to that previously experienced. However, the devastation highlights how future urban planning and infrastructure needs to respond to more frequent climate change events. This includes protecting and promoting indigenous vegetation and combating deforestation. The correct environmental practices go a long way towards preventing soil erosion and landslides that threaten lives and structures.

One of the mandates of the NIP 2050 model is a more responsive, coordinated and streamlined approach to project execution. The same applies to the interrelated roll-out of the Infrastructure Fund to get public-private partnership projects to market faster. In this respect, the KZN disaster response will serve as an important test case of how effectively the three tiers of government can work in sync with the construction sector to mobilise and repair the damage. In rebuilding, there’s an added opportunity to fast-track projects already in the pipeline, such as waterborne school sanitation, rural road and bridge upgrades, and sustainable low-cost housing. Within this context, government’s Expanded Public Works Programme can serve as a catalyst for muchneeded employment creation, skills transfer and SMME contractor development.

Road maintenance The heavy rains have also brought into focus the pressing need to fix potholed roads, and in the process apply the most appropriate technologies. In this edition, we feature the launch of the Road Maintenance Forum (RMF), a collaborative industry initiative that sets out to share knowledge and expertise on best practices in lifecycle road asset management. It’s an endeavour that incidentally ties in well with the NIP 2050 freight transport mandate to enable road networks that support South Africa’s micro- and macro-economic objectives. Within the infrastructure mix, energy, roads, transportation and water are among the core ingredients that help make all the other elements come together.

Alastair To our avid readers, check out what we are talking about on our website, Facebook page or follow us on Twitter and have your say.

www.infrastructurenews.co.za

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The official magazine of the Institute of Municipal Engineering of Southern Africa

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT • SERVICE DELIVERY • ROADS • BUILDING • MAINTENANCE

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An agile approach adds quality to transportation projects

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Roads & Bridges The critical role of maintenance and management

The ABC logo is a valued stamp of measurement and trust. IMIESA is ABC audited and certified.

Water & Wastewater Generating hydropower within municipal water networks

Trenchless Technology Deep tunnel sewerage systems

IN THE HOT SEAT We are experiencing a definite improvement in activity so far in 2022. The number of contract awards is encouraging, although not at pre-pandemic levels.”

Riaan Odendaal National Operations Executive, AECI Much Asphalt

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IMIESA April 2022

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PRESIDENT’S COMMENT

Engineering climate change responses that work The heavy rainfall experienced across South Africa in recent months is incomparable with the catastrophic floods in KwaZulu-Natal and par ticularly within eThekwini during April 2022. A massive response is required to restore essential ser vices immediately, and then to respond during the rebuild process with infrastructure resilient to climate change.

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he tragic number of lives lost, and the knock-on effect in terms of damage to homes, livelihoods, the environment, and supporting infrastructure is on an unprecedented scale. The severity of the event is underscored by government’s decision to declare a National State of Disaster, which will mobilise funding and support more effectively for reconstruction. This will include interventions in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and in parts of the Eastern Cape that have also recently experienced flood damage. From a municipal engineering perspective, a massive response is required and the cost is estimated to run into the billions, so making the solutions future-proof is well worth the investment.

Future scenario modelling In terms of current and future spatial planning, we need more advanced research on extreme weather predictions along the lines of those countries that need to design and build for potential seismic activity in earthquake zones – not easy, of course, given the extensive unpredictability of climate change impacts. But with the information we do have available, we can certainly construct far more robust structures. As municipal

engineers, we also need to urgently address the pressing issue of informal settlements within our towns and cities. These settlements occur wherever open land is available, irrespective of whether it is above or below a known floodplain. It’s a potential disaster waiting to happen and can and should be prevented. Of equal importance is the regular updating of municipal asset management registers, with examples including transportation infrastructure, and water and sanitation networks. Preventative and predictive maintenance is a key factor in ensuring the current and future sustainability of the municipal landscape.

Engagement and ethics From IMESA’s perspective, our role is to assist and empower our members and to work within the three spheres of government to make municipal engineering processes and projects more efficient and effective. This is crucial for the successful implementation of South Africa’s economic reconstruction and recovery plan, and the revitalisation of our construction industry. Plus, the recent KZN disaster makes this even more of a priority. Within this context, our responsibility as engineers is to ensure that every design is fit for purpose, and compliant with all applicable

standards and specifications. To ensure that this happens in a uniform way, all built environment professionals must adhere to a strict ethical code. Within our sector, one of my objectives as the 2020-22 IMESA President has been to propose that the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA) makes adherence to ethics a compulsory requirement for registration.

85th IMESA Conference In the meantime, our organising committee is now well advanced on the project and programme management phases for the upcoming 85th IMESA Conference. Delegate registration opens on 3 May 2022, with early-bird rates up for grabs. This year’s theme – ‘Adapting to our changing world’ – has never been more relevant, as we engineer our way through climate change, and the fallout from global conflicts, to hopefully build a better future. Bhavna Soni, president, IMESA

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COVER STORY

AN AGILE APPROACH ADDS QUALITY TO TRANSPORTATION PROJECTS Mariswe has a large and diverse team of technical experts with a proud reputation of excellence in designing and managing transportation construction projects in South Africa and several other African countries.

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uring 2022, Mariswe celebrates its 50th year as a South Africa-based project management, infrastructure planning and consulting engineering practice. Here, the firm’s Transportation Division has played a very meaningful role in its half century. For the Mariswe team dedicated to transportation infrastructure, this has been a period of exploration, networking, growth and change, frequent reassessment, and dedication to fulfilling client needs through professionalism and innovation. Mariswe’s transportation sector clients continue to be its most loyal across the business. Deeper inspection of what drives transportation projects at Mariswe reveals core principles that are shared by all – passion for the job, quality of service, finding solutions, as well as the space to innovate, agility and investment in people, among others. Mariswe’s mantra – ‘Improving Lives. Engineering Solutions.’ – is taken seriously. If you don’t buy into this, you don’t work there. So, what has made Mariswe’s Transportation Division one of the strongest pillars of the company for 50 years?

Complete solutions “We pride ourselves on taking complete solutions to the market,” explains Adrian Skea, Technical Director and Regional Head

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IMIESA April 2022

A changing world

in the Western Cape, who plays a leading role in communications with SANRAL, one of Mariswe’s biggest clients in the South African transportation sector. “Importantly, we see ourselves as a diverse and highly experienced group of technical resources. It doesn’t matter where you sit, we will assemble a team from across our business to match every project – from tendering to completion. Each member of the team will bring different strengths and we will work together to find the optimum solution.” Skea stresses that Mariswe is more project centred than regionally centred as an organisation. “We pool resources wherever the project is located.” Excellent networking channels have been established internally over a long period to facilitate this approach. Importantly, Mariswe’s effective IT systems also kept communication flowing during the Covid-19 lockdown. “The team has worked together for many years and collaborates well to meet the toughest expectations,” adds Riyaaz Nieftagodien, Lead Engineer: Pavement Design and Materials. “Each member is experienced and well versed in their role, while still able to overlap and assist others within the discipline. The team is willing to explore and implement new design principles and construction practices to benefit the client. The quality of service has always been critical at Mariswe.”

There are many potential aspects to a transportation project, Skea points out. “Just some of the areas we may need to populate are documentation preparation, business development, design, resourcing, planning, communication services, traffic and transport economics, geometric and structural engineering, GIS (Geographic Information Systems), hydraulics and hydrology. So, we are able to draw technical expertise for a single project from every business unit within Mariswe – Transportation, Water and Sanitation, Structures, Infrastructure Planning, Management Services, and the Strategic Projects Unit.” For example, Lisa Cotton, Executive Manager: Transportation KZN, says GIS mapping has become critical where minimal or no survey data is available, but high-level solutions are needed in the planning and feasibility stages of transportation projects. “GIS also enables a holistic assessment of a region or country’s transportation needs, which we use when developing transport masterplans,” she explains. “We are seeing opportunities to apply our transportation engineering skills, coupled with our GIS capability, to major transport routes damaged by climate-change-related disasters such as flooding. We are widening our focus from traditional mainstream projects to respond to a changing world. This requires a broader combination of skill sets.”


COVER STORY

The team has worked together for many years and collaborates well to meet the toughest expectations.” New Tshoxa River No 1 and Railway Bridge under construction, Eastern Cape

Alternative contracting methods Contracting methodologies are a big part of responding to different project conditions and requirements. Mariswe’s home-grown iCU (Integrated Construction Unit) contract is a construction risk management methodology that responds well to changes in the pace, nature, scope and sequence of the works. The iCU system offers contractual flexibility, cost savings, reduced lead times, and fewer disputes. It has been used multiple times on contracts across Africa. In addition, proving the value of alternative contracting methods such as EPCM (Engineering, Procurement, and Construction Management) and OPRC (Output and Performance-Based Road Contracts) have become second nature for Mariswe. The firm has been singled out as one of the few African consultants specialising in OPRC and has OPRC projects currently under way in Rwanda and Zambia, following successful

assignments in Ghana and Lesotho. The OPRC methodology gives the contractor responsibility for the detail design and construction of the roadworks, as well as the ongoing road maintenance for a certain period. OPRC projects allow road authorities to provide efficient road services and infrastructure to communities by expanding the role of the contractor. Ultimately, this contract delivers better roads for more people for longer durations.

Strategic Projects Unit Mariswe’s recently established Strategic Projects Unit (SPU) takes this pioneering spirit further by exploring exciting new opportunities. “We are showcasing our expertise in new sectors, from new sources, and throughout the project life cycle from inception to closure,” explains Rod Stewart, who heads the Management Services Division and is responsible for

the new venture. This illustrates the firm’s appetite for innovation and gives the Transportation business unit wider scope to offer pioneering solutions.

Investing in people Skea is particularly excited to see a new crop of young people coming through to add capacity to the Transportation business. “Mariswe’s culture of investing in its people is widely known and our formalised Blueprint mentoring programme turns out young experts who form the backbone of our succession strategy.” The Blueprint programme focuses not only on ensuring the success of employees in the candidacy phase for professional registration as civil engineers, technologists and technicians, but also all staff across the company through staff appraisals, workplace training, off-site workshops, seminars, lectures, training courses and Continued Professional Development (CPD).

Before and after: A dramatic makeover for an old bridge in Rwanda

IMIESA April 2022

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COVER STORY

Adrian Skea, Technical Director and Western Cape Regional Head

Riyaaz Nieftagodien, Lead Engineer: Pavement Design and Materials

Darlington Chakapfava graduated in March 2012 with a Master’s in Pavement Engineering. A beneficiary of Mariswe’s investment in its people, he points out that the Mariswe Transportation team consists of individuals who have been with the company for over 10 years. “This loyalty has enabled the gradual and systematic transfer of Mariswe’s roads expertise from retirees to the current crop of next-generation directors and employees.”

Connecting communities: the Thaba-Tseka to Katse Road, Lesotho

Riyaaz Nieftagodien, another beneficiary of Mariswe’s mentoring culture, is giving back by personally mentoring several younger members of the team.

International growth Nowhere is Mariswe’s agility in responding to tenders and assembling appropriate multidisciplinary teams more evident than in its international African business. This approach has borne fruit, with international projects making up 35% of the company’s revenue today, compared to about 8% in 2014. Jaco Heyl, Executive Manager: Management Services, plays a leading project management role in international transportation projects, particularly in the mining sector. “Mariswe has a well-established footprint of projects completed successfully outside South Africa,” says Heyl. “In Tanzania, Mariswe has a 49% shareholding in an established local company. In other countries, we build relationships with local consultants and implement projects through joint ventures. Every country has its own unique circumstances, and we are selective in the projects we tender for.” He explains that Mariswe’s involvement in mining projects

Lisa Cotton, Executive Manager: Transportation KZN

in Limpopo during the platinum ‘boom’ exposed the firm to international mining clients, providing cross-border opportunities. “Through our iCU contract methodology, we expanded our portfolio into the rest of Africa.” Transportation specialists within Mariswe, including Shannon Souter (Geometric Designer), Rugare Masendeka (Bridge Engineer), Ehrane Holderness (Hydrologist), Riyaaz Nietlief (Pavement Engineer) and Lisa Cotton (Traffic Engineer and Transport Economist), have brought their expertise to bear on multiple current projects in African countries, including Tanzania, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Lesotho, Zambia and Rwanda. “Most World Bank projects require comprehensive, economically viable engineering solutions encompassing all these design components,” says Cotton. “Mariswe has developed multicriteria prioritisation models and used HDM4 (a transport economics software package) to provide solutions that meet World Bank requirements.” The integrated problemsolving skills of this team have proven vital to projects in various African countries, each with its own unique transport environment and economic indicators.

on around the world to provide the technical scores required to win international tenders and execute successful projects. “On conventional design and construction management projects, Mariswe generally tries to populate the teams with as many local or regional professionals as possible and we will supply project management, quality assurance and supporting technical skills from within the firm. However, Mariswe specialists are combined with internationally sourced specialist partners to execute most of the work on technical assignments such as specialist studies and advisory services,” he explains. Middleton adds that Mariswe has a zerotolerance policy on corruption and has earned an excellent name for the quality of its work across the continent. Quality has always been a non-negotiable priority at Mariswe and audits show strong quality awareness among all employees. The company’s ISO 9001:2015 certification requires management to regularly review its quality management systems, and risk management procedures are integrated into all company processes.

The art of tendering Tendering for projects on the African continent is no easy task, points out Anton Middleton, Proposals and Tenders Specialist at Mariswe. Middleton has considerable experience in tendering for donor-funded projects in Africa and regularly works with the World Bank. He says winning international tenders requires excellent negotiating and people skills, together with an ability to meet impossible deadlines, and write tender documents understood by public officials who are not necessarily engineers. “In tenders for African projects, it is all about the quality of the people you can put on the ground,” says Middleton, who has a large network he can call

www.mariswe.com Deck staging for the Buffalo River Bridge, Eastern Cape

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INFRASTRUCTURE NEWS

FROM AROUND THE CONTINENT

ZAMBIA 430 MW renewable power for mining operations

TANZANIA Dodoma Resilient and Sustainable Water Development and Sanitation Programme The African Development Bank (AfDB) has approved a US$125.3 million (R1.84 billion) loan to cover the construction of a dam and water treatment plant to address supply challenges in Dodoma City and the towns of Bahi, Chemba and Chamwino. The programme aims to improve water supply for multipurpose use by developing water resources for the four towns. It is expected to enhance access to potable water for two million people and provide better sanitation ser vices for about 1.5 million people by 2051. Around 52% of the beneficiaries will be female. It will also ensure the sustainability of the water resources with related improved community management by catchment protection and management and build resilience against climate change and variability. The construction and operation of the dam and the water treatment plant will create more than 640 jobs (140 permanent and 500 temporar y). The AfDB is financing 94% of the $132.9 million (R1.95 billion) estimated cost of the first phase. The Tanzanian government will provide counterpar t funding of the remaining 6%. The Ministr y of Water will execute the programme.

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IMIESA April 2022

Africa-focused energy firm Chariot Ltd and French power producer Total Eren have struck a deal with First Quantum Minerals that will facilitate the construction of a 430 MW renewable power complex for the Canadian miner’s operations in Zambia. The par tnership will see the mining and metals company receive electricity from locally based wind and solar power capacity. Aligned with First Quantum Minerals’ goal for a 30% reduction of its carbon dioxide emissions by 2025, the contract was signed following an agreement between Chariot and Total Eren to jointly develop wind and solar projects for mining customers in Africa. Construction of the wind-solar complex is planned to be initiated in 2023. The total investment in the project will be US$500 million (R7.33 billion). Currently, most of the power supply to Zambia’s mining sector comes from hydropower plants.

LESOTHO Infrastructure development projects to revive economy In an effor t to revive the economy, the government of Lesotho – through the Ministr y of Foreign Affairs – has identified a number of infrastructure development projects. The projects include the construction of roads, bridges, hydropower stations and rural electrification through publicprivate par tnerships. Lesotho, like other countries of the world, has suffered challenges posed by the Covid-19 pandemic, where many families lost their loved ones and their means of livelihood, while the economy has also suffered tremendous shocks as a result of successive lockdowns that had to be imposed in an effor t to fight the spread of Covid-19. Fur thermore, heavy rainfalls have led to extensive damage to infrastructure – which includes roads, bridges and electricity supply lines – and a number of villages have been cut off from essential ser vices such as schools, healthcare facilities and more.


TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY | SEWER REHABILITATION

ZIMBABWE Victoria Falls World Heritage status hangs in balance Victoria Falls could be delisted as a World Heritage Site because massive construction activities either side of the Zambezi River could have affected the animal corridors and natural sites. Unesco added Victoria Falls to the World Heritage Site list in 1989 due to its unique geomorphologic formation and remarkable natural beauty. As the custodian of these sites, Unesco recently sent a monitoring team to assess the current state of Victoria Falls and its surrounding environment and determine if the destination still qualifies as a World Heritage Site. Charles Ndakala, National Commission Secretar y General: Zambia at Unesco, led the monitoring team. He mentioned possible outcomes, which include downgrading/red-listing or removal from the list. “We were assessing as mandated to check the effects of developments on the World Heritage Site. This also includes the planned Batoka project, as we wanted to engage stakeholders to find out how it will affect tourism upstream. This process will result in a repor t that will be presented to superiors at the upcoming Unesco World Heritage Convention in June,” said Ndakala. Victoria Falls was described by the Kololo tribe living in the area in the 1800s as Mosi-oa-Tunya or ‘The Smoke that Thunders’. As a Unesco World Heritage Site, the falls reach an impressive height of 108 m and stretch across 1 708 m – creating the largest single sheet of falling water.

NAMIBIA Electricity generation from Nile dam begins Plans to build a major desalination plant to provide water to domestic and industrial customers in Namibia’s uranium-producing Erongo region are at an advanced stage. Expected to produce 70 000 m3 of desalinated water a day, the plant will be par t of an integrated water supply system for the central coastal areas and the hinterland. The central coastal region, which is home to mining, tourism and fishing industries through hubs in Walvis Bay and Swakopmund, is expected to require 36.5 billion litres of water a year by 2030 for public and private use, but current sources can only meet less than a third of that demand. Due to its location between the Namib and Kalahari deser ts, Namibia is home to the most arid climate in sub-Saharan Africa. Only 2% of Namibia’s unpredictable rainfall is captured as sur face run-off and only 1% is available to recharge groundwater, Minister of Agriculture, Water and Land Reform Calle Schlettwein said, adding that Namibia’s high evaporation rates lead to an annual water deficit relative to rainfall of 1 300 mm to 2 500 mm, which can be compounded by periodic droughts. Namibia’s sparse population exacerbates challenges in distributing its limited, erratic groundwater/sur face water supply to both rural and urban settlements, while the limited perennial rivers run along Namibia’s nor thern and southern borders, 700 km to 800 km away from high-demand areas such as Windhoek and Walvis Bay. The feasibility study on desalination is finalised and the process of a public-private par tnership on the project is entering an advanced stage. The land site has already been acquired and water abstraction and power off-take arrangements are under way.

IMIESA April 2022

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HOT SEAT

BITUMEN

faces an uncertain future

AECI Much Asphalt’s Pomona Plant

As an industry leader, AECI Much Asphalt’s reputation for product innovation and quality is backed up by proactive supply chain management to meet current and future demand. IMIESA speaks to Riaan Odendaal, National Operations Executive, about the road ahead and research into carbon-neutral binder alternatives that could eventually replace conventional bitumen. How has the asphalt industry in South Africa been impacted by the Covid-19 restrictions of the past two years? RO The construction industry in general was impacted severely by not only delays due to restrictions on movement, but also by the reallocation of government funds to fight the pandemic. The asphalt industry lost significant volumes in 2020 and 2021,

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with bitumen offtake by AECI Much Asphalt dropping 28%.

Are you seeing an uptick in demand for asphalt products and what are your expectations for 2022? We are experiencing a definite improvement in activity so far in 2022. The number of contract awards is encouraging, although not at pre-pandemic levels.

What is the significance of bitumen in the production of asphalt? Bitumen is a binding agent produced from crude oil refining that makes up between 4% and 7% of most asphalt mixes. It has unique viscoelastic properties that contribute significantly to asphalt durability, and there are no commercial alternatives currently available. Bitumen is also extensively used in other road surfacing alternatives like seals and slurries.

The closure of the Sapref Refinery has impacted the availability of bitumen to meet the needs of the South African asphalt sector. Please elaborate. The Sapref Refinery in Durban supplied

about 900 t of bitumen to the local industry daily. This shortfall will not be met locally, as Natref in Sasolburg is the only refinery in South Africa currently producing bitumen. Various industry players have put contingency plans in place to source and store imported bitumen that should make up for the shortfall, although at a higher cost.

How are other refineries responding to this situation? To the best of our knowledge, Natref is already operating at capacity and is not planning to increase bitumen production. Astron in Cape Town has indicated a refinery restart in the latter part of 2022, but it is unclear whether this plant will produce bitumen again and, if so, which grades.

How will the forced importation of bitumen impact asphalt prices and quality? All imported binders will be subjected to the same rigorous quality control processes developed

Riaan Odendaal, National Operations Executive, AECI Much Asphalt


HOT SEAT

Will the bitumen situation result in project delays and hence a slowdown in much-needed road maintenance and construction activities? Asphalt supplied for resurfacing operations on the N1 in Gauteng

by our industry for local sources. To this extent, we do not anticipate any negative effect on quality, but this does however impact the cost, as not all international sources meet our specifications. AECI Much Asphalt is well equipped with state-of-the-art testing and analysis in both its Central Laboratory in Cape Town and its Gauteng Regional Laboratory to ensure continued product quality.

Will South African ports be able to receive and store the quantities required? An oil major and various traders have imported various volumes of bitumen into the Durban and Cape Town ports this year, looking to the consignor to supply storage in most cases. Our industry is unfamiliar with the time constraints and logistics, but we continuously find ways to make the process more efficient and ask our clients to work with us in this endeavour. The bitumen converter at AECI SprayPave’s plant in Cape Town

AECI Much Asphalt is committed to securing the raw materials to meet our customers’ needs. Finding a pricing model for imported binders that industry agrees on will be the determining factor to minimise contract delays, as local supply will continue to be severely constrained.

What is AECI Much Asphalt doing to meet client demand? Forecasting our production requirements will be key to meeting client needs. There will be significant increases in product lead times and possibly also more volatility around the price of bitumen. In partnership with our clients, we will continue to find innovative and economical ways to meet the demands in the industry.

To what extent can the bitumen converter operated by group company AECI SprayPave meet demand for suitable grades of bitumen? The ability of AECI SprayPave to convert base binders into various grades of bitumen positions the group strategically to better meet our clients’ requirements. Due to the volume constraints on bulk importation, we are well equipped to import one grade of bitumen very economically and locally convert the feedstock into various grades required for asphalt mixes, including 10/20 bitumen that is not available locally.

What other steps can be taken to mitigate the shortage? AECI Much Asphalt includes up to 40% reclaimed asphalt in its products in a drive towards sustainable production, which has resulted in more than a million tonnes of aggregate not being mined and avoided the refining of at least 55 000 tonnes of bitumen since 2012. The use of recycled asphalt is critical in reducing the use of non-renewable resources and mitigating environmental destruction.

How will smaller suppliers be affected by the bitumen supply constraints? There have always been various forms of bitumen importation models catering for various market segments. Although bulk importation will be our focus, there are also options to import in drums or containers. In the African context, there are several companies specialising in bitumen trading to possibly serve this segment.

What is the long-term scenario for the asphalt sector? As pressure mounts internationally to move away from fossil fuel dependence, bitumen supply will surely be restrained. We anticipate future innovation in the industry focused on mitigating this risk. In one groundbreaking initiative, a partnership between Origin Materials – the world’s leading carbon-negative materials company – and AECI Much Asphalt is working to create a novel low-carbon bitumen from natural sources. The project is based on Origin Materials’ patented technology platform, which turns inexpensive, sustainable wood residues into costadvantaged, carbon-negative materials that reduce the need for fossil resources. Turning Origin Materials’ carbon-neutral feedstock into an alternative asphalt binder is very significant due to the direct relation of the bitumen to the long-term performance of asphalt and the obvious environmental benefits. Importantly, it potentially reduces our reliance on refineries and provides more stable pricing, helping to ensure sustainability in the South African bitumen and asphalt market.

www.muchasphalt.com

IMIESA April 2022

13


Getting it right

THE FIRST TIME

Strict adherence to quality control ensures that construction programmes are completed on time, on budget and within specification. IMIESA speaks to Amit Dawneerangen, GM: Sales & Product Technical at AfriSam, about the key role they play as a construction material supplier.

The road maintenance backlog is growing, and construction costs are escalating. How can AfriSam help fill the gap? AD AfriSam conducts extensive process control testing on all their products to ensure compliance with the relevant national standards. External testing is also conducted where required, especially on materials for road construction. Globally recognised methodologies include Polished Stone Value, Los Angeles Abrasion, and California Bearing Ratio tests. For road construction, our quarries manufacture G1 to G7 products for layerworks construction, and these products comply to the Colto specification. At most operations, our stone and crushed sand products are also suitable for use in asphalt production. Using the right materials in accordance with the design brief avoids the need for future unscheduled remedial works, which can result in substantial additional costs, depending on the nature of the project.

When it comes to aggregates, what are some of the pitfalls to note? First, cheap aggregate is not necessarily quality aggregate. Inconsistency of physical and inherent aggregate properties is another crucial factor to consider, since the wrong

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product will result in a subsequent pavement failure. AfriSam personnel conduct routine physical testing to ensure that material leaving the quarry is consistent, and inherent properties are checked every quarter. In addition, regular quarry optimisation meetings are held to ensure that all technical and production efforts are aligned. For example, benches are classified before each blast by testing the drill chips. This will establish if there are any hidden issues that may make the material unsuitable for specific products. It’s also essential to engage only with aggregate quarries that are legally registered to operate by the Department of Mineral Resources and Energy. In other words, quarries must have a valid mining licence and be environmentally compliant. In terms of the Mining Charter, they must also invest in the surrounding community. Another important point to note is that commercially accredited laboratories do not always yield consistent or accurate test results. That can lead to challenges on projects in terms of acceptance of material supplied. AfriSam’s internal laboratories provide an absolute quality assurance and material guarantee.

from our website, provides typical values for tests such as ACV, 10% FACT, PSV, fine aggregate angularity index and magnesium sulfate soundness, clay lumps and variables, fractured faces, SANS 1083 requirements and sand equivalent.

Should concrete surfaced roads be receiving greater acceptance in South Africa? The application or prevalence of concrete roads is largely dependent on it being specified by the client/engineer/designer. The following are some of the advantages of going the concrete route: - One of the greatest is their longevity – concrete roads can last between 20 to 40 years on average, which is two to four times the lifespan of asphalt. - Concrete can be recycled back into roads either by using it in the sub-base layers or by reintroducing it into the new concrete mix.

What solutions does AfriSam provide for the asphalt market? Where specialised materials are required for the production of proprietary products, AfriSam has the technical and production ability to partner with our customers to provide solutions. The AfriSam Technical Reference Guide (8.2 Edition), which can be downloaded

Amit Dawneerangen, GM: Sales & Product Technical, AfriSam


ROAD CONSTRUCTION | TECHNOLOGIES, STANDARDS & SPECIFICATIONS

- For heavily trafficked truck routes, concrete roads are better suited due to their increased durability and resistance to rutting. - In areas where freeze/thaw is an issue, concrete roads are more resistant than asphalt surfaces, which become brittle. - Concrete roads manufactured with a low carbon footprint concrete mix are greener than asphalt. - Vehicles tend to be more fuel efficient on concrete roads than asphalt because of the former’s better resistance to surface flex. - Concrete surfaces reflect light more effectively than asphalt, therefore requiring less illumination at night and thus making it better for the environment. - Asphalt production creates greenhouse gases, which are not environmentally friendly even when using recycled material. - Bitumen production releases hydrocarbons into the environment. - Asphalt roads only have a lifespan of about 10 years before requiring a resurface.

Slipform paving is a standard technique worldwide. Why do you think it’s receiving less attention in South Africa? Local contractors do possess the necessary skills and equipment to execute slipform paving, but this will depend on the design method chosen. The application of labourintensive construction (LIC) techniques also has an influence. An example is the current N3 upgrade between Durban and

Pietermaritzburg, where the initial scope included slipform paving. However, this subsequently changed to the conventional placement of concrete using LIC elements.

What is the role of AfriSam’s Readymix Division within the roads sector? Our readymix concrete product range is well suited for bridge and related infrastructure. Normally with these types of structures, the project specification defines the mix proportions and performance criteria. This is where our Product Technical Department gets involved to interpret the specification, and design customised mixes to fully comply. Very often concrete is required to have a minimum binder content or max w/c (water to cement) ratio and meet shrinkage, flexural strength, and durability criteria. Our service offering involves design and laboratory testing of these mixes to ensure compliance prior to supply. Our product portfolio, plus previous work and experience gained on landmark projects such as the Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project (GFIP) and N7 Cape, positions us to make a meaningful contribution to South Africa’s infrastructure programme. We are currently supplying concrete to three sections of the N3 upgrade between Cato Ridge and Lynnfield Park. Concrete supplied is being used to construct precast median barriers, V drains and culverts. Later this year, AfriSam will supply road pavement concrete for the Lynnfield Park to Ashburton

section. All concrete supplied needs to conform to strict project specification requirements.

Has the decision to make locally produced cement compulsory on public infrastructure projects been successfully applied? Yes, it has. This will assist in ensuring locally manufactured cement products are used, thereby supporting South African cement companies. However, at the moment, government projects unfortunately form only a small percentage of the overall projects under way in South Africa, and the local industry requires more protection against imports.

And in closing? AfriSam is invested in South Africa and South African construction. Renewed investment in road infrastructure is long overdue; however, we’re starting to see more Sanral projects coming online, alongside municipal roads projects. Alongside major upgrades, there’s also a pressing need for widespread road and bridge maintenance – and, here, AfriSam’s basket of services are a fit-forpurpose solution.

www.afrisam.co.za

IMIESA April 2022

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Keeping pace with urban expansion, the upgrading of the King CetshwayoWestwood underpass in Durban serves as a classic case study of innovative transportation and value engineering, with the design executed by the eThekwini Municipality Roads Provision Department’s Structures Branch.

The completed underpass (centre)

Remodelling the WESTWOOD INTERCHANGE UNDERPASS

T

he original purpose of the project was to increase the vehicular traffic capacity of the underpass to reduce congestion in the surrounding roads, with an agreement for private developers in the area to contribute 20% of the costs of upgrading the interchange as part of a rezoning agreement with the municipality. Based on city planning models, engineers were asked to add two extra lanes through the intersection – one in each direction through the underpass. However, this would have required replacing the existing underpass bridge. The counter proposal was to preser ve the existing underpass structure, convert one of its abutments

The existing underpass bridge built in 1971

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IMIESA April 2022

into a pier, and add a second span. Reusing the existing bridge would be more environmentally sustainable; however, it could be argued that the new span might be wasteful in a different way by adding more additional lane capacity than seemed necessar y – five lanes instead of two. And it would force the road levels at the adjacent intersections to be lower, which would have a knock-on effect throughout the neighbouring roads, most of which would need to be completely rebuilt to bring down their levels to tie in. On the upside, the rebuilding would provide an opportunity to per form a useful reconfiguration, since, among other problems, challengingly constrained local

topography meant that existing roads had in some cases been unable to meet geometric design standards, and trucks were not able to use one of the ramps on to the highway. The designer’s proposal to reuse the existing bridge would provide a much better result and proactively address ongoing growth, but it was also a much more extensive and expensive solution than the planners had asked for, and the agreement with the developers allowed limited room for compromise.

The solution: labour-intensive value engineering The design team responded by updating their proposal with a wide assortment of methods to reduce the cost below that of the original proposal, while still ensuring that as much value as possible would be created for unemployed community members and subcontractor development. Road engineers used compromise solutions like split carriageways and longer slip lanes to reduce the extent to which roads needed to be rebuilt to tie in with the new levels. Meanwhile, the


ROADS & BRIDGES | MAINTENANCE & MANAGEMENT

The original purpose of the project was to increase the vehicular traffic capacity of the underpass to reduce congestion in the surrounding roads.”

structural design to expand the underpass was innovatively optimised to provide a structure that is highly efficient in terms of time, materials and construction costs. This resulted in multiple experimental solutions that were able to directly address sustainability and employment concerns. As part of the project, 22 ver y small Grade CE1 subcontractors with minimal experience needed the main contractor to provide mentorship, training and close super vision. Since community buy-in was essential to avoid work stoppages, eThekwini went to great lengths to ensure transparency for jobseekers and SMME applicants. The municipality’s Go!Durban Radical Economic Transformation Specification, originally developed for bus infrastructure projects, was used and successfully applied.

Top-down bridge construction The new bridge span was built using a hybrid top-down, build-and-dig-out methodology. The top-down approach minimised traffic disruption because

Troweled soil nail wall installed as excavation proceeds below deck

traffic could be moved on to the new deck superstructure before the substructure excavation and construction were complete. It also removed the need for expensive, time-consuming and wasteful temporar y lateral support structures between the carriageways during the period when one carries traffic and the other is excavated for new foundations. This methodology also enhanced health and safety considerations since deck construction did not take place over a deep excavation.

Southern African Bitumen Association After 40 years Sabita continues to provide a valuable service to the roads industry, both local and international. Every success this Association enjoys is driven by member companies and other stakeholders equally dedicated in creating quality black top road in southern Africa. • • • • • •

Continued development of bituminous material technology Production of world class technical guidelines and manuals Transfer of technology & knowledge with global partners Promotion of sustainable health & safety practices Provision of quality training that meets industry requirements Engagement of stakeholders on all issues relevant to a sustainable road network.

5 Lonsdale Building Tel: +27 21 531 2718 Fax: +27 21 531 2606

Lonsdale Way

Pinelands

7450

email: info@sabita.co.za website: www.sabita.co.za


ROADS & BRIDGES | MAINTENANCE & MANAGEMENT

New deck section under construction

Variable numbers of fibreglass reinforcing layers were trialled at different expansion joints on the deck, both longitudinal and transverse

Copying the original deck would have required specialised formwork and multiple concrete pours, increasing construction time and the associated traffic deviations.” Minimalist abutment structural system The top-down approach provided the inspiration for an extremely minimalist new abutment, with a bearing seat beam supported directly on piles, and a separate abutment retaining wall created by a sprayed concrete and soil nail lateral support system to support the fill material. The piles could be unusually light, since they only carr y vertical loading, with a single row of seven 170 mm driven ductile cast-iron piles per deck. These piles are relatively new in South Africa and were 40%

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IMIESA April 2022

The completed ultra-lightweight sprayed concrete abutment with an acceptable finish to match standard reinforced concrete

cheaper than conventional alternatives and could be rapidly installed from the level of the top roadway before any other excavation or construction took place. The lightweight abutment required much less time, money and material than a conventional counter fort abutment, providing a large boost to the project’s sustainability.

to distribute the strains of deck expansion and contraction. These trials were done after precise calculation of the strains on the joint, a review of recent literature, and consultation with the grid manufacturer. All 10 ‘jointless joints’ have per formed even better than expected with no cracking in the asphalt after 18 months.

Sprayed concrete abutment wall

Aesthetically sensitive conversion of pier to abutment

The vertical soil nail abutment wall was finished by directly hand-shaping the sprayed concrete, which is part of the soil nail system, to give a ‘trowel finish’ that simulates the off-shutter finish of conventionally cast concrete. Shaping the soil nail wall was extremely challenging for the contractor because the underlying components were highly irregular, and there were ver y few straight lines or sur faces that could be used as guides, since the wall is up to 6 m high, and 28.5 m wide. But the overall construction methodology left lots of time in the programme to do this work carefully, with traffic already travelling on the deck above. Hand-shaping was highly labourintensive and further reduced material use in the abutment.

Fibreglass-reinforced asphalt as an expansion joint Another experiment to tighten the critical path was not to install expansion joint nosings for the bridge decks, which would normally have been the only option with the 12% superelevation on the highway. Instead, the tops of the expansion gaps at the ends of each deck were simply sealed off, and layers of fibreglass reinforcing grids installed within the overlying asphalt

Apart from saving time, money and material, the other aim of the bridge design team was to make the structure look suitably attractive for its prime location, despite all the modifications. The key challenge was to moderate the effect of the unusually wide pier, which had to be carefully converted from an abutment so that its capacity to support the existing deck was not affected during partial demolition. The solution was to use 1.2 m diameter half-round bullnoses

The complete interchange underpass viewed from the south edge


Africa’s Foremost Occupational Health and Safety Trade Show at each end of the converted pier wall, to trick the eye into seeing a thinner wall. In addition, the front faces of the bullnoses are sharply raked at the maximum feasible angle to give a striking impression of lightness and energy that further counteracts the dumpy proportions.

Aesthetics that communicates the structure’s history A more daring aesthetic decision was for the new bridge deck to have a cross section that is significantly different to the old deck. The original bridge was a shallow multicell box girder, which is a particularly complex section to build, especially when combined with the extreme geometric constraints of the overlying road. Copying the original deck would have required specialised formwork and multiple concrete pours, increasing construction time and the associated traffic deviations. Instead, the new deck has a recognisably modern-styled triple T-beam that is in stark contrast to the uniform soffit of the old deck alongside it, although the effect is moderated by the sections having the same depth, and outer cantilevers with the same width, which creates continuity. The new deck is thus similar, but different, being inspired by the concept of bare steel-frame construction when making additions to historic buildings, to clearly indicate and acknowledge the new and the old portions. As with the use of steel on old buildings, there were also important structural benefits. This modern T-beam design is significantly lighter, which reduces the load on the existing foundations, and is also much cheaper and quicker to construct. The result is a structure that lets its complex histor y be seen, but without being ill-fitting and ugly. It becomes a bridge with a stor y, and an organic life of its own.

31 May - 02 June 2022

Gallagher Convention Centre 9AM - 4PM DAILY

One roof, four industries

PROJECT TEAM Client: eThekwini Municipality, Engineering Unit, Roads Provision Department – Structures Branch Main Contractor: Martin & East Principal Subcontractor for Bridge/Structural Works: Empa Structures Architect: eThekwini Municipality

Free-To-Attend Seminars

Register online for free entry

Practical demonstrations

PARKING R20

Premier visitor lounge

www.aosh.co.za

For more information contact: Keraysha Pillay, Senior Marketing Manager Tel: +27 (0) 10 003 3057 | Email: kerayshap@specialised.com

Organised by:

#AOSHexpo2022


The inaugural launch of South Africa’s Road Maintenance Forum (RMF) is a joint endeavour by CESA, IMESA, SARF, SAT, SAFCEC, Sanral and Sabita. IMIESA speaks to Saied Solomons, CEO, Sabita, about the initiative and reports on highlights from the first RMF workshop, held on 7 April 2022. By Alastair Currie

Road Maintenance Forum committed to

BEST PRACTICES

A

s in the rest of the world, South Africa’s road transport network is a vital enabler, and needs a concerted build and maintenance strategy. Since our challenges are common, we thought it fitting to align ourselves with International Road Maintenance Day, which has its annual meeting in the first week of April. The shared mandates cover the role of roads in terms of social and economic development, and in reducing the carbon footprint,” Solomons explains. As Solomon points out, international alliances are important. Later this year, for example, the South African Road Federation (SARF), in conjunction with the International Road Federation and PIARC (World Road Association)

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IMIESA April 2022

will host its 7th Regional Conference for Africa between 18 and 20 October 2022 in Cape Town. This includes the PIARC International Seminar on Rural Roads and Road Safety.

South African context The maintenance backlog in South Africa has now reached a critical point, primarily due to funding and capacity issues, plus the current procurement system – the latter being a contributing factor in tender award delays and corruption. Without accurate road asset management systems and maintenance registers, it’s difficult to determine the full extent of the problem. However, what is clear is that a high percentage of South Africa’s roads have

exceeded their initial design life and need remediating and/or upgrading. The widespread issue of potholes is one indicator of imminent road failures. The extent of the challenges were highlighted at the recent Road Maintenance and Construction Indaba in Gauteng during February 2022, which was led by the Department of Transport. The purpose was to bring the roads industry and the three spheres of government together to develop a joint action and implementation plan. “Full credit goes to Sanral as a visionary and proactive leader in managing and maintaining our crucial national network. Their systems and processes are world class. However, within the provincial and municipal space, we need to do far more to find solutions to combat ailing secondary road and bridge infrastructure,” Solomons continues. “RMF is our contribution to driving positive change.”

RPF and RMF Established in August 2000, the South African Road Pavements Forum (RPF) serves a vital research and development role at an academic and scientific level. However, Solomons says a gap existed for the creation of a more practical


ROADS & BRIDGES | MANAGEMENT & MAINTENANCE platform at contractor level where industry stakeholders could share their experiences and best practices from a road maintenance perspective, hence the formation of the RMF. The intention going forward is to establish an RMF meeting twice a year to promote interactive discussion. In the process, this includes engagement with the Department of Transport, provincial and municipal roads departments, as well as the South African Local Government Association. Led by an RMF steering committee, the forum plans to establish task groups with specific national objectives, and disseminate information on new technologies, among other initiatives. “How we address funding constraints is key, and part of the solution is the public-private partnership (PPP) model, and toll roads. Another viable option is the outsourcing of long-term build and maintenance contracts to PPP consortiums,” says Solomons. Sabita has invested in extensive research in these and other areas, including commissioning Stellenbosch University (SU) to compile a Road Funding Report. Currently, SU is experimenting with road user charge pilot studies as one of the funding alternatives. Essentially, users are tracked and billed for the routes they travel.

Forum highlights True to the RMF mandate, practical topics at the first virtual workshop were broadly grouped in terms of systems, materials and quality. The following is a high-level snapshot of the presentations. (For the Zoom recording link, readers can email lewagner@sabita.co.za.) Krishna Naidoo from Sanral opened with a presentation, entitled ‘What is road maintenance?’, which set the scene, drilling down into the various road ownership categories in South Africa, surfacing types, the rural, peri-urban and urban context, and the definition of the road reserve. Two points of emphasis are that timing is key in terms of planned periodic maintenance, and that this must be backed by root cause analysis as an indicator of future remediation scenarios. This was followed by a presentation by Moegamat Adams from the City of Cape Town, ‘Urban Mobility – Failure Capture and Reporting’. The key takeaway is that recording and monitoring enable informed decisions that speak to maintenance funding. He later presented on ‘Wayleave Process and Standards’. Andrew Mackellar from Sanral then shared the national authority’s work in developing a Routine Road Maintenance (RRM) mobile app

for repair teams. This enables the capturing of road damage, and the creation of workflow processes, which include the issuing of job instructions, work assignments, evidence of repair work, approvals and payment certificates. The data feeds into Sanral’s pavement management system from an overall life-cycle costing analysis perspective. An innovative app, the possibility exists to share its use with the broader road community, says Sanral.

Materials Within the materials group presentations, invaluable insights were provided by industry experts. Johan Hattingh from PHB Engineers presented on the topic of ‘Base Layer Material for Patching’, showcasing why repairs fail and the correct methodologies to employ. He emphasised that understanding and determining the mechanism of failure is the starting point for any successful repair. The material used for the patch should also be compatible with the existing pavement. Clearly, getting the basics right is the foundation for any maintenance strategy. Taffy Mafuma from AECI Much Asphalt followed with her presentation, entitled ‘Asphalt Mix Designs for Patches’. Essentially, selecting the right mix design (based on either the Marshall or Sabita Manual 35 design method) depends on the cause, severity and extent of the defect. This requires expert advice and application. Solomons came on next, with his presentation on ‘The Use of Reclaimed Asphalt’. Thanks to Sabita’s lobby efforts, Solomons said that a waste management licence is no longer required by the Department of Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment (DFFE). However, he pointed out that this is subject to certain conditions, namely the safe handling and storage of reclaimed asphalt (RA). Sabita was required to list every member site, including the City of Cape Town, for DFFE approval. At present, the exemption to store and use RA is restricted to these sites.

Quality Lawran van der Westhuizen’s presentation on behalf of the Society of Asphalt Technology (SAT) followed, entitled ‘Quality Transportation/ Handling of Asphalt’. Discussions covered the optimum requirements for hot- and cold-mix applications. Lionel Naude’s presentation on behalf of SAFCEC was entitled ‘What Constitutes RRM?’, from a contractor’s perspective. Some of the

key challenges noted are the long-term sustainability of the sector, as well as a decline in skilled and experienced contractors. Competition for available work has also resulted in the uneconomic pricing of accepted tenders.

Laboratory Krishna Naidoo from Sanral ended the series with his presentation, ‘Laboratory for Road Maintenance’. He referred to the COTO Standard Specifications for Roads & Bridge Works for South African Road Authorities and the vital importance of laboratory testing and procedures. From an efficiency perspective, he noted that Industry 4.0 technologies are revolutionising this field with the advent of cloud processing, remote monitoring and sensing. These and other tools will shape the future of precision road maintenance.

Closing remarks “While there was a lot of information to absorb from the presentations, this only serves to highlight the multifaceted expertise and experience that exists within the South Africa’s roads maintenance sector, and the crucial importance of sharing this with the broadest possible audience,” adds Solomons. “The delegate feedback was overwhelmingly in support of the RMF and all agreed that it provides an innovative new way of attaining excellence in road maintenance – an area identified by national government as one of South Africa’s top infrastructure priorities,” Solomons concludes.


ROADS & BRIDGES | MAINTENANCE & MANAGEMENT

For slipform paving technology, the pouring and levelling of concrete are done simultaneously

CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

have come a long way

C

oncrete pavements generally last for over 30 years. In addition, they require relatively little maintenance and repair, resulting in long-term savings in raw materials, transpor t and energy. The reduction in traffic disruption and delays caused by roadworks also cuts fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. “When it comes to speed of construction, the curing time of concrete is far from the 28-day period that is sometimes

incorrectly suggested,” Perrie explains, adding that a new concrete pavement, made from conventional concrete, can be opened to traffic after only four to seven days of curing. “High early strength concrete mixes make it possible to reduce the curing time to just three days and, in cer tain cases, to only 24 hours. This technique is used in several countries on busy traffic routes and has been used on a number of projects in South Africa as well,” Perrie continues.

Advances in jointed pavements

Bryan Perrie, CEO of Cement & Concrete South Africa

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When it comes to riding comfor t, Perrie believes that the situation is now totally different to early concrete pavements. The latter did not offer top-quality riding comfor t because of the length of slabs and width of joints, faulting at the joints, or damage to suppor ting erosionprone layers. He says that, for over 40 years now, these problems have been dealt with by using designs that implement new and superior measures in jointed pavements. These include: • shor ter slabs with 4.5 m maximum length to make concrete pavements

There are several misconceptions about concrete pavements, even though they often offer the most favourable solution when whole-life roadbuilding costs are considered, according to Bryan Perrie, CEO of Cement & Concrete South Africa (CCSA). Additional advantages include speed of construction and riding comfort. less susceptible to cracking, curling and faulting • narrow sealed construction joints to overcome the problems previously encountered with joint per formance • dowels in the transverse joints and cement-bound bases to ensure excellent load transfer and the prevention of faulting at the joints. “Continuously reinforced concrete pavements – which have no transverse joints – are often chosen for freeways and primar y roads. The shrinkage of the concrete is absorbed by a pattern of fine microcracks that has no impact whatsoever on the pavements’ evenness or ride comfor t,” says Perrie.

Smooth pavements Fur thermore, smooth concrete pavements can now be built thanks to: • optimised concrete mixes offering constant workability and prepared in modern, computer-controlled


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Continuously reinforced concrete pavement construction in progress on the N3 outside Pietermaritzburg

batching and mixing plants often established on-site • new generations of slipform pavers equipped with automatic vibrator control systems and a longitudinal levelling beam behind the finishing machine or so-called super-smoother • properly installed guide wires for controlling the machine or the use of modern wireless guidance • new types of evenness measurement

Concrete was used for the construction of a traffic circle at Hluhluwe in KwaZulu-Natal

set up immediately behind the paver to allow correct construction. “It should be remembered that an impor tant proper ty of concrete pavements is that the longitudinal evenness obtained after construction is retained for many years,” Perrie explains.

Conclusion “There is no doubt that concrete pavements are the logical and sustainable

solution for South Africa. One only has to look at the thousands of potholes on our road networks at the moment to see how concrete could have prevented such a costly and dangerous situation. Concrete pavements are the natural choice for projects where per formance, value, longevity, social responsibility and concern for the environment are paramount,” Perrie concludes.


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Ensuring security of

BITUMEN SUPPLY The first shipment of bitumen arrived on 3 March at the Port of Cape Town

Bitumen is now more widely available to the Western Cape market after a landmark partnership agreement between FFS Refiners and Rubis Asphalt South Africa.

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he agreement has already seen the arrival of the first bulk bitumen import into land-based tanks. The first shipment arrived on 3 March at the Port of Cape Town and was met with a welcome celebration. Prior to FFS Refiners setting up landbased tanks for direct offload, bitumen was offloaded from the shipping vessel via a mobile gantr y into a truck tanker or bitutainer. Now, FFS Refiners provides Rubis with reliable and safe bitumen storage and handling under a 12-month agreement, which includes the rental of 4 700 m3 of tank storage at FFS Refiners’ facility in the Port of Cape Town. “We believe this is the start of a great partnership, which we hope will last for years to come. This discharge marks the

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first time that we’re discharging directly into these tanks from the vessel Viveka from the Eastern Mole quayside,” says Wilhelm Wasserman of the Marine Ser vices Division at FFS. “With current shifts in the petrochemicals landscape in South Africa, we are ready to rise to any occasion.” FFS Refiners specialises in various hydrocarbon solutions, operating in the fields of industrial energy, base oils, marine fuels, waste recover y, coal-derived products and tank terminals such as those rented by Rubis Asphalt South Africa. Comments Mark Simonsen, commercial manager at Rubis Asphalt: “South Africa has a world-class national road network, and our product helps ensure this infrastructure can be extended and maintained.”

Handling and quality control Rubis is importing with ‘peace of mind’, knowing that FFS is handling the viscous material in a way that is safe, economical and compliant with the relevant regulations.

“Offloading bitumen is no simple task. Before you can even think about discharging the fluid, standard operating procedures must be followed,” Wasserman explains. “Pipelines must be heated, and pressuretested. Independent sur veyors undertake quality assurance on the product, and our team works with the vessel captain to ensure a smooth process. We have dedicated teams who work together to ensure that health, safety and compliance are top of mind,” he continues. “This 12-month agreement is a great addition to our Marine Ser vices Division, and we hope to see more opportunities such as this in the future. To this end, we plan to expand to Durban, where work has started on new bulk storage tanks for bulk bitumen imports. With this move, we hope to be in time to support the industr y through what is anticipated to be a difficult supply environment,” Wasserman adds. Ongoing investment into FFS Refiners’ processes and quality control systems ensures that products meet and exceed specifications and industr y standards. All FFS Refiners’ facilities have fully equipped ISO 9001 accredited laboratories to monitor and control quality.


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N2 Wild Coast investments

BENEFIT COMMUNITIES The South African National Roads Agency (Sanral) continues to roll out new contracts as momentum builds on the N2 Wild Coast Road Project in the Eastern Cape.

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o date, some R278 million has been paid to over 100 local SMMEs, including 28 suppliers, 52 ser vice providers and 27 subcontractors currently under taking work on the Msikaba Bridge development, which is expected to be completed in May 2024. “In addition, R45.9 million has so far been paid on wages to over 300 skilled and unskilled labourers drawn from the surrounding local communities, as well as the surrounding local municipalities of Por t St Johns, Ingquza Hill and Winnie Madikizela Mandela,” says Craig McLachlan, Sanral’s project manager on the N2 Wild Coast Road Project.

In the latest round, seven new subcontracting tenders valued at more than R76 million are in the pipeline. These include a bush clearing project in the east and west of Mzimvubu River, repairs to the R61 between Ndwalane and Ntafufu, repairs to the main roads through Lusikisiki, repairs to the R61 between Lusikisiki and Zalu, repairs to the R61 between Bukazi and Flagstaff, as well as repairs to the Flagstaff town bypass and road to Holy Cross. An additional four first-tier tenders have also been adver tised and are currently in adjudication. These entail the rehabilitation of the Ingquza Hill Memorial Road, upgrading of roads in Ntlavukazi Village, upgrading of the DR8004 from the R61 national road to Bambisana Hospital Road, as well as the design of the upgrading of the road from Bizana to Mbongweni Village. These four tenders are expected to be awarded by September 2022. Sanral has also completed five community development projects in the region. New ones in the design phase include an access road leading to the Goso Forest Clinic, access road and pedestrian facilities in Mbotyi and the Ntafufu Ser vice Road. These projects are

also planned to be put out to tender by September 2022.

Provincial roads transfer proposal Minister of Transpor t Fikile Mbalula has also agreed to a request from Eastern Cape Premier Oscar Mabuyane for some of the province’s roads to be transferred to Sanral. These roads include the R61 from Tombo outside Por t St John’s to Mzamba at the Mtamvuna River, the DR0838 road from the R61 to Cala, the DR08012 road from Maluti to Qachas Nek at the Lesotho border, the DR08031 and DR18031 roads from Viedgesville to Coffee Bay, as well as the MR00710 road from the R61 to the R56 (Satan’s Nek). For these roads to be transferred to Sanral, there are processes that first need to be followed for them to be gazetted. Sanral will also sur vey and proclaim these new roads, as well as prepare, adver tise and award tenders for maintenance contractors to take over responsibility. In the meantime, the tender for the anticipated Mtentu Bridge project – the second of the two major bridges on the new Wild Coast route – is currently awaiting announcement by the Sanral board.

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TRAINING

REMOTE LEARNING

connects and empowers Naidu Consulting rose to the challenge of the remote working environment induced by Covid-19, training more than 700 delegates on its Labour Intensive Construction (LIC) courses during 2021. IMIESA speaks to Devan Govender, Technical Executive: Economic Development, about what virtual training means in practice.

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s an LIC champion in South Africa, Naidu Consulting has led the way with the design and supervision of numerous projects incorporating LIC techniques. These are purpose-fit solutions in support of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) of the Department of Public Works and Infrastructure. In terms of the legislation, contractors and consultants who undertake EPWP projects must deploy staff who have successfully completed an approved and recognised LIC programme, from either a design and/or supervision perspective. “However, we soon identified that a high percentage of the construction sector, as well as those within the municipal engineering and management space, had a limited appreciation of LIC, which had an impact on the potential for job creation through EPWP and allied project roll-outs,” Govender explains. In response, Naidu Consulting decided to develop a series of LIC-specific training courses aimed at nurturing proficient LIC NQF 5 and 7 practitioners. These are accredited by the Construction Education and Training Authority (CETA). In a further development, Naidu Consulting has also been accredited by CETA to conduct

NQF 2, 3 and 4 Construction Road Worker training. Over the longer term, soft skills will also be added, like Negotiation Skills, Project Management Skills and General Contractor Mentorship.

Shifting to e-learning “Historically, our physical, in-person sessions have been a great success. However, we identified a need well before the Covid-19 pandemic to upscale our training through allied virtual platforms. Covid-19 accelerated those plans, and we quickly responded,” Govender explains. In-person courses have been specially readapted for e-learning. This ensures that the interactive component is retained in terms of group and individual assignments, as well as overall class engagement. “Going the virtual route has revolutionised the training experience because we can now reach anyone, anywhere, at a reduced cost, while providing greater convenience for delegates,” he continues.

Theory and practice The training effectively combines theory and practice to provide a holistic implementation model, based on integrated problemsolving tools applied through LIC design, specification and construction management. Classic examples include the construction of concrete block paved roads, reinforced soil applications, gabion retaining walls, and stormwater systems. The express purpose of the training is to prepare delegates for the real-world environment. This includes running simulation scenarios. A prime example is the ability to manage and mitigate so-called ‘construction mafia’ type risks. Course modules that cater for non-technical decision-makers include labour

law and LIC remuneration, drawing up LIC pro forma tender documents, and effectively managing EPWP reporting requirements. “Because we’re involved in EPWP projects on an ongoing basis, we’re well positioned to provide the most relevant and aligned training content,” Govender explains. “For this reason, we’ve now created an LIC Update short course for engineers and non-technical individuals who have completed the LIC NQF 7 programme in the past, so they remain current.”

Municipal LIC training In recognition of its innovative understanding of LIC, Naidu Consulting was awarded several contracts to capacitate municipal stakeholders as part of a Municipal Infrastructure Support Agent (MISA) pilot project. The latter responds to the priorities of the Presidential Employment Stimulus initiative. Essentially, the purpose of the MISA pilot is to reinforce the need for municipalities to incorporate LIC in their infrastructure tender documents and projects. “As we went through the process, we found that municipalities, in most instances, didn’t have a full appreciation of LIC or had negative preconceptions. Some held the view, for example, that LIC was too impractical, slow and expensive, and resulted in poor quality,” Govender explains. However, the feedback from delegates at the end of each course painted a difference picture. “They now understand why LIC is so effective in helping to create jobs and sustain communities,” Govender continues. “The next step is the practical application of the process.” He concludes, “Once you understand that LIC is a pre-planned, pre-designed and integrated construction technique, it all starts to fall into place.”

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INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

LABOUR-BASED construction in ZAMBIA: recent policy developments Although Zambia is blessed with enormous natural resources, it remains a country with key challenges. Poverty, unemployment, a lack of technical skills, and difficult transport and communications conditions nationally require urgent remedial interventions. A renewed infrastructure rollout is part of that process, with the potential to incorporate labour-intensive construction techniques. By Robert T McCutcheon*

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ithin its 7th National Development Plan (NDP7 – 2017 to 2021), the Government of Zambia prioritised job creation and infrastructure development across all sectors of the Zambian economy. NDP7 emphasised the importance of using labour-based methods, stating, “To increase employment opportunities in rural areas, the Government will promote rural infrastructure development, agro value chain development, and labour-intensive industries operating in rural areas.” The proposed programmes included: - public works development - labour-intensive industries promotion - r ural employment-guarantee scheme promotion

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- resettlement schemes development - infrastructure development. NDP7 stated that “the Ministry of Housing and Infrastructure Development and sector agencies such as the National Council for Construction (NCC) will coordinate labourintensive technologies in the development of public infrastructure projects. This will optimise the impact of the construction sector’s performance towards achieving the goals of the NDP.” NDP7 (p 147, 9.2) contains the following ‘Expected outcomes and results chain analysis’: - technical skills transferred to local contractors through the NCC - increased employment opportunities for locals throughout the construction value chain - technical skills and knowledge transferred

to locals, making them employable in subsequent works in their areas - reduction of poverty levels.

National Council for Construction Act Recently, in November 2020, the National Council for Construction Act was (re-)enacted in order “to provide for the promotion, development and regulation of the construction industry so as to promote economic growth and competitiveness and create sustainable employment.” As per Section 35 (2) of the National Council for Construction Act, the National Construction School shall: - conduct training for technical staff in construction and construction-related subjects - provide courses in labour-based technology


INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT - provide courses or training skills for personnel in the construction industry - offer courses in research and consultancy for persons in the field of construction - provide for and offer other capacitybuilding programmes that the Council considers necessary. Section 54 of the Act refers to the importance of capacity building.

Improved Rural Connectivity Project To this end, the NCC was tasked with the commissioning of a consulting assignment on ‘Mainstreaming of labour-based technologies (LBT) in the Zambian construction industry’, which is being prepared by the author as an industry expert. The application of LBT is expected to form a core element of Zambia’s Improved Rural Connectivity Project. Funded by the World Bank’s International Development Association, this US$200 million (R2.94 billion) project has vital socio-economic importance for Zambia. The objectives include the improvement of about 4 300 km of feeder roads to gravel wearing course standard. In November 2020, the Zambian Road Development Agency’s ‘Request for Bids’ for World Bank Funded ‘Package 12 of Southern Province’s Improved Rural Connectivity Project’ stated: “The local subcontractors shall possess requisite skills in implementing labourbased technologies in road maintenance.” It also contains a table, ‘Equipment required for Labour Based Maintenance’, as well as other requirements to promote the use of labourintensive methods.

Interim comment More recent Zambian policy developments and a particularly large World Bank contract may indicate a breakthrough for proactive LBT implementation. However, Zambia has promoted LBT in various ways since the 1980s, including policy pronouncements and many pilot projects, but none of these came to fruition. The question then is, are there reasons for a better result this time around? It’s too soon to tell; however, I do consider that there are signs of a renewed commitment by the Zambian government.

Factors for success Drawing on direct experience and analysis of LBT ventures in Kenya and Botswana, these succeeded because they adopted a long-term programme approach rather than an ad hoc one. From inception, these LBT projects were

also designed to incorporate labour-intensive components, rather than including them later as an add-on, random element. Over the years, the author has seen so many projects concentrate upon immediate ‘job creation’, with no regard to the actual institutional development required and the extensive training needed. The focus on the word ‘labour’ distracts policymakers and engineers from the prime focus, which should be the construction and maintenance of good quality infrastructure. Not fully understanding the definition of ‘labourintensive’ within the context of LBT immediately imposes limitations on all subsequent construction and project management ‘arenas’, especially the delineation of scope, and expectations regarding time, cost, quality and human resources. Coordinated training across all levels is therefore essential for optimum execution. This includes LBT training at NQF 5 level for contractors and NQF 6/7 for project managers, engineers and public sector officials. Within this context, one must never forget the essential role of the NQF Level 4 ‘hands-on’

site supervisors and roadbuilders. They need to be specially trained to effectively and efficiently organise and control the activities and operations of teams of people. On most unsuccessful LBT projects, this is the ‘missing middle’. Therefore, if Zambia can establish linked LBT training and construction programmes, with a particular focus on NQF 4 level ‘hands-on’ site supervisors, this time there could be a far more favourable outcome. *Professor Emeritus, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand Note: The Zambian National Council for Construction appointed the author to carry out an assignment entitled ‘Mainstreaming of labour-based technologies in the Zambian construction industry’. The author’s Final Report has not yet been approved for release. The above article provides a background that is available from open-source material. Disclaimer: This article has been written by Professor McCutcheon in his personal capacity. Email: roberttmccutcheon@gmail.com

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GABION ARCHITECTURE

The Midrand site's wall thickness is 300 mm

Weld mesh sets new gabion trend The traditional role of gabion wire mesh baskets as an environmentally engineered solution is evolving with a parallel growth in weld mesh systems for architectural applications. In both instances, their rockfilled composition provides a natural aesthetic appeal and a value-engineered solution, says Louis Cheyne, managing director, Gabion Baskets. By Alastair Currie

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ouble-twisted hexagonal wire mesh is the standard product used to form gabion baskets and gabion mattresses. Within an environmentally engineered context, this product characteristic is important because it enables a degree of flex. This is crucial in river applications, where gabion retaining walls and weirs will experience var ying hydraulic conditions and potential debris impact. However, this degree of flexibility is less important for lateral soil support

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applications on land – a classic example being slope stabilisation with mass gravity retaining walls. Here, the key consideration is the permissible degree of permeability factored into the design, given the fact that a typical 1 m x 1 m rock-filled wire mesh gabion has a void percentage of around 35%. Controlled drainage is essential to avoid hydraulic pressure build-up behind soil-retaining structures. This is achieved via the integrated use of either woven or non-woven geotextiles, depending on the soil type.

Weld mesh for engineering tasks “Wire mesh remains the most widespread product employed for environmental engineering. However, within this segment, we are also experiencing growing demand for weld mesh in roles like landscaping and retaining walls where the priority is aesthetics, especially where a more exact, flat finish is required. Ver y precise tolerances can be achieved, generally within a range of 2 mm to 4 mm and, in most cases, geotextiles are still required,” Cheyne explains. “However, the fastest expanding market for weld mesh gabions is in the architectural field for projects that include residential, office and commercial developments,” Cheyne continues. Popular weld mesh gabion roles include pillars, free-standing feature walls, boundar y, terracing and retaining walls, and even fireplaces.

Configurations and custom builds The most common weld mesh configuration supplied locally has a 50 mm x 50 mm

Clinton Cheyne (left), operations manager at Gabion Baskets, together with managing director Louis Cheyne

Individual steel framed rectangular gabion box panels were bolted together to form this architectural wall section

Approximately 35 m3 of granite rock fill was used to fill the gabion box panels, with material handsorted and shaped on-site


GABION ARCHITECTURE

aperture and is fabricated using 3 mm diameter Class A galvanised steel wire. Alongside this, Gabion Baskets supplies panels with a 50 mm x 100 mm, and a 75 x 75 mm aperture configuration, both of which provide a lesser degree of rigidity compared to the 50 mm x 50 mm specification. Made-to-order weld mesh gabion baskets are fabricated at Gabion Baskets’ factor y in Johannesburg. For applications like building cladding, weld mesh is also supplied in roll or panel form. Rolls measure 2.1 m wide by 30 m in length. That equates to an area of around 63 m2 when supplied with a 50 mm x 50 mm aperture. Panels can then be cut and wired together on-site according to the architect’s or engineer’s design requirements. “Weld mesh has definitely caught the imagination of designers, and we’ve responded by providing custom solutions,” says Cheyne, adding that the company provides turnkey design, installation and project management ser vices.

Gabions provide endless opportunities to combine architectural and engineered elements to create amazing structures.”

Steel frame design for Midrand wall A recent example is a project in Midrand where the client presented a design proposal that comprised a combination of free-standing brick work and weld mesh gabion walling as part of a building extension. The final design comprises a weld mesh gabion wall measuring 2.7 m in height, with a total length of around 40 m and a width of 300 mm. Approximately 35 m3 of granite rock fill was required. “The unique aspect to this job is that the gabion wall is made up of 3 mm thick steel frame box panels, as opposed to the traditional purely weld mesh wire frame box,” Cheyne explains. Rectangular in shape, each box panel measures 900 mm in height, 1.50 m in length and 300 mm in width. During installation, the design made provision for four cut-to-fit weld mesh inserts to be slotted neatly into position on the bottom, front, rear and sides, secured in place by the subsequent rock fill. The only exception are the front and rear weld mesh inserts, which are attached with bracing rods. To build the structure, the box panels were stacked three high in sequence to form one, seamless wall. They are bolted

WELD MESH BENEFITS • Blends well with existing architectural structures • More rigid than woven mesh, making it easier to build vertical facings, like wall cladding • More appealing than woven mesh for domestic use • Weld mesh boxes are faster to fill and don’t bulge easily like woven mesh • Weld mesh comes in three aperture sizes to suit visual preferences

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GABION ARCHITECTURE

A section of the Midrand wall

together at the top and bottom, as well as laterally with their neighbouring panels. Within each vertical three-panel box group is a central 75 mm x 75 mm x 3 mm tubular steel pillar support anchored using screw bolts drilled approximately 200 mm into the existing concrete floor.

To add to the overall structural integrity, at designated points, these pillars are welded into I-beams that run along the top of the integrated gabion and brick wall. The works were completed within a twoweek construction period, with Gabion Baskets providing construction and project management, as well as training for the SMME subcontractor.

Completed sections

“Gabions provide endless opportunities to combine architectural and engineered elements to create amazing structures, which can also be softened or enhanced with vegetation. We continue to explore the possibilities,” Cheyne concludes.

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ENERGY

Enabling a just transition and sustainable communities

The need to create a ‘just’ transition from fossil fuels to renewables by considering climate change, sustainable communities and job creation is increasingly becoming a burning topic in the energy industry. Ziyanda Majodina attended Africa Energy Indaba 2022, which hosted a panel of representatives from reputable energy institutes.

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hairing the panel, Daniel Schrotch, acting director: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, African Development Bank, stated that energy transition in Africa requires the consideration of two paradoxes that frame the discussion: • Africa’s carbon emissions, which are emitted through land use more than fossil fuels • Africa as the largest continent with an energy deficit. Schrotch further stated that Africa’s energy

deficit proceeds to hold back economic development, with approximately 600 million people continuing to live without electricity in the sub-Saharan region. This costs 2% to 4% of the continent’s gross domestic product annually. Furthermore, Africa bears the brunt of climate change despite its low carbon emissions, at 3.5% of the global total. “There are abundant opportunities for renewable energy in Africa – such as solar, geothermal, wind or hydropower. In 2020, 54 GW of renewable energy generation capacity was installed in Africa. Though this is progressive, it is only 2% of the global renewable energy capacity – most of Africa’s energy remains untapped,” Schrotch added.

What is a ‘just’ transition? “Using the word ‘just’ is important in energy transition, particularly when looking at the National Development Plan, which is a blueprint in terms of the direction South Africa aims to take. It is one of the issues on a lot of the strategic debates around the transition of fossil fuels to renewable energy,” said Thabane Zulu, CEO, Richards Bay Industrial Development Zone. Considerations for a just energy transition: • Emissions should prioritise/consider inequality and justice. • Developing countries such as South Africa need assistance with reducing reliance on high-carbon emissions. • Socio-economic issues are set to grow for governments that do not respond quickly. “The majority of South Africa’s labour force that operates in coal-based plants consists of black people, meaning that energy transition

must consider the country’s disadvantageous background and inequality. It also should be informed by the current status quo of 46.6% unemployment due to the country’s recent economic recession and Covid-19 pandemic,” Zulu said. Zulu stated that the technology for energy transition should equip the labour force with skills development, training and mentorship. “The technologies that are being considered as a part of the transition to the new energy alternatives must not create a jobless society. Looking at the possibility of skills development required by the labour force is imperative. Reskilling the labour force will be necessary to take advantage of new opportunities created by the transition,” Zulu said.

Local municipalities Commenting on the City of Cape Town’s plan to accelerate its transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, Kadri Nassiep, executive director: Energy, City of Cape Town, said, “Urbanisation, high levels of unemployment, and energy security and supply should drive economic change. “In the context of local municipalities, the City of Cape Town seeks new opportunities that enable economic growth. Cape Town will repurpose its old stations into renewable energy plants with the intention of activating job opportunities,” Nassiep said. “The City further aims to turn consumers into active members of the community, [which] not only provides for their own energy but also stimulates the market on its own. It also plans to market a small-scale enviro-generation programme, engaging independent power producers (IPPs) with the intention of having power projects installed on the network. Nassiep stated that cities can be further involved by opening up markets to the implementation of renewable energy and increasing interactions with IPPs.

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TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY

The City of Singapore (Credit: Darya Jum)

Deep tunnel sewerage systems:

SINGAPORE’S SUCCESS STORY

Singapore’s pioneering role in developing deep tunnel sewerage systems (DTSSs) serves as a prime example of what could be replicated by South African cities. Across the world, cities face similar challenges in terms of intensified urbanisation, poulation growth and the need to modernise decades-old wastewater infrastructure using best practice techniques. By Frank Stevens & Swen Weiner* 34

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ccording to the UN, 9.8 billion people will be living on the planet by 2050, with growth particularly coming from Africa and Asia. A total of 70% of that population will be urban, a 1.7-fold increase compared to 2015. Cities will have to invest massively in sewage handling capacity to ser ve this growing population, while climate change will further stress capacity. Additionally, extreme weather is confronting cities with high amounts of rainwater to be collected, discharged and – at least partly – treated within a short period. Diminishing sur faces for infiltration add to the problem by leaving fewer opportunities for rainwater to drain naturally. In addition, many cities want to reuse sewage instead of discharging it into

nearby rivers.In Singapore’s case, this sovereign island city-state has an area of 730 km2 and a population of 5.7 million people. In addition to having the second highest population density in the world, this countr y boasts the second highest GDP per capita globally and Singaporeans enjoy one Tunnel types in Singapore’s underground infrastructure system


TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY

of the world’s longest life expectencies. Keeping up with economic growth is a clear priority, and with limited land space available, the installation of underground ser vices is a preferred option. A DTSS is – especially from an operation cost point of view – a ver y cost-efficient solution to meet long-term needs for wastewater collection, treatment and disposal. Deep sewer systems involve large-diameter main tunnels that convey wastewater by gravity to centralised treatment plants, mostly located outside cities. Smaller-diameter, often pipe-jacked, link sewers and deep shafts are further parts of these schemes. Construction of such large-scale schemes is quick and safe, with minimal impact on population and environment.

Water security A key challenge facing Singapore is ensuring the security of its water supply, which is derived from three sources: • Imported Water 40% of Singapore’s water is imported from the Johor catchment in Malaysia via a 1 km causeway. Singapore has an obligation to supply 2% of this water back to Malaysia once treated and the agreement expires in 2061. • Reclaimed Water 30% of Singapore’s supply is presently obtained from five state-of-the art treatment works. This ultra-clean water, known as 'NEWater', is used for both domestic and industrial consumption. • Desalinated Water 30% of its need is obtained from

TBM assembly in launch shaft

Singapore’s four desalination plants. Each uses the energy-intensive reverse osmosis process.

Wastewater Within the wastewater space, the Singapore DTSS route is coined as ‘Singapore’s Sanitar y Superhighway’ by the countr y’s National Water Agency. The project consists of two phases and will finally comprise some 200 km when competed. Completed in 2008, DTSS Phase 1 was installed in the eastern part of Singapore. The system is made up of deep tunnels and link sewers that convey effluent to the Changi water reclamation plant and sea outfall situated in the south-east of the island. The main focus of this discussion is on DTSS Phase 2, which is now under way. This system extends to the south-western part of the island and will feed effluent to the new Taus water reclamation plant. It will consist of 40 km of deep tunnels, 60 km of link sewers, and a specialised industrial sewer network. The main South Tunnel will var y in depths ranging from 35 m to 55 m. The deep tunnels will connect with the existing used water infrastructure to create one seamless and integrated system.

DTSS 2 construction stages The client chose to break Phase 2 into five tunnelling contracts as described below: • Contract T-07: Four Mixshield tunnel boring machines (TBMs) constructing 12 km of tunnels and odour control shafts (diameters: 7.56 m and 4.86 m).

In Singapore’s case, this sovereign island city-state has an area of 730 km2 and a population of 5.7 million people. In addition to having the second highest population density in the world, this country boasts the second highest GDP per capita globally and Singaporeans enjoy one of the world’s longest life expectencies.” •C ontract T-08: Four Mixshield TBMs constructing 10 km of tunnels ser ving the industrial area and two undersea tunnels (diameters: 7.46 m and 4.35 m). • Contract T-09: Three Mixshield TBMs constructing 8 km of tunnels (diameter: 7.51 m). • Contract T-10: Two Mixshield TBMs and one EPB Shield machine constructing 8 km of tunnels (diameter: 4.78 m up to 7.41 m). • Contract T-11: Five Mixshield TBMs and Vertical Shaft Sinking (VSM) equipment (diameter: TBMs, 4.23 m and 4.53 m; VSM, 11.2 m). Many benefits are to be gained by using an entirely gravity-fed deep sewer system, as is the case for DTSS Phase 1 and 2.

Breakthrough of Mixshield ID 3505 in shaft

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TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY

The need for constructing new intermediate pump stations is eliminated and a number of old existing pump stations will be removed, thus releasing valuable land for housing development and reducing energy costs. Obstacles at shallower depths are easily avoided – e.g. the South Tunnel passes well below busy freeways, large buildings, a section of seabed and many existing ser vices. The tunnels will be lined concrete segments with a secondar y inner HDPE lining, which will eliminate the threat of corrosion. Tunnel condition monitoring will be undertaken via a system of fibreoptics within the tunnel lining and the need for human entr y for inspection will be drastically reduced. Odour control will be achieved by using forced ventilation shafts.

Equipment selection Two of the many issues that must be considered when deciding on the best machine to use for a particular job are the geological and groundwater conditions. It is vital that the soil properties (i.e. grain size, compactness and consistency) and the rock properties (i.e. compressive strength, tensile strength and RQD index) are accurately determined and catered for. Complex geological conditions were encountered on this project. The tunnels pass through the Jurong formation, which is made up of a mix of limestone, sandstone and argillite – a sedimentar y rock with a high clay and silt content.

First shaft construction ID 10000 with VSM

The Mixshield TBM concept was chosen as the best option due to its ability to handle heterogeneous ground conditions and its ability to withstand ver y high water pressures. Safe working conditions are achieved using a hydraulic support system of slurr y suspension, together with a controlled air cushion system to assure face support. Excavated material is removed through a closed slurr y circuit and hydraulic thrust cylinders within the shield area push the machine for ward. The cutting wheel is made up of both knives and disc cutters, and boulders and stones are crushed and screened to a manageable grain size for conveying to the sur face. The same

Vertical Shaft Sinking Machine (VSM)

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IMIESA April 2022

machine concept – the AVN machine with cone crusher – has also been used for the pipe-jacked link sewer tunnels.

VSM This is the first time that VSM technology has been used in Asia. This equipment has made it possible to complete three shafts with an ID of 10.0 m (at depths up to 56 m). Challenges that had to be overcome include fines with clogging potential, areas of highly abrasive rock, var ying geology, and groundwater that was, at times, 2 m from the sur face with lowering of the water table not being permissible. Two of the shafts were situated less than 2 m apart. Some of the benefits derived from VSM technology include safe working conditions and a continual construction process, with sinking rates of up to 5 m/day, depending on shaft diameter and ground conditions. Shafts for odour control, air jumpers and drop shafts that lead to the main tunnels are required. A hydraulically powered cutting drum – equipped with excavation tools and controlled by a telescopic boom – loosens the soil on the shaft bottom. The excavated material is removed to the sur face using a submersible pump. Excavation is undertaken below the water table, while the operation is completely controlled from the sur face. The shafts are lined with precast concrete segments. The shaft lining is installed at the sur face and is in most cases made up from precast concrete segments. Alternatively, in situ concrete casting of


TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGY

Keeping up with economic growth is a clear priority, and with limited land space available, the installation of underground services is a preferred option.” the shaft walls can also be implemented. In this case, the slower progress of shaft construction works is compensated for to some extent by having a ‘continuous’ structure, without joints, and by the possibility of integrating entire entr y and exit structures for tunnelling activities in the walls of the shaft. A combination of in situ lining for the bottom part of the shaft and subsequent lining with segments has been implemented in Singapore.

Segment lining with Mixshield ID3755

The Tuas water reclamation plant Effluent will be fed via the Southern Tunnel and then treated at the new Tuas wastewater reclamation plant. Once fully operational, its output will increase the amount of reclaimed water use in Singapore from 30% to 55% of its total. The plant’s output will be 800 Mℓ/day. This purified water will be sold as potable NEWater and to industr y. Any excess treated water will be discharged into sea outfalls. Thanks to this project, the older Jurong and Ulu Panda recycling plants will eventually be phased out. State-of-the-art design ensures higher energy efficiencies and features such as the use of membrane reactors (which replace the need for primar y sedimentar y tanks, bioreactors and secondar y sedimentation tanks), and this will result in a smaller footprint of the plant. Reverse osmosis and UV disinfection will form part of the treatment process. Biogas will be used to reduce energy dependency.

Conclusion Singapore’s Sanitar y Superhighway shows that deep sewers offer an effective solution for cities to collect and centrally treat their wastewaters, thus adding capacity to their systems and simultaneously freeing up valuable space for development. TBMs and VSM machines help to execute

Tuas water reclamation plant

such projects quickly, safely and with minimum impact on the population and environment. They offer solutions for the prevailing geological and hydrogeological conditions and can excavate at the extreme depths required. In South Africa, and Africa as a whole, government departments, utilities and consultants should explore and consider the benefits of employing deep tunnelling solutions for projects with similar demands and conditions as those encountered in Singapore. *Herrenknecht AG (Utility Tunnelling Business Unit), Germany

This is an edited version of a paper presented at the 2021 IMESA Virtual Conference. For the full paper, visit www.imesa.org.za/conference-2021.

View in tunnel with Mixshield ID3755

IMIESA April 2022

37


GENERATING HYDROPOWER within municipal water networks

Drakenstein Municipality’s Leliefontein Pump-AsTurbine (PAT) station is believed to be a first-time application in South Africa. Originally intended as a booster station, the switch to a PAT approach provides the added benefit of small-scale hydropower generation, contributing to lower municipal operating costs and optimising mechanical efficiencies.

D

rakenstein’s PAT station provides a vital service for the town of Wellington, ensuring sustained water supply. This is especially important during the one- to twoweek period annually when the Wemmershoek Water Treatment Works (WTW) is temporarily offline for scheduled maintenance. The Wemmershoek WTW, which is owned and operated by the City of Cape Town, supplies water to the Leliefontein Bulk Reservoir Complex (LBRC) within the Drakenstein municipal footprint via a 19 km gravity pipeline, and to Wellington’s Con Marine and Newton zone reservoirs via a further 11 km pipeline at a maximum capacity of 19 Mℓ/day.

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IMIESA April 2022

During scheduled or unscheduled downtime at the Wemmershoek WTW, water from the LBRC can still gravitate towards Wellington at a maximum capacity of 11.2 Mℓ/day. This is fine for the winter months, but not during summer when demand is at its highest. “Drakenstein’s original approach was to install a booster pump station at Leliefontein to cater for intermittent supply risks in Wellington. However, the downside to this scenario was that the booster pump station’s mechanical equipment would remain dormant most of the time, potentially leading to premature equipment failure,” explains Holiday Kadada, electrical engineer at Zutari, and part of the multidisciplinary PAT design and commissioning team. “Going the PAT route therefore made better business sense in terms of pump efficiency and hydropower potential,” she continues. “Leliefontein uses the same set of pumps to pump water and generate electricity, which ensures that the PATs are active for most of the year, solving the problem of underutilisation.”

“Another important consideration was the cost. For low-scale hydropower to be viable, it has to be affordable to implement, as is the case with the PAT solution for Drakenstein in terms of return on investment,” says Kadada.

Optimising the setup During the design stages, a solution had to be found to allow the PAT to operate at a rotational speed of 920 rpm (generation speed) when in turbine mode and at

The estimated annual generation for the Leliefontein PAT station is 320 MWh, depending on water demand and loadshedding, translating into 44 days of free pumping for Drakenstein Municipality.”

PAT explained A PAT is essentially a centrifugal pump that can be used as a turbine to generate electricity. The most efficient way for a PAT to operate is by reversing the direction of water flow through the volute. In addition to reversing the direction of water flow, the rotational direction of the pump shaft is also reversed. Therefore, a PAT’s shaft rotates in the opposite direction to that of a similar pump. To confirm the feasibility of utilising PAT technology, the quantum of the available hydropower potential at Leliefontein was calculated. The projected average inflow rate to the LBRC over a 30-year period was estimated at 31 Mℓ/day, while the residual head within the Wemmershoek supply pipeline at LBRC was calculated to be 19 m. This equates to a total hydropower potential of 46.8 kW, at an assumed generator efficiency of 70%.

Leliefontein PAT Motor Control Centre


WATER & WASTEWATER

Completed Leliefontein PAT station in foreground, with 36 Mℓ and 100 Mℓ reservoirs in background

1 495 rpm (pumping speed) when in pump mode. “For an induction machine to generate power, the rotor needs to be rotating at speeds greater than the synchronous speed of the machine, which in this case is over 1 500 rpm for a four-pole motor, at a frequency of 50 Hz,” Kadada explains. “However, it was found that there was insufficient hydropower potential available at the LBRC to push the rotor of the induction machines of the selected PATs above synchronous speed.” The solution was to change the singlequadrant variable-speed drives (VSDs) – required for pumping at varying flow and pump head conditions – to active front-end (AFE) VSDs. The AFE drives enable four-quadrant operation. This means that they can change the speed of the PATs in pump and generation modes, as well as allow discharge of electrical power into the municipal grid at the required power quality.

Lessons learnt The installation of the PAT station has increased the conveyance capacity of the LBRC to 30 Mℓ/day. The upfront PAT design also caters for a further increase to 60 Mℓ/day by upgrading the pipeline from Leliefontein to Con Marine. This would entail

adding an additional PAT and a new DN 700 parallel gravity pipeline towards Wellington. “Although the Leliefontein PAT project is a unique solution for Drakenstein, the lessons learnt there are invaluable for other municipalities considering similar intiatives,” says Kadada. Below are some of the positive findings to note: • Utilising PAT technology is feasible to augment sites within a utility owner’s water network, even if the site’s hydropower potential is deemed too low for dedicated turbine installations. • As PATs are able to use mass-produced pump designs, the utility owner’s maintenance staff will be able to succesfully maintain them.

Conclusion Drakenstein’s PAT station has been in operation since June 2018 and has, to date, generated more than 271 236 MWh, some 53 577 MWh of which was consumed during pumping. In other words, the PAT station has generated more than five times the energy required for pumping over this period. “The conversion of the Leliefontein pump station into the Leliefontein PAT station increased the project’s capital cost by about

Leliefontein PATs installed, with space for a future unit

10%. However, through the hydropower generated from this installation – offset against the municipality’s electricity bill from the national energy provider – the payback period for this conversion cost is estimated to be less than 10 years,” Kadada adds. “A true marriage between the civil, mechanical and electrical engineering disciplines, the Leliefontein PAT serves as a classic example of how municipalities can use low-cost, off-the-shelf equipment like centrifugal pumps and induction motors to generate clean power by tapping into their existing water infrastructure,” Kadada concludes.

IMIESA April 2022

39


MUNICIPAL FOCUS | NELSON MANDELA BAY

Nooitgedacht Low Level Water Supply Scheme achieves ‘first water’ Aerial view of the Nooitgedagt WTW

Nooitgedacht Low Level

Water Supply Scheme achieves ‘first water’ The Nooitgedagt/ Coega Low Level Supply Scheme (NCLLS) increases the supply of treated water (sourced from the Gariep Dam) from 70 Mℓ/day to 210 Mℓ/day for Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality (NMBM). The first water flowed through the new Phase 3 module on 31 March. By Kevin McRae

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IMIESA April 2022

A

t first, the NCLLS was to be implemented as a single project under multiple contracts; however, due to funding constraints, the scheme had to be implemented in phases. Phase 1: On completion (1993), Nooitgedagt Water Treatment Works (WTW) had a capacity of 70 Mℓ/day and a hydraulic peak capacity of 84 Mℓ/day. A fourth pump was added to the pump station, boosting pumping output to 92 Mℓ/day with three pumps operating and one pump on standby. In 2008, two additional pulsator clarifiers were built, increasing the capacity of Nooitgedagt WTW to 100 Mℓ/day. Additional sludge lagoons and a 10 Mℓ balancing reservoir at Olifantskop Farm were constructed. There was also the implementation of bulk electrical supply to the WTW, and the rising (1 200 mm) and gravity (1 400 mm) mains from the WTW to Motherwell and the Coega Industrial Development Zone (IDZ).

Phase 2: This included the low-lift pump station building, as well as the construction of the western bank with six additional filters, and pumping equipment, electric and control systems for the low-lift scheme. Phase 3: This comprised a complete stand-alone 70 Mℓ/day treatment module at Nooitgedagt WTW, a 45 Mℓ balancing reser voir at Olifantskop Farm, installation of cathodic protection systems on both the original Nooitgedagt to Mother well highlevel pipeline and the low-level pipeline built under Phase 1. The building of various bulk pipelines and rehabilitation of structures, as well as the replacement of certain valves and fittings on the Mother well to Chelsea pipeline were also included. This is the last significant milestone for the Nooitgedagt/Coega Low Level Supply Scheme project that commenced with construction in 2010. Interestingly, the original scheme was also built under emergency drought conditions. Back then, while Nooitgedagt WTW was under construction, the Grassridge Reser voir was used as an emergency treatment works where settling and chlorination took place. In order to maximise the water supply to NMBM while Phase 3 was under construction, the Grassridge emergency treatment works was again put into use and upgraded with improved treatment and chlorination systems.


ADVANCED WATER PRODUCTS

ULTRA V SOLUTIONS

NCLLS PROJECT PARTICIPANTS Client: Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality Funder: DWS and NMBM Implementing Agent (Phase 3): Amatola Water Lead Consultant: AfriCoast Consulting Engineers WTW and Reservoirs: AfriCoast Consulting Engineers Rising Main and Pump Station M&E: iX engineers Gravity Main: Manong & Associates Geotech and Environmental: SRK Consulting WTW Electrical and Electronic: CA du Toit Eastern Cape Cathodic Protection: Pipe & Tank Africa Quality Assurance: QPI

Once excavations were completed for the new filter block and clear well, groundwater appeared

Pile caps and ground beams below filters

Kevin McRae, COO, AfriCoast Consulting Engineers

Nooitgedacht WTW – design Sited on the right bank of the Sundays River, Nooitgedagt WTW is supplied with raw water from the Scheepersvlakte Balancing Dam on the left bank via 9.1 km of 1 470 mm diameter gravity pipeline. It is now the largest water treatment works ser ving NMBM. The water treatment process at Nooitgedagt is conventional, comprising chemical dosing, flocculation, settling, filtration and disinfection, followed by distribution. Ultraviolet treatment is added between the settling tanks and filters to guard against Cr yptosporidium and Giardia. Designed as a zero-effluent works where dirty backwash water and settled sludge supernatant is collected and recycled, Nooitgedacht WTW can achieve water savings of up to 10.5 Mℓ/day. In Phase 3, conventional gravity tanks replaced the pulsator-type settling tanks used for the first two phases, allowing Phase 3 works to operate during off-peak electrical usage times, providing additional cost savings. The WTW operates at full capacity during offpeak times with both the high level and low-level pumps running, while the new eastern Phase 3 module can be stopped and only the low-level pumps run with the original western modules during off-peak electrical demand. The new setting tanks were designed to accommodate the new Phase 3 module that can be switched on and off without compromising treatment capacity or efficiency. The raw water has a fairly high suspended solids load that is easily settled and, therefore, bottom-entr y, horizontal-upflow settling tanks fitted with lamella packs were provided. Hoppers below the lamellas collect settled sludge, which is drawn off via timer-actuated valves controlled by means of a PLC. During the design stage for Phase 2, the decision was taken to fit the filters with dual

®


MUNICIPAL FOCUS | NELSON MANDELA BAY

First water passing through the Phase 3 filters lateral underdrain systems. This decision was carried through to Phase 3 with the original six filters also refurbished with dual lateral underdrain systems under the Phase 3 contract. This filter system has proven to be up to 30% more efficient than the older false floor and nozzle systems previously used on NMBM water treatment plants.

Integration with the NMBM bulk water supply system The NMBM bulk water supply system is a complex system of interlinking supply sources. The Chelsea Reser voir to the west of Port Elizabeth, which supplies large parts of the metro, has historically always been supplied from Loerie WTW, which receives raw water from Kouga Dam. The Churchill/Elandsjagdt system supplied from the Churchill and Mpofu dams, respectively, supplies water to the southern and central parts of Port Elizabeth via the Seaview, Emerald Hill, Driftsands, St George’s Park and Glendinning reser voirs, among others. Recent completion of the Gamtoos Booster Pump Station allows water from the Churchill pipeline to be lifted into the Summit Reser voir close to Loerie,

from where it gravitates to the Chelsea Reser voir. There is also a connection between the Seaview Reser voir, fed from the Churchill pipeline via the Seaview pump station, and the Chelsea Reser voir. The Nooitgedagt High and Low Level schemes deliver potable water to the Mother well Reser voir. An offtake on the High Level Scheme just before this reser voir connects to the Chelsea Reser voir to the west of Port Elizabeth, which has the same top water level as the Grassridge Reser voir. Booster pump stations

CONTRACTORS Phase 1 - WK Construction (WTW civils, 10 Mℓ reservoir and booster pump stations) - Cycad/Stefanutti Stocks JV (rising main) - Scribante Construction (gravity main) Phase 2 - Ruwacon (WTW civils and building) - PCI Africa (WTW M&E) - Hidro-Tech Systems (pump station M&E) Phase 3 - Stefanutti Stocks (all works) at Mother well and Stanford Road boost the pressure in the link pipeline, allowing water from Nooitgedagt to be delivered into the Chelsea Reser voir, from where it is distributed to large areas of the metro. A number of offtakes between the Mother well and Chelsea reser voirs feed smaller supply reser voirs ser ving areas such as Bloemendal, Bethelsdorp, Linton Grange, Despatch and Uitenhage. The Mother well Reser voir supplies the Markman industrial area as well as the Settling tanks under construction, with floc channels in foreground

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IMIESA April 2022


ADVANCED WATER PRODUCTS

ULTRA V SOLUTIONS

Clearwater pipeline to pump stations

Coega IDZ and Sundays River/Colchester via the Coegakop Reser voir. The pipeline between the Olifantskop and Mother well reser voirs has an offtake to the Coega IDZ boundar y that is not yet connected to the Coega supply zone.

Conclusion Since first water was achieved, Nooitgedagt WTW has been supplying on average approximately 190 Mℓ/day of purified water to Nelson Mandela Bay. Final completion of all outstanding work is scheduled for July 2022. Items remaining include roofing over the filters, backfilling and shaping, and finalisation of the Scada system for the entire WTW, including incorporation of the

Refurbished original filter control gallery

Phase 3 settling tanks in operation

previous phases. Without the Nooitgedagt supply scheme, NMBM would have run out of water some years ago, with disastrous consequences for all. Nooitgedagt will ensure that NMBM will not run out of water entirely should the western supply fail completely due to the persistent drought and will be able to provide a large portion of the metro with a continued supply of quality potable water, albeit at lesser quantities than current demand. AfriCoast is very proud to have led the team that successfully delivered this major, once-in-alifetime project. Despite numerous challenges encountered, a high-quality project has been delivered that will provide NMBM with an assured supply of purified water for many years to come.


DAMS

DAMS WITH A

SAFETY RISK

A dam failure can be catastrophic for people and property. Therefore, the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) has an entire division dedicated to their safety – the Dam Safety Office (DSO).

FAST FACTS 5 641 DAMS A total of 5 641 dams with a safety risk are registered with the DSO

WHERE

79% of these dams are owned by the agricultural sector

The majority of these dams are found within the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal

WHAT IS A DAM WITH A SAFETY RISK? A dam with a safety risk contains, or can store more than, 50 000 m3 water and has a wall with a vertical height of more than 5 m. All dams with a safety risk, regardless of who owns them (public or private), must be registered with the DSO and comply with legislation. Any structure capable of diverting or storing water is classified as a dam, and so the dam safety register also includes, for example, mine tailings dumps, pollution control dams, and potable water reservoirs that fit the classification. In exceptional cases, the Minister of the DWS may also declare a dam as having a safety risk even if it falls outside the conventional registration parameters.

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IMIESA April 2022

34.3 BILLION M3

79%

The gross storage capacity of all 5 641 registered dams is 34.3 billion m3

86% While the DWS only owns 323 dams of the 5 641 registered dams (6%), the storage capacity of the DWS dams is 29.4 billion m3 (86%)

Hazard potential of dams with a safety risk Hazard potential rating

Potential loss of life

Potential economic loss

Low Significant High

None ≤ 10 > 10

Minimal Significant Great

Ownership of dams in South Africa with a safety risk

Potential adverse impact on resource quality Low Significant Severe


DAMS

DAM SAFETY EVALUATION SCORES SYMBOL/ SCORE

ANALYSIS OF CONDITION FROM THE RECOMMENDATIONS AND FINDINGS OF A DAM SAFETY EVALUATION REPORT BY AN APP

NUMBER OF RATED DAMS

A

Dam in good condition and routine maintenance acceptably up to date. An evaluation interval of longer than five years can be recommended (if the owner requests it or for farmers/smaller municipalities)

31

B

Dam in reasonable condition but not complying to modern standards. Only routine maintenance and routine inspections recommended. An evaluation interval of longer than five years cannot be recommended

124

C

Significant outstanding maintenance by normal operation and maintenance staff recommended restoring dam to a functional state. Elementary monitoring systems like settlement beacons and flow monitoring included here

301

D

Significant rehabilitation recommended to restore dam components to original state – e.g. repair major erosion or cavitations, repair slope protection, reinstate crest level, refurbish outlet works or gates. Work is considered significant rehabilitation if it is outside the capacity of the normal operation and maintenance staff, the appointment of a contractor is necessary, and the work should be done under guidance of an APP (approved professional person). Drafting of an operation and maintenance manual and or emergency preparedness plan and install sophisticated monitoring instruments under guidance of an APP also included here

246

E

Upgrading recommended – e.g. increase spillway capacity, increase freeboard, provide buttress/thicken dam to improve stability or install stress cables, install slope protection, install additional drainage or grouting or water seals to reduce leakage. A licence to alter and the services of an APP will be required

61

F

Dam unsafe. Restrictions on operation recommended – e.g. water level may not exceed a specified level

CLASSIFICATION OF DAMS Once the registration information of the dam is received, the DSO then classifies the dam into one of three categories that determine the required level of control at that particular dam. The classification is based on the size and the hazard potential rating of a dam. The hazard potential of a dam is based on an assessment of the potential loss of life, potential economic loss with respect to downstream development, as well as the potential adverse impact on resource quality that may result from failure of a dam. The size of the dam and its hazard potential rating is used in allocating a category classification to the dam. There are 2 395 registered dams classified as Category 2/3 and subjected to compulsory dam safety evaluations (DSEs) by an approved professional person every five years. The outcomes of DSEs determine the type of intervention/mechanism required to address any safety risks. These interventions/mechanisms could either be maintenance-related or capital-intensive where dam rehabilitation is required. Dams are then given a condition rating.

7

Category classification of dams with a safety risk Hazard potential rating Low Significant Category 1 Category 2 Category 2 Category 2 Category3 Category 3

Size Class Small Medium Large

High Category 2 Category 3 Category 3

Size classification of dams with a safety risk Size

Maximum wall height < 12 m ≥ 12 m but < 30 m ≥ 30 m

Small Medium Large

5

Dams in SA: the Big Five Dam

Height

Wall volume (million m3)

Gariep Pongolapoort Sterkfontein Vaal Vanderkloof

88 89 93 63 108

1.4 0.6 19.8 1.4 1.3

Storage capacity (million m3) 5 343 2 267 2 617 2 610 3 187

Water surface area (km2) 352 132 67 323 133

IMIESA April 2022

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BUILDINGS The completed 75 on Plein building conversion. Distinctive external features include the upper glass facade, as well as lower perforated metal facade

Across South Africa, inner-city renewal programmes are key to revitalising central business districts (CBDs) and providing a new lease on life for redundant buildings. A prime example is the 75 on Plein conversion in Cape Town’s CBD.

T

he Plein Park building, as it was originally known, was designed by KMH Architects in 1962 and once housed the former Department of Justice. Then, as fate would have it, some five decades later, KMH was approached and reappointed to give the 16-storey building a modern makeover. Professional team members included Afroteq Advisory (project managers), GVK Siya Zama Construction (main contractor), Bernard James & Partners (quantity surveyors), as well as consulting engineering firms KFD Wilkinson, Triocon and GIBB. “What started out in 2016 as a relatively small project to design and execute the fit-out of two floors of the building for a Truworths’ call centre turned into a major, four-year development,” says Pieter Vlok, senior project manager at Afroteq Advisory. “This saw the old brown and drab building progressively transformed into a state-of-theart office block that meets world-class facilities management and green building standards,” Vlok continues.

PLEIN STREET REVAMP revitalises an old landmark The extensive overhaul included the: • installation of new services infrastructure (from basement to roof), including HVAC systems, fire protection and security upgrades • refurbishment of the main entrance and lobby situated on the ground floor in Plein Street • renovation of the 10th and 11th floors for the Truworths Group’s call centre and completing white box preparation of the 12th to 16th floors for future tenants • installation of a new lightweight structural steel extension of the 10th floor, as well as a contemporary, wrap-around curtain wall facade made from performance glass • installation of a borehole water system and a mechanism to recycle greywater • incorporation of a temperaturecontrolled environment.

The socio-economic benefits

The reception area to 75 on Plein

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IMIESA April 2022

“Property conversions provide an opportunity to reutilise existing buildings at a fraction of the cost of a new one, and in the process act as a stimulus for a much-needed boost in construction and related employment,” says Vlok. “With the growing tendency for companies to adopt a hybrid working model, we’ve seen a sharp decline in pure office space. This – together with the increasing demand for residential space – makes it a no-brainer to

convert traditional office space into mixeduse or residential use. Also, these buildings are often located in prime positions, allowing residents or tenants easy access to the city centre, and avoiding long or difficult commutes,” Vlok continues. In some cases, the cost of converting an older building might not make it plausible or viable for the owner. For example, downstand beams under slabs could potentially cause issues with allocating spaces for individual units and running plumbing lines through the spaces. “However, with out-of-the-box thinking and an innovative design approach, most older buildings – depending on the budget – are candidates for conversion,” Vlok asserts. “Part of the process of determining this must factor in future life-cycle costing.” Software tools available enable quantity surveyors and facilities managers to run simulations and cost estimates of an extended maintenance plan, with projections 10 years into the future. “However, the final decision to choose a specific building to convert will come down to expertise in the property market. Location is always the starting point, as is the anticipated return on investment for developers, while for public owners’ building conversions serve as a prime opportunity to address social housing backlogs and revitalise ailing CBDs into vibrant economic zones,” Vlok concludes.


BUILDINGS

ICON’s scope of works included a 15 m deep excavation to accommodate a five-storey basement

Breathing new life into a historic building In October 2020, ICON was brought on board to execute the bulk ear thworks and demolition phases ahead of the contruction of the new 12-storey Title Deeds Office in Johannesburg’s central business district.

C

entred around a 120-yearold heritage building, the 85 Anderson Street site belongs to the Department of Public Works and Infrastructure (DPWI) and has been standing derelict for years. In its long history, the building has burned down twice. Despite this, however, the facade has remained largely intact. The wider project, which is a partnership between the City of Johannesburg and the DPWI, was awarded to GVK-Siya Zama Building Contractors. ICON was appointed as the subcontractor for the demolition of various structures, and the establishment of a 15 m deep excavation.

Hand demolition “The historic building’s walls were structurally unsound, and the brickwork had seriously deteriorated. In a most extraordinary process, these walls all had to be demolished by hand so that approximately 25 000 of the original bricks could be preserved. These then all had to be cleaned for reuse in the building’s reconstruction and refurbishment,” comments Wayne Neary, MD, ICON Group, adding that unusable bricks were crushed on-site and used as aggregate. “It was also a major challenge to dig a 15 m basement right next to the heritage building. Although the building was stabilised, the ground conditions were somewhat unknown and we had to improvise and think on our feet,” Neary continues. Several cherry pickers were brought to the site so that the workers could dismantle the walls from the top of the structure down. This mitigated against the walls potentially collapsing and enabled safe hand demolition. Using traditional heavy demolition machinery, three old derelict houses at the back of the site also had to be demolished to make way for the excavation of the five-storey basement. “We are exceptionally proud to have worked on this development for the DPWI, and to have been provided with the opportunity to breathe new life into this historic building,” Neary concludes. The project is expected to be completed in its entirety in about three years’ time.

Demolition of three old derelict houses on the site using mechanical demolition techniques

Retaining the 120-year-old facade of the original building was a top priority

IMIESA April 2022

47


BUILDINGS

IMPLOSION clears way for redevelopment

C

ondemned following structural fire damage in 2021, the Kaserne building that is set for implosion in downtown Johannesburg will make way for a new vertical mixed-use housing development. This will accommodate 2 000 households as part of a larger precinct plan. The Phoenecian Group was appointed by the Johannesburg Social Housing Company to implode the five-storey building and prepare the site for future redevelopment. “We had to pre-weaken certain structural elements such as the lift shafts and stairwells to ensure a successful implosion on the day,” says Kyle Perkin, explosives engineer: Demolition and Earthworks Division, Phoenecian Group. Scheduled for 1 May 2022, the building is being brought

down using non-electronic detonation. “The actual implosion might be only four seconds, but there are three months of preparation required to reach that point,” explains Sne’ Khanyile, contracts manager, Phoenecian Group. Following the implosion, the Phoenecian Bulk Earthworks Division will move in to break the rubble down further so it can be reused as a platform substrate for the next stage of the overall development of the site. To date, the City of Johannesburg has already converted five buildings within this precinct and plans to convert and develop another five properties in the same area. It also intends to acquire another 10 properties to be made available for social housing as part of the metro’s Inner City Housing Implementation Plan.

Preparation work in progress ahead of the implosion of the Kaserne building

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CERAMICA E MATERIALI LAPIDEI RESILIENTI, LVT, TESSILI SPORT WOODEN FLOORING SPORT PARQUET

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ACOUSTIC INSULATION BUILDING ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE WOODEN FLOORING RESIN FLOORING ACOUSTIC INSULATION BUILDING ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURAL STRENGTHENING ARCHITECTURAL PAVING ARCHITECTURAL STONE PAVING MASONRY RESTORATION ISOLAMENTO ACUSTICO ADDITIVIACUSTICO PER CALCESTRUZZO PARQUET RESINAEDILIZIA ISOLAMENTO EDILIZIA ADDITIVI PER CALCESTRUZZO RINFORZO STRUTTURALE PAVIMENTAZIONI PAVIMENTAZIONI ARC. IN PIETRA RISANAMENTO EDIFICI ARCHITETTONICHE IN MURATURA SPORT WALL PROTECTIVE WOODEN AND STONE MATERIAL RESILIENT, LVT, TEXTILE MATERIALS STRUCTURALCERAMIC STRENGTHENING ARCHITECTURAL PAVING ARCHITECTURAL STONE PAVING MASONRY RESTORATION THERMAL INSULATIONSPORT WATERPR WOODEN INSULATION FLOORINGFLOORING ANDCERAMIC STONE MATERIAL RESILIENT, LVT, TEXTILE MATERIALS SPORT WOODEN FLOORING RESIN FLOORING ACOUSTIC CERAMIC AND STONE MATERIAL RESILIENT, LVT, TEXTILE MATERIALS SPORT PARQUET CERAMICALAPIDEI E MATERIALI LAPIDEI RESILIENTI, TESSILI RINFORZOCERAMICA STRUTTURALE PAVIMENTAZIONI PAVIMENTAZIONI ARC. IN PIETRA RISANAMENTO EDIFICI LVT, TERMICOSPORT AND DECORATIVE IMPERMEAB SEALANTS ANDCOATINGS ADHESIVES MARIN PARQUET E MATERIALI RESILIENTI, TESSILI LVT,ISOLAMENTO SPORT PARQUET RESINA ACUSTICO CERAMICA E MATERIALI LAPIDEI RESILIENTI, LVT, TESSILI ARCHITETTONICHE IN MURATURA FINITURE COLORATE EISOLAMENTO PROTETTIVE SIGILLANTI E ADESIVI ELASTICI INDUS

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STRUCTURAL STRENGTHENING PAVING ARCHITECTURAL STONE PAVING RESTORATION THERMAL INSULATION WALL PROTECTIVE CONSTRUCTION WATERPROOFING UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION ENGTHENING MASONRY RESTORATION THERMAL INSULATION WALL PROTECTIVE RESILIENT, LVT, WATERPROOFING UNDERGROUND SPORT WOODEN FLOORING RESIN FLOORING ACO CERAMIC AND MASONRY STONE MATERIAL TEXTILE MATERIALS SEALANTS AND ADHESIVES MARINE INDUSTRY FORIMPERMEABILIZZANTI ASPHALT PAVEMENTS RINFORZO STRUTTURALE ONI ARC. IN PIETRA RISANAMENTO EDIFICICOATINGS ISOLAMENTO TERMICO AND DECORATIVE COATINGS WOODEN FLOORING RESIN FLOORING ACOUSTIC INSULATION BUILDING ADMIXTURES CONCRETE CEMENT ADDITIVES COSTRUZIONI IN SOTTERRANEO RUTTURALE SPORT PAVIMENTAZIONI RISANAMENTO EDIFICI ISOLAMENTO TERMICO ANDLAPIDEI DECORATIVE COSTRUZIONI IN SOTTERRANEO SPORT INDUSTRIA PARQUET C-ADD RESINA ISOL CERAMICA E MATERIALI RESILIENTI, LVT,IMPERMEABILIZZANTI TESSILI NAVALE PAVIMENTAZIONI BITUMINOSE CHE IN MURATURA FINITURE COLORATE E PROTETTIVE SPORT PARQUET RESINA ISOLAMENTO ACUSTICOSIGILLANTI E ADESIVI ELASTICI EDILIZIA ADDITIVI PER CALCESTRUZZO IN MURATURA FINITURE COLORATE E PROTETTIVE SEALANTS AND ADHESIVES MARINE INDUSTRY CEMENT ADDITIVES ARCHITECTURALASPHALT STRUCTURAL STRENGTHENING PAVING PAVEMENTSARCHITECTURAL STONE PAVING MASONRY RESTORATION STRUCTURAL STRENGTHENING ARCHITECTURAL PAVING INDUSTRIA ARCHITECTURAL STONE PAVING MASONRY RESTORATION THERMAL INSULATION WALL PROTECTIVE SIGILLANTI E ADESIVI ELASTICI NAVALE C-ADD BITUMINOSE STRUCTURAL STRENGTHENING ARCHITECTURAL PAVINGPAVIMENTAZIONI ARCHITECTURAL STONE PAVING MASONRY RESTORATION RINFORZO STRUTTURALE PAVIMENTAZIONI PAVIMENTAZIONI ARC. IN PIETRA RISANAMENTO EDIFICI RINFORZO STRUTTURALE PAVIMENTAZIONI PAVIMENTAZIONI ARC. IN PIETRA RISANAMENTO EDIFICI ISOLAMENTO TERMICO AND DECORATIVEIN COATINGS RINFORZO STRUTTURALE PAVIMENTAZIONI PAVIMENTAZIONI ARC. IN PIETRA RISANAMENTO EDIFICI ARCHITETTONICHE MURATURA ARCHITETTONICHE IN MURATURA FINITUREIN COLORATE E PROTETTIVE ARCHITETTONICHE MURATURA

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BUILDING SYSTEMS

All floors are a working space

Fit-for-purpose flooring solutions

Fundamentals to GETTING IT RIGHT The selection of a suitable flooring solution is far more complex than just looking at aesthetics, and this is where so many mistakes are made in construction or on renovation sites.

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he floor is and always will be the part of any structure that is under continuous, fluctuating demands, yet it isn’t given the attention or thought it needs – often resulting in failures or lifespan issues and, prodotto in turn, unwanted additional costs. “The floor is fundamentally the ‘operational’ 522 523 needs to be able space of all buildings and to deal with the requirements placed on it. It doesn’t help if your floor looks fantastic and

adds to the aesthetic appeal of a space but doesn’t cope with the rigours and demands of that space,” argues Louis Visser, product manager for Mapei South Africa. “Selecting a suitable flooring solution requires extensive investigation and consideration, especially within an industrial flooring space,” he adds. 524

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Many variables need to be factored in when considering SPORT WOODEN FLOORING RESIN FLOORING ACOUSTIC INSULATION and VT, TEXTILE MATERIALS flooringISOLAMENTO solutions SPORT PARQUET RESINA ACUSTICO ENTI, LVT, TESSILI Floor requirements differ across sites neglecting to do so could compromise 524 525 526 527 531 532 533 527 530 all efforts, leading to unhappy customers or building owners and RESIN FLOORING ACOUSTIC INSULATION BUILDING ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETEapplicators carrying the RESINA ISOLAMENTO ACUSTICO EDILIZIA ADDITIVI PER CALCESTRUZZO DING ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURAL STRENGTHENING URAL STONE PAVING MASONRY RESTORATION THERMAL INSULATION PROTECTIVE IZIA ARC. IN PIETRA ADDITIVIRINFORZO PER CALCESTRUZZO costs.AND ToWALL make sure that STRUTTURALE ZIONI RISANAMENTO EDIFICI ISOLAMENTO TERMICO DECORATIVE COATINGS IN MURATURA FINITURE COLORATE E PROTETTIVE the selected option is 532 533 534 535 suitable, it’s vital to work 524 525 526 535 524 525 526 527 527 538 539 526 527 through basic required criteria. These include: • UV stability: the South THERMAL INSULATION WALL PROTECTIVE WATERPROOFING UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION ISOLAMENTO TERMICO AND DECORATIVE COATINGS IMPERMEABILIZZANTI COSTRUZIONI IN SOTTERRANEO Parking areas are particularly demanding FINITURE COLORATE E PROTETTIVE African environment RESIN FLOORING ACOUSTIC INSULATION BUILDING ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE ROOFING UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION RESIN FLOORING ACOUSTIC INSULATION BUILDING ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE BUILDING ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE ISOLAMENTO ACUSTICO ADDITIVI PER CALCESTRUZZO BILIZZANTI COSTRUZIONI IN SOTTERRANEO NE INDUSTRY CEMENT ADDITIVES ASPHALT PAVEMENTS RESINA RESINA ISOLAMENTO ACUSTICO EDILIZIAEDILIZIA ADDITIVI PER CALCESTRUZZO EDILIZIA ADDITIVI PER CALCESTRUZZO STRIA NAVALE C-ADD PAVIMENTAZIONI BITUMINOSE is harsh, particularly 526 527 in terms of UV 532 533 534 535 532 533 534 535 534 535 light, and its impact on flooring cannot be underestimated, OUSTIC INSULATION BUILDING ADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE LAMENTO ACUSTICO EDILIZIA ADDITIVI PER CALCESTRUZZO especially with colour THERMAL INSULATION WALL PROTECTIVE WATERPROOFING UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION WATERPROOFING CONSTRUCTION THERMAL INSULATIONTERMICO UNDERGROUND WALL PROTECTIVE WATERPROOFING UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION ISOLAMENTO AND DECORATIVE COATINGS IMPERMEABILIZZANTI COSTRUZIONI IN SOTTERRANEO fade, which leads to IMPERMEABILIZZANTI COSTRUZIONI IN SOTTERRANEO ISOLAMENTO TERMICO AND DECORATIVE COATINGS IMPERMEABILIZZANTI COSTRUZIONI IN SOTTERRANEO FINITURE COLORATE E PROTETTIVE FINITURE COLORATE E PROTETTIVE inconsistencies on the 534 535 applied floor.

WALL PROTECTIVE DECORATIVE COATINGS

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WATERPROOFING IMPERMEABILIZZANTI

UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION COSTRUZIONI IN SOTTERRANEO

• Chemical resistance: how the floor will hold up against exposure to chemicals used in that environment. • Abrasion resistance: one needs to consider what machinery/equipment is going to be operating on the floor, and how it will stand up to consistent pressure through movement on its surface. • Impact resistance: how will the floor hold up to sudden impacts on 526 527 it from people or machinery operating in the space? • Lifespan: flooring is costly, especially industrial flooring in large spaces. BUILDING solution isADMIXTURES FOR CONCRETE Whichever selected needs EDILIZIA ADDITIVI PER CALCESTRUZZO to have a suitable lifespan to suit the customer’s needs. 534 535 • Budget: this is imperative, as any project has a budget and whichever solution is chosen needs to work within the budget of the owner/developer. WATERPROOFING UNDERGROUND CONSTRUCTION • MIMPERMEABILIZZANTI aintenance: it is often forgotten that a COSTRUZIONI IN SOTTERRANEO floor’s costs do not end once its applied. A well-kept floor always needs maintenance and this needs to be factored in. “As a leading flooring solutions provider in the market, Mapei places great emphasis on ensuring the applicators who use our products are properly trained, and the solutions selected are fit for purpose,” says Jacobus Pretorius, manager: Technical Services, Mapei South Africa. “We further back this up by providing full technical support in assisting with solutions selection and making sure the job is done right, the first time,” Pretorius concludes.

IMIESA April 2022

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CEMENT & CONCRETE

Stemming leaks on a tailings thickener

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ue to major water losses, the 60 m diameter tailings thickener at Pilanesberg Platinum Mine (PPM) required resealing to make it watertight. Sika was contacted by main contractor Leoka Project Management for a solution. In turn, ConSolve Civils was asked by Sika to assist Leoka as the subcontractor. PPM’s owner, Sedibelo Platinum Mines, required an urgent repair since the thickener is the ‘heartbeat’ of the mine and production losses were substantial. Con-Solve Civils assessed the repair requirements and recommended that the old bandages and joint sealant be removed and totally replaced. The Leoka engineering team supported the proposed solution and Sedibelo instructed Con-Solve Civils to proceed with the necessary repairs. Under normal circumstances, this would have been an approximate six-to-eight-week project, but by working 12-hour day and night shifts, ConSolve Civils completed it in just 2.5 weeks. In terms of product diversity, and volume, a variety of Sika products was specified and used. Sikaflex-11 FC, a multipurpose elastic adhesive and joint sealant, was applied to all construction joints as the secondary seal before installing Sikadur-Combiflex SG as the primary joint seal. Forty-seven

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IMIESA April 2022

6 kg Sikadur-31 DW kits were used as the bedding mortar for the bandage system. Sikadur-31 DW is a two-part epoxy structural adhesive that has been specially formulated to meet the requirements for use in contact with drinking water. It was best suited for this time-sensitive project, as it is easy to mix and apply, has high mechanical strengths and good abrasion and chemical resistance.

Waterproofing tape As part of the Sikadur Combiflex SG System, 188 m of Sikadur-Combiflex SG-20 P – 2 mm x 250 mm was used to waterproof the wall-to-floor joint, while 848 m of SikadurCombiflex SG-20 P – 2 mm x 200 mm was used to waterproof floor joints. Sikadur-Combiflex SG-20 P is a flexible waterproofing tape based on modified flexible/thermoplastic polyolefin, with advanced adhesion properties. Other advantages in the use of this product include not requiring site activation, high flexibility (a useful property for crack and joint bridging), and good resistance to chemicals and UV exposure.

Twenty-five kits of Sikalastic-152, a highly elastic cement-based coating, were applied on the wall joints incorporating a 5 mm x 5 mm plastic-lined glass-fibre mesh, as well as next to the Sikadur-Combiflex SG on the floor joints for additional waterproofing due to small surface cracks that formed on the concrete. It was also applied over wall construction joints with applicable plastic-lined glass-fibre matting for additional reinforcement. One month after the thickener was filled, the structure was certified watertight.


VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT

Versatile scalper performs optimally

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cquired in March 2021, the McCloskey R155 scalper owned by Crush-It Green (CIG) has proven its dependability during sustained operations at one of its sites in Gauteng, the company reports. The unit was supplied new by local dealer Kemach Equipment and supports CIG’s expanding portfolio. In addition to its traditional concrete and rubble recycling business, this includes the crushing and screening of virgin

material. A key factor in CIG’s buying decision was the versatility of the machine since the McCloskey R155 can be used as a scalper or a final screen. The feeding arrangement also offers the choice of either an apron or belt feeder. Further machine versatility is achieved through the unit’s interchangeable top deck, which can be configured with a grizzly, mesh or punch plate. According to Clint Rodwell, partner at CIG, another crucial factor in buying the

The McCloskey R155 is a robust screening tool designed to cope with the heaviest of applications McCloskey R155 scalper is the commonality of components, such as engines and hydraulics. Comments Rodwell: “McCloskey runs a Cat engine, which is a common motor in the market and the parts are easily accessible from different suppliers.”

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VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT

road construction, with its operating weight of 11 560 kg, 85 kW engine and 2 100 mm drum width,” Du Toit continues. “The machine delivers maximum compaction performance through the combination of a high front-weight ratio and a heavy-duty dynamic vibration system.”

A class leader

BELL STARTS ROLL-OUT OF JCB ROLLER DEMOS Since Bell Equipment Sales South Africa became the official South African distributor for JCB construction equipment on 1 May 2021, the focus has been predominantly on established loading equipment such as JCB's market-leading backhoe loaders, wheel loaders and telehandlers. This is now being followed by the market introduction of the JCB roller range.

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ell Equipment recently unveiled its JCB roller series to its local salesforce with live demonstrations on construction sites at the end of March 2022. Similar demonstrations to existing and prospective customers are planned for later in the year. Kwa Mhlanga Construction, a long-standing Bell Equipment customer, had use of a JCB Vibromax 116D roller on a road construction project on the K91 road near Alberton. In the short time the JCB Vibromax 116D roller was on-site, its performance impressed all who saw it working. “The machine performed well and proved that it is up to the task. Our customer and our sales team were impressed with its performance, and we look forward to putting the machine through its paces during further machine demos across the country,” says Petrie du Toit, sales product manager: JCB, Bell Equipment. “The JCB Vibromax 116D roller fits in well for many applications, but especially so for

Taking a closer look at the compaction achieved by the JCB Vibromax 116D roller are (R-L): Sascha Caixeiro, sales representative, Bell Equipment; Jandrè van der Linde, site agent, Kwa Mhlanga Construction; Petrie du Toit, sales product manager: JCB, Bell Equipment; Zebron Nyirenba, soil testing technician, Roadlab; and Chris Botha, sales representative, Bell Equipment

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IMIESA April 2022

He explains that the potential for this model to be a market leader is high due to a static linear load of over 30 kg/cm added to a class-leading 256 kN of dynamic centrifugal force, with a further high amplitude of 1.8 mm, that combine to create better-thannormal compaction performance. In addition, variable drum vibration frequencies of 32 Hz and 36 Hz set the machine apart from its competitors. The high-torque and super-efficient JCB 444 engine needs only 2 000 rpm to fully power the JCB Vibromax 116D roller and it is fast becoming known for how quiet it runs, at only 104 dB. In terms of versatility, it can be used with its standard smooth drum to compact granular and non-cohesive material or be fitted with an optional pad-foot shell for sticky clay-type soils.

Ergonomics and maintenance The machine’s cab has been designed with the reduction of operator fatigue foremost. The cab is secured on four heavy-duty rubber mounts to ensure low vibration levels felt by the operator. The drum has been isolated by a system developed to give maximum transfer of energy and dynamic forces into the ground, isolating the machine frame and operator. The operator will get instant feedback on the machine’s compaction performance from an ergonomically placed compaction meter. Regular maintenance is vital to the performance and longevity of any mechanical equipment, and the designers of the JCB Vibromax 116D roller have taken the burden out of daily checks, ensuring that they can be easily done at ground level and on one side of the machine. Here, the operator has access to all the hydraulic, fuel and engine filters, as well as the injection system. Safety and security have not been forgotten on the JCB Vibromax 116D roller, with the renowned JCB standard LiveLink ensuring security and operating conditions are always known. Diesel filling points can be locked and are positioned out of sight under the engine cover to prevent theft or vandalism. Other models available in the JCB roller range are the CT260-120, VM166 and VM200 models.


VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT

ELB adopts telematics across its range

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LB Equipment has launched its own custom-developed telematics system, which comes to market as a standard feature. “Our hardware solution provides users with operating details such as driving, idle and standing times, as well as an engine hour meter reading, operating event recording, realtime reporting of critical events, and accurate GPS positioning with playback,” explains Keon Kardolus, sales manager: Earthmoving and Construction, ELB Equipment . In turn, the web-based software package provides users with extensive tools. It enables

the user to manage both operator and machine information, define and report on custom events, analyse fleet data, and extract summary and detailed reporting. The software can be accessed by multiple users in real time on any device from any location. ELB Telematics has been developed in association with MiX Telematics, global leaders in fleet management. MiX Telematics is distributed by Tectra ELB Telematics provides real-time Telematics in South Africa. equipment management from any location

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IMESA MESA

IMESA AFFILIATE MEMBERS PROFESSIONAL AFFILIATES


AECOM siphokuhle.dlamini@aecom.com AFI Consult banie@afri-infra.com Alake Consulting Engineers lunga@alakeconsulting.com ARRB Systems info@arrbsystemssa.com Asla Construction (Pty) Ltd johanv@asla.co.za BMK Group brian@bmkgroup.co.za Bosch Projects (Pty) Ltd mail@boschprojects.co.za BVI Consulting Engineers marketing@bviho.co.za CCG puhumudzo@ccgsytems.co.za / info@ccgsystems.co.za Corrosion Institute of Southern Africa secretary@corrosioninstitute.org.za Dlamindlovu Consulting Engineers & Project Managers info@dlami-ndlovu.co.za EFG Engineers eric@efgeng.co.za Elster Kent Metering Mark.Shamley@Honeywell.com EMS Solutions paul@emssolutions.co.za ERWAT mail@erwat.co.za GIBB marketing@gibb.co.za GIGSA secretary@gigsa.org GLS Consulting nicky@gls.co.za Gorman Rupp Cordeiro@gormanrupp.co.za Gudunkomo Investments & Consulting info@gudunkomo.co.za Hatch Africa (Pty) Ltd info@hatch.co.za HB Glass Filter Media info@hardybulkinglass.com Herrenknecht schiewe.helene@herrenknecht.de Huber Technology cs@hubersa.com Hydro-comp Enterprises info@edams.co.za Infrachamps Consulting info@infrachamps.co.za INFRATEC info@infratec.co.za IQHINA Consulting Engineers & Project Managers info@iqhina.co.za iX engineers (Pty) Ltd hans.k@ixengineers.co.za JBFE Consulting (Pty) Ltd issie@jbfe.co.za JG Afrika DennyC@jgafrika.com KABE Consulting Engineers info@kabe.co.za Kago Consulting Engineers kagocon@kago.co.za Kantey & Templer (K&T) Consulting Engineers ccherry@ct.kanteys.co.za Kitso Botlhale Consulting Engineers info@kitsobce.co.za KSB Pumps and Valves (Pty) Ltd salesza@ksb.com KUREMA Engineering (Pty) Ltd info@kurema.co.za Lektratek Water general@lwt.co.za Makhaotse Narasimulu & Associates mmakhaotse@mna-sa.co.za Malani Padayachee & Associates (Pty) Ltd admin@mpa.co.za Maragela Consulting Engineers admin@maragelaconsulting.co.za Mariswe (Pty) Ltd neshniec@mariswe.com Martin & East gbyron@martin-east.co.za M & C Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd info@mcconsulting.co.za Mhiduve adminpotch@mhiduve.co.za Much Asphalt bennie.greyling@muchasphalt.com Mvubu Consulting & Project Managers miranda@mvubu.net NAKO ILISO lyn.adams@nakogroup.com Nyeleti Consulting naidoot@nyeleti.co.za Odour Engineering Systems mathewc@oes.co.za Prociv Consulting & Projects Management amarunga@prociv.co.za Rainbow Reservoirs quin@rainbowres.com Re-Solve Consulting (Pty) Ltd maura@re-solve.co.za Ribicon Consulting Group (Pty) Ltd info@ribicon.co.za Royal HaskoningDHV francisg@rhdv.com SABITA info@sabita.co.za SAFRIPOL mberry@safripol.com SAGI annette@sagi.co.za SALGA info@salga.org.za SAPPMA admin@sappma.co.za / willem@sappma.co.za SARF administrator@sarf.org.za.co.za SBS Water Systems marketing@sbstanks.co.za Sembcorp Siza Water info-sizawater@sembcorp.com Silulumanzi Antoinette.Diphoko@silulumanzi.com SiVEST SA info@sivest.co.za Sizabantu Piping Systems (Pty) Ltd gregl@sizabantupipingsystems.com Sky High Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd info@shconsultong.co.za SKYV Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd kamesh@skyv.co.za Smartlock jp.alkema@smartlock.net SMEC capetown@smec.com Southern African Society for Trenchless Technology director@sasst.org.za SRK Consulting jomar@srk.co.za Star Of Life Emergency Trading CC admin@staroflife.co.za Syntell julia@syntell.co.za TECROVEER (Pty) Ltd info@tecroveer.co.za TPA Consulting roger@tpa.co.za V3 Consulting Engineers (Pty) Ltd info@v3consulting.co.za VIP Consulting Engineers esme@vipconsulting.co.za VNA info@vnac.co.za Water Institute of Southern Africa wisa@wisa.org.za Wam Technology CC support@wamsys.co.za Wilo South Africa marketingsa@wilo.co.za WRCON ben@wrcon.co.za WRP ronniem@wrp.co.za WSP Group Africa ansia.meyer@wsp.com Zutari Rashree.Maharaj@Zutari.com

VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT CFAO Equipment solutions for the market include Toyota Forklift products

EIE Group becomes CFAO Equipment

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ffective 1 April 2022, the EIE Group in South Africa will be known as CFAO Equipment. This follows the acquisition of the company from enX Group by CFAO South Africa, a leading provider of integrated mobility solutions across the automotive value chain. Andrew Velleman, CEO of CFAO South Africa, says the venture will be beneficial for both companies, extending CFAO South Africa’s market offerings to include the supply of materials handling and warehouse equipment from reputable global manufacturers that include Toyota Forklift. “The acquisition is an exciting opportunity to leverage the organisation’s extensive industry expertise. To be a part of CFAO South Africa will strengthen our position as the market leader in Southern Africa,” says Vuyokazi Bangazi, national sales manager, EIE Group. CFAO Equipment in South Africa now forms part of a larger CFAO Equipment network of 34 countries across Africa. Until now, CFAO South Africa has been operating through: • CFAO Motors South Africa: one of the most comprehensive automotive dealer networks of multibrand dealerships in the country. • Toyota Tsusho Africa: a trading and supply chain management specialist company that delivers a range of value-adding solutions for the South African automotive manufacturing industry. • Africa Mobility Solutions: the official channel responsible for the export and import of vehicles and parts in Africa, particularly Toyota, Hino and Suzuki. “I am proud that we are integrating the network and expertise of such a reputable industrial equipment supplier into our business. We welcome to CFAO South Africa a workforce of more than 1 200 highly skilled members who share the same priority: to provide value to our customers and their operations,” says Velleman. “The evolution of the company to form CFAO Equipment will have no operational impact on our loyal customers. We will continue to provide the world-class products and services to the materials handling and warehousing industry that we have become synonymous with. CFAO South Africa remains committed to transformation and is planning a new BBBEE transaction for CFAO Equipment to retain the current transformation rating,” he continues. “We look forward to this next step in the progression of our business and believe that this is only the beginning of a mutually rewarding relationship that will result in new levels of success,” Velleman concludes. IMIESA April 2022

55


INFORMATION & COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

DESIGN just about anything, faster

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ompared with the standard AutoCAD software, AutoCAD 2023 delivers a 63% productivity gain for AutoCAD tasks completed with the help of a specialised toolset. Additionally, the solution’s dedicated web and mobile apps allow users to achieve maximum connectivity and collaboration, whether in the office or on-site. Distributed across Africa by WorldsView, AutoCAD 2023 enhancements include seven specialised toolsets (Mechanical, Electrical, MEP, Map 3D, Raster Design, Plant 3D and Architecture), featuring libraries of over 750 000 symbols, parts and detail components. The new release also offers superior industry-specific, rules-driven workflows, and design automation. Graphics and 3D objects are rendered up to 10 times faster than before, with shaded, shaded with edges, and wireframe visual styles. With the LISP web API, it’s easy to automate web app workflow steps, enabling

Compared to the standard AutoCAD software, AutoCAD’s 2023 release, available from WorldsView, delivers a 63% productivity gain for AutoCAD tasks completed with the help of a specialised toolset

greater efficiency and productivity. The most highly anticipated new AutoCAD 2023 features and functions include: - Trace: enables users to add design changes, notes and mark-ups from their desktop, the web and the mobile apps. - Markup Import & Markup Assist: enables users to automatically import feedback and incorporate collaborative changes to drawings – even from printed drawings – with a few clicks, without additional drawing steps. - Count: automates the counting of blocks or objects within a selected area throughout a

drawing, with a menu to identify objects or navigate easily through counted objects. - Sheet Set Manager: allows users to send controlled copies of drawings to teammates, anywhere, for quick and safe collaboration. AutoCAD subscribers will benefit from access, technical support, and remote assistance to online resources. Comments Chelsey Turner, segment leader: Infrastructure, WorldsView: “AutoCAD is trusted by millions of CAD design specialists around the world. This new release delivers a host of time-saving and collaborationenhancing features.”

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS

APE Pumps

32

Keller Nederland

AfriSam South Africa

14

Mapei South Africa

Bell Equipment Group Services DMG Exhibition Management Services/African Construction IMESA

56

IMIESA April 2022

OBC 51 4, 8 & 54

Mariswe

2 48 OFC

Quality Filtration Systems Sabita Sizabantu Piping Systems

41 & 43 17 IFC

Mather+Platt

53

Much Asphalt

12

Specialised Exhibitions/A-OSH

19

Naidu Consulting

26

Technicrete

23


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Novus Print (Pty) Ltd t/a 3S Media is a registered member of National Treasury’s Central Supplier Database for Government. Supplier Number: MAAA0016423 Unique Registration Ref Number: FFA60BC9-37E6-4596-89D9-A00025D4C50F

Joanne Lawrie t +27 (0)11 233 2668 c +27 (0)82 346 5338 e Joanne.Lawrie@3smedia.co.za Hanlie Fintelman t +27 (0)67 756 3132 c +27 (0)82 338 2266 e Hanlie.Fintelman@3smedia.co.za


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