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Presentation Title Here


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Who we are

www.glbrc.org


DOE Bioenergy Research Centers (BRCs)

GLBRC is one of three Bioenergy Research Centers funded by the Department of Energy to conduct transformational biofuels research 

Multi-institutional

Interdisciplinary

Collaborative


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Why we’re needed

www.glbrc.org


U.S. Energy Sources: Historical


Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Figure 14-1: U.S. Energy Consumption by Sector, 1994–2004” (2005); http://www.bts.gov/publications/transportation_statistics_annual_report/2005/html/chapter_02/figure_14_01.html


Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas


Global Warming


Sustainability: a Triad of Factors Environmental

Economic

Social


Biofuels are not a new idea!

New York Times- Sept 20, 1925

1933 photo shows a Lincoln, Nebraska gas station of the Earl Coryell Co. selling "Corn Alcohol Gasoline"


Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Figure 14-1: U.S. Energy Consumption by Sector, 1994–2004” (2005); http://www.bts.gov/publications/transportation_statistics_annual_report/2005/html/chapter_02/figure_14_01.html


Critical: Conservation & diversity of energy sources


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Biofuels 101

www.glbrc.org


The Biofuels Ideal

The Carbon Cycle


Making Ethanol Microbe: Yeast “Feedstock” Choices: Sucrose (“sugar”), Corn Meal, Corn Stover Warm Water


Standard Fermentation

yeast

glucose

2 ethanol

2 carbon dioxide CO2

ethanol


Corn

How Ethanol is Made Today Starch

Sugar cane

Heat or enzymes Glucose

Glucose

Fermentation

Fermentation Ethanol


Concerns about Ethanol from Corn Grain Annual crop Dependent on chemical inputs Soil erosion Little below ground carbon storage Food versus fuel Impacts on biodiversity


Fossil Fuel Energy In Verses Biofuel Energy Out


What is Cellulose?


Cellulosic Biofuels: Second Generation Ethanol Cellulose is the most abundant biological material on Earth Found in cell walls Lack efficient way to break down plant material and convert it into fuel Cell wall composition varies


Conversion of cellulosic plant biomass to fuels Tomorrow’s technology (Great Lakes Bioenergy) Cellulosic Biomass

Lignocellulosic material

Today’s technology

?Grind (reduce

size)

Pretreatment “soften cellulose”

Corn (kernels)

Starch Sugar Cane

Glucose

Heat or enzymes

Glucose

Ethanol

Digest softened polymers

?Enzymes Fermentation

Fermentation

t

?Chemicals/hea

Mixed sugar stream: (Glucose, Arabinose, Xylose, Phenolics, etc.)

?Fermentation/

Catalysts

Ethanol, (next generation fuel)


oal of pretreatment is to open up cell wall and expose cellulose.


Hydrolysis cellulose enzyme

glucose

glucose

glucose

glucose


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What we’re doing

www.glbrc.org


Great Lakes Bioenergy Strategic Plan

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Technology to convert cellulosic (non-edible) plant biomass into ethanol & next generation fuels


TODAY

THE FUTURE (CBP)


Can we engineer microbes that do it all? Break down biomass Produce cellulases Ferment simple sugars Withstand industrial conditions


Bioprospecting Where would you find cellulases in the environment? Why do you find more in some circumstances than others? Symbiotic relationships


Bioprospecting: Leaf Cutter Ants In Costa Rica


Fostering Sustainable Bioenergy Practices Economic Profitable Environmental Carbon negative (climate stabilizing) Nutrient, water conservative Biodiversity benefits Social Food, energy security Rural community health


Measuring Carbon Cycling in Biofuel Plots Above and below-ground primary productivity, respiration levels of soil in different plots Desired understandings:  Carbon is cycled between soil, plants, and the atmosphere.  Land management practices affect the cycling of carbon within these systems.  Plants have the capacity to sequester different amount of carbon over different time scales.


Monitoring Greenhouse Gases

GLBRC - Kellogg Biological Station, 2009


GLBRC Education and Outreach •Educational Materials Development and Dissemination •Education Research •Public Presentations •Research Experience for Teachers •Research Experience for Undergraduates


GLBRC Sample Slides  

sample slides

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