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Developing Training Programs for Multi-cultural and Multi-linguistic Flight

Captain Missman Leham Assistant General Manager Flight Operations Flight Safety and Human Factors Malaysia Airlines

Asian Aviation Training Conference Shanghai rd th 3 -4 Mach 2010

Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


Objective

To highlight some of the factors that should be considered when developing training program for multi-cultural and multi-linguistic flight crew

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Commercial Development in the Airline Industry  State-owned or GoCo  Privatisation  Acquisitions  Alliance  Mergers

 Reorganisation  Low-cost airlines

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OPERATIONAL & CAPACITY PRESSURES 295

Annual aircraft capacityAsiaPac, India & Middle East

418 190

427

160

450 Source: IATA, Airbus & Boeing

120 4 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


Compounded problems

Source: Boeing, 2006 5 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS

The Impact  Pilot shortage  Crew turnover  Crew background  Multi-cultural crew  Pooling of crew  Hiring crew from agencies  Safety Standards  Risk control  Rostering  Training, and etc.

Power gradient Communications Language Team Climate Decision Makings Org. Culture Professional Culture SOPs Crew Familiarity Pairing Experience Morale Etc.

Adapted from Icon Consulting 6 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved

Flight Deck Issues (Training)


What Is a Training?

Training is a form of education that helps develop a person's abilities to gain new knowledge, acquire new skills and employ creative methods of problem-solving.

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Points to consideration in developing training Flight Crew  Culture  Leadership & Team Dynamics  Communication  Problem Solving and Decision Making  Automation

 Threat and Error Management.  Stress and Alertness (Situational Awareness)

 Cognition (Information Processing)  Workload Assignment 8 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


Culture a. Culture consists in patterned ways of thinking , feeling and reacting, acquired and transmitted mainly by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e. historical derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values. ( Kluckhohn, 1951) b. Collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from one another. ( Hofstede, 2001). 9 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


Dimensions of National Culture 1.

Power Distance

2.

Individualism vs Collectivism

3.

Uncertainty Avoidance

4.

Masculinity vs Femininity

5. Long-term vs Short-term Orientation (Suggested by Eastern mind). 10 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


Dimensions of National Culture 1.

Power Distance A measurement of how comfortable people feel with large separations of power between themselves and their bosses. It is likewise a measurement of how comfortable the bosses feel with this power inequality..

2.

Individualism and Collectivism A measurement of the importance of the individual versus the importance of the community as perceived by a culture‌

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Dimensions of National Culture 3.

Uncertainty Avoidance A measurement of how nervous and uncomfortable people feel when confronted by situations they consider ambiguous, uncertain, or unknown

4.

Masculinity vs Femininity Masculine cultures believe in the values of decisiveness, directness and ambition. Their creed is big and fast is beautiful, material success is important and independence is ideal.

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1. Power Distance  Accept that power is distributed unequally  Most Asians have high PD score and Malaysian are considered the highest (104 PDI)  Most Americans are considered moderate in their PD ranking, Austrian the lowest.

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2. Individualism  Self reliance is strength and seeking help implies weaknesses  Mistakes are evaluate by personal standards  Social loafing - Under low accountability, Individualist perform better than they do as part of a group (Early, 1993)  Most Westerners and Americans are Individualist

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3. Collectivism  Collectivists tend to perform better as part of their in-group than the do on their own or with out-group members  Lower stress – greater social support and fewer selfattribution for failure  Emphasis for stability and harmony; reduces incidence of confrontational  There is a motivating of shame not to disgrace the other members with one’s weakness or failure (Bond, 1991).  Most Asian and Latin American are collectivist. 15 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


Cultural differences … exists not only between countries but also within countries, between regions, social classes, generations. sexes, occupations, organizations….. It influences or conditions the way we perceive reality…. Because of our culture, we select certain aspects of reality and give that reality a meaning,……(Hofstede, 2001)

….It includes a Value System and this can affect our priorities, and therefore the dealings in Flight Deck… 16 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


Mixed-Culture Crews can be a safety threat Cultural Threats  Australia, New Zealand and Ireland – Most assertive and and direct in their communication

 Japan, Korea - Greater concern for harmony, face saving, Confucianism (Senior protect, junior obey)  Anglo pilots – sufficient time away from job for personal or family is their number one work value  Imagine putting an overly assertive, egalitarian–minded FO with hierarchically minded Captain could be very disruptive (Merritt, 1997). 17 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


Mixed-Culture Crews can be a safety threat Command Style  Taiwan pilots – strong preference for rules and set routines – High Uncertainty Avoidance  Philippines – favour more pleasant paternalistic command style  There is only one Captain and he is not to be questioned

 Reluctance to advise a more senior crewmember of an observed mistake (Asians)  Japan, Korea - Greater shame when they make mistake in front of other crew members… 18 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


Mixed-Culture Crews can be a safety threat Communication Style  Anglo-western pilots (Low PD) with pilots from Brazil, Malaysia, Philippines, Panama (high PD)  Ethnocentric Assumptions – Anglo Western pilots “superior “ flying skills than Asians  Language differences – Creates hesitation, greater effort and concentration to ensure no confusion and understanding at the expense of monitoring.  Native speaker of English commented that English speakers do not speak distinctly….just like this one.

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English‌.Engllish

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A UAI X PDI Plot for 50 Countries and Three Regions

Source: Hofstede, 2001

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A IDV X PDI Plot for 50 Countries and Three Regions

Source: Hofstede, 2001

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An IDV X MAS Plot for 50 Countries and Three Regions

Source: Hofstede, 2001

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An IDV X MAS Plot for 50 Countries and Three Regions

Source: Hofstede, 2001

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A MAS X PDI Plot for 50 Countries and Three Regions

Source: Hofstede, 2001 25 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


A UAI X MAS Plot for 50 Countries and Three Regions

Source: Hofstede, 2001

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Communication – Language Problems Comparison of Language Problems NASA (100 ASRS) and IATA (60 Reports) Language Category Language /accent Partial read back Dual language switching Unfamiliar terminology Speech acts False Assumptions Homophony Unclear hand-off Repetition across languages Uncertain addressee Lexical interference Lexical confusion Unexplained

NASA ASRS

IATA

47 24 23 17 12 9 7 5 4 3 1 0 0

5 8 2 4 0 23 1 3 2 13 0 4 3

Source: Flight Safety Digest, 2003 27 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


Mixed-Culture Crews can be a safety threat Automation management  “To err is human…to really screw up, you need a computer (Gunther, 2004)  The problem – Computers do what they are actually supposed to do and not what we thought we told them to do.  More than 155 Automation issues that must be managed

 A pilot who is trained to “operate by the book” vs someone who prefers disengage the automation  Difficult to maintain Situational Awareness

 “Verbalise, Verify, Visualise” automation policy

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Mixed-Culture Crews can be a safety threat Problem solving Decision Making  There is little research linking decision making and cultural factors  People under stress tends to make premature hypothesis base only on info at the onset of situation or easy to obtained  Under Time Pressure, performance is dependent upon individual’s training and experience  The more experience pilot is, the more likely he/she makes the right decision (ability to locate vital cues and act on them)  Unwise to pair two inexperience pilot together. 29 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


Threat and Error Management  Effective CRM is the bedrock Threat and Error Management (Gunther, 2004)  Threat identification (Preflight briefing inclusion in training is important for safety and effective crew management)  Crew training program should include Verbalising, Understanding, and Acknowledging a plan  Program to monitor each other for stress and fatigue.

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Conclusion  Growth in Aviation industry influence flight deck harmony; thus, changing the way we develop our training programs

 In multi-cultural training environment, Culture needs to be proactively managed ( this is very real in mergers)  Mixing of culture in flight deck will work efficiently if culture is embedded into flight training through CRM  Culture in training (CRM) is proposed to be part of the glue to training in order to ensure safe, efficient, and comfortable environment in multi-cultural and multi-linguistic flight. 31 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


32 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved


33 Copyright Malaysian Airlines System Berhad 2010. All rights reserved

Malaysian Airlines - Missman Leham EN 中文发言稿  

Captain Missman Leham Assistant General Manager Flight Operations Flight Safety and Human Factors Malaysia Airlines Asian Aviation Training...

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