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3620

CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

ITHACA,

N. Y. 14853

I5ne Axts Library Sibley Hall


Cornell University Library

NK 3620.R36

1906

Lettering for draftsmen, engineers

3 1924 020 605 394

and s


The

original of

tiiis

book

is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in

the United States on the use of the

text.

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924020605394


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LETTERING FOR

Draftsmen, Engineers and Students A PRACTICAL SYSTEM OF FREEHAND LETTERING FOR WORKING DRAWINGS. BY

CHAS. W. REINHARDT, CKiEr Dbaftsman, Engineering Nbws.

TENTH EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED. TWENTY-SIXTH

THOUSAND.

New York D.

:

VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY, 1906.


s^^ Property o f

College of Architecture,; ÂŁofneJI

Univer^

Copyright, 1895.

D.

VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY.


F R E F^ C E

.

In looking over the books on lettering, which have come under the writer's notice, he has found, that while

doing

full justice to

the principle of ornamentation and the theories governing the shaping of each

The need

has as yet attempted to treat lettering from a purely practical point of view. however, has been and set forth the proper

is daily

methods

experienced by

ter

readily be copied.

i.

e.,

work on

lettering,

draftsmen, and in the following pages the writer has endeavored to

most commonly committed.

same

The

letters exhibited are actual free-hand

In this respect the writer has made a radical departure from works of a similar charac-

which generally give ornate, carefuUy engraved alphabets, being of

ordinary printed type,

no author

of forming purely free-hand lettering in a simple, easily acquired way, giving, at the

time, the proper safeguards against the errors

work and can

many

of a practical

letter,

little

more use

to the average draftsman than

they can only be copied with a great sacrifice of time and patience.

The whole system

lined is the result of the writer's experience during years of practice on the staff of a leading technical journal

tended to be a thoroughly practical guide for doing the best class of work in the shortest possible time.

Bbooklyn, September, 1895.

CHAS. W. EBINHAEDT.

and

out-

is in-


PEEFAOE TO EIGHTH The encouraging

EDITION".

reception given to former editipns of this book has convinced the writer of the practical use-

fuhiess of the system of lettering which he advocates, and has induced

the scope of the book, making

The more useful

subject

it

of lettering,

him

to

add material which tends to enlarge

complete in eVery respect. as

applied to working drawings and the construction of

titles,

has been taken up

in detail, and the chapter devoted to lettering for purposes of photo-reproduction wiU, be found interesting

by many

readers.

Besides the extension of the text some twelve illustrations and three

have also been added, thus considerably enlarging the work, which, hand-book to those wishing to acquire the art of freehand

it is

full

hoped, will continue to prove

lettering in a simple

page plates a

desirable

and rational way. 0.

and

W.

E.


INCLINED LETTERING. TN

the following system of lettering no attempt has

been made to imitate any alphabet, and for

draftsman

is

all

ornate and elaborate lettering the

referred to

some one

well

form

and describe a type of

upon working drawings ;

of the

What

collections of this character.

to illustrate

one that

is

form of printed

special

rapidly

;

is

is

many

here intended

is

clear

its

simplest

and

under almost any reduction by photography. fact,

is

lettering that looks

reduced to

made and

published

especially designed for photo-reproduction.

distinct It

is,

in

With

the purpose of fairly treating the subject, the lettering

here illustrated has been reproduced without any attempt at

touching up or cleaning

such as should be used

The ordinary

in

when

it

is

actual freehand work,

general practice.

slanting and, further on, the upright

lettering are described in a

as

;

somewhat

detailed manner,

the draftsman once becomes proficient in form-

ing these two types properly,

it

will

then be a very easy

matter for him, to form also the more ornamental letters satisfactory.

The

clean corners

and bold

this tion,

is

first

requisite lines

especially necessary in

on the

and

of uniform strength,

work

as usually such apparently

filled-in

produce sharp,

to

is

photo-reptoduc-

for

unimportant things as

corners and uneven lines are greatly exaggerated

plate.

,

In Fig.

i

of doing this are shown.

the correct and incorrect ways It will

be well

at first, for

the

purpose of obtaining clean

corners,

One Stroke Letter/nq "^

^'^'^"^ 째^

One Stroke Letteri'nq

^nds, as exhibited on the

Incorrect

'^o''''^'^-

One Stroke Lettering Fig.

1

to

resort to the

'"^'^^'^l '""'^l''^

the lines outwards at their

third line of Fig.

i.

For

very large letters the writer finds

a

(Leonardt's 5 1 6 F.) most satisfactory

;

" ball-point "

pen

medium

sized

for


not less than

letters,

millimeters high, he uses Soen-

2

necken's No. 108 or 208, and Gillott's

No. 303, or Blanzy, Poure

All of these pens should be

pen.

small-sized letters,

for.

""

&

crow

Co.'s

broken-in

"

beginner.

A

quill

somewhat

slope of

I

to

down-strokes of the

2^

sufficient fof the

is

stems or

and ordinarily an angle of

letters,

before being applied to lettering; they should also be

45° with the horizontal will suffice for the up-strokes and

when using waterproof ink, especially Soennecken pens. The nibs of the pen should,

the axes of ellipses, excepting that of the letter " o."

frequently cleaned

"

the

The latter angle will have to be increased, of course, when the lettering is compressed, as shown in Fig. 2. In lower case letters, like "b" or "p," with parts extend-

dried-up particles of the ink to drop out from between

ing above or below the

them.

main body of the

the "

while

doing

against

'

paper, pencil guiding-lines will be indispensable to the

As

a

be worked back and

this,

to the type

slanting letter

dimensions,

which

rag,

soft

is

etc.,

process

forth

will

gently

cause

of lettering to be employed, the

the length of these parts

adapted to descriptive matter,

should be about 2-5 the

well

while the upright letter will contrast

total height

well with the former type used as reference letters or

sub-captions.

A

The

—a

trick only acquired

by

practice.

pen should be held pointed forward, as in ordinary

writing, and not sideways, as in lettering

on

Fig,

"

round writing."

In

tracing linen a sheet of black cross-section

paper divided to millimeters, such as given on detached plate (XII) accompanying

this

book,

will

be found useful

for indicating the proper spacing, .^lant, etc.

On

drawing

the body of

;

the letter representing 3

2.

uniform pressure should be brought to

bear upon the pen

letter,

parts of the total height.

The exception part

less

example. rect

by

forms the

correct

beneath.

is

the

total

In

the

of

letters,

writer,

" t,"

than

"b"

height

in

method

lower case

being

are

shown

of

forming

or

in

constantly brackets,

each

letter

is

" h,"

following, the

illustrations

as

which

one for

incor-

observed

and is

thd

shown


Lower Case The

letters "

n

"

and

" m," Fig. 3, should

be made

with almost sharp upper corners

"

;

u

"

is

best

formed by three strokes, as

in

this

way

Fig.

made

the straight lines, which should be

can be then joined by a lower curve. the

first

letter

"r" its

at

the

error

this letter lies in

end.

In

and giving the

The

w

principle as the " v."

making the

horizontal. in

making

" is

letter

the

formed on the

In putting in the short hori-

for

Fig. 6.

be applied to the j

letter

"h," Fig.

" is practically

the

very

little

Fig.

5.

pressure upon the pen, as otherwise the ink

re-

down n" may also

rule laid "

and the down-stroke

as for the " f " revers-

Make bold, oblong dots over the "i " and "j." The third stroke of the letter " k," Fig. 7, should be

ed.

vertical

and begin

at

about the

middle of the second stroke.

In

constructing the letter " x," care

cal or

should be taken to use

6,

same

" t/'

great care

The

forming the

should be taken to have the

5,

shown

any considerable

duction.

for the "

the "f "

;

with

would come out with a heavy black knob

zontal cross-line of the Fig.

space

the

slightly

letter " f," start

down about one

make

of

part

an up-stroke,

at top in

curving the two

lines

letter "

be purely

should

and these

an angle of

The second

impossible.

In forming the

with

The common

same

corners

stroke nearly vertical,

about 45째

appearance of a

clean

in brackets

3.

first,

and the second

Fig. 4,

spread at the intersection of the two lines and

a curve extending

positions are secured for

make

will

curved at

parallel

letter " v," Fig. 4,

Letters.

first

7.

stroke either verti-

leaning slightly backwards, and the second stroke

ought to cross the to

Fig.

first

a

little

above

produce a clean intersection

it

its

centre

may be

in

order

well to

make

;


the

latter

stroke

Fig. 8, should be

two

in

The

parts.

drawn on the

" y,"

letter

lines of the " v,"

and

from the point of the angle

Fig

8.

tail

^"

exact

upper down-stroke, terminating, curve to the

to avoid the

left,

would otherwise form In

letter

this

the

is

if

line

with

the

desired, in a slight

little

blot of ink which

bottom of the stroke.

the second stroke

The "z"

shown.

at

should be drawn

the

best drawn

may be in

modified as

one stroke, stop-

flatter

For the advantages of

than the opposite one.

so doing see Fig.

9.

In these letters the down-stroke

should be at exactly the

proper

angle, rather in-

creasing

this

angle at the be-

Fig. 9.

ginning, for the learner almost invariably

take of drawing this stroke too slanting.

may

against this error, the beginner

makes the mis-

To further guard

slightly curve the

ping the pen every time before changing direction. The

end of the down-stroke towards the

left,

letter " o," Fig. 9, is

the angle at the bottom of the " a "

" d,"

produced by two curved strokes,

with their ends sufficiently bent, forming a perfect the axis of which

The ters,

lies in

ellipse,

the direction of the down-stroke.

joining of these two curves, in this and similar

can be effected very neatly after a

The

little

obvious reasons

;

made

and especial care must be taken lie

at

to

For the purpose of increasing the width be somewhat

its

d" and

With

practice

these Fig.

in-

verted letters " q."

an angle of 45째 with

oval, the right-hand curve should

as long as possible in

be shaped exactly as

of the enclosed space at the bottom of the down-stroke

and the

hand curve.

and the down-

by turning very short with the lower leftThe letters " p " and "b," Fig. 10, should

at the top than at the bottom, for

have the axis of these ovals the horizontal.

straight part

g " should be made

practice.

ovals of the following letters should be

somewhat narrower

let-

stroke of the "

and

thus widening

letters

can

also

be made to look well by

10.

using the oval of the letter " o."

The

letter "c," Fig. 11, is

care being taken to have

its

formed with one stroke,

general direction parallel to


The

the down-stroke.

'-'

way, and the upper loop

e "

commenced

is

formed by a second stroke

is

apex

;

the rest

is

If

from

of the

a very short curve to

left

right

little

at

down

its

into

crook upwards.

part of this letter should be nearly horizontal. is

to

be produced,

constructed with one stroke and a the upper curve

somewhat

In the ordinary letter a

it

ogee curve, the

pen

and then descending

flatter curve,

tracing-cloth saturated with ink

and deposit them

outlined (employing two strokes) simplest and quickest

experience

making

this

is

clog up and not

will

way

show.

It

is

therefore

by

of producing a clean will at first

at the

The method

side of the stroke, necessitating erasures.

difficult

separate stroke at the top

will either

wise will in turning detach minute particles of paper or

may be

shorter than the lower one.

first

zontal direction from right to left

give the required strength of line at one stroke or other-

carefully joined on, turned

a very narrow letter

that while turning in a hori-

fact,

again at an angle of 45°.

a neat ogee curve and finished by a

The middle

the

into the

" s " is IT-

made necessary by

with the axis of the loop

The beginning •^'S-

same

in the

far the

letter, as

be a somewhat

matter to the beginner to lay the main axis of

letter

with the down-stroke, but this

parallel

is

nevertheless an essential point and should not be lost sight

qf.

Capital Letters. As the

in the rule laid

capital

letters

down

for the lower case letters,

will generally

be

five

spaces high.

Sharply defined clean corners are again necessary, and to secure this the beginner

may

find

it

advantageous to

curve the upper and lower ends of the down-strokes a little

outwards.

-The

letter

strokes, with

almost

vertical.

"A," the

Fig. 12, should

be made

in three

second

The cross-

stroke should be placed low

—about the second

middle of the

space

from

the

Fig.

bottom.

The

1

2.

short

third


stroke of the " of the

letter,

E"

should be slightly above the center

and should not be too

down-strokes of the actly parallel,

letter "

I " is

by a lower case

two short

horizontal strokes of even length and projection

added

Fig.

first

"K"

13,

at the top of the

of

the

of the down-stroke, and

and

often

the case, a hardly noticeable crook

is

,

at

,

L" can

easily

the

structed precisely

same stroke of

they should be a

"J," Fig.

is

14,

commenced

as a perfectly

is

straight down-stroke to the top of the lower space; then it

turns to the

the base

the

first

space.

and

The

left

down

be

con-

for the cor-

with the exception that

letters,

narrower

in proportion.

The " Y"

;

the "

Z"

is

made

in

one stroke, with the axis

direction

of the

finally rises to the top

of the

trifle

lines laid

to

of the letter in

left in

line,

it.

formed with two strokes without any lower crook to

the

a gentle curve, tangent to

upon the

responding lower case

letter " E."

The

will

15.

are

be made with one

stroke, analogous to the forming of the

both ends

The letters shown in Fig, i5

should join the Fig.

The

If

downwards

improve

letter

the third stroke should join the second nearly one space

higher up.

space.

not perfectly straight, as

if it is

second space from the bottom, and

letter "

the two

should be neatly balanced on top

The second

bottom. stroke

T"

stroke of the "

tal

may be

to the top

first

;

may be made slightly wider at the bottom than at the top. The letter " _N " is also formed by drawing the two parallel strokes first. The horizon-

If the capi-

"1,"

parallel lines first

desired, this letter

and the horizontal stroke should be made

to be followed

two

other strokes should join at the top of the

should be ex-

13,

as directed for the third stroke of the " E." tal "

The two

short.

H," Fig.

ate strokes, putting in the

pig_

"

M"

is

made

down-

stroke.

,4,

found

with four separ10

easier, this

Fig.

Z

"

can be

6

made with

three strokes.


With

practice the letters "P,"

"B" and

"D"can

ter should

each

be formed with two strokes, with the curves terminating

case

as shown.

is

In forming the

two curves of the

letter " B,"

begin at the top, and after joining the stem, return exactly

on the horizontal while the ink

is

" c."

be proportionately narrower than the lower In

required,

making the

and

"

this letter

G," a somewhat wider ellipse

is

most

easily

made with two

strokes; the second horizontal stroke should be about

yet moist and complete

one-half of the

The space enclosed by the lower curve should be somewhat larger than that in the upper oneThe curve of the " D " should be parallel with the downstroke in its middle third, but it may sometimes be advisable to make the lower part of the " D " a shade wider than the upper part. The first and second strokes of the the lower curve.

"

R"

the Fig.

"

"C," Fig. 17,

completing the

is

"

Q"

in joining the

O," though this

ellipse.

The

17.

should be an almost perfect

two curves.

capital

ellipse, special care being

The

third stroke of the

should begin about the middle of the second space,

The

and extend one space below the base.

formed with one stroke, nearly

ellipse of the letter "

O

"

taken

are identical with the letter " P."

The

width of

total

can be formed, for small-sized lettering,

in

letter

two

"

S

"•

strokes,

or with an additional stroke, as shown, for larger letters.

let-

Numerals. As

a rule, numerals should occupy the same height as capital

or

five

is

slightly

modify

18.

this rule.

When the numeral

proximity with " ;

I

"

or "

1,"

otherwise,

sented by a simple down-stroke.

spaces,

fractions

in

short up-stroke at the top

letters,

it

it

is

well to use a

may be repreis commenced

The "4"

with the stroke inclined at an angle of 45°, terminating

though the use of Fig

used

may

at the

second space from bottom and then turning sharply

into the horizontal.

"i," Fig. 18, 11

The down-stroke should

intersect


;

the horizontal in such horizontal to the

left

manner

son the

as to leave about 3-5 of the

The

of the down-stroke

" 7 "

is

The

angle of 45째.

little

of the third space, and then curving into ellipse,

with an axial angle of 45째.

numeral

" 3 "

is

should be drawn in one stroke,

beginning as with the " 7 " to a point a

which can be made

in

ought " 5 " is

to

Fig.

Another type of the

slight

be a perfect

commenced

ellipse of the " 3 " " 2 "

one

Fig.

ellipse, like

the

is

19.

capital "

O."

The

crook at

The

down-stroke running into the base

line,

in

two

on

where a sharp

latter,

working

The

quired.

rest of the text.

the axis of the ellipse.

For that

The

lower part

The

curve, using a

finished

by two other

loop should always be

The numeral

ellipse at the

top is

is

"

9

"

nearly

assumed,

point of the ellipse and

initial

they

chief requisite

except that

point

is

terminates with a

drawings,

they are

initial

its

one stroke when the down-stroke

Though Roman numerals

is

its

The lower

strokes.

made in a horizontal direction. The " 6," Fig. 20, the "p," is commenced Hke

turn

stroke,

somewhat

fuller

curve then that employed in lower case ''g."

an axial angle of 45째, and then turning shortly into a

somewhat beyond

lower end, and

larger than the upper one.

completing the

top of the fourth space, nearly completing an oval with

20.

its

which, beginning at the

with the down-stroke, ending in the

and the horizontal upper stroke.

made

finished in

can be constructed by one stroke, beginning at the

Fig.

commenced with an ogee

curves, as shown.

19,

same

the

an axial angle of 45째, joining

figure " 8 " is

somewhat

"o"

in

with the bottom of the incomplete second stroke.

of an

strolce also.

The

made, and the pen then returns

ellipse with

shown,

is

where a stop

and, gradually turning to the right, nearly completes an

below the top

a portion

very short, curving to the right

is

the second stroke descends nearly to the base,

best

formed with one stroke, the down -stroke being on an " 3 "

stroke

first

neat

in

are

may sometimes be is

to

as

rea12

the

so form

them

re-

that

ap-

distinguished from the

is

seldom employed

They should be

pig. 21.

of the

same height

Arabic numerals, and short horizontal strokes


—

should be used with them, In the modified forms

noticed that

all

indicated

as

shown

Fig.

in

in Fig. 22

it

will

second a straight down-stroke, tangent to and touching

21.

the curve.

be

The numerals

the letters and numerals are based upon

The second

mands. " r "

stroke of the

in

stroke of the " n

"

u

the

"

is

here

first,

made

" 5 "

and the second

and third strokes of the "m." in

a down-stroke, laid at an angle of 45°, turning sharply

with one stroke, with

tary ellipse, as are also the second "

begins at the upper part in an ellipse and ends

to the right in a horizontal line.

really a part of the elemen-

is

" 2 "

The

the general form of the letter " o," modified to suit de-

follow similar lines of construction.

The

and

ellipse.

two strokes

" 6,"

In the

its

encircling " 6 "

and

The

" 3 "

is

formed

lower curve, as also that of the

somewhat more than " 9

"

half of the

care must be taken to have

the curved down-strokes only tangent to the respective

a down-stroke with the curve attached, and the

and not cutting

ellipses,

off a portion of the latter.

UPRIGHT LETTERING. Upright lettering for reference letters, for

captions.

deemed

In

is

employed most advantageously

is

designating lines of section, and

some

instances however,

it

will

may be

etc.,

to

be given, though, as a

answer

The

this

purpose very

rule, the slanting lettering

well.

relative height of the letters

ought to remain

the same as that of the inclined lettering.

advisable to use uprights also for such descrip-

tive matter, dimensions,

to

which some prominence

The down-

strokes should be perfectly vertical, and in order to pro13


duce

this effect properly,

to form the habit of

somewhat would be

will

making the

be best for the beginner letters at first lean

these letters are being executed in a horizontal direction

over

to

have them lean the opposite way.

number

in

some

as

is

required, as

many portions

at variance

of

of strokes

is

shown

employed

viously described.

in Fig. 23, the

letters are as a rule

than those of the slanting type. the

"

n" and the two

last

strokes of the letter

more

full

upward

off the corner at the top,. making

than

in

the

it

23.

two down-strokes with a

"a" and

" g,"

notice-

which, though

may

be employed.

also

In

constructing the

two slanting strokes ought

same angle with the

make

to

The beginner

vertical.

will

the in-

variably construct the second stroke at a greater incline

"m"

than the

are

direction

first,

habit, until

somewhat

and

after

will

some

do well to guard against practice the'

hand

will

this

become

accustomed to form the point of juncture of the two strokes equidistant from their starting point.

letters.

"

w V

" is

composed

The

letter

two somewhat narrowed

practically of

s.

The'

as usual,

connecting well shaped curve.

be especially

with the ordinary gothic print, look fully

letter " v," the

The letter "u" is made in three Fig.

will

stroke of

corresponding slanting

strokes

which

Letters.

shown,

made wider

The second

started with a very slight curve in an

rounding

same number

as in the slanting lettering pre-

The

fact

much

as well.

Lower Case In the letters

a

possible,

letters are again simplified as

able in the lower case

It will

of the uprights a comparatively

of strokes

The

or nearly so.

to the left at the top, as the natural tendency

be noticed that greater

it

letter

"1"

(Fig. 24)

is

sometimes constructed

when used at the side of is made as a down-stroke

with a lower crook to the right,

the

capital letter " I," otherwise

If preferred,

however, the ordinary form of gothic lower case " u," as

pure and simple. 14

it

The second

stroke of the "

r "

starts


"

from the top of the second space upwards as a very

explained above.

sHght curve, similar to the one forming

stroke

second stroke of

by three strokes right,

the

;

first

a

full^

the second

shown, thereby

parts, as

preventing the forming of a clot of ink at the intersection

The upper part of letter " y The second stroke may either be

two strokes.

of those

third

executed with a slight angle terminating in a vertical

stroke should be

direction, or in a perfectly straight inclined line, according

made sufficiently prominent.

to the

and should be made

easier,

forms a perfect " v."

in

reached.

The

The

first

stroke

nearly the

down

first

left

is

one apparently more inclined than necessary

Fig.

in

26, are as

di-

the

'^'S*

^"•

similarly at the right, thus prevent-

forming of a point

at

the

top

and bottom

The second (right hand) stroke of the ellipse ought to be made apparently more curved than necessary, as that portion is invariably made too flat by the beginner. The ellipses should be made quite full. The vertical

letter

constructed with- two strokes, making the

shown

The

and terminates

junctures.

^'E- ^S-

The

starting point should

terminal

towards

ing the

gins at about the centre of the second one.

as

curve starts in an

rection

to

be-

and

almost horizontal

space.

third stroke

of the letter

points carefully.

latter

of letter "k"'(Fig. 26)

should extend

ellipses

initial

should be almost a semicircle and one space high.

The second

its

is

usual constructed in two strokes, joining the respective

If

however, a second right hand stroke, form-

may be employed.

;

"z"

be vertically above the point of turning into the horizontal.

one stroke, being is

Letter

draftsman's individual taste.

usual formed in one stroke

ought to extend two spaces below the

ing the curved portion,

"x"

two

very

horizontal

perfectly straight until the point of curve

The

in

is

The

line

found

may be made

the pen

being joined by the second or main stroke.

letter " j "

base

best formed

is

very short curve to the

Fig. 24.

The

part of the

first

Letter "f "

letter " n."

When

first

for reasons 15


down-strokes of

letters " a,"

"

d

"

and

"

g

"

Letters " c " and "

ought to run

s " (Fig.

28) are started with a short

the upper end of letter " c

tangent to their ellipses so that the thickness of the

curve towards the right

second curve

should be slightly more curved than the lower one

The curved

at the joint

(Fig.

not increased.

left

almost or nearly the

full

"g"

width of the

27) offers no novel features. in the

If

"

and

"

b

''

ink, the

if

too

is

full,

involuntarily brought

in a

in

turning

somewhat greater

exception

reach one

space

case, the

upper part of

fill

letters " c

of

the

"

the allotted space, or flat-

lower

letters

upon the pen,

are, as a rule, 5

will

their

appearance, as shown.

If at all

These

The completed

all

injure

ovals of

form a perfect

uneven, the lower oval should be

made more prominent than

the upper one.

Letters.

spaces high, with the

line.

28

help matters and otherwise not at

ward^

figure " 8."

resulting

should be

Q," the appendix of which ought to

below the base

Fig.

letter " s " should, as in the inclined one,

Capital

of the "

constructed in three strokes.

appear leaning backFig- 27.

badly proportioned lo^yer end.

Upright capitals

is

should not precisely

making those

may be

into the lower' portion of the curve a

pressure

still,

portions of the curve,

an opposite direction, as shown, as

in

"e"

sometimes the

" e "

tening

completed by a third stroke, running

is

letter

otherwise they should appear too narrow, a slight

the pen, while

lower part

curve

as

and

" of the curve of letters " p and " b," should contain too

much

The

letter. If,

of construction of letters " q," " p

;

"

the form of the perfect oval should be predominant in this

letter.

The mode rounding

is

portion or the fourth stroke of letter

extends to the oval of this

of juncture

;

made narrower

responding lower case

The second

letters 16

in

proportion than the cor-

letters.

stroke of letter

"A"

(Fig.

29),

should


;

be made rather more inclined than the

"

F

The must be made

beginner.

the "

first

strokes

first

of letters

"

letter "

one by

E"

below the

and

of the

two letters will be painfully noticeable, especially in the

letter.

is

The

length of the short third stroke in the " F,"

result

the latter

begins with a vertical

Flg, 29. if

an oval or inclined stroke

attempt, however, to lay

is

stroke,

We

to follow.

down any

definite rule

not

on

this

draftsman's

eye and good

taste.

Letter "

best formed in one stroke, care being taken to

nearly

letters

the

between

its

length of

again, as in the case

and the succeeding

vertical part

letter.

part of letter "J " (Fig. 31) ought to be a

well shaped semicircle, beginning

and ending not above

the middle of the second space.

The second and

"M"

To

attain this

converge

second

at the

line,

third

and

be at an even distance from the

end

exactly,

some

make

draftsmen

will per-

"

is

The

obvious, that by unduly lengthening that

is

is

Z

L"

"

be vertically

vertical strokes.

haps find

especially the inclined portion perfecdy straight.

The

It

this point should, of course,

point, as the determining factor in eachi case should be

the

letter

F," determined by the succeeding (lower case)

strokes of letter

longer, will

"

formed

point of the second stroke.

initial

The curved

(lower case) letter if

in a well

portion of the letter, an unproportionally wide space will

generally depending on the shape of the succeeding

shorter,

should

the horizontal portion of the

perfectly vertical or leaning back-

wards, as even the slightest inclination forward in these

" F."

K"

it

Fig.

easier to put in the

two

31.

verticals first

and the

comprising Fig. 30 are constructed upon

oblique strokes afterwards,' as in the construction of the

same

letter "

N."

The

angles in those two letters should be

principles given in

sharply defined, the strokes forming them ending in a

the case of the cor-

clearly cut,

responding slanting capital letters.

The

Fig.

termination

horizontal

30.

though somewhat blunt point. stroke of letter

"

T

"

ought

balanced upon the main or down-stroke.

of the last stroke of 17

The second to

be evenly


;

The

construction of the letters

shown

in

Fig.

guided by the principle that the rate of

chiefly

32

forming of

is

The two

inclina-

the

Fig. 32.

lines

In the case of

"V"

and

"

W

is

"

care should be taken

the second

that only the center

fully

small

"

illustration.

and

W"

Fig.

32a.

strokes

fourth

made apparent The

is

the

of

ought theoretically to be made

parallel

but as

to

the

the

second

latter

and

third;

point

pjg

first

one, the fourth stroke should

made more slanting to correspond with The reverse mode of procedure would result in shaped letter, as shown in brackets. Letter again be

made in two strokes, be made in the second stroke

or, if

usually

first,

continuing

it

the

first.

a badly "

X"

preferable, a stop

side,

at the top of the

right angles

at

third

"

D"

the curve,

The

is

stroke of

as

a

first,

second,

letter "

B

stroke

begins

"

perfectly

"B"

of letter

the

care-

it

If

a slight

"

ought to be

a

enclosing

The second

the

stroke

a hori-

should happen

its

lower portion.

sagging near

in

slightly

"

forming of the second stroke of

applies also to letter " R;" at

straight

begins at the

should begin and terminate

rule given for the

The two

may

point

its

of curve

vertical strokes of letter "

U

of "

third inclined

the

are

second.

made

first

a right hand carefully formed semi-circular curve con-

shortly before crossing the

on the other

constructed in two strokes,

is

Fig. 33.

zontal direction. in

to the base line.

^„

curve

of

of letter

32^

should join on the

down

larger area than the second one.

imom^

two strokes are involuntarily made

more upright than the

The

line.

letter

of intersection.

from there the second stroke

first

stroke again

the

in

(Fig. 33)

"

round-

and joining

This

;

one beginning

two extremes, either

point.

Y

in a vertical direction

"P"

Letter

the formation of a vertical short end or the reverse, a

first

continued

ing the curve

flattened-out

of ink at the point

inclined parts of letter "

of the inclined strokes join at the base or top

lines of the ruling, thus avoiding

lump

top of the second space

tion of the slanting strokes should be uniform in each letter.

a

avoiding thus the

nects the two. 18


;

Letter "

C"

(Fig. 34)

is

made with two

simply a repetition of the lower case

The second

narrower.

strokes,

letter^

stroke of letter "

G

"

and

way outlined the downward stroke is

cute the second stroke neatly in the

is

suggestion of a separate vertical

relatively

made.

follows the

The mode

"Q"

of construction of the ellipses of the

outline of the

"O"

ellipse up-

case letters

wards

order to lessen the chance of a point forming at the top

nearFig-34

"Q"

there a short

stop

is

;

differ

made and

the pen point

is

carefully

The

oval.

is

that of the lower

shifted diagonally in

third

stroke

of letter

begins as shown, and extends one space below.

The second stroke of

pushed up-

somewhat from

the point of juncture

and bottom of the

space

a

ly

and

letter "

"

S

should for a very short

space run perfectly horizontal.

The

shown.

forming of the lower case

otherwise apply to this

too

letter also.

wards

in

a vertical direction, terminating that stroke as

The final horizontal stroke should not be made short. To those who- might find it difficult to exe-

letter

rules given for the

Numerals. Upright numerals ought to be five spaces

high.

Figure

"

i

"

like the inclined ones,

shown, whence

may

given above and illustrated by Fig.

again,

if

used

in

it

assumes a horizontal

direction.

-^la

The

rule

on the forming of

proximity with

a clear cut angle, applies to the top part of this figure espec-

capital letter"!"

ially.

or "1,"

lower

be

The lower

terminal point of numeral

formed

case

in a perfectly

con-

of the horizontal portion.

Fig. 35.

structed with a very short upstroke.

Numeral

"

4

"

started with a perfectly straight inclined downstroke, as

its 19

construction

is

should,

be vertically below the center The upper part of numeral "2"

figure,

ought to form portion of a flattened oval.

is

"7"

clearly

shown

The mode

of

in the illustration. Fig. 35.


Numeral "5" nearly the

to

be part of a perfect

(Fig. 36) begins with a vertical stroke

middle of the third space; from there

nearly

ellipse,, which is to

the stroke follows the outline of the

two-thirds

ellipse

of

its

and comprising as circumference,

The middle

difficult to construct.

it

does,

somewhat

is

portion of the second

stroke should for a short distance, run almost vertical.

stroke of

The middle portion of the second "6" numeral ought to follow the vertical

direction

a

short

Roman num-

distance,

as

the

erals, Fig. 37,

be three spaces high.

tendency

general

is

Fi^. 36.

to have that part too

much

stroke ought to enclose a perfect is

formed

curve,

in three strokes

with

horizontal.

its

The

upright

^

are constructed,

in constructing this

figure

The

;

its

first

ellipse.

first

middle portion

curved.

The

Numeral

"

a well-shaped ogee

running very

analogous to the inclined ones, with

upper and lower short horizontal strokes.

After explain-

mode of forming nothing new can be said concerning

V"

of capital letters "

ing the

third " 8

Fig. 37-

as a general rule

narrower

nearly

it

will be well to

and

"

X,"

these, except that

make them

a

trifle

in proportion.

stroke of numeral " 9 " ought to

Extended Form of Upright Lettering. In the following illustration, Fig. 38, the upright letter-

ing

is

shown

in

extended form.

for the construction of

tively greater

number

of the ellipses

lie in

and

it

will

It will

some of those of strokes

is

them, decidedly

be noticed that

letters a

required.

flat,

sometimes going to the extreme to

have the top and bottom parts of the

compara-

perfectly straight for a certain distance.

The axes

The complete type are shown

a horizontal direction in every case,

be well to shape parts of the curves, composing

lettering 20

as

ellipses

running

alphabets of the slanting and upright in Plate

used on

I.,

together with samples of

working drawings.

The

single


letters,

composing a word, should, especially

lettering,

be placed as close as possible, so

in

slanting

Sufficient space

Fig.

that

they sometimes nearly touch each other.

principle

is

erning the

followed out at

first,

spacing of letters

beginner generally spaces

his

soon

letters

prevail.

too

far

all

different

the theories set forth upon the spacing

38.

of lettering

If this

"

the golden middle gov-

will

Of

words.

close, in fact,

should be allotted between

The

works

"

in

the writer has found that practice

;

therefore he

no one

really

would advise the

draftsman to depend solely upon his eye in determining the proper space.

apart. 21

The spacing

of a

word

for instance.


when

should be so arranged

that,

some

looked

distance,

or

is

the drawing

is

the theories upon spacing, and should appear corrected

held at

at with half closed eyes,

as in Fig.

shown

example

for

printed type,

of

excepting the instance

Fig.

demonstrates the

dash

'

39.

fallacy

of one

Lettering as applied to working drawings, should be clear

and uniform

in

when numeral

is

The

employed.

"

4

"

happen to be

several lines of lettering

to side,

and a dotted reference

line

with arrow head point]<-/j|"...x-/?|'-)K-/y-'-x-/i'l->(

1'

the exception of the sub-captions, which

may be

a

cramped

trifle larger.

lettering

never look

well.

If possible,

ing should be kept distinctly by

itself

some words can not be put on

ject

itself,

cribe,

iWW

will

iaitlmn,

Tt

hick, irionq.

variable

the letter-

never be allowed to run across If

'

Diminutive and

on a drawing

l,6mf

and

lines.

the ob-

which they are intended to des-

compos-

Working Drawings.

with

size,

to place

ing a sentence, for instance, should be placed rather close.

of

Freehand Lettering applied bold,

is

the latter, in which case, for obvious reasons, a slanting

(Corseted.)

an actual specimen

custom

between numerator and denominator,

a horizontal dash

ONLY STANDARD,

in Fig. 39a, which,

were, a more even tone

In expressing fractions, the accepted

°"

letters, as

it

of coloring.

:;::;::';":: only standard. between

showing, as

39<!i,

K

Z'b'Sidewalk. ->k-5-'-'*'?'-)i?|«--6"—:i4)i

ENti.NEWS.

Roadway.

Expansion Joints.

they should be boldly placed out-

Fixed Fig. 40.

22

Ends.


ing to the subject attached, as shown especially in Figs.

and

40, 41

42.

The

dimension

lines,

and an appropriate space

while drawing those.

lettering should be placed so as to

If the

open

left

space allotted for a dimen-

read from the base

sion

and right hand side

is

too

small

the

same

to place MafmalforReentorangBetiomajofti! Rn/rf.Pl. 24'iiS'itb'6"tjii^.al}eyschiird.

of the

sheet, that Qij1Si5tWsne/5,IZ0, /:r

j> ,|"^ I'loS"

running

at

be-

tween arrow heads,

to say, lettering

is

comfortably

'

me/:s,6SiM-j<2'lliS,'

•'

'J •5!

^

an angle

Bearing Pl.m Bom ii-xr'S'O" Matsnalpf Long Distn'ijufj'ngOinieren

WeHandFlanai;:^

„,

,

EndCom: B3ntPlfk6'i6^Ki"ic4<s!^ "

of 90° to the base

,'

"

Fi/lerSf

6'6k"xl"/f3'9-

the figures

should

be written outside,

Bom Uiorii:

line should be made

read from the

to

right

hand

sion line,

ence

side, if

base should be

its

that

it

with

can be

the Cross Section,

read from the lower left

hand corner;

Details of Long Raising Girder

the angle be smaller,

and Truss Connection.

Fig, 41.

from the lower

hand corner,

even

sides,

two

strokes

them

composing in

thick-

ness from the point;

as Fig.

ones

should be avoided.

be enabled to read

right

bold,

" lop sided "

one should then iV_

it

used.

be

tapering

if

refer-

heads

should

reversed in such a

way

and

line

Arrow

at a greater angle,

dimen-

to

parallel

The

leng^th

of

the arrow heads depends upon the size of the dimension

44 demonstrates.

numerals, which are to go between them

Dimensions should be placed between, not on top of 23

;

at

any

rate,


the numerals themselves should stand out free and not

touch the former. this,

Where

an inset sheet

may be

used, so as to

cut,

low.

In the

same

row of dimensions from

figure the

relative size

even under a magnifying

glass.

The

and clean

pin points, as

shown, are also made prominent by using upright refer-

leave a clear space between them, as shown, for instance, at left of Fig. 40, in second

"Engineering News'' and yet shows

the lettering of the strain-sheet legible, sharp

the space does not permit

the reversed arrow heads

in

ence

be-

letters.

Similar prominence

may be

stance, to portions of a building, as

of upright

given, for in-

shown

in Plate

XI

5pl.PI,20iยง'

t22'lo!ioverall(Ba!J< mBack of End Stiff. I?.j

Fig.

lettering, as

In Fig.

used

for captions

44 and on Plate

III,

and sub-captions

upright lettering

is

is

shown.

also

on plan of station building.

em-

has been considerably reduced

in size

to

draw-

and be used as

" fillers."

order to have same appear distincdy different from

ordinary dimensions or descriptive matter.

Notes referring

ings should run parallel to base of sheet

ployed to denote the strains for the respective members, in

42.

.In Fig.

maps

This plate

from a drawing for

is

43 and Plate

shown.

Here

II,

lettering as used

four distinctive styles,

on sketch

composed

of the two alphabets above described, are employed. 24


The

recommends,

writer

in

such a case, to have the

Profiles of railway lines, etc.,

physical features of a map, such as creeks, rivers, lakes,

mountains, bays, letters

case in

"

proposed engineering works

;

"

denoted by

inlets,

of the same type

;

" all

in "

cap

"

ilar

manner

;

upright

tering

caps and lower

and be written outside, not upon the

The use

villages, railway lines, stations

lines of the scale.

of the four distinct types of lettering will at

once allow an easier reading of the pro-

let-

file.

A

good ex-

counties, townships

ample of

or

Is

cities

" all

upright.

caps,"

These all,

in

rules

and

horizontal scales, should, however, be placed in uprights

slanting

finally,

;

treated in a sim-

the margin figures denoting vertical

cap and lower

case "

may be

of course, sub-

kind

given

in Fig. 45.

The

arrange-

ment

are

this

margin

of

here

figures

will

more or less

permit the approx-

modification, as oc-

imate elevation of

ject to

casionally

etc.,

may

Plate

contour

any desired point

soundings,

lines,

II

f^'g'

also be designated In small upright numerals. illustrates the

relating to rivers

and railway

parallel to those objects. lines is resorted to.

above said very

well.

lines should

Otherwise, lettering

If this should,

43.

tained

easily to

by laying a

rule across the vertical scales,

upper edge touching the point

Letters

in question.

be placed

46, the general style of lettering a diagram

in straight

The margin

however, be Imprac-

upon the

ticable, lettering in neat curves is used.

be ascer-

In Fig. Is

shown.

figures again are uprights, set opposite, not

lines,

which they are to designate.

The

letter-

ing of the curves, being of a descriptive character, 25

its

is


done

in the slanting type.

Since this lettering has to run

well

across the ordinates and abscissae of the diagram, great care has to be exercised to keep

same open and

adapted for

well

also slightly

more elaborate

meridians and scales are given on Plate XI.

former are easy to construct and

are best

work, although the upper one, in-

be used for that purpose.

simpler type of scales

it

is

In constructing the

advisable to employ four

different heights of graduation lines, a

All of the

will materially

look neat on any

will

map

scales

tended for ordinary working drawings, can also very

clear,

especially avoiding filled in corners.

Examples of simple and

The lower two

map.

finished

increase

its

method which

clearness.

VARIOUS FREEHAND ALPHABETS. The

principles of construction of the shaded inclined

(Italic)

ally

the

lettering,

shown on

Plate IV, which

is

the pen has to outline and shade the curves at the time, necessitating a slight turning

occasion-

used on working drawings and maps, are practically

same

for the ordinary (Gothic) slanting let-

as given

The

tering.

relative height of letters

of down-stroke remain unchanged.

ed rather

flexible

A

and

shaded

script.

very much like

The shading

is

common

shading

is

The

letters "

S

"

" 2," " 7 "

English

and

of this

plate

is

in the

upper

devoted to demonstrating the

Italic lettering,

in

letter and. the

sequence

order to look well, re-

slanting lettering, the hair line upstrokes in

lower case letters adding to their width.

most of the

After

all

has been said about slanting lettering in general,

that

no

trouble will be experienced in constructing these letters

In " 8

delicate operation at first

quires a considerably wider spacing than the ordinary

produced by an even

and numerals

motion of the holder,

be noticed, that every second row

of strokes.

Gillott's

gradually released at the proper moment.

somewhat

proper method of forming each

pressure exerted upon the pen, wh'.ch in turning into curves,

will

portion

fairly fine point-

pen should be used, such as

letters are

It

inclination

No. 303 or No. 290 (Gillott's lithographic pen). lower case

to the beginner a

same

"

satisfactorily. 26


.

When

reduced considerably,

Italic lettering, as

a

shown on

rule,

does not show up so well as the same size of the slanting

Plate V.

lump of ink

is

As

is

known

to

every draftsman, a

apt to form at the end of a straight stroke,

Gothic type described before, the light lines in that case

dropping

out, thus leaving only the

shaded portions

vis-

ible.

The type of lettering shown is

in

fact

in

lower part of Plate IV,

only a modification of the ordinary upright

Side

Elevation

Fig. 44.

freehand lettering, and used as a part of well

when used with

title

when

looks very

the black faced Gothic lettering,

is

27

the pen

made use

is fairly full.

This propensity of the ink

of in constructing this type of lettering

and


The

the flow of ink thus diverted.

relative

number

of

strokes remains the same, as with the ordinary upright style.

A few

modifications are introduced in the shape

of which have

been exhaustively explained

in the fore-

going, will experience no trouble whatever in sketching

good shape.

these letters in

As shown,

the relative

height of lower case and capital letters

remains unchanged

stem of the in

some

capital

cases

;

the width

maybe

of the

taken as 4-5,

7-8, that of the

lower

case letters as 3-6 the width of a square.

" 2000'

3000'

7000'

5000'

4000'

cs

03

Fig. ,45.

cr>

o

EZ

Dollars.

of lower case

duced with a

"

a

"

and

" g."

This lettering

is

best pro-

ball point pen, insuring a stroke of

uniform strength.

As

a precaution,

the pen should never be too

full

it

may be

almost

said that

while making this type

V

to

VII

inclusive, contain

ing suitable for main structed

;

titles,

which

by dividing the space

and sketching

shown

V

Plate

in the letters

on tracing

to in

Freehand Letter-

may

be con-

be lettered into squares outline

linen, cross-section

course be used for this purpose.

easily

A

afterwards, as

paper

may

of

draftsman able to

satisfactorily construct the upright lettering, the principles

sug-

gestions

made

50 5

80 40 4

methods of

eral

letters,

as

100

are

as to sev-

60 30 3

shading

of lettering. Plates

On

a

look

although,

rule,

they

very

well

without

When

these

it.

this

of lettering

kind is

de-

40

EO

E

20

10

1


expeditiously be constructed in the 4712

:

Tlirow

in the

way shown by

stems of

the letters with a broad nibbed

a

insuring

bold stroke

these strokes in a direction towards him.

WAYNC

{Original)

pen,

turning the paper, so as to permit the draftsman to draw

Fig.

case

analogous to ordinary Gothic upright lettering, with the exception

the

of

the tops and bottoms letters, rule in,

exercise of

and

with

in the

borne

47a

strokes

are

\']b.

therefore this tnethod

difficult is

will

some

be

able,

mind, that a

letters,

title,

other hand, a simple letters of

ing

draw

it,

it

title,

reasonable

size,

centered, will

his

devolve the It

eye and the letters

de-

should, however, be

composed of highly orna-

may be

attached, but

on the

constructed of well executed

with the several lines compos-

make an ample heading and conform

well executed drawing,

horizontally,

more ornamen-

does not atone for any poorly drawn and

Fig. 476.

to

by the aid of

originality, to

lettered sheet to which

As, is well known, short freehand

somewhat

in

mented

corners freehand, as shown en-

larged in Fig.

he

sired out of the types given.

WW Fig.

of the

fill

\A/AYN P

(Plain bathh.)

horizontal

strokes, which, together

be, the draftsman should desire

letters,

tal

AA/^^YNF

(Spurred bathic)

may

as the

If,

in style

for

any

with the

subject represented.

certainly preferable to that of

LETTERING OF TITLES. >

On

Plates VIII

figures,

and IX, and the accompanying text

reduced specimens of freehand

and pains have been taken

to present, as

sible, different types of easily

anced

titles,

titles

formed and

routine

in the drafting office of a technical journal,

These samples,

are given.

much

work

as pos-

originals

fairly well bal-

as given here, represent reductions

which range

in

size

from

from one-half to nearly

one-fifth linear measure,

such as could be selected during the daily

The specimens 29

exhibited on those two plates

show


more or given

t<3

less clearly, that the

prominence which

different portions of a

title,

depends upon the

The draftsman

relative Importance of the lines.

drawing, and the blanks are subsequently

to be

Is

is

by

In

filled

hand.

A

gener-

style of title

seldom used nowadays

The

In Fig. 49.

Is

that

shown

arranged in curved

letters are

...3^:.

and an

lines

sought

Bridge 720 B/^ /?un, Evanst//7/e, J^r/zona. M. K. and TRy. M/ddleD/v.

3 Spans,

Top

eral

Track, Through /7S-o'c,c.£^ndP/ns.

S/'n^/e

Chords

jfm

A may

End Posts.

letters

Charge of.../J^/-?.?/?.-

A.B.COL Comr. Ne...^S2.

In

Miul.by-i_Z^-

SlM.^/ZfJ>?.RBv....&/J.O..

Checkm by-j^li^L^

DataJ?/2.7/a«.Rev,

Is

desirable, the gen-

is

in

regard to centering of

A

title

titles

should in nearly

all

be arranged systemetlcally about a vertical line.

After the location of this line and.

have been determined, the spaces equal to

the width of the letters can be

marked

off with

,

pencil

a/

Order Ho.K2.3Q,—%wx.t

Ink Border

effect

the height and spacing of the different lines of

EDGEMOOR PLANT.

if

such

flourished

a fairly satisfactory one.

here be added.

center CO.,

is

few words

cases,

AMERICAN BRIDGE

Where

after.

scheme

ornamental,

on the edge of a

strip of

paper and the

Mo../2.

center of the strip placed on the vertical center

^

Ci/^S/i/aPr/TTfo/rf^/s/me

line of the title,

Fig, 48,

given considerable latitude

The

title

given under Fig. 48

In Is

The lower

A

regard to this matter.

one of the standard

part, as noticed,

edge just below the

The

letters

line

can then be

penciled In very readily.

arrangements of the concern named and shows good points.

Its

of letters to be sketched.

^k—^^—A^o/^^oe/jw o7rM/s///7»

ally

with

Is

stamped on the

space between words counts as a letter In spac-

ing, therefore,

a line containing three words of

and 6

represents 18 divisions, so

letters

sions, or the first 30

J,

3

that 9 divi-

word, one space and one letter of the


second word are to come to the line,

after

and the remainder of the all,

left

of the

shows the draftsman's lack of practice

center

line to the right.

while relying sole-

If,

the spacing of a line of letters needs re-ad-

justment after the

man may line again,

letters are

sketched

easily rectify the matter

working

first

to the left

in,

upon

freehand work,

^heetJ^i

his skill

bow pen and ruling pen. The

the drafts-

by going over

and then

ly

in

with

that

writer would

to the right

consider this

of center.

not

work

ENDANiD^ECTniOINALi OF

VmEW

EUREKA DRIERS

<jomplete without

Qcn^J^

giving passing

outlet Sewer r^'T. rSsVl ty V<.^t Ca^keCity

U

^^^^

Alio

1

Fig, 50.

Round

N DEX TO MAP IN

LONGITUDINAL SECTION

notice to

the principles of which are

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; SHEETS ATTACHED

Writing, shown on

Plate X.

For the

production of this kind of lettering regular round writ-

Fig 49.

ing pens are used, although very satisfactory lettering of In Fig. 5o, an actual fac-simile of a is

exhibited.

It

explains in short

title

how

once met with

not to do

it,

this

and

type can be produced with goose-quills cut by the

draftsman, and the writer even yet prefers the

31

latter.


LETTERING FOR PHOTO-REPRODUCTION. The lettering and drawing for reduction purposes may be made on any quality of drawing paper, tracing linen or paper. rule,

Yellowish tinted papers however,

will as

at considerable reduction,

unbroken

In order to insure good,

tracing cloth the writer would rftbbing of the surface with

recommend

lines

A good standard

a

tion

The

other

materials mentioned, of course, require no special preparation.

part to be erased, and a

little

is

have the smaller lower case

more than

drawing

is

fourth

â&#x20AC;˘

sprinkled upon the

its

to

-^^

in.)

in height

;

be reduced three-fourths,

original length)

Freehand

make

be applied with a

soft

Letters and lines must be fine lines are

made

perfectly black

used on a drawing, they

will still

;

if

if

a

to one-

e.,

T,^

> A

(about

in.)

high

with

the

Fig. 51a.

Where, however,

brush over the discolored

(i.

Leftering.

OKIGINAL FOB THBEE-FOUKTHS REDUCTIONS.

erasures have otherwise been made, Chinese white

therefore,

those letters 4 times

e-

lettered over again

without danger of the ink spreading.

one millimeter

ters

colored pumice with fresh powder, will thoroughly clean

may be

such as

letters,

brisk rubbing with the end

of the finger or a hard rubber, while replacing the dis-

the effected surface, which

to

(slightly

Erasures on tracing cloth are also best made

with the same agents the powder

is

to adopt for lettering for reproduc-

" a," " e," etc., reduce to not less than

on

the thorough

pumice powder.

formed by a

is

solid ridge of ink.

not give as good results as the pure white or blue-

ish ones.

provided each

strength

body

may

portion

;

the height of the capitals and numerals

A

in accordance.

parts.

very

size

reproduce

(one-half

its

in pro-

must be

drawing to be reduced to one -half

length) has to

twice the standard given above. 32

of

cohtain

lettering just

The lettering on

drav/-


ings to be reduced to a size about

made

three-fourths and two-thirds reduction, should be

miiHmeters (about Lettering- ^i

•Freehand

j

N

3Ud^.J:rM!~ Fig. 51

rail-joint

illustrations

and

^minimum

the foregoing

made

&.

OBIGINAL FOB REPBODUCTION BETWEEN ONE-HALF AND TWO-THIEDS.

The two

high,

clear,

is

shown on

Plate

XI

a

size.

and

called

All

the two-thirds

type of lettering for reduction

c.

Freehand

Lettering-

Fig. 51c. BEPRODUTION FROM EITHEB OF THE ABOVE ORIGINALS.

reduction

is

one-third

its

condensed on

drawings

purposes a proper safeguard to adopt

such as for instance of the letter

section of reservoir) have been reproduced

sizes.

used

What may be

original length.

to

the

is

at a lesser rate

is

to

exaggerate somewhat the width of ovals or small loops,

(details ot

" filling

the

study

Al-

of

in "

A

those parts.

times their re-

spective

e.,

(i.

When

length.)

illustra-

its

good average

a

in.)

from originals five and four

drawing should never be reduced

than to three-fifths of

sufficiently

by the

tions, Fig. iia, b

A

between

halfways

"

e," to

guard against

of

close

i'tliicir-..

Note:- The circle will

three

the

7o/j

^

cfCap will

he sliqirtly oval, and weCeii' frat square, triangle, and

j^above

Da raised about

ttie lettering.

s«u.tt.xoAT,;o.vv,\.«,,

though the draftsman 'is

types

supposed to know

of

given on

lettering

Fig.

i

work, which tend

the exact rate of re-

this

duction, the directions'

to illustrate the

to the engravers are

principle, will also

better given in inches

useful.

or

fractions

placed in pencil un-

derneath 5

1(2;

and

;

b,

Fig.

reduction

52a.

they are for our puposes reproduced on Fig.

same be

The reason

for giving a

thereof,

of

(i.

limit of e.,

Section of Cast Iron Cap

Fig. 526.

one

millimeter height for smaller lower case letters) and the

employment of gothic

but would, of course, not be reproduced by

made evident by

the engraver ordinarily. 33

letters

of uniform strength

is

referring to the illustrations, Fig. 52«,


which presents an example of engraving, such as sometimes indulged reduced to some

The

in,

and

Fig.

52<5,

redrawn

and

For larger reductions

show as much

ble, for instance

it

will

The

be quite essential

.work should in

all

this detail, immaterial as

it

drawing

ink^

rubbed

stick

perhaps blacker than the ordinary

however,

cases

may

or the

ing

processes of photo-reproduction ordinarily em-

is

ink

the

difificuh.

34

however,

kind of black

suitable for the purpose

;

well

objection to the use of ordinary inks,

their

liability

of blurring,

when

handled,

mixing with the Chinese white, render-

application '

is

Any

India ink will permit of very fine black

The main

lines.

appear, not be overlooked.

The

is

kind and possesses more body,

rate of re-

such as designates the thickness of flange

of an I-beam in elevation.

writer uses on such drawing the water-

proof ink, which

of a white space between lines as possi-

be clear and open, and

The

drawing.

strength of the lines of a drawing to be repro-

duction.

Both require a similar grade of preparation of the

cess.

scale.

duced depends of course altogether upon the

to

ployed are the photo- lithographic and zinc etching pro-

is

of

the

color

sometimes

very


)

:

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.',

I

2

345 d 7 89

I894-.

10.

ABCDEF6H/JKLMN0PQR5TUVWXYZ. Ordinary II I W VVim WEX. CROSS SECTION OF GIRDER. of Framing. Extended Lettering. EONOITUDINAE SECTION. Type.

Details

Cross

S^.

Compressed

Type.

INTEHSTATE BRIDbE. 5purWMXDiam.jr(7ce,3pifili,3iTeeth,5.2lfey!5.6lhm^

a bcdefghij

kl

mnopqrstuvwxyz.

ABCDEFGHIJ Ordinary Lettering.

Elxi-eriolool.

I

K

LM NOPQRSTU VWXYZ.

Beam. Eye Bar.

95

Compressed. Ue't,Hb5.peryd.

P'-h.

IHeenf.PL24W'xdd"out5. above Chord. "

-

"

^'

,7Z"xX>^8'0"nextfoWeb.

„ ,7Z"><l"^e'9i" inside. Outs. 6f/ffe/7ersd2L',4"^5xfx3'i0i ^' FillersJ'e^H"^ 2' lli"

I

Diaphragms (Ins.), J /^/f i "thick.

.

EZnc^l

CENTRAL. 2Y, 5'7|', TBolt, Material for Chord Section I

(2WebPlf24"xp25'0" 2 - ", Id-^''xp25'0" 1 lat.BracePI,37'H'W

2 " " PiVlM'^l'IOf 4 Batten mi5"xl"x2'r 4L',

4"x3fxp2E'0"

PLATE

I.

15^"-,

-H""

%.

IIMVVIYIIVIIIKX.

4l5,5x6"x-|i"= 85.ie°"

Spoin

NEW YORK

Material for Reenfprcinq Bottom ChordI

12345678910.

2Webs,48"x2"

N/i^na/. ^-hc:^. Outer Elevation.

&

The Samples ofLefterinq on Lower Portion or thl5 Plate showapproxlmaie

Spaa'ng olLines and also Mode of Crowding in Fmction Numerals. Itwillalsobeseen that it becomes

necessary to oaasionally shorten a Capital orlonger Lower Case Letter. Occasional Brackets orHorizontal Dashes are best made Free Hand the latter with a slow, "wobbling" 5trol<eafthePen.


PLATE

II.


Highest Paint gfHgqf^ _

l,짜Plfimdii-

Z%'Plfoutside'


a

h c

d

e

^d Ut^^ icf짜

A B

f g h 'f'^^yl /fe'

ijklmizopqrstu^vwxyz i

jm

I

fjf%

H^Upt/l 짜'

s^ft

^ifiij,Ui ^,

ii/f

^

CBEFGHIJKLMNOPaRSTUVWXYZ

Freehand

'

i'S^'SB-^ffi'^Shaded Inclined (Italic) Lettering, Used

Printing _

for

Working Drawings.

bcdefg hij klmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFG HIJKLMNOPQESTUVWXYZ a

\

23456789

Freehand Lettering

for Captions,

10.

Produced very Fast.

Through Passenger Service^ etc. PLATE

IV.


)

PLATE V


PLATE

VI.


PLATE

VII.


PeVaAs SV\'\p

C

.

Carva\-

/^ ?. .

Appsirat-us for the*

Aeration of Water.

t)u\u\h.VA\T\u.

Scale

"Vumer — ^no^meeT.

12=

\

-

William Whcel&r,

June

Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

NORTH GERMAN LLOYD, PLANS FOR PROPOSED PIERN9 3, (

90

FT

Consulting En|,ineer,

i4-,i9oo.

Metropolitan Water Works.

Standard

WIDE J

HOBOKEN,

'^«-

Lifters

N.J.

OCT. 1900.

Details

OF

-+>+<

for Screens ^ AND -^

Stop- planks. W. f:tV.

.,

0'W/EnSln& er,

Hoboken, New Jersey.

Full

Size.

\

OF

J1PP/QN6EMENT

—TESTING STATION-—

INSIDE 6H0P/A/0

U.3.S. A/fi7\^y

y^^o^'^^'uG^r' soi^^^-o.

—=C0LUMB1AN

OPEOON. c>e:ros£-e,

OF THE

FIREPROOFING C0.=-

BOSTON, MASS. /^

/ffO/,

PLATE

VIII


ROUND CORNER DETAILS.

COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS.

METROPOLITAN WATER WORKS.

SC/JLE

WACHUSETT DAM.

'/z

INCH^IFT.

These details forS.E,Corner-5iinilar construction at N.E.corner,

GENERAL PLAN OF DAM

— Soo/ve Coc//^ry /fy —

AND APPURTENANCES.

G&nero/ E/eyoHon, Cross •Secfr'ons

^V'5/o//ces

Sco/e i'/i'=/0:

C/j/ef£yfp'neers Ofifce.

Chicago %'//orf/7-iyesMrn /?y. C/7/COOO. Oec.3o'^99.

(S^

Approy^cf Consu/^rry^^T!^'/:

Oraty/'/iffJ/^ Z78/

PITTSBURGH, PA.

New York

&

Brooklyn

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS BUREAU OF FILTRATION

Bridqe

Present. Details of Bottom Connections.

CONTRACT

Scale ^in.to

1

-R-.

Sept.

130I.

PLATE

NO,

I

FILTERS.BASINS AND APPURTENANCES INTERIOR DRAINS DETAIL PLAN OF ONE FILTER

Suspenders Sc Stays.

IX.


a/ /&

/iy i5 cl/

/^/f ^a/ /^ A/ Jv

^^ ^ aa/v/w o

AOypf /tx-^

/wux&C' UvA-ce"

PLATE

X.

/fc^

^^/M/xe/ of ihe/


Meridians.

PLATE

XI


.1

.

.

.1

PLATE

XII.

Cross Section, Millimeters.


BOOKS FOR DRAUGHTSMEN. POK SALE BY

VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,

D.

23 Murray and 27 Warren. Andre, Geo. G. —The

Draughtsman's Hand Book of Plan and Map Drawing including Instructions for the preparation of Engineering, Architectural and Mechanical Drawings. 8vo, cloth ;

Barber, T.

3.75

W.—

The Engineers' Sketch Book of Mechanical Movements, Devices, Apphances, Contrivances, Details employed in the Design and Construction of Machinery for every purpose. Nearlv 2,000

illustrations.

Cathcart,

W.

Li.

".

8vo, cloth

—Machine Design.

Part

I,

Fastenings.

net,

4.00

3.00

Cryer, T. and Jordan,

Instruments their Construction, Adjustment, Testiiig, and Use, Comprising Drawing, Measuring, Optical, Surveying, and Astronomical Instruments. Enlarged edition, for the most part re-written. With numerous diagrams and figiires. 12mo, cloth

for Machinists

1.20

and Engineers.

Comprising a complete course of Drawing adapted to the requirements of Millwrights and Engineers also, course of practical instruction in the coloring of Mechanical Drawings. 4th edition, 16mo

— Problems in

;

Machine Designs.

Second edition.

2.00

Lobben, P. —Machinists'

and Draftsmen's Handbook; containing tables, rules, and formulas, with numerous examples explaining the principles of mathematics and mechanics, as appUed to the mechanical trades. Intended as a reference book for all interested in mechanical work.

8vo, cloth, illustrated

2.50

;

Donaldson, Jas.

1.50

Drawing and Eough Sketching for Marine Engineers, with Proportions, Instructions, Explanations and Examples, intended for the use of Seagoing Engineers and others in preparing Working Sketches and Eough Drawings also, how to Design Engines, 4th Boilers, Propellers, Paddle Wheels, Shafts, Eods, Valves, etc. edition. Illustrated. Cloth

The Building and Machine. —A

gifide to the projection

Engineers' and Machinists' Drawing Book.—A course of Instruction for the Practical Engineer. numerous engravings, 4to, half mor

Wm. and Chas. "W.

4.00

2.00

Ripper, William. — A

by 10.00

Thomas. A Practical Course in MechanDrawing. Being a course of progressive lessons illustrated with and figures. Especially adapted to use of schools, colmany diagrams Second edition revised. 12mo, cloth leges, etc.

Fox,

2.00

complete

Illustrated

illustrations for Drawing Plans, Sections and Elevations of Buildings and Machinery an Introduction to Isometrical Drawing, and an Essay on Linear Perspective and Shadows. Illustrated by over 200 diagrams, engraved on steel. With an Appendix on the Theory and Application of Colors. 8vo, cloth, 9th thousand Geometrical Drawing. Abridged from the octavo edition, for the Illustrated with 48 steel plates. use of Schools. Ninth edition, revised and eiHarged. 12mo, cloth ;

2.40

practical

and delineation of subjects met with in the practice of the Engineer, Machinist and Building Constructor, etc. 12mo, cloth

Wni.—Mechanical

Drawing. A Text-Book of Geometrical Drawing, for the use of Mechanics and Schools, in which the Definitions and Eules of Geometry are familiarly explained; the Practical Problems are arranged from the most simple to the more complex, and in their descriptions technicahties are avoided as much as possible.

Minifie,

With

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Draug'htsnian,

1.80

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Davidson, E. A. —Drawing

York.

The object of this work is to provide a simple, practical course of progressive lessons in Mechanical Drawing. All instructions are given in connection with a special concrete exercise, instead of being presented in an abstract and general manner.

Innes, C. H.

H.G.—Machine Construction and Mechanical Drawing including Spur and Bevel Gearing. For the Use of Students in Science and Technical Schools. Quarto, cloth

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Heather, J. F. —Mathematical

8vo, cloth,

iUustrated

Streets,

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ical

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Course of Instruction in Machine Drawing and Design for Technical Schools and Engineer Students. With 52 plates and numerous explanatory engravings. EoUo, cloth Rose, Joshua.- Mechanical Drawing Self-Taught. Comprising Instructions in the Selection and Preparation of Drawing Instruments, Elementary Instruction in Practical Mechanical Drawing, together with Examples in Simple Geometry and Elementary Mechanism, including Screw Threads, Gear Wheels, Mechanical Motions, Engines

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Here are a few BOOKS that may

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AMERICAN RAILROAD BRIDGES. eOpages,

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26

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By Theodore Cooper,

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page plates

CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS. MANUAL OF Axeman, Chainman and Eodman, Answers Questions and

Transitman and

for positions of Computer : Each part $0.60, Complete

Assistant Engineer,

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ENGINEERING NEWS A

Journal of

Civil,

Mechanical, Mining and Electrical Engineering. Founded 1874.

Published every Thursday at 220 Broadway,

New

Subscription $5 a year to any part of the trorld.

Tork.

The Engineering News

circulates in every part of the world

paid subscribers than any other Engineering Journal published. interests in the field of Engineering,

Engineering Education,

As

etc.,

a literary magazine

Its

finds a personal value in

its

many

Municipal work,

forms a continuous and up -to date weekly record of Engineering

sable to Contractors, Manufacturers and others

who

exceptional opportunities for buying and selling

all

all

of actually

pages.

progress in America that cannot be equaled, and as a commercial medium

competition on

list

readers represent the

Contracting, Railroading, Manufacturing,

and every one it

and has a larger

are on the ^wzz/zz/^ for

it

makes

itself

indispen-

new business, presenting

kinds of machinery and supplies and for wide

classes of contracts.

ENGINEERING LITERATURE A

Supplement to Engineering News, issued about the middle of each month, gives lists of books published during the month and reviews of all the principal books written by recognized authorities on the different subjects, together with other information regarding Engineering Literature.


)

Second Edition

Postpafi

Price, $1.00

" Awhile deprecating any needlessly elaborate finish, the writer

"

advises the use of just sufficient

shading and finishing touches to render a drawing thoroughly comprehensible and to preclude

any possible ambiguity.

It is

of course to be under-

stood, that this

manual it

'

serves

book

is

beginners' exactly

its.

purpose best, where

used by the draftsman

"

The illustrations in this work, quite a number of which have

not a

for

who

;

is

familiar with the mathematical

principles of mechanical drafting.

appeared in the columns of 'Engineering News,' are inserted to demonstrate the points involved and have been reduced more or less in size so as to save space. They may however be

It will

then, as the writer hopes,

prove a valuable aid to the rapid production of neat, correct and legible

drawings." (PREFACE.

copied by enlarging to about 3 or

4 times their linear dimensions.''

Second. Thoroughly Revised and Enlarged, Edition Price. $1.00 90 Text Illustrations, 11 Plates.

TESTIMONIALS Mr. Rein"I have examined the book carefully and am much pleased with it. the hardt is to be congratulated on having clearly, simply and briefly explained clearness great for their methods he has used in making his drawings remarkable draftsman."— of every desk be on the that should book is a It legibility and Prof. C. B. Wing. Leland Stanford, Jr., University. ••1

Prof.

find

it

Walter

most excellently adapted Flint,

to tlie

purpose for which

"Am

greatly pleased with ing, "—Prof. Robt. L. Lund,

it;

"It admirably

I

is

intended."—

itoccupies a

field

of its

own among books on

fills

draft-

Vanderbilt University,

"-Prof. C. "It should be in the library of every draftsman. State University. Civil

it

University of Maine.

W. Marx,

Missouri

a long-felt want."— Prof. John L. Mnnn, Thayer School of

Engineering.-

elegant examples that "It is certainly the best compendium of instruction and Thayer School of Civil Engihave slen."-Prot. Robert Fletcher, Ph.D., Director

neering,

"It will form a useful supplement to Mr. Reinhardt's 'System of Lettering.' —Prof., E. H. Lockwood, Sheffield Scientific School.

"

Your "Have adopted it as a reference book for our civil engineering students. 'Lettering' has been the means of bringing about a distinct lift in the standard of freehand lettering, and, 1 predict a like result in the field covered by your new work."— Prof. W, D. Pence, Purdue University. "Reinhardt's 'Technic of Mechanical Drafting,' is a book that should he in the It describes those subtle details in drafting department of every engineer's office. execution which constitute the essentials of effective expression in a drawing, both This stateas to truthfulness in its representation as well as its artistic finish. ment is admirably illustrated by the contrasts shown in Figs, 6, 7, 22 and 46. In view of the important part of detail drawings in all kinds of construction, it is an important service/ to show how the element of thorough legibility may be assured without necessarily increasing the cost of the drawing. My early experience of six years in a drafting-room leads me to appreciate the importance of many hints which might otherwise appear to be of little, it any, value.* Each of the chapters on 'Outline Shading," and on "Section Lining,' are alone worth the price of the book." —Prof. Henry S. Jacoby, Cornell University,

The Engineering News Publishing

Co.,

220 Broadway,

New YorR



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