Girl STEMinist Digital Journal Issue 2: Healthcare

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Girl STEMinist Digital Journal 2: Healthcare girlsteminist Girl STEMinist

Letter to the Reader

We are thrilled to share the Second Issue of our Digital Journal! At times, the healthcare field can seem daunting and complex to pursue. We hope the team at Girl STEMinist offers insight into the profession through artwork, informative articles, career descriptions, and interviews with female professionals (STEMinists). This Journal serves as a resource to inspire, empower, and inform readers in the world of healthcare as they navigate interests throughout the STEM field. The Digital Journal Team has had a blast putting this Issue together and cannot wait for you to read it. With that said, we hope you enjoy the Journal! Happy reading, Caitlyn Widjaja Founder & CEO

Contributions Executive Team CEO: Caitlyn Widjaja COO: Alana Yee Outreach Team Lead: Sumayyah Ismail Nadia Toh Numa Quraishi Creative Team Lead: Evelyn Chen Isabelle Alexandra June Kim Reya Das Editorial Team Lead: Ishaa Giridhar Diya Kocherry Eileen Cornejo Francine nori Oblero Jasmine Si Jessica Lu Magdalena Styś Reinesse Wong Tamara Gruslova

Research Team Lead: Michelle Wu Catalina Wong Dissa Arif Emily Liu Esma Kica Miranda Lau Samyuktha Venkatesh Writers Team Lead: Sophia Lauf Alisha Chunduri Madiha Khan Shruthi Ganapuram

Cover Art by June Kim


CONTENTS Career Description - Nurse Practitioner.............................. 6 Nurse Practitioner STEMinist Interview............................ 12 Article - The Rise of AI in Healthcare.................................. 15 Career Description - Biomedical Engineer........................ 19 Biomedical Engineer STEMinist Interview....................... 26 Career Description - Pharmacist........................................ 29 Article - CRISPR Technology Rise and Related Career Opportunities....................................................................... 34 Career Description - Emergency Medicine Paramedic.... 38 Emergency Medicine Paramedic STEMinist Interview... 44 Career Description - Anesthesiologist............................... 48 Article - Female Mentors in Early Career: Healthcare Careers................................................................................... 54 Career Description - Molecular Genetics Technologist... 58 Article - Gene Therapy in Neural Stem Cell Research...... 64 Career Description - Oncologist......................................... 68 Partners Page......................................................................... 73 .....

Nurse Practitioner Research By: Michelle Wu Layout By: Reya Das

Health Career SPOTLIGHT

Employment Nurse practitioners mainly work in hospitals. In New York City, such hospitals include NYU Langone Health, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Bellevue Hospital, and Mount Sinai.

Salary According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median salary is $117,670 per year as of 2020.

Job Demand According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, demand for this occupation will grow much faster than average at a projected 45% between 2019-2029.

Diversity According to the US Census Bureau, in 2019, 89.1% of nurse practitioners and midwives are female, and 10.6% are male. This field is predominantly female.

Male 10.6%

Female 89.4%

Job Responsibilities Nurse practitioners typically complete a series of tasks daily. First, they record patients’ medical history and order, perform, and interpret diagnostic tests. They must also diagnose and treat medical conditions by prescribing medication and other treatments to alleviate pain and suppress diseases. In addition, they must educate patients and families about medical conditions and treatments. Nurse practitioners may fall under one or more specialty areas, such as pediatric care, family practice, acute care, oncology, psychiatric health, and neonatal health. They all perform the same general tasks but have more specialized tasks as well.

Skills Needed Mental and Physical Endurance Nurse practitioners must have both mental and physical endurance. This career requires individuals to be on their feet for many hours to reach patients quickly for any given day. Their patients can be scared, depressed, angry, or in pain, and a nurse practitioner must handle these emotional outbursts and deal with stress while seeing patients.

Strong Communication Skills Nurse practitioners must have strong communication skills, including listening to the patient’s concerns and current symptoms. It is vital to understand the patient’s concerns to diagnose them. Obstacles such as language barriers while debriefing the patient or family can be overcome through translators. Even with the confusion, fear, and anger that may arise while communicating with the patient, nurse practitioners have to overcome these obstacles to treat their patients effectively.

Leadership Skills Nurse practitioners must have exceptional leadership skills. They have to make good decisions when stressful situations arise and assign tasks to fellow nurses if needed. It is in the nurse’s best interest to help their patient as much as possible, and this sometimes requires the nurse to delegate tasks and physical examinations to others.

Personality Traits Calm and Patient Patients will act out, as many are in pain and are in an uncomfortable state. However, nurse practitioners must learn to deal with this and manage their stress effectively. Empathetic Empathy is the ability to sense the feelings of another. In the eyes of a nurse practitioner, this means understanding a patient’s pain, grief, depression, or overall condition. Nurse practitioners with empathy can respond consistently, as they genuinely care for their patient’s wellbeing. The patient will also feel safe and comfortable knowing that someone else understands their condition.

Notable Female Professionals Margaret A. Fitgerald Margaret Fitzgerald is known for her efforts to encourage nurse practitioners to further their education. She helped develop various nursing programs and is active in the debate over the role of nurse practitioners in the medical field. She co-founded 20/40, a program that brings nurse practitioners together to comment on developments in the profession. In addition to the programs she has grown, she is a column editor for the Nurse Practitioner Journal and has been published several times.

Loretta Ford Loretta Ford developed the first nurse practitioner (NP) program at the University of Colorado with the help of Dr. Henry Silver in 1965. After noticing a need for nurses in the medical field, she created a program to educate nurses and encourage them to attain advanced degrees.

Journey to Career

All nurse practitioners must complete either a master’s or doctoral degree program in nursing after attaining a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN). You must first complete four years of undergraduate and attain a bachelor’s degree in nursing. After passing the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX), you will receive an RN license and are a registered nurse. To become a nurse practitioner, continue your education in a graduate program to attain a master’s degree in nursing. Then, pass the National NP Certification Board Exam and finally obtain an NP Licensure.

Notable colleges: University of Pennsylvania, NYU, Johns Hopkins, Duke University, Columbia University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Opportunities Huntsville Hospital has a job shadowing program for teenagers. UAB Medicine has volunteer opportunities for teenagers in the summer. Phoenix Children’s Hospital has multiple volunteer programs all year round, but you must be 18-years-old by the beginning of the program. Other Resources: m/nursing-internships-for-highschool-students

Works Cited Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Nurse Anesthetists, Nurse Midwives, and Nurse Practitioners.” Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Department of Labor, 2 June 2021, Accessed 6 July 2021. Carson-Newman University Online. “Qualities of a Successful Nurse Practitioner.” Carson-Newman University, 1 Aug. 2018, Accessed 6 July 2021. “Essential Skills Every Nurse Practitioner Needs to Succeed.” Herzing University, Higher Learning Commission, 24 June 2021, Accessed 6 July 2021. “5 Skills Necessary to Succeed as an NP.” Maryville Online, Maryville University, 21 Apr. 2021, online.maryville. edu/blog/5-skills-necessary-to-succeed-as-an-np/. Accessed 6 July 2021. “Nurse Practitioners & Nurse Midwives.” Data USA, Accessed 6 July 2021. “The Path to Becoming a Nurse Practitioner (NP).” American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 10 Nov. 2020, Accessed 6 July 2021. “What’s a Nurse Practitioner (NP)?” American Association of Nurse Practitioners, Accessed 6 July 2021.

Interview by: Michelle Wu

Layout by: Evelyn Chen

GABRIELLE LAUF Nurse Practitioner

ABOUT My name is Gabrielle Lauf and I am a Family Nurse Practitioner. I graduated from the University of Washington School of Nursing in 2009 where I obtained my Bachelor of Science in Nursing. I then obtained my Master of Science in Nursing, Family Nurse Practitioner at Gonzaga University in 2016. I am originally from Seattle and currently living in Eugene Oregon. I am married with two children, both girls, and have two small dogs. I like to travel and spend time with my family.

What was the hardest part of your journey to this career?

Like many of us as we find our career path the hardest part was simply the time investment. To become a nurse practitioner, you need to either have your masters or doctorate in nursing with a specialty tract such as a Family Nurse Practitioner. I completed my prerequisites initially, then my bachelors, worked for 4 years as a nurse, then back to school for my masters. The entire schooling process took me 8+ years. It sounds like a lot and there are slightly quicker ways to complete this process. However, for me, this was my path and while it was perhaps the hardest part, I do not regret it at all.

Why did you decide to become a nurse practitioner?

After becoming a nurse, I worked in both the hospital and in the community as a school nurse for several years. I found myself wanting to be a part of the families I was helping to a larger degree. I wanted to be an active part of working with a patient towards better health and happier living. I also found that I desired more autonomy than I had as a nurse. I had frequent thoughts of having my own practice in collaboration with other nurse practitioners. This ultimately led me back to school to become a nurse practitioner.

Is there anything you regret doing or not doing?

Yes. Many things. This is the academic and career process after all. I regret not obtaining my master’s earlier in my career. I think I always had an inkling that it was what I wanted but I was hesitant for many practical reasons as well as a bit fearful of the responsibility and weight the career would bring. In hindsight, I could have saved myself many years and dollars had I been more direct in my approach.

What helped you most during your years of schooling?

It helped me to keep in mind that with my advanced nursing degree I would have the autonomy I desired. I also focused on all the opportunities I would have with my degree. As an FNP you can practice just about anywhere with any population. There are some limits of course but being an FNP is known to be the most flexible. I have FNP friends who work in oncology, dermatology, pediatrics, cardiology, women’s care, urgent care, primary care, geriatrics, hospitalist care, and so on. The years of schooling opened job opportunities, life flexibility, and control over my career that I would not have had otherwise.

What do you like most about your job?

There are so many things to like. Most of all, I am proud to be a nurse practitioner. There is a huge shortage of medical providers in general in our country. People cannot access health care for many reasons and the lack of providers is a large reason. By being a nurse practitioner, I am helping to fill this need, and this feels good. I also like caring for people from the nursing perspective. Nurse practitioners provide amazing care, often very different from our physician colleagues. We were nurses first and this provides a perspective that is unique.

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The Rise of AI in Healthcare Written By: Sophia Lauf

Layout By: Isabelle Alexandra

This article will touch on the increasing importance of AI in healthcare. It will include specific examples, as well as some of the ethical questions that AI prevalence raises.

Artificial intelligence is far broader than sci-fi books and movies make it out to be. AI is integrating into our everyday lives already. It is no longer a far-away topic breached only through fantasy. Instead, AI can help people in their daily lives: providing calculations, accessing comprehensive data, and using such skills to offer new healthcare methods. AI presents itself in numerous facets. The most prevalent of which is machine learning and neural networks systems. Machine learning is a form of artificial intelligence that uses collected data to inform decision-making, a vital skill in the healthcare field. For example, machine learning can predict potential treatment options for a patient, given their medical and disease history.

On the other hand, neural networks are a subset of machine learning that get their name from their resemblance to the brain's networks (of neurons). Neural networks use connected processing nodes to send data, categorize it, and even calculate probabilities. They use inputs, outputs, and variable likelihoods to obtain predictory responses.

As of now, care providers have ample resources at their fingertips to aid in proper diagnostic procedures. However, there are still significant margins for error, and diagnosing is not always done fast enough for acute emergencies. AI can efficiently and accurately diagnose illnesses based on numerous screening processes. For example, AI can analyze images produced from MRI or CT scans and use that information in tandem with the patient’s genetic history to accurately predict the occurrence of certain diseases, such as cancer. Additionally, AI can serve as a semi-replacement for specialists in more rural areas. Often in rural areas, when a patient needs a cardiologist to analyze an image properly, they have to travel hundreds of miles to do so. As such, AI could accurately analyze the image and inform the patient if they should see a specialist immediately or if they are presumably in the clear.

There are several ethical implications with the rise of AI. There is worry about the privacy of AI, as well as AI's ability to explain diagnoses. As with autonomously driven vehicles, there is the possibility for error, which has grave consequences. However, this margin of error is not necessarily more significant than that of a human practitioner.

While AI can be an invaluable tool, it is imperative to note that it cannot serve as a total replacement for human care providers. Care providers will likely be at the forefront of medicine indefinitely, but AI can augment their ability to diagnose and suitably care for patients.

Works Cited “Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare.” Stanford Online, Stanford University, 2021, Davenport, Thomas, and Ravi Kalakota. “The Potential for Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare.” Future Healthcare Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2019, pp. 94–98. RCP Journals, doi:10.7861/futurehosp.6-2-94. Hardesty, Larry. “Explained: Neural Networks.” MIT News, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 14 Apr. 2017, Ng, Andrew. “What Is Machine Learning?” Coursera, Coursera Inc, Panesar, Arjun. “What Is the Future of Healthcare?” Machine Learning and AI for Healthcare, 2021, pp. 249–291. Springer, doi:10.1007/978-1-4842-6537-6_9. Rice, Michelle. “The Growth of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Healthcare.” Health Recovery Solutions, 13 Feb. 2019, blog/the-growth-of-artificial-intelligence-ai-in-healthcare. Shah, Rushabh, and Alina Chircu. “IoT and AI in Healthcare: A Systematic Literature Review.” Issues In Information Systems, vol. 19, no. 3, 2018, pp. 33– 41., doi:10.48009/3_iis_2018_33-41. “What Is Machine Learning?” Royal Society, The Royal Society,

Biomedical Engineer Research By: Caty Wong

Health Career SPOTLIGHT

Job Demand According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, employment rates of biomedical engineers are projected to grow 5% from 2019 to 2029, faster than average compared to other occupations.

Salary As of June 25th 2021, the average annual salary for a biomedical engineer in the US is $90,618 a year.

Layout By: Isabelle Alexandra

Employment Biomedical engineers are more likely to work in a private company compared to public corporations. They typically find jobs in the private healthcare sector rather than industries, avoiding engineer-focused companies based around technology and mechanics.

Various companies employ biomedical engineers, ranging from hospitals and healthcare establishments to big technology companies like Apple, Samsung, Philips, IBM, or other large companies like NASA, the FDA, Johnson & Johnson, etc.

Diversity White, 63.4% Hispanic or Latino, 16.0% Black or African American, 8.9% Asian, 8.7% Unknown, 2.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.5%

Collegial biomedical engineering programs have better gender parity than almost any other engineering field. In 2017, women earned 44% of bachelor’s degrees, 43% of master’s degrees, and 39% of doctoral degrees. However, regarding the demographics of the biomedical engineering workforce, 20.3% are female and 75% male. Racewise, 63.4% are White, 16% Hispanic or Latino, 8.9% Black or African American, and 8.7% Asian.

Job Responsibilities The practice of biomedical engineering requires several varied types of responsibilities. A vital soft skill at the forefront of these responsibilities is maintaining bonds with medical, engineering, and scientific staff. This career also requires regular designing, developing, testing, and implementing new medical procedures, engineering products, equipment, and devices.

Skills Needed Analytical Skills Biomedical engineers must analyze and deeply understand the needs of patients and clients to ideate adequate solutions.

Communication & Empathy A skill frequently needed to work with patients, even more commonly than in interdisciplinary teams. The engineer must express thought clearly and see situations from other points of view, all while incorporating teammate’s ideas into the problem-solving process.

Technical Creativity Thinking outside the box or beyond the norm is essential to present integrative and practical advances in healthcare equipment and devices.

Personality Traits and Leadership Qualities

Problem Solving Often, biomedical engineers have to deal with and solve problems in complex biological systems; what may work for one issue most definitely will not work for a different one. Devising solutions is essential.

Persistence and Drive to Help Others Professionals of this field must combine their diverse skills to continuously create solutions for worldwide health issues, having the attitude and mindset of helping improve patient treatment and lowering the cost of care.

Aptitude for Science and Mathematics Biomedical engineers need to use calculus, and other advanced mathematics techniques as well as laws of physics, chemistry, and biology, for analysis, design and troubleshooting the work.

Notable Female Professionals Reates Curry, Ph.D. (born August 1962)

Technical expert and human factor specialist at Ford Motor Company. Two-time winner of the prestigious Henry Ford Technology Award for being on the team that designed VIRTTEX and for her contributions to the development of a new technology called the Driver Workload Estimator (WLE).

Nimmi Ramanujam, Ph.D. (born 1968)

Well-known award-winning biomedical engineer. A professor of Duke University known for inventing the pocket colposcope and callascope, cancer screening technology, WISH Revolution program, and the design-based STEM program “Ignite.”

Journey to Career Biomedical engineers need to earn a bachelor's degree and obtain experience in the industry. 1. Complete an undergraduate degree in Biomedical Engineering or a related discipline, such as biomedical science, electrical, electronic or mechanical engineering, or physics. 2. Gain experience by getting an internship through medical or prosthetic design, etc. 3. Obtain a Biomedical Engineering license or pass the Fundamentals of Engineering exam. 4. Choose to study and obtain a Master's or Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering.

Notable Colleges to Study Biomedical Engineering

New Inventions in the Field AbioCor Artificial Heart Complete artificial heart developed by the Massachusettsbased company AbioMed. It was fully functional within a patient due to a combination of advances in miniature work, biosensors, polymers, and energy transfer.

iLIMB Bionic Hand Invented by David Gow, this device became the world’s first artificial hand to have five individually powered fingers.

Opportunities Society for Women Engineers’ outreach programs with youth in high school Houston Methodist’s Caring Teen volunteer program Cornell University STEM residential programs Santa Clara University’s summer engineering seminar University of Arizona’s KEYS research internship

43rd annual international conference of the IEEE engineering in medicine & biology society (October 31st November 4th) Johns Hopkins’ Biomedical Engineering Innovation online course for high school students edX online engineering courses MIT Online Science, Technology and Engineering Community (MOSTEC)

Works Cited “Best Biomedical Engineering Programs.” U.S. News & World Report, U.S. News & World Report, 2021, “Biomedical Engineer: Job Description.” TARGETjobs, GTI Futures Ltd, 27 Aug. 2020, “Biomedical Engineer Salary.” ZipRecruiter, ZipRecruiter, Inc, Biomedical-Engineer-Salary. “Biomedical Engineering: Directory of Internships, Research Opportunities, Scholarships & Fellowships.” Pathways To Science, Institute for Broadening Participation, 2018, www. “Biomedical Engineering Technician Demographics and Statistics.” Zippia, Zippia, Inc, 30 Apr. 2021, Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Bioengineers and Biomedical Engineers.” Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Department of Labor, 9 Apr. 2021, Denend, Lyn, et al. “Analysis of Gender Perceptions in Health Technology: A Call to Action.” Annals of Biomedical Engineering, vol. 28, 2020, pp. 1573–1586. Springer, doi:10.1007/s10439-020-02478-0. Horrocks, Lizzie. “Why Study Biomedical Engineering at Degree Level?” Hotcourses International, IDP Connect, 23 Aug. 2019, “How Important Is Biomedical Engineering Today?” Case Western Reserve University, 5 Sept. 2017, “Top Companies Hiring for Biomedical Engineering Jobs.” Glassdoor, Glassdoor, Inc, 2021,,26.htm. “What Is a Biomedical Engineer?” CMBES, Canadian Medical and Biological Engineering Society, “Women in Science and Engineering.” National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,

Interview by: Caitlyn Widjaja

Questions by: Catalina Wong

Layout by: Evelyn Chen

GRACE ADAMS Biomedical Engineer

ABOUT I am a junior biomedical engineering student at Bucknell University. I am particularly interested in prosthetics and implantable medical devices. I am the secretary of the Bucknell Society of Women Engineers, where I connect with my peers, introduce young girls to engineering, and work to eliminate the gender gap in engineering. I participate in Bucknell’s chapter of e-NABLE, an organization that designs, prints, and builds prosthetic arms and hands for kids. I am also a member of the Grand Challenge Scholars Program, which encourages students to explore the most prevalent global engineering challenges today through entrepreneurship, service learning, global perspectives, multidisciplinary coursework, and research. In my free time, I like to run, ski, and play guitar.

When and why did you decide to follow your career path?

My eighth-grade science teacher had just returned from a year off from teaching due to a horrific car accident that took his leg. From his stories, I learned about the advanced technology that allowed him to return to the daily activities of his life before the accident. However, his prosthetic leg had its limits. While I was amazed by the capability of technology in his prosthetic leg, the need for improvement was clear. This was the first time I considered biomedical engineering as a career. I remembered this experience while I was applying for colleges and I did some more research into what it means to be a biomedical engineer. When I made my decision, my ultimate goal was to develop technology to further enhance the lives of patients.

Do you describe yourself as an engineer or a medical professional?

I describe myself more as an engineer. There are certainly paths in biomedical engineering that lean more towards medical professionals, but I think the majority of biomedical engineers can be considered as both engineers and medical professionals. I consider engineers to be anyone who uses scientific principles to creatively design and build solutions to real world problems. The work that I’ve done so far is more focused on research and design, and I don’t feel that I have enough experience or knowledge in medicine to consider myself a medical professional.

What do you consider the hardest part of studying biomedical engineering?

The hardest part of biomedical engineering is uniting other engineering disciplines. Studying biomedical engineering means studying mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, computer engineering, chemical engineering, anatomy and physiology, and more. Skilled biomedical engineers are not only knowledgeable in all of these fields, but they also know how to integrate them together in a single project. It’s also important to consider how the customer, or patient, will use the final product, especially when working on life-saving projects. Pediatric medical devices are a perfect example - young children are much smaller than adults and tend to move around a lot and pull on tubes and wires, so devices like tracheostomy tubes must be designed to accommodate these differences while still functioning effectively.

How do you stay updated with new developments and trends related to your work field?

My main source of biomedical engineering news has been my professors. Professors are meant to prepare students for future work in the field, and biomedical engineering is expanding so rapidly that it is impossible to adequately prepare students without keeping up with new developments in the field. They have connections with many past students and faculty at other universities who are working on new, exciting projects and they’re always happy to talk to students about the field. I’ll also occasionally check science journals like SciTechDaily for interesting articles, and a quick Google search for biomedical engineering news always has exciting results.

What motivates you to work hard everyday?

I am motivated by the opportunity to contribute to cutting-edge research and innovation that improves the lives of patients and significantly benefits the field of medicine. In the current state of the world, there is an extreme demand for better medical solutions. This necessity paired with the excitement and creativity of innovation is enough to motivate me to work hard every day.

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Research By: Dissa Vianda Arif

Health Career SPOTLIGHT

Salary According to, as of 28 June 2020, pharmacist salary averages $139,429 per year in the United States. It typically ranges from $131,376 to $148,507.

Layout By: Evelyn Chen

Job Demand In 2018, the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education projected a decline in pharmacist graduates from 2018-2028 from 14,905 to 14,100. Similarly, the Bureau of Labor Statistics claimed that pharmacist jobs project a 3% decline from 2019-2029.

Employment A pharmacist’s workplace ranges from drug stores to grocery stores, hospitals, etc. The US Department of Veteran Affairs, Target, Publix, and Kaiser Permanente offer this occupation.

Diversity White, 63.9% Asian, 22.7% Black or African American, 6.7% Hispanic or Latino, 4.4% Unknown, 2.1% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.2%

Based on data from Zippia in 2018, the percentage of non-white pharmacists grew from 14.9% to 21.9% between 2014 and 2018. Genderwise, women are slightly predominant with 53.5% compared to 40.7% for men.

Responsibilities Pharmacists are responsible for ensuring medicine is quality and suits a patient’s prescriptions. The pharmacist must also ensure that all provided medicine supplies are within the law. Communication with patients is also crucial for pharmacists. They must advise patients on how to take medication and clarify unclear prescriptions.

Skills Needed Analytical Skills: Pharmacists are known for their ability to analyze drug interactions with the human body. Analytical skill is also required for pharmacists to refer patients medication with erudition and logic to prevent inaccurate prescriptions. Communication Skills: Pharmacists must comprehensibly communicate necessary information about prescribed medication to patients. Computer Skills: Presently, most pharmacists rely on digital technology, such as inventory counts, customer data, and bills. In which case, pharmacists must be able to master any computer literacy that associates with patient medication. Detail-Oriented and Accuracy: Awareness of details is critical for accurate and efficient performance. Accuracy is crucial to prevent errors in the medication given to patients. Critical Thinking: Pharmacists need to have excellent judgment and use their problem-solving skills to evaluate, analyze and interpret patients’ medications. Numerical Skills: Pharmacists must do pharmaceutical calculations to precisely calculate medication dosages.

Career Journey 1. Have post-secondary education for at least 2-4 years undergraduate. Required courses often include physics, chemistry, and biology. Notable Colleges: University of North Carolina, University of California, University of Michigan, Monash University 2. Pass the Pharmacy College Admissions Take (PCAT). Scores range from 200600, but every pharmacy school has a different required minimum score for the applicants. 3. After acceptance, take pharmacy school for four years. 4. Pharmacist graduates then pass the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) and Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence Exam—the examination varies, depending on the state. These examinations aim towards a license to become a pharmacist.

Notable Female Professionals Cora Dow Cora Dow was a well-known pharmacist in 1884. She was the first woman to graduate from Cincinnati College of Pharmacy and successfully ran several drug stores. Dow was also a bold woman who advocated and encouraged women to be involved in the pharmaceutical industry through her work “Women as Pharmacists.” In 1915, she had 11 stores under her name.

Mary Munson Runge After being an employee community pharmacist, Mary Munson Runge became the first African-American female president of the American Pharmacists Association. She dedicated herself to working for the people who needed her most and worked in Oakland to help African-Americans that could not afford to pay for medication.

Relevant New Inventions 3D Printing With this invention, the pills are constructed by spreading layers of the drug until it builds up to the desired dose.

Opportunities The Johns Hopkins Pharmacy Internship Program offers pharmacy students to obtain further education in pharmacy practice. The Centre for Pharmacy Postgraduate Education offers learning and educational programs for pharmacists to maximize their workforce.

Useful Personality Traits and Qualities Patience: Pharmacists must perform their work with patience, as they deal with complicated insurance companies and work with patients. Responsible: Carelessly serving patients incorrect medication with a lack of attention to detail can be fatal. Diligence: Multitasking is an essential skill for a pharmacist. Pharmacists typically have 2-3 projects that are due simultaneously, and it is required for the pharmacists to multitask and diligently work on those projects. Empathy: Empathy is a desired trait for pharmacists to demonstrate a sense of patience and compassion. It also allows pharmacists to understand patients’ pressing concerns. Adaptable: Pharmacists are required to overcome and prepare for various situations.

Works Cited “Becoming a Pharmacist Careers & Salary Outlook.” University Headquarters, Bureau of Labor Statistics. “Pharmacists.” Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Department of Labor, 2 Jun. 2021, Hogg, Peter. “Top 5 Emerging Innovations in Pharma.” Proclinical, 8 Dec. 2015, blogs/2015-8/top-5-emerging-innovations-in-pharma. Kujawski, Stephanie. “5 Simple Steps to Being a More Adaptable Pharmacist.” Tl;Dr Pharmacy, Tl;Dr Pharmacy, 20 Apr. 2021, Lamb, Edward. “Top 9 Pharmacist Duties and Responsibilities.” The Balance Careers, Dotdash, 6 Feb. 2019, “Learning Resources for Pharmacy Professionals.” Health Education England, NHS, Lebovitz, Lisa, and Mike Rudolph. “Update on Pharmacist Workforce Data and Thoughts on How to Manage the Oversupply.” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Oct. 2020, “Pharmacist Demographics and Statistics in the US.” Zippia, Zippia, Inc, 30 Apr. 2021, www.zippia. com/pharmacist-jobs/demographics/. “Pharmacy Education Resources, Inc.” Pharmacy Education Resources Inc, pharmacy-education-resources-inc/. “Pharmacist Salary.”, Posey, Michael L. “Pharmacists: Knowledgeable, Adaptable, Caring.” Pharmacy Today, Elsevier Inc, 1 Feb. 2014, “Top Companies Hiring for Pharmacist Jobs.” Glassdoor, Glassdoor, Inc, top-pharmacist-companies_IO.4,14.htm. “What Are the Traits of A Successful Pharmacist?” Indispensable Health Pharmacy Services, 17 Mar. 2020, “What Does a Pharmacist Do?” General Pharmaceutical Council,

Research by: Madiha Khan Layout by: Evelyn Chen


CRISPR TECHNOLOGY? CRISPR is a ground-breaking discovery in the biotechnological domain. Short for CRISPR-Cas9, it is a novel gene-editing technology that has enabled geneticists and medical researchers to edit parts of the genome by removing, adding, and altering sections of DNA in a versatile and precise method. It holds promise of curing in a way conventional therapeutics have failed, ranging from HIV deletion in infected patients, creating organs for transplants, or producing sustainable crops. Jennifer Anne Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier, two female scientists, were pioneers of the technology for which they received the 2020 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

KEY MOLECULES CRISPR It is a specialized DNA region, referring to “clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.” It has two distinct characteristics: the presence of nucleotide repeats and spacers. Researchers have noticed bits of DNA (spacers) scattered amongst repeated sequences of nucleotides spread throughout a CRISPR region. Bacteria build immunity against the viruses by attacking them and taking the spacers, keeping them as banks of memories to fight future attacks.

CRISPR RNA (CRRNA) When the virus attacks again, a portion of CRISPR is transcribed and processed into CRISPR RNA, or “crRNA.” The nucleotide sequence of CRISPR acts as a template to produce a complementary single-stranded RNA. Each crRNA consists of a nucleotide repeat and a spacer portion.

CAS9 It is an enzyme that cuts foreign DNA by binding two RNA molecules: crRNA and racrRNA (or “trans-activating crRNA”). It then guides Cas9 to the target site, where it will make its cut. This expanse of DNA is complementary to a 20-nucleotide stretch of the crRNA. Using two separate regions, or “domains,” on its structure, Cas9 cuts both strands of the DNA double helix. Scientists have used this system in human and animal cells. This technology is still not eligible for routine use in humans as there are many ethical dilemmas present - unintended mutations can pass down to future generations, jeopardizing the entire DNA of that particular race. However, there is ongoing research that aims to eliminate “off-target” effects.

CAREER PROSPECTS IN THE BOOMING INDUSTRY The gene therapy industry covers a broad range of topics and skills, requiring graduates of various fields. Recruiters look for genetics, medicine, molecular biology, virology, bioengineering, chemical engineering, and even business graduates. As the number of gene-editing-based treatments grows, the need for highly trained genetic engineers will inevitably skyrocket.

18,000 estimated new jobs in the UK by 2030

7% growth in gene therapy jobs

13% Genetic consultants are among the

increase in medical scientist employment

TOP 20


fastest-growing jobs

jobs total

If you are passionate about the wonders of genes and their potential to change the way we work and function, then CRISPR Cas9 technology is a great way to nurture your interest.

WORKS CITED Gray, Richard. “Why Gene Editing Could Create so Many Jobs.” BBC Worklife, BBC, 14 Oct. 2018, Suman, Preety. “CRISPR Research Trends & How to Build A Successful Career in CRISPR.” BioTecNika, Biotecnika Info Labs Pvt Ltd, 5 Apr. 2019, Vidyasagar, Aparna. “What Is CRISPR?” Live Science, Future US, Inc, 20 Apr. 2018, “What Are Genome Editing and CRISPR-Cas9?” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 Sept. 2020, understanding/genomicresearch/genomeediting/.

Emergency Medical Paramedic Research By: Esma Kica

Layout By: Evelyn Chen

Health Career SPOTLIGHT


According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median annual salary for paramedics was $36,650 as of May 2020. This number varies depending on location, experience, and education.

Demand EMTs and paramedics held about 265,200 jobs in 2019; by 2029, the number is expected to rise to 282,200. Their largest employers were:

Ambulance Services Local Government Hospitals

46% 28% 19%

Employers Paramedics can work indoors and outdoors in various environments, including fire departments, emergency medical services, and hospitals.

Employment Change (2019-2029) Employment is projected to grow 6 percent, faster than the average

Diversity White, 71.7% Hispanic or Latino, 14.5% Black or African American, 6.3% Unknown, 3.3% Asian, 3.1% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.1%

Over the course of a decade... According to the NREMT (National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians)

Female EMTs rose from 28% to 35% of the workforce, while those earning paramedic certification rose from 21% to 23%. African-American EMTs accounted for nearly 5% of the workforce. The number of Hispanic EMTs rose from 10% to 13%. EMTs belonging to a racial/ethnic minority group rose from 22% to 27.

Responsibilities Transporting patients in an ambulance or other emergency vehicle to a hospital or other medical facility while responding to 911 calls Providing a wide range of emergency procedures such as using a defibrillator, giving medication, starting IVs, and clearing airways Reading and interpreting medical tests and equipment to quickly explain and replay patient information, condition, and treatment to hospital staff upon arrival Communicating effectively with patients and their relatives or friends to keep them calm while driving to medical facilities

Skills Teamwork: Working as a team is necessary on every EMS (Emergency Medical Services) call. Whether it’s the police, firefighters, or another EMS agency, paramedics must always coordinate efforts and work to ensure and guarantee the best outcome for patients. Effectively Navigate Challenging Situations: Being a paramedic or EMT means that there will be times when everyone at a scene is looking to you for guidance. When you attend to a patient, frantic family members, fellow first responders, and bystanders will rely on you to remain calm and professional. Mental Toughness: Paramedics must be prepared to witness severe injury and death, which can be taxing and challenging to deal with emotionally. Situational Awareness: Working in EMS, paramedics are often in unconventional environments such as bathrooms, abandoned buildings, or beneath motor vehicles. Safety is key. One of the best skills that a paramedic can have is common sense or being “street smart.” When something doesn’t seem right, stepping away and evaluating the circumstance is necessary. In other words, paramedics must always be alert of their surroundings while preparing to address the situation at hand. Personality Traits/Qualities Exceptional Communication: Paramedics most relay essential information on the spot. They must communicate quickly but clearly with team members, police officers, firefighters, and patients. Clear communication can be the difference between life and death. Personable and Friendly Attitude: During an emergency, patients are often confused, afraid, and vulnerable. Paramedics must maintain professionalism and compassion in the face of confusion and chaos, especially while dealing with intoxicated patients. Quick Reflexes and Judgment: Paramedics sometimes only have seconds between identifying a patient in a life-threatening condition and offering the appropriate medical treatment. They must act swiftly, remain calm under pressure, and determine how to provide the best care possible.

Notable Women in EMS Jane Brice Brice’s research interests include stroke care, emergency medical services for children, and EMS education. She received the Women Leaders in Medicine award in 2011, which recognizes women physicians and educators who serve as role models and teachers. In other words, she’s a source of inspiration for women who are in medical training.

Lauren Robinson Morris After working for private ambulance providers for 13 years, her entrepreneurial spirit inspired her to start MedEx. She founded the company with two ambulances and 17 employees, and it has now grown to over 50 ambulances and more than 350 employees. MedEx was the first in the United States to equip ambulances with Google Glass, a brand of smart glasses (an optical head-mounted display designed in the shape of a pair of glasses).

Notable Colleges George Washington University, Brigham Young University, Stony Brook University, Broward College, Creighton University, and Drexel University.

Career Journey Postsecondary education in emergency medical technology requires a high school diploma and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) certification Be nationally certified at the emergency medical technician (EMT) level. Preferably have EMT work experience before enrolling in a paramedic training program Complete an Emergency Medical Technician-Paramedic (EMT-P) certificate program (one year) or an Associate’s degree (two years) Pass the National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians (NREMT) certification examination to receive National EMS Certification Complete continuing education (CE) credits and renew license every two or three years.

Opportunities Mayo Clinic offers a 20-month Emergency Medicine Paramedic program in Rochester, Minnesota, to prepare students for a paramedic career. American Medical Response: Paramedic Internship in Santa Barbara, CA The Emergency Medicine Project Healthcare Summer Volunteer Program, offered by NYU Langone’s Department of Emergency Medicine, includes several programs to inspire participants to become interested in the healthcare and emergency medicine fields. LifeNet offers an EMT Internship designed to equip students currently enrolled in an EMT program with essential hands-on skills.

Recent Inventions Apps Streamlining Emergency Care A connected mobile app by Pulsara allows paramedics to alert an emergency department before arrival with the patient and prepare beforehand. In-flight medical emergencies are critical, and digital health technologies are well-suited for such situations.

Drones for Delivering Medical Care Drones have great potential in transporting drugs, vaccines, or medical aid at a faster rate. For example, Zipline, a medical drone company, delivers vital medical supplies to local hospitals in Rwanda. This method allows healthcare facilities to receive emergency blood packs within minutes instead of hours.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. “EMTs and Paramedics.” Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Department of Labor, 9 Apr. 2021,

Works Cited

Calams, Sarah. “Study of Underrepresented Groups Shows Change Will Be Slow to Come in EMS Diversity.” EMS1, Lexipol, 19 Sept. 2019, “Emergency Medicine Paramedic.” Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, “Emergency Medicine Project Healthcare Summer Volunteer Program.” NYU Langone Health, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, “EMT Internship Program.” LifeNet Emergency Medical Services (EMS), 4 Mar. 2020, internship/. “14 Of the Most Influential Women in EMS.” EMS1, Lexipol, 23 Mar. 2016, Scansaroli, Mike. “Personality Traits And/or Skills You Need to Be an EMT.” Discover My College, 15 May 2015, “The Future of Emergency Medicine: 6 Technologies That Make Patients The Point-of-Care.” The Medical Futurist, Webicina Kft, 29 Sept. 2020, “Top Schools for EMT and Paramedics.”, 15 June 2021, Paramedics.html. Robinson, Bernard. “Five Essential Skills of Paramedics and EMTs.” Northwell Health, 20 Feb. 2018, center-for-emergency-medical-services/news/five-essential-skills-of-paramedics-and-emts.

Interview by: Caitlyn Widjaja

Questions by: Esma Kica

Layout by: Evelyn Chen


ABOUT My name is Emma, call me Em. I'm 26 from the West Midlands and currently studying Paramedic Science at the University of Wolverhampton.

Describe a time at your job when you faced a challenge? How did you overcome it?

I think there are challenges every day, be that a specific call you attend or academic challenges. No one really talks about the challenges of yourself though. Your own mental health. That has probably been my biggest challenge. I've always been "Manager Emma" so I've always known what to do. Becoming a student again was a big step, and placement was even more out of my comfort zone. I hate being the newbie. I hate not knowing something. That being said, it took a few shifts to get into, but I'm loving my journey into this degree and new career path. My mentor has inspired me beyond anything. We started in the same industry; her parents had the same job as I have now. Knowing someone from the same kind of background I'm from, a brilliant Paramedic (Clinical Team Mentor), has really driven me to smash this degree!

What is the story behind your career choice?

I left Sixth form after exhausting the entire curriculum and worked in a nightclub. The thought of becoming a Paramedic was always there, but it was more of a "Imagine doing that" kind of thought. I never thought I'd be able to achieve THAT kind of job. So after joining the hospitality industry, I gave myself 6 months to get enough money to pass my driving, get a car and then move to my next adventure. Well, 6 years later, I was still in the Hospitality industry after working my backside off. I became a Manager and, working all around England, I absolutely loved the job and the people. Career found. Or so I thought. One day I went to work, and what can only be described as a 'candle that had been blown out' feeling hit me as soon as I walked through the venue's door. I'd 110% fallen out of love with my job, and nothing on Earth changed this. I moved venues. I moved to a different brand within the company. I came back to my old venue. I went on annual leave. I was prescribed antidepressants because of the endless stress. Nothing. One night I came home; it was around 5:45 am, and a lightbulb seemed to click. "Imagine doing that" was now "I'm going to do that!" and I enrolled in an Access to Higher Education course, then went to sleep. Much to my surprise, the following morning, I received an email inviting me to enroll and attend an induction at the college. *Insert shocked emoji here* I stepped down as Manager and became a Team Leader part-time. I attended college Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday. After a few months, I left my job, wrote a 'Thank you' resignation. Not like there was anything to thank them for. Except a £9 per month prescription of antidepressants, addiction to Red Bull, and no social life at all, but hey ho, I was cracking on with my assignments, and I'd met some amazing people in my 6 years, 100% the best/worst times of my life. Fast forward to the end of the academic year, I'd finished with overall Distinctions and offers from every university I applied to. I logged onto UCAS and clicked "Accept this offer." In September 2020, I officially became a Student Paramedic.

What was your motivation to finish through your studies?

Honestly, my biggest fear is failure. So alot of it is driven by that. I've always been a career focused person and want to better myself in everything. So the support of my family and proving that I can do whatever i put my mind to helps. My Nan and Grandad are a very big part of my motivation and always supported me in anything I want to do... Every ambulance they see now they wave at! I think that's really sweet haha!

What is the most enjoyable part of your job?

It's going to sound like such a cliché but honestly it's the knowing you've helped someone. Helping people in their time of need, be it physically, mentally or emotionally. The high adrenaline jobs, the calls that take every bit of your soul to complete, little old Doris or Fred whos had a little tumble. A helping hand, a cuppa and a few chocolate biscuits is normally their best medicine. It is such a social carrer too, I meet and work with so many people from so many different walks of life. Its brilliant!

What does a typical day at work look like for you?

I work for WMAS High Dependency and Patient Transport Service when I'm not at university or on my 999 placement. The typical day starts with a check of the ambulance, making sure we have everything we need. These are the white ambulance you see. We have a PDA or radio that our jobs come through on. We collect patients and take them to hospitals, hospices, or for treatment and then back home again. On Placement, we attend 999 calls made to the ambulance service. The typical shift doesn't exist. Every single job is different; one minute you're responding to a category 3 - fall patient, 2 minutes into the journey to them, you can be diverted to another call that is a higher priority. Chest pain, abdominal pain, and falls are common, but there's no saying what you're going to attend. The job comes through, your lights and sirens go on, and you're off. Once you reach the location, you don your PPE, grab your equipment, then attend and treat your patient.

Note: It is NEVER too late to chase your dreams!

Write something....

Anesthesiologist Research By: Emily Liu

Salary Average annual salary is roughly $267,020 as of 2019.

Layout By: June Kim

Health Career SPOTLIGHT

Employment Many job offers for anesthesiologists come from anesthesia organizations such as US Anesthesia Partners and Springfield Anesthesia Service or medical centers such as Northern Light Health and The Mayo Clinic.

Job Demand Job market is expected to grow around 15.5% between 2016 and 2026.

Diversity In 2018, the percentage of female working anesthesiologists was 36% compared to 63% of males.

Responsibilities Anesthesiologists are responsible for administering pain-reducing anesthetics to patients before, during, and after surgeries, as well as other medical procedures, and working closely with surgeons to select specific anesthetics based on their patient’s medical history. Anesthesiologists work in a stressful environment, as they must closely monitor their patient’s vital signs during and after a procedure, and make rapid decisions, sometimes with little data, if necessary.

Skills Needed High intelligence and technical skills: Must be very precise to avoid mistakes when treating patients Critical Thinking: Must determine which type of anesthetic would be the best for a patient based on their medical history, age, etc. Attention to detail: Must identify any warning signs in a patient’s medical history and also notice any adverse reactions to anesthetics during a surgery Problem-solving: Must intervene quickly to deal with unexpected problems if something goes wrong in a procedure Communication: Must communicate clearly with doctors and patients, especially about the risks associated with particular medications

Personality Traits Anesthesiologists must be calm, especially when under extreme pressure, as a patient’s life may depend on their ability to think clearly and quickly during unexpected, lifethreatening scenarios. They must also remain vigilant and patient for long hours to monitor a patient’s vital signs. As doctors who directly communicate with patients and their families, anesthesiologists must also be empathetic and help them feel less anxious and build trust.

Notable Female Professionals Claudia Potter (1881-1970) was the first woman who became an anesthesiologist in the U.S. and was also the first to introduce gas anesthesia to Texas.

Virginia Apgar (1909-1974), one of the most famous women in medicine, was one of the first female anesthesiologists and was also the first woman to become a professor at the Columbia University of Physicians and Surgeons. She created the Apgar score, which was the first standardized tool used to evaluate the health of newborn babies; this method is still used to this day.

Journey to the Career Obtain a bachelor's degree in any major, but certain prerequisites such as biochemistry and physics are required. Take the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) before graduating. Get accepted into medical school and complete after 4 years.

Four-year residency in anesthesia.

1-2 years of fellowship to further specialize in a specific field. Prospective anesthesiologists must pass a state licensure exam that enables them to practice medicine in their state.

Opportunities The American Society of Anesthesiologists offers many educational resources and leadership opportunities dedicated to the anesthesiology field. Several youth programs such as the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program and the Medical Immersion Summer Academy offer medical-based training.

New Inventions in the Field Over the past decade, several technological advancements in the anesthesiology field have helped improve the efficiency of anesthetics and patient monitoring systems.


Wearable Healthcare Technologies

Noninvasive Monitoring

Works Cited “Anesthesiologist Demographics in the US.” Zippia, Zippia, Inc, 30 Apr. 2021, “Anesthesiologist.” U.S. News & World Report, U.S. News & World Report L.P., money. Berlinsky-Schine, Laura. “15 Medical Internships for High School Students.” CollegeVine, 17 May 2021, “Best Anesthesiology Programs.” U.S. News & World Report, U.S. News & World Report L.P., “Claudia Potter.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 9 Nov. 2020, wiki/Claudia_Potter. Doyle, Alison. “What Does an Anesthesiologist Do?” The Balance Careers, Dotdash, 30 July 2019, Giuliani, Marco. “9 Famous Female Doctors That Changed the World.” Let’s Get Sciencey, 8 May 2019, “The Job Market for Anesthesiologists in the United States.” CareerExplorer, Sokanu Interactive Inc, 14 Nov. 2019, Novak, Richard. “On Becoming an Anesthesiologist...What Personal Characteristics Are Essential to Become a Successful Anesthesiologist?” The Anesthesia Consultant, 17 July 2015, “Resources.” American Society of Anesthesiologists, Seger, Christian, and Maxime Cannesson. “Recent advances in the technology of anesthesia.” F1000Research vol. 9 F1000 Faculty Rev-375. 18 May. 2020, doi:10.12688/f1000research.24059.1

Female Mentorship in Early Career Stages:

Healthcare Careers

Research By: Alisha Chunduri Layout By: Reya Das

Mentorship is a protected professional relationship achieved through guided communication between a highly experienced person or mentor and a knowledge seeker or mentee. This relationship aims to achieve goals that are either predefined or communicated in the mentorship period. General objectives include learning new skills, facing challenges, problem-solving approaches, life lessons, and career guidance.

Choosing a Mentor Evidence suggests that having a mentor with aligning fields of interest can be the key to effective mentorship. Some elements to consider while selecting a mentor are attraction, affect, and action. ATTRACTION: For a successful relationship between a mentor and mentee, there should be mutual interest in each other’s passions and aspirations. The mentor’s work experiences should inspire the mentee. The mentor should be approachable so the mentee can productively communicate their concerns and possibilities about career paths. AFFECT: The mentor should be humble with the mentee and think from the mentee’s point of view, enabling the mentor to be more supportive and encouraging. ACTION: The mentor should dedicate time to the mentee. For example, health care professionals often have tightly packed schedules and must prioritize and spend time developing their mentee’s goals.

Women Mentoring Women Statistics show that mentored women are more successful than non-mentored women in the workplace. When a female leader or healthcare professional mentors other women, it creates a domino effect; the female mentees are more likely to take risks and feel less isolated, especially in male-dominated industries. Healthcare careers often come with hardships for females, leading to a disrupted work-life balance. In many cases, women need to manage a household and career while succeeding in both. Having an empathetic female mentor at an early stage (high school or undergraduate level) can act as a catalyst to fuel and drive young women into health professions. It encourages them to stay motivated, become better versions of themselves, and develop their organizations.

Approaching a Potential Mentor Through email or LinkedIn, a mentee can reach out to a person they believe have the expertise and aligning career interests to be a mentor. Healthcare professionals have a busy schedule, and it is essential to catch their attention. While reaching out to a mentor, be sure to mention the purpose of the mentorship, mentorship period (long-term or short-term), expectations, pre-defined objectives, and achievable, actionable goals. Applying to mentorship platforms can be helpful for early-stage students, such as high school students and undergraduates, as they match the student with a mentor. Examples of such programs include: Action Potential Advising Program by SImply Neuroscience Graduate Student Mentorship Initiative (GSMI) Medvocate’s Mentorship program Future Leaders in Neurosurgery Symposium for Underrepresented Students (FLNSUS) For more healthcare mentorship programs, visit

Writer's Personal Experience I used to always look for opportunities to transition from biotechnology to neuroscience. It was then that I came across a neuroscience internship opportunity. A year later, I had a few publications in neuroscience, presented in international conferences, and met and worked with other highly reputed scientists. I am more confident in conducting research now and have developed better interpersonal skills. My mentor introduced me to new opportunities and people and, most importantly, made me realize I can be a researcher. From my experience, I can say that communication is crucial. If you are passionate about working towards your goals, you will meet people who will pull you up the ladder. The hardships you face today will someday inspire someone to not give up on their dreams, and having a mentor will push you to overcome those hardships with a healthy mindset.

What a Successful Woman Says About Female Mentors In a letter to the editor published in The American Journal of Medicine, Dr. Wheat describes how mentorship played a vital role in advancing her cardiology career. “Since that time, I have had the opportunity to meet and work with Dr. Lundberg in person. This has allowed me to not only grow my cardiology network but has given me a formal means by which to seek advice as I progress in my career, observe and discuss the variety of paths that are available within cardiology, and most importantly, has provided another strong female role model to emulate.” Her experience is evidence of the importance and impact of having a female mentor in a healthcare career.

References Burgess, Annette et al. “Mentorship in the health professions: a review.” The clinical teacher vol. 15,3 (2018): 197-202. doi:10.1111/tct.12756. Lin, Doris. “In Search of a Femtor: The Complexities of Female Mentorship in Academic Medicine.” Southern medical journal vol. 113,10 (2020): 495-497. doi:10.14423/SMJ.0000000000001154. Wheat, Heather L, and Gina Lundberg. “Mentorship as a Means to Get Women Interested in Cardiology.” The American journal of medicine vol. 133,8 (2020): e448. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.03.027. “Women Mentoring Women.” Haworth Inc., May 2021, -07_women-mentoring-women.html.

Molecular Geneticist Research By: Miranda Lau


Layout By: Evelyn Chen

Health Career SPOTLIGHT

Salary — About $74,758 per year. Job Demand — Projected growth of 7% from 2019-2029, about average. Employment Companies — Private companies or laboratories. (e.g., Pathway Genomics, Navigenics, Futura Genetics, and Foundation Medicine) Diversity — About 75% White, 10% Asian. From 2008-2018, the female to male ratio has been about 1:1.

White, 78.4% Asian, 11.1% Hispanic or Latino, 5.6% Unknown, 2.4% Black or African American, 2.0% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.5%

Responsibilities Molecular genetics technologists research the role of genetics in the healthcare industry. By analyzing a person’s genes, geneticists can see what diseases people are more susceptible to. Daily tasks may include analyzing DNA in labs, researching and diagnosing certain conditions, and finding ways to treat patients.

Personality Traits Communicative Along with presenting their findings, geneticists often collaborate with their peers to conduct research. A geneticist must maintain good relations with their colleagues and be very communicative to ensure information does not get lost through transit.

Motivated When geneticists do research, the answers they are looking for are not straightforward. It can take hours of skimming through every textbook or website they have access to get the information they need for one single topic.

Required Skills Physical Strength and Endurance Geneticists are constantly exposed to harsh chemicals. Even with the proper safety gear, they need to be in good physical condition to withstand the typical work environment.

Perseverance Be prepared to spend a lot of time conducting research. Often, this work is time-consuming and provides little to no results. Molecular geneticists should be perseverant and persist through futile efforts.

Public Speaking and Writing After researching, a geneticist must share their findings with colleagues. Thus, they must speak and write clearly and concisely and feel comfortable presenting in front of crowds of variable sizes.

Detail-Oriented When analyzing lab results, the difference between two results can be minuscule. A molecular geneticist must have exceptional attention to detail to avoid making mistakes that would make their findings inaccurate.

Notable Female Geneticists Nettie Maria Stevens Born in 1871, she is best known for being one of the first to discover how different combinations of chromosomes result in the sex of an organism. She published several research papers throughout her career, and her findings have become widely recognized in the biology field.

Barbara McClintock She established the concept of dominant and recessive traits (genes skipping generations). Her findings are simplified in Punnett squares, which are a part of every high school biology class curriculum. At the age of 83, she received a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to honor her contributions to the field.

Leena Peltonen-Palotie She helped discover two dozen genes and their contributions to diseases. She published over 500 essays detailing her findings and mentored aspiring molecular genetics technologists.

Career Journey Aspiring geneticists should obtain a bachelor’s degree in biology, molecular biology, or another related field. Most receive a Ph.D. to get licensed and move past an entry-level career. Some notable universities known to have good undergraduate programs for geneticists are the University of California - San Diego, University of Washington, Johns Hopkins University, and Stanford University.

Opportunities Diagnostic genetics students at Northern Michigan University or molecular pathology students at Texas Tech University may apply for a molecular genetics technology internship with the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science. The Broad Summer Scholars Program is an opportunity for high school seniors to further their knowledge in multiple biology-related topics, including genetics and genomics. The Summer Training in Academic Research and Scholarship (STARS) Program is for underrepresented undergraduate students who want to pursue a medical career in graduate school.

Works Cited “Geneticist Demographics.” Zippia, Zippia, Inc, 30 Apr. 2021, www.zippia. com/geneticist-jobs/demographics/. “Genetics & Genomics.” Genetics & Genomics: Directory of Internships, Research Opportunities, Scholarships & Fellowships, Discipline.aspx?sort=MED-Genetics_Genetics+ %2A+Genomics. Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science. “Molecular Genetics Technologist - Explore Health Care Careers.” Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, careers-a-z/molecular-genetics-technologist/. Milsom, Rachael. “Geneticist Job Description.” TARGETjobs, 27 Aug. 2020, Sobel, Rich. “22 Women Geneticists Who Should Be Famous!” Medium, An Injustice!, 6 Oct. 2020, “Top 23 Companies in Genomics & Genetics.” The Medical Futurist, 25 Mar. 2020, “What Genetics Is and How to Become a Geneticist or a Genetic Counselor.” U.S. News & World Report, U.S. News & World Report, education/best-graduate-schools/articles/what-genetics-is-and-how-tobecome-a-geneticist-or-a-genetic-counselor.

Written By: Shruthi Ganapuram

Layout By: Evelyn Chen

Gene Therapy in Neural Stem Research:

Is There a Correlation? This article will focus primarily on gene therapy integration with analysis from past years to more recent research. Neural stem cell research—an emerging scientific treatment—is in its infancy of discovery; there are still countless ongoing experimental trials. The latter part of this article will focus on whether there is a correlation between future technology or developing new research techniques in gene therapy and neural stem cells.

Overview Gene therapy is a medical field that scrutinizes the genetic modification of cells and the treatment of disease by repairment of defective genetic material.

Example Defective or mutated genes can cause cells to divide rapidly and form a brain tumor. In the 50 years following its radical proposal, gene therapy has become increasingly efficient in guaranteeing treatment options for the plethoric existence of human diseases. With that said, its foreshadowing prominence faced elaborate troubles in gaining acceptance. Adverse effects were the repercussions of earlier clinical trials that had failed tremendously. These setbacks fueled visionary scientists to revert to fundamental approaches to basic research, leading to safer and efficient gene transfer vectors.

Now, gene therapy has produced clinical benefits in patients with blindness, neuromuscular disease, hemophilia, immunodeficiencies, cancer, etc. Future implications of gene therapy have included gene-editing technologies (such as CRISPR) that could play a principal role in the field of genetics, as well as discussing practical challenges in creating accessibility to patients.

Past Gene Therapy Research Gene therapy introduces genetic material into cells to correct or repair abnormal genes.

Example If a mutated gene causes harm to or spurs the disappearance of a necessary protein, gene therapy can introduce a traditional copy of the gene to restore that protein's function.

In 2017, a gentle stream of encouraging clinical results showed progress in sequence therapies for hemophilia, sickle-cell disease, blindness, many severe heritable neurodegenerative disorders, an array of alternative genetic diseases, and multiple cancers of the bone marrow and humor nodes. Originally a treatment only for inherited disorders, gene therapy is being applied to noninheritable conditions like cancer. For instance, the engineering of lymphocytes, white blood cells, that may be utilized in the targeted killing of cancer cells. The authors centered on these approaches that have delivered the most effective outcomes in gene therapy so far: 1. In vivo administration of microorganism vectors, or the utilization of viruses to deliver therapeutic genes into human cells. 2. The transfer of genetically engineered blood or bone marrow stem cells (changed in a lab) from a patient to a patient with similar equivalence to the lab condition. In the scope of medical research from a series of primary sequence trials, research and experimental trials are progressing towards an acclimated genetic derived world. However, success has been limited, though long-term improvement seems promising, and we are steadily approaching a suitable safety record. This review explores non-viral and microorganism strategies for transgene introduction and their current and potential applications for craniofacial regeneration and therapy, stressing future development and design.

Impact of Neural Stem Cell Therapy and Technological Enhancements Neural stem cells are antecedent cells that self-renew and generate neurons and glia. Glia (or glial cells) are non-neuronal cells in the nervous system (brain and spinal cord) where they maintain homeostasis. The first study in neural stem cell therapy presented a light-emitting diode to isolating stem-like cells from the embryonic class central nervous system (CNS)1,2,3,4 and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)5. Recent evidence shows that the transplantation of neural stem cells/precursor cells protects the central nervous system from inflammatory damage through a “bystander” mechanism (an alternative cell replacement). This mechanism allows an unaffected neural stem to exert transplantation procedures where important stem cell regulators, released by CNS-resident or “blood-borne inflammatory cells,” regulate its functional characteristics. Exogenous NSCs may improve medical specialty outcomes following stroke through lost or damaged cell replacement or through watcher effects by secreting neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory factors to shield brain cells and promote repair. Neural stem cell therapy is therapeutic to the brain. Stem cells have acclimated to further knowledge on stem cell culture, separation, and identification techniques. This advancement, known as fluorescenceactivated cell sorting (FACS), has become a novel method for stem cells separation. It will be clinically beneficial differentiating between defective and stable neural stem cells in terms of neural stem cell practical application, as well as working to balance homeostasis efficiently.

Impact of Neural Stem Cell Therapy and Technological Enhancements Enhancements in integrating gene therapy treatments, in which genetic modification and gene replacement have resulted in progression, encourage research towards a prominent topic in the prospect of scientific advancements. With emphasis on genes and their specific alteration capabilities, utilities such as CRISPR depend on arrangements of genes. Alternatively, neural stem cells promote anti-inflammatory factors that expedite repairment in readjusting defective brain cells. Neural stem cells have gained recent prominence due to these regulatory factors. However, because this phenomenon is new, it’s conducive to research and analysis assimilating standstill genetic therapy work. There is hope for a cross-connection in technology and its mobility functions, where its application will fathom unimaginable repercussions towards the genetics field and provide viable and effective usage of both applications in the medical field and technical research.

Works Cited Dunbar, Cynthia E., et al. “Gene Therapy Comes of Age.” Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 12 Jan. 2018, “How Does Gene Therapy Work?: MedlinePlus Genetics.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 12 Apr. 2021, Rossi, Ferdinando, and Elena Cattaneo. “Neural Stem Cell Therapy for Neurological Diseases: Dreams and Reality.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, Scheller, E.L., and P.H. Krebsbach. “Gene Therapy: Design and Prospects for Craniofacial Regeneration.” Journal of Dental Research, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 July 2009,


Research By: Samyuktha Venkatesh


Hospitals and companies that specialize in cancer research and treatments often hire oncologists. This includes companies that participate in cancer research and treatments or provide services for neoplastic diseases.

Job Demand Demand is expected to rise 48% from 2005-2020. However, there is not much competition in the field, so the rate of available oncologists is expected to rise slower than the demand.

Layout By: Evelyn Chen

Health Career SPOTLIGHT

Salary Starting salary is about $250K, but with experience, it can surpass $500K. As of 2018, the median salary for physicians and surgeons, according to, was $200,890.

Diversity There is not much diversity within the career. Although ⅔ of oncologists are men, primarily white men, diversity rates are slowly increasing. Currently, 37.5% of women are general surgery residents, compared to the 17.6% practicing today.

Job Responsibilities Oncologists perform surgeries just like any other surgeon. However, their knowledge of how to treat cancers, tumors, and neoplastic diseases (when, where, and how to do it) separates them from other surgeons. They must possess the required skills, knowledge, and experience to diagnose patients accurately, and as a part of their training, understand hematology, radiation oncology, pathology, and medical oncology. Skills Must be able to understand computer imaging and medical software, use surgical tools and accessories, and have comprehensive knowledge of cancer treatment. Personality Traits/Qualities Good communication skills, leadership skills, detail-oriented, patience, have empathy, and good problem-solving abilities.

Career Journey Oncologists, and doctor’s in general, go through an extensive process to achieve their job qualifications. Start

Take MCAT near the end of college

Get a Bachelor’s degree (no specific degree is required)

Graduate medical school

Obtain licensure (allowance to practice medicine)

Complete a residency in general surgery and work towards completing a fellowship in oncology

Notable Colleges Harvard University Johns Hopkins University Cornell University

Advance in career by learning more and conducting research in the field

University of Toronto University of Sydney

It is helpful to work, do internships, or perform research in labs and organizations related to oncology, or the medical field in general, during college and high school. This helps students because it gives them better chances of getting into selective programs due to their experience, and it would also be beneficial for them to be involved in something they enjoy.

Recent Inventions Fluid Biopsies Used to diagnose cancer in its early stages. As cancer cells are extracted from a blood sample, it obtains a fresh sample from the tumor to determine the next step in treatment.

Targeted Therapies Drugs and methods that aid with stunting cancer growth or spread. For example, the HPV vaccine reduces cervical cancer incidence by over 90%.

Precision operations By using robots during surgery that are able to achieve more precision than what is possible for humans, robots are able to perform surgery in places that are close to sensitive organs, and can operate in the early stages of tumor development. They also help the surgeon with other things during surgery (dissecting, suturing, removing tissue).

Programs/Resources Not many programs exist to assist women and non-binary individuals in surgical oncology, but there are many efforts by professionals and organizations to fix this. A prominent organization is the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), which holds interviews, donates money, and makes many other efforts to increase diversity in the field.

Works Cited “Become a Surgical Oncologist: Step-by-Step Career Guide.”, 5 Mar. 2020, Become_a_ Surgical_Oncologist_Step-by-Step_Career_Guide.html. “Best Global Universities for Oncology.” US News, oncology. Accessed 6 July 2021. Cavallo, Jo. “Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce.” American Society of Clinical Oncology, 10 Oct. 2017, “Cervical Cancer Is Preventable.” CDC, Nov. 2014, Erikson, Clese, et al. “Future Supply and Demand for Oncologists : Challenges to Assuring Access to Oncology Services.” US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, Mar. 2007, pmc/articles/PMC2793740. “Facts & Figures: Diversity in Oncology.” American Society of Clinical Oncology, Accessed 6 July 2021. Myshko, Denise. “Diversity Gap Persists for Racial and Ethnic Minorities in Oncology.” American Society of Clinical Oncology, 23 Mar. 2021, NCI Staff. “Large Study Confirms That HPV Vaccine Prevents Cervical Cancer.” National Cancer Institute, 14 Oct. 2020, Noel, Olivier, et al. “Ethnic and Gender Diversity Comparison between Surgical Patients and Caring Surgeons.” US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, Oct. 2020, pmc/articles/PMC7647517. Pollock, Raphael E., and Donald L. Morton. “The Contemporary Role of Surgical Oncology.” US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, Accessed 6 July 2021. “Surgical Oncology Salary.” The Student Doctor Network, 9 Sept. 2017, surgical-oncology-salary.1278671/#post-19274181. “13 Technologies That Will Shape the Future of Cancer Care.” The Medical Futurist, 10 June 2021, “Top Surgical Oncology Companies.” VentureRadar, Oncology. Accessed 6 July 2021.

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