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The trip The town

eTwinning 2017/2018 Cooperation between Tunisia Poland Germany Greece Spain Italy TOPIC: CULTURAL HERITAGE


The CulMag we are presenting has been created by the students and teachers of six secondary schools who for the last school year have been collaborating on an eTwinning project called “The Golden-Fleece: from Athens to Brussels. Our Cultural Heritage”. The focus of our project was to discover our Cultural Heritage. We pretended to be modern Argonauts voyaging in time, looking for what is necessary to build a new Argo. Each of us has reported the most important things from their cultural heritage such as arts, architecture, literature, folklore, writing pieces of journal, making interviews and impossible interviews, saving books from the fire and showing us what life is like after the loss of our cultural patrimony. Teachers: Lamia Ben Amor, Andrea Sternberg, Maciej Müller, Nieves Crespo, Kyriaki Katsirou, Giusi Gualtieri

The schools : Lycée de Grombalia, Tunisia Marianum Fulda, Germany Zespół szkół ogólnokształcących no.6 nad, Poland 4ο ΓΕΝΙΚΟ ΛΥΚΕΙΟ ΚΑΛΑΜΑΤΑΣ, Greece IES LUIS CHAMIZO, Spain Liceo Scientifico Statale "G. Galilei", Corso Bilingue EsaBac Perugia Italy


Contents : Padlet Tricider Talos Interview

Modern Argonauts? p. 4

Section #1 The Journey The journey



Special Who were the Argonauts? p. 6 The journey 2

p. 7

Hanno, the navigator

p. 8

Prometheus The Story p. 11 Special How did Zeus punish him? p. 12

p. 13 p. 14 p. 15

Section #2 The Town Argo the Town p.18 Argo’s Civil Architectural Elements p. 19 Video p. 27 Argo’s Cuisine p.28 Argo’s Library p. 32 Argo’s Gallery p. 39 Argos’ Folklore p. 44 Video interviews p. 52 Special Contents p. 53 Infographics p. 56



They are a crew of more than 100 students from all over Europe, looking for their own cultural heritage and the roots of their identity They pretend to be Argonautai of XXI Century and, following in the footsteps of their ancient brothers, they are travelling all around Europe and the Mediterranean looking for their magical golden-fleece : their Cultural Heritage. They started their quest from the Colchis: a far away land where they first met Prometheus, the father of humanity, and many other strange creatures. Talking with Prometheus they understood the link between fire and Civilisation and they decided to build a town, Argo’s town, where they could collect all the pieces of culture they want to preserve.


Section 1 # Argonautica – Agonauts’ Journey 1

By Irene e FrancescO HOW THEY REACHED COLCHIS – part 1 Heracles was originally proposed as the head of the exploration: he refused and proposed Jason who, even if he was young and inexperienced, accepted and organized the trip. The first island that the Argonauts met along the way was Lemnos, inhabited by women only; these skilled warriors had been cursed by Aphrodite, who had led them to exterminate all the men. Initially they attacked the Argonauts but then they offered them hospitality.

Hypsipyle, queen of the island, asked them to stay but, eventually, the argonauts decided to keep going on their exploration. After a quick stop ad Cizico’s island and a fight won against the Giants who inhabitated that island, they reached Athen. Here, they have to fight the rage of Rhea, goddess of the earth, who was offended by the defeat of the giants. The argonauts decided to calm down the goddes by building an altar for her.


On their way to reach Colchis, they decided to challenge themselves: whoever could row the most was the strongest. Tired and exhausted, they decided to stop to an island: there, Lla, Heracle’s lover, was kidnapped forever by some nymphs. They decide, again, to keep going. They reach the island of Bebrico first, where they defeated the king of the island, Poseidone’s son and then the island of Tinia: here, Apollo’s son celebrated them and their exploration. Then they arrived to the island of Mariandine, where King Lico, happy for the death of his rival, Poseidone’s son ,offered them his son Dascilo as a guide.

Jason, faced with the decimation of his men, decided to make a brief stop in Sinope, in Paflagonia, where he recruited three new men. Then the Argonauts arrived in front of the small island of Dia, sacred to Ares, the god of war. Immediately flocks of birds rose from that unfortunate place and attacked the ship. They defeated them and landed on the island. Then a violent storm broke out, arrived all together at the mouth of the river Fasi, which bathes the Colchis, Giasone convened an assembly to decide how to recover the golden fleece.

Special by German Argonauts Follow the link: Argonauts


The Journey 2

By Marta, Margherita, Giorgia We begun our trip in Iolco, from Iolco the Aegean See was our “land” until we reach the Colchis through Istanbul. What we learnt during these stops is very important for our goal. In Iolcos, where the Argonauts born, we learnt the Cumcordia is the most important value to attempt every adventure; when we arrived to the Minotaurus we get lost in its labyrinth.

Once we met it we understand labyrinth is the symbol of Culture and Culture is the symbol of humankind. After a long walk around to Athens Instabul Korca… we arrived in the far wild Colchis. In this land without law _ so Apollonio Rodio said _ we eventually talked with the father of human kind : Prometheus.

Come with us


The Journey 3

The Carthaginian Melkart, in the Temple of Kronos

By Tunisian Argonauts Hanno the navigator The Phoenicians were known as the greatest navigators in the Antiquity and the first to have sailed over all seas of the ancient world. They established cities in the eastern Mediterranean: Ugarit, Arwad, Byblos, Tyre, Sidon ... Their descendants settled in various trading posts and all known territories of the time, especially the Carthaginians, marked history with their journeys and their exploits. Ancient texts have kept some of these narratives and discovery journeys such as: the voyage of King Hiram of Tyre and Solomon to the country of Ophir (tenth

century BC), the expedition funded by the Pharaoh Necho II (late seventh century), exploratory trips of the Carthaginians Hanno and Himilcon , to Africa and to North Europe (the British Isles and Ireland, 450 BC). All these voyages were intended to find gold and riches as well as indispensable raw materials for the handicraft development and trade. They also sought new routes as well as strategic locations for the establishments of the new trade counters to facilitate their progression on the road for discovering new lands.


The only trip which has reached us is that of the Carthaginian Hanno in the first quarter of the fifth century (425 BC), It was named in the annals of maritime exploration as the Periplus of Hanno. The narration of the journey was engraved on the walls of Melqart temple at Carthage, which was destroyed by the Romans as well as the entire city. This story has been reported through the transcriptions carried out on site by visitors and Greek historians. The translation of the Greek text recounts the following: "This is the story of the long voyage of Hanno king of the Carthaginians into Libyan lands beyond the Pillars of Heracles, which he dedicated on a tablet in the temple of Kronos (the Carhaginian Melqart):

I. The Carthaginians decided that Hanno should sail beyond the Pillars of Heracles and found cities of Libyan phoenicians He set sail with sixty penteconters and about thirty thousand men and women, and provisions and other necessaries. And the narrative goes on and on to describe the places, the people and the dangers they encountered during this trip. The most enthusiastic are convinced that Hanno has reached the shores of Cameroon (the Chariot of the gods mentioned in the transcript- would correspond to the Mount Cameroon volcano). They claim that he has reached the Senegal River.




The Story

The Godness Athena supervising Prometheus creating the first man.

By Irene & Francesco The myth IN GREEK CULTURE – PART 1 In Greek mythology, and in particular in Hesiodo’s Teogony, Prometheus was one of the Titans. Son of Titan Iapetus and brother of Menoetius, Atlas and Epimetheus, he was presented as a challenger of Zeus’ infinite power. In all accounts, Prometheus was presented to be the protector and benefactor of mankind. In an event called «Trick at Mecone», he made Zeus choose between two options: the first being an ox’s stomach that contained beef hidden inside it (something repugnant that contained something

pleasing); the second one being bones wrapped inside glistening fat (something inedible hidden inside something pleasing). At the end, Zeus choosed the last one: a precedent was created and from that time on, the human kind had to sacrifice meet in order to please the gods’ will. As a result, Zeus was enraged and hid fire from humans since that moment. Prometheus, in an effort to help humans to get fire back, stolen it form Zeus’ hands and gave it to the humankind.


Infuriated more than ever, the gods’ father asked Hephaestus to create Pandora: being the first woman to ever appear among humans, she would’ve brought (according to Hesiod) problems to mankind. He also punished Prometheus by having him chained to a rock where an eagle would eat his liver during the day and that same liver would regenerate itself at night, due to his immortality. He was later saved by the demigod Hercules. The myth in Plato’s “Protagora” – part 2 Plato puts in the mouth of Protagoras a reworked myth of Prometheus and Epimetheus in the dialogue that bears his name (Protagoras, 320d322d), in which Pandora is out and Epimetheus' clumsiness is responsible for man's weakness, while Prometheus is responsible for bringing them fire and the arts stolen from Hephæstus and Athena, before Zeus intervenes to instruct Hermes to bring them justice and a sense of shame that would make it possible for them to associate and live in cities (Polis, but we’ll talk about that later). Again, in the myth of the Statesman about the golden age of Cronus and the time when the earth is left to itself, in a reference to god given gifts to men, Prometheus is mentioned as the one who gave men fire. And in the Philebus, Socrates attributes to "some sort of Prometheus" the godly gift of "a most dazzling fire" that allows men to partake in the knowledge of the one and the many.

participating citizens voted directly on legislation and executive bills. Participation was not open to all residents: to vote one had to be an adult, male citizen i.e. neither a foreign resident, slave or a woman and the number of these "varied between 30,000 and 50,000 out of a total population of around 250,000 to 300,000.

POLIS AND DEMOCRACY - part 3 A polis was the typical structure of a community in the ancient Greek world. A polis consisted of an urban centre, often fortified and with a sacred centre built on a natural acropolis or harbour, which controlled a surrounding territory of land. The term polis has been translated as ‘city-state’ as there was typically only one city and because an individual polis was independent from other poleis in terms of political, judicial, legal, religious and social institutions and practices, each polis was in effect a state. The polis is also where democracy was born. It was a system of direct democracy, in which


Special contents By all the modern Argonauts

A special guest _ The impossible interview By Gabriele T. Travelling around the world and the time, the Argonauts met many strange creatures: Medea, the amazons, Talos the first robot, Circe the sorceress, Prometheus, Polyphemus, the Minotaurus,... they’ve made an impossible interview with one of these strange creatures. Can you imagine who is it? Turn the page and have a look at our tricider. You will discovered it! In the following pages you will read the Interview the reporter Yasmine made for us.



Special content by German Argonauts

The Interview By Yasmine Romdhane Talos was a mythical bronze giant, the first robot in history, which protected Minoan Crete from wouldbe invaders. Talos is one of the best-loved legendary characters in the ancient world and one of the most important Greek myths. Thanks to the world’s greatest technologists who invested all of their time and energy in the enhancement of nowadays’ technological capabilities, life has become much more easier and as a result of the staggering development of technology over the last three decades, we are now able to travel through space and time! This is one of the most astonishing inventions and probably the greatest thing humanity has ever

accomplished. This brilliant innovation is the key to countless unsolved mysteries and therefore, a drastic change in the human development is anticipated. Classicists already started to exploit the time machine to discover more about Greek mythology. Last week on Thursday the 25th of January 2018, a group of Greek Mythologists traveled back in time with the help of some space engineers to interview one of the most famous Greek mythological figures; Talos. The group of classicists managed to have an unbelievably interesting conversation with the mythological hero which we will contentedly share with all of you today. - Thursday the 25th of January 2018


Interview between Talos and classicist Ambrosio Apostolos:


Ambrosio: Hello Talos! Talos: Who are you and why do you look so strange? What are you doing in Crete? Ambrosio: Don’t attack us Talos, for we pose no threat to Crete. We are Greek Mythologists from the 21st century. We’d like to ask you a few questions, if you please. Talos: Be my guest! Ask ahead. Ambrosio: Would you like to begin with introducing yourself to us?

Talos: Sure thing! I am the vigorous Talos, also known as the first robotlike creature in human mythology. I am the son of Cres and the great god

Hephaestus. I am the unsleeping guardian of Crete. Ambrosio: Why were you created? What is your purpose? Talos: My mighty creators constructed me to defend Crete from invaders. I circle the island three times a day. Minos, the king of Crete, thinks that there is no need to build walls to protect the cities because I am strong enough to keep all the attackers miles away from our beautiful island. Ambrosio: Isn’t it a little difficult to protect this whole land on your own? How do you manage to keep it so safe around here? Talos: Absolutely not! I do not allow any enemy ships to even get close to the island. I keep them away by hurling massive rocks to sink the wooden ships of those who dare to

Talos the Giant


threaten Crete. And if any managed to escape these rocks and set foot on land, a nasty surprise lies in store for them. Ambrosio: Could you tell us about the nasty surprise? We’re really interested in your strategies and techniques. Talos: It’s pretty easy! I enter a fire until my enormous bronze body becomes red hot, and I clasp the enemies in a tight embrace, burning them to death. They usually die with their mouths wide open in agony and horror. Muahahaha! Ambrosio: That’s uhm, thrilling! Talos: Yes it is. Whenever I crush or burn an enemy I break into laughter. Ambrosio: So that’s where the expression “sardonic laughter” came from!

but also from any kind of injustice. I go around the villages of the island three times a year, carrying on my back bronze tablets inscribed with the divine laws. The aim is to ensure that the laws are kept in the provinces of Crete. Long ago, justice was dispended by Rhadamanthys. After their deaths, my brother Minos and me became judges of the souls in Hades. Ambrosio: Also called the symbols of absolute justice! Talos: Yes. I like that! Ambrosio: Thank you very much Talos! We are very glad we could have a conversation with you. What would you like to say to the people of the 21st century?

Ambrosio: So Talos, is protecting Crete from invaders your only duty? Or do you have any other duties?

Talos: You’re welcome. I’d like to say hi to everybody and I also want to thank you for putting the time and effort into studying Greek mythology. And never forget people, justice and only justice, shall always be our motto.

Talos: Great question! My duty is not only to protect Crete from enemies,

Ambrosio: I’ll make sure that the whole world gets your message!

Talos: Probably, yeah.


Section # 2 Argo the town

By Agostinelli & Maysa After we had talked with Promethues, we understood that the FIRE he had stolen gave us the TECHNE' that is "Know how to become humankind". We asked Prometheus why he is considered "the Father of Humanity", and we understood that Humanity born when it knows how to build town, arts and crafts to protect himself from animals and from itself. In the Plato’s myth version, indeed, once mankind built town, risked to be destroyed by itself: it is the reason why Zeus, through Prometheus, gives to it politics, the most important techné. The word "politic", in fact, came from "polis", that means Town. The Town that humankind built to protect himself as the myth teach us. In such way, we understood, at the end, that “tecné” and “know how” are another way to say "Culture". After we spoke with the Titan, we decided to build ARGONAUTS TOWN to prove that Humankind is nothing without its Cultural Heritage: even if each nation has its own Culture, the fact is that, for us, it is always a matter of "having a Culture". We, modern Argonauts from Tunisia, Greece, Germany, Spain, Polish and Italy travelled all around the centuries looking for Our perpetual Cultural Heritage with which we created a Town: "Argo’s Town"


Argo's Civil Architectonic Elements

Which kind of civil structures towns must have to make life safe comfortable and meaningful? In our Argonauts trip we discovered many towns in Italy and learning lots about what we need to build our city. Let’s discovering with us where we was ‌

Visit our padlet. It is in the Forum!


The walls


By Tunisian argonauts

Kairawan is the first Moslem settlement in Tunisia and has the oldest mosque. The limits of a Medina are usually defined by a fortress as you can see part of it in the picture. Almost all big, known cities in Tunisia have their medinas. In Tunis, the capital of Tunisia, the 9th

century Medina, was originally surrounded by walls. Today the walls are gone, but the area is filled with narrow streets, souks, mosques, and historic structures. The Tunis Medina became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979 and has over 700 monuments dating back to the Almohad and the Hafsid periods of Tunisian history.


The Public spaces

by Sara Ambrona Zahira Chamizo Angélica Bravo

WE NEED PUBLIC SPACES IN OUR CITY PUBLIC SPACE provides identity and character to the city and make it an habitable place full of natural, cultural and patrimonial sites. PUBLIC SPACES represent the urban essence. From ancient times to the present day, these places are the citizen meeting spaces for exchanging opinions and ideas. Ancient Greeks called them “Ágora” and Romans “Romanum Forum”

the city and it reminds us that people who live in the same town belong to a community with strong links. In Spain, Main Squares represent these emblematic public spaces, which are our Roman and Greek great cultural heritage. A city, a town, a village without squares, green spaces, parks is not therefore an appropiate place to living.

Sharing experiences in public spaces develops the common interest in urban life, it increases the citizen participation in the political affairs of


The Medina

By By Yossr Baaziz In Tunisia and during the 2011 revolution people reclaimed and reoccpied public places again, mainly the main avenue in Tunis: Avenue Habib Bourguiba. It became symbol of freedom, democracy and struggle against all kinds of oppression. A city, a town, a village without squares, green spaces, parks is therefore an inappropiate place to live in.

UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979 and has over 700 monuments dating back to the Almohad and the Hafsid periods of Tunisian history.

The Medinas of Tunisia, The limits of a Medina are usually defined by a fortress as you can see part of it in the picture. Almost all big, known cities in Tunisia have their medinas. In Tunis, the capital of Tunisia, the 9th century Medina, was originally surrounded by walls. Today the walls are gone, but the area is filled with narrow streets, souks, mosques, and historic structures. The Tunis Medina became a


Links for Argo special contents: usigualtieri54/argonautsarchitecture-101869217 by Italian Argonauts pk by Tunisian Argonauts

By spanish argonauts 4-main-squares-in-spanishtowns?embed=1 usigualtieri54/agora-1102806177 usigualtieri54/foro-romano102806247 by Spanish Argonauts

The Colosseum. Roma


The Colosseum by night

The Colosseum By Letizia, Giorgia, Margherita, Anuar We have chosen this building because it is the most representative of Italy. We belive monuments are very important in forming civil identity … and Colosseum is a truly symbol of Italy and Rome, its capital. The Colosseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is a large amphitheatre in the city of Rome. The construction of the Colosseum started around 70–72 AD and was finished in 80 AD. Emperor Vespasian started the work, and Emperor Titus completed it.

Emperor Domitian made some changes to the building between 81–96 AD. It had seating for 50,000 people. It was 156 metres wide, 189 metres long and 57 metres tall. It is the biggest amphitheatre built by the Roman Empire. The Colosseum was first called the Flavian Amphitheatre or in latin, the Amphitheatrum Flavium. This was after Vespasian and Titus who had the family name of Flavius. It was used for gladiatorial contests, and other shows like animal hunts, in which animals would hunt and eat prisoners; or in which gladiators would fight against animals. There were also execution of prisoners, plays, and battle scenes; sometimes it was filled with water to fight sea battles. The people of Rome could go into the Colosseum without any costs; it was free. In the Middle Ages it was no longer used for performances. It was then used as housing, workshops, a Christian shrine, and as a supply of building stones. It is now a ruin because of earthquakes. The Colosseum is a symbol of the Roman Empire. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions. On Good Fridays, the Pope leads a torch lit “ Way of the Cross” procession around the various levels of the amphitheatre.


Services _ Fountain By Anuar, Margherita , Letizia, Giorgia

The main Fountain _ FONTANA MAGGIORE Perugia

How much importance do you give to the fountain in your town? Maybe you should know , before answering, that up until the XIII* century people had to go leave the town to take water... Perugia’s people made this fountain that’s one of the first city’s fountain in the world. The Fontana Maggiore is a monumental medieval fountain located between the cathedral and the Palazzo dei Priori in the city of Perugia in Italy. It was made between 1277 and 1278 by sculptors Nicola Pisano and Giovanni Pisano. The

hydraulics were by Fathers Bevignate and Boninsegna. The fountain was part of program of civic improvements begun in 1278 to celebrate the autonomy of the free commune of Perugia. On the twenty-five sides of the basin are sculptures representing prophets and saints, the labours of the months, the signs of the zodiac, scenes from Genesis, and events from Roman history. This is the most important monument in our town because it is in the historical city


centre. It is the place where young people meet on Saturday nights.

What We learn studying an old city as Pompei by Letizia, Giorgia, Margherita e Anuar After we watched a short documentary about an ancient town, Pompei, we learnt what are the elements used to build a city in the past. We learnt that, except the walls, all the others elements are presents almost in all the contemporary towns. This thing can be an evidence of an universal need that define humankind: create something that last in the time that we can call Cultural Heritage. In the list below you can find some of the elements in the old Pompei we can find nowadays in our towns. All these elements are linked to the food, the religion, the public spaces the arts ‌ in brief to our Cultural Heritage.


Religious places

San George church, Venise

By Italian Argonauts Letizia, Giorgia, Margherita e Anuar We have chosen this monument because we believe, no matter our religion, templum are for celebrating our wish to be not alone in the universe San Giorgio Maggiore, architecturally influential church in Venice, designed in 1566 by Andrea Palladio and finished in 1610 by Vincenzo Scamozzi. The church stands on the island of San Giorgio Maggiore, opposite the monumental San Marco Basilica, and is one of the first sights of Venice visible to the traveller approaching by sea.

Palladio’s façade shows a characteristically Mannerist arrangement of Classical elements, dominated by a central pediment that is flanked by the two halves of a broken pediment. The building is also notable for its spacious light-filled interior, in which a screen of columns separates the high altar from the monastic choir behind it.


Video By Polish Argonauts

Special contents By Tunisian Argonauts

Follow the link …. /30


Argo’s Cuisine


Food &Culture

By Miriam, Claudia, Gaia e Valentiva By italian argonauts,

FIRE is the father of any civilisation. Thinking again about Prometheus Myth, we can connect fire with the cooking startingpoint. In fact Fire gave humanity the

possibility to cook food and, cooked food, took us from a “natural phase” into the Culture. Moreover, Fire is the startingpoint of every mythology and is the origin of all metamorphosis. Claude Lévi-Strauss, anthropologist from XX century, explains this theory in the essay “The raw and the cooked”, published in 1964, the first of 4 volumes dedicate to all the South America’s Mythology. Referring Lèvi-Strauss theory we can say that Culture = the cooked while Nature = the Raw. Why?

Because In the same moment we started using fire, the Fire started producing humankind. We can sum up his research saying that for Lévi-Strauss “Kitchen is the start up of humanity, the big bang of any civilisations. In many Amerindian cosmogonies, in fact, the birth of the first woman ad the first man have been by a cooking”. Our food is our memory. A smell, in fact, can remind us old memory, can make us happy or sad. Food speaks about our childhood, about our family’s life, about the history of our community and our country and, at list, about humankind.


Special Contents of our common Cuisine

By spanish argonauts owframe/52932725/Stories-of-Tunisiandelights#page/1

Polish food by Polish Argonauts

By Italian Argonauts rum/54224/topic/594793


Argo’s Library

Monteripido Library (1438), Perugia


What is a Library?

By Angel Cella Nadia Maysa Roberta Marta

Maybe the best way to disclose Library's nature is to compare it with a Labyrinth. Libraries have a labyrinthic nature as Culture well. In a library, no matter how big or little it is, you can find townsand and towsand of histories, lives, world's, colours, sentiments, reasons, perspectives, theories, philosophies, persons... all they are alive and speak to us from the past. It's the reason why we decide to introduce "ARGO LIBRARY" with these superb scenes of "The Nome of the Rose" (1986), by Annaud based on the U. Eco Master piece "Il nome della rosa" (1980).

This first clip is when the principal characters, a monk and his disciple, found the secret Library where monks in the monastery preserved ancient hidden books, most of them forbidden in that century. The clip clearly shows us the Labyrinthic nature of Culture. A second videoclip we suggest you to watch, we want just resume, briefly, how Culture have been preserved during the centuries before Press invention and also reflect on all all the master pieces, probably, we've loose. The third video clip we are referring to is very emblematic: it tells us how the fire took place in the Library: an old monk, believing books _ except holy


writes _ came from devil and corrupt humankind, destroy the library. Only few books are saved from the fire. Last scene of the film are dramatic with purpose: we think that this scene want us to consider how big must be the loss if the fire could destroy a library; and also how precious is what we preserving there, and, least but not last, how important is to spread our heritage. Referring these reasons, we though should be necessary to have a library in Argo’s Town. In this library we kept saved and sound what we consider the books most representative of our culture. The Divine Comedy

culture : Dante is a pilgrim. But it’s pilgrimage is not in “the space and the time”. He point upwards through God thus through the wisdom and the knowledge that is the mark print of humankind. “… fatti non foste per viver come bruti, ma per seguire virtute e canoscenza” “You weren’t born to live like animals, but to follow virtue and knowledge”

Don Quijote, our literary heroe

By Italian Argonauts Angel Cella, AgoFederica

The Divine Comedy is a long narrative poem and It is widely considered to be the preeminent work in italian

By Spanish Argonauts

literature. The poem's imaginative vision of the afterlife is representative of the medieval world-view. It helped establish the Tuscan language (in which it is written). It is diveded into three parts: Inferno (hell), Purgatorio (purgatory) and Paradiso (heaven). The Di vine Comedy has been a source of inspiration for countless artists for almost seven centuries (ex. In music, in sculpture, in cinema, in computer games, etc...). We think it’s a powerful symbol of the meaning of

Cervantes work’s character, Alonso Quijano, was a Spanish noble who had fallen on hard times. He was so obsessed with cavalry books that he lost his mind and thought of him as a true knight. With this in mind, he left his village in order to imitate his literary heroes (Amadis de Gaula, Orlando, Lancelot, Tristán). He became the famous Don Quijote de la Mancha - armed with a shinning armour, a helmet and a lance, ridind a fabulous sheed, followed by his loyal squire, Sancho Panza and idyllically in love with his lady, Dulcinea del


Toboso-. He got in his way to right the wrongs, to promote justice, to win his lady’s heart and gain eternal fama.

But, who was Don Quijote in reality? He was a crazy elderly man, dressed in ridiculous clothes, riding a horse as old as him, followed by a poor farmworker and idyllicaly in love with a rough innkeeper. However, he was a great believer in his strength and his ideals. For this reason he is constantly exposing himself to danger and once and again he fails, but he never becomes dispirited. Loads of readers have admired this “Quijote energy” to undertake new adventures despite the defeats over time. Don Quijote is truly similar ancient heroes who faced suffering, injustice, mockery and cruelty. Athough D. Quijote is a crazy idealist who ended all of his adventures in failures, he never gives up, he fights for everyone else.

By Germans Argonauts The first bible translation was written by Martin Luther. He wrote it while he was staying on the Wartburg near Eisenach. He translated it from ancient Greek to German. It is still one of the most important books in German history and came out in 1534. It not only had a huge influence on religion, but also on the German language. Luther‘s bible translation was the basis for a unified German language in a time when every region had its own which could hardly be understood by German people from other regions. In 2015 it was added to the UNESCO world document heritage. Abu-l-Ala al-Maari

Therefore, this qualitities, he has, turn him into and indispensable hero of our time. DON QUIJOTE CAN’T DIE. The first bible translation by Martin Luther By Amani Atrous

When we speak about Arabic literature particularly classics, we cannot discuss that topic without mentioning the name of Abu-l-Ala alMaari and perhaps we may ask what distinguishes him? and why he is so famous until today, after all, we are in


the 21 century. I know that the one who reads this will still be having an ambiguous idea about this philosopher, poet, and writer. Impressive, isn’t it?. Abu al-ʿAla was a blind man, a prisoner trapped in three different palaces, imprisoned in his weak body, imprisoned in the darkness and of course, imprisoned in his wounded soul. He was born in December 973 in Maarrat al-Numan, Hamdanid Emirate of Aleppo where he studied , then in Tripoli and Antioch. Producing popular poems in Baghdad, he nevertheless refused to sell his texts. In 1010, he returned to Syria after his mother began declining in health, and continued writing which gained him local respect, which leads us to speak about his works. He commenced his career with a collection of poems called The Tinder Spark (Saqṭ al- Zand; ‫)لزند سقط‬. ‫ا‬ The collection of poems included praise of notable people of Aleppo and the Hamdanid ruler Sa'd al- Dawla. It gained great popularity and established his reputation as a poet. A few poems in the collection were about armour. But what we really want to talk about is his third work - a very famous onewhich is a work of prose known as The Epistle of Forgiveness (Resalat AlGhufran). The work was written as a direct response to the Arabic poet Ibn al-Qarih, whom al- Maʿarri mocks for his religious views.[9][24] In this work, the poet visits paradise and meets the Arab poets of the pagan period, contrary to Muslim doctrine which holds that only those who believe in God can find salvation. Because of the aspect of conversing with the deceased in paradise, the Resalat Al- Ghufran has been compared to the Divine Comedy of Dante which came hundreds of years after.

Many researchers were held in order to find all aspects of similarities and aspects of the difference between the two works, depending on the study of texts from the inside, not on the historical evidence, which do not prevent the possibility of a connection between Dante and AL Ma'rri work, by one or the other of those ways of communication. Even, Asín Palacios, has published his book Islam and the "Divine Comedy", in 1919 where he insists that Dante was influenced by the Epstile of Forgiveness. Polish Master Pieces

By Polish Argonauts Stories are important in our lives. They entertain us; they educate us, both factually and morally and they let us connect with the ideas of other people across space and time. They give us something to discuss and be excited about – something we can share with other people and say “This book I’m holding is important to me because of something it gave me. You’ll understand me when you read this.” I think there’s something truly personal and intimate about reading someone else’s favourite book to better understand them. It’s exercise


for the mind and it’s fun – and it’ll always be fun as long as there are people who like reading. In Poland, people read a lot. We want to tell you something about three Polish books which almost everyone in our country knows. These books are important in our culture and history. Their authors were great and all patriots have read them at least once. I mean – at school, because students here have to read them at school. But, in fact, they’re amazing! So we want to share with you the 3 books: “Krzyżacy” (The Knights of the Cross) by Henryk Sienkiewicz, “Pan Tadeusz” (Sir Thaddeus) by Adam Mickiewicz, „Potop” (The Deluge) by Henryk Sienkiewicz; “Krzyżacy ” tells the story of young Zbyszko of Bogdaniec, who together with his uncle Maćko of Bogdaniec, returns from the war against the Order (Knights of the Cross) in Lithuania. Zbyszko falls in love with lovely Danusia, who is travelling with the court of the Duchess Anna.

Suddenly, beautiful Danusia is kidnapped by the Knights of the Cross and Zbyszko needs to rescue the love of his life. “Pan Tadeusz” is a book about a young man who comes back home from school in Vilnius. His home town, Soplicowo, is full of guests. It turns out that there is trial over an old castle. The trial takes place between the last Horeszko’s relativeCount and Judge Soplica. Tadeusz meets a lot of people, makes friends and falls in love. “Potop” is about a war between Great Poland and Sweden. The main character is Andrzej Kmicic, who is a knight. He is going to marry a beautiful girl, Oleńka. Unfortunately, Kmicic makes a really bad decision about the future of Poland and joins the enemy. Oleńka decides to leave Andrzej and protect the country. Of course, they have a lot of adventures together, but at the end of the book Andrzej becomes a hero who saves Poland.


Special Contents

By Modern Argonaust altieri54/the-argos-italians-library 0561776811e1d5d27e17 usigualtieri54/germmanliterature If you are interested, there are many other books in Argo’s library such as : The voyage of Hanno The Betrothed, A. Manzoni La casa de Bernarda Alba, G. Lorca The Name of the Rose, U. Eco Don Juan Tenorio Christ Stopped at Eboli, C. Levi The Peloponnesiac war, Xenophont Women of the republic, D. Maraini The free Besieges, Solom The communist manifesto, K. Marx Iliades and Odissia, Omer Winnetou, K. May Konferenz der Tiere (Animals United), E. Kastner


Argo’s Gallery

Lascaux cave painting spx?ID=42035


Why is ART so important for humankind?

By Italian Argonauts It's a very relevant exemplum of Paleolitic art and it s estimated to be 15,000 years old. We are sure this fact would questioning you about why is art so important for us to push prehistoric man to paint these great rupestrian murals. We’ve tried to think about this question and we arrived to some conclusions: Art Doesn’t need words and perhaps for these man was simplest communicate by images. Art last long. It survives to individual and it is expression of something that overpass the species too because it is spiritual: by something material (colours) it expresses ideas. Art makes feel something, like this rupestrian mural. And in nowadays, it’s international. Those are the reasons why we decide to create Argo’s Gallery


Venus of Schelklingen

By German Argonauts It‘s a 6cm high Venus figurine made of mammoth ivory. It‘s 35,000 to 40,000 years old. The female figure is the oldest undisputed example of a depiction of a human being so far. It was discovered in a cave called Hohle Fels in the Swabian Alb in the south of Germany in 2008. The figurine has no head but instead something to attach a string to it and wear it as an amulet. It might be a goddess of fertility. You can see it at the prehistoric museum of Blaubeuren. Nearby the archaeologists found a 42,000 year old bone flute, the oldest musical instrument ever found.


The Nebra SkyDisk

By German Argonauts It‘s a bronze disc of about 30 cm in diameter. It was found in 1999 by treasure hunters with the help of a metal detector near the small town of Nebra in Eastern Germany. It‘s from ca 1600 B.C. It is the oldest depiction of the cosmos in the world. It might have been an astronomical or religious instrument. In 2013 it was included in the UNESCO Memory of the World Register and termed one of the most important archeological finds of the 20th century. You can see the disc in the state museum of prehistory in Halle, Germany. There is a multimedia visitor center near the site of discovery near Nebra today. /preistoric-art-in-germany


F. Mark

We suggest you to visit this really impressive Argo’s Art Gallery German Argonauts selected from German Masterpieces. This Franz Marc picture above is one of the selection. 54/art-in-germany

By Italian Argonauts /argos-gallery


Argo’s Folklore What does make a group of people a community?

By Italian Argonauts We study at school how nations' identities are formed: wars, fights and politics play an important role in this process, but did you ever think about the role of culture in this process ? Talking about Cultural heritage, in this case, meaning to talk about the folklore. Folklore, indeed, become a laic "ritual" people need to feel part of a history and a common storytelling. This is the reason why some songs and dance and dress are for all of us so important. And in fact, music, ceremonies, festivals, dance take an important part of our cultural identity. Have a look at this video. It's without words, but we don’t need it at all because it shows us very well how a multitude of people become a "community". People in Gubbio have celebrated this festivity called "I Ceri" since the Middle Age. Some say it's a pagan ritual of fertility that the Church christianized. It's the reason why the long, huge, massive columns, made of wood, (that remind us of archaic "phallus"), have three Saints on top (Ubaldo, George, Antony). Every 15th of May all the inhabitants run up the hill carrying on their shoulders these massive "Ceri", as you can see from the video below.


I Ceri

I Ceri _ Gubbio, (PG) Italy

By Italian Argonauts Gubbio is a very beautiful town in Umbria. Every 15th of May since centuries, the Gubbio's people celebrate i CERI : it's a religious celebration up on 3 huge columns made by wood there are 3 Saints. Each Column weights not less than

263 kg. All the man of the village carry on their sholders the CERI running up to the Gubbio hill. Many people think it is a pagan celebration of Cerere godness of fertility. Here you are some very fabulous pics.


The Flamenco

By Spanish Argonauts One of the most iconic and stereotyped image of Spain is a Flamenco dancer in her traditional, frilly dress. In fact, Flamenco is without doubt the most famous of Spanish dance styles. Nevertheless, there are other styles of Spanish dance such as the Fandango, the Bolero, the Sevillanas, the Sardana and the Jota. Many of these dances originated as folk dances and they were later choreographed, in order to standardize and preserve them.

Flamenco was born in the Spanish region of Andalusia in the 18th Century and is closely linked to the gitano (gypsy) culture present in that region. The art form of Flamenco consists of three distinct parts: the 'cante' or song, the 'toque' or playing of the guitar, and the 'baile' or dance. Flamenco is a state of mind, an art form that conveys the deepest emotions, usually melancholy and sadness.


In fact, it remains a quest for authenticity, for the pure expression of those human feelings that are both uniquely, intimately personal, and universally shared. Sevillanas are the most popular and well-known folk dance from Spain. It is the regional dance which is performed the most across the country and the world, with

many professional dancers and schools in Spain and abroad. The Sevillanas are similar in style to Flamenco. Due to Flamenco's fame, people who travel to Spain often mistake people dancing Sevillanas as people dancing the Flamenco. However, Flamenco experts and purists tend to exclude Sevillanas as an impure dance form


Tunisian folk music

Our music is typical of our culture

By Eya Houas

Today , when I was with my family on our way I heard a Tunisian song called "bakhnoug" for the Tunisian singer Saliha . Well it's not the first time that I heard this song because I love this kind of music but it's the first time that I ask myself what does this mean ? My dad said that it's a traditional dress that people used to wear it in the south of Tunisia . I was really so proud and happy because our music is designing our culture This is the link if you want to hear it


Tunisian Music: a myriad of styles, origins and cultures

By Tunisian Argonauts Malouf is an emblem of Tunisian national identity. It is well-known in Algeria and Morocco as well. During the Ottoman empire, it was influenced by Turkish music. However, Tunisian repertoires, styles and instruments remain distinctive. The earliest roots of the malouf can be traced to a court musician from Baghdad named Ziryab. He

was expelled from the city in 830, and travelled west, stopping finally at Kairouan. The city was a center for North African culture, and was the capital of the Aghlabite dynasty. Ziryab crossed the Maghreb and then entered Cordoba during a period of cultural innovation. He became a court musician again,


and used influences from the local area, the Maghreb and his native

Special contents Middle East to form a distinctively Andalusian style. Baron Rodolphe d'Erlanger is an important figure of modern mans-music

Tunisian music. He collected the rules and history of malouf in 1932, which filled six volumes, and set up The Rachidia, an important conserevatory which is still in use. 20th century musicians from Tunisia include Ziad Gharsa, Lotfi Bouchnak, Anouar Brahem, an oud player, Jasser Haj Youssef, a composer and a violin player, and El Azifet, a rare all-female orchestra.

By German Argonauts 15

By Italian Argonauts sian-music by Greek Argonauts


The Tarantella

by Italian Argonauts Pizzica is a popular Italian folk dance, originally from the Salento peninsula in Apulia and later spreading throughout the rest of Apulia and the regions of Calabria and eastern Basilicata. But the Tarantella is not just a dance. Starting from the name TARANTELLA came from TARANTOLA, that is a black spider, very dangerous, spread in the south of Italy. People believed that once the Tarantola picked you,

the pain is so big to push you to dancing as you can see in the video above. But, because this dance was typically of woman, we can also find another explanation: “tarantate”, in fact, was those woman affected by isteria or some other mental diseases. People in that period thought that the cause of hysteria was “devil possession”. Dancing tarantella, with its crazy and fast rhythm, they believed they could free them from the “devil”.


Video Interviewing a Tunisian artisan By Tunisian Argonauts - kCEsuz-k k

More contents on : rials/videos r IUxNL8E


Special contents

Our Padlet


Students Corner



Infographics For disseminating our project and spread Argo’s Cultural Heritage, each country made picktochart poster published in website of the schools.

Tunisian piktochart



Italian Piktochart


Spanish dissemination


Polish piktochart


Thank you eTwinning Plus


The Golden Fleece Fleece  

eTwinning project made by schools from Tunisia Italy Spain Germany Poland and Greece based on the Argonauts mythology and linked to the EU Y...

The Golden Fleece Fleece  

eTwinning project made by schools from Tunisia Italy Spain Germany Poland and Greece based on the Argonauts mythology and linked to the EU Y...