Issuu on Google+

The

AMERICAN

MUSCLE


AMERICAN MUSCLE

The

AMERICAN

MUSCLE

Muscle car is a term used to refer to a variety of high performance automobiles.The Merriam-Webster definition is more limiting, “any of a group of American-made 2-door sports coupes with powerful engines designed for highperformance driving.”[2] The term generally refers to 2-door rear wheel drive family-style 4+ passenger mid-size cars (and, by some, full-size cars) equipped with large, powerful, V8s, and sold at an affordable price for mainly street use and sometimes both formal and informal drag racing. As such, they are distinct from two-seat sports cars and expensive 2+2 GTs intended for high-speed touring and road racing. Building on the American phenomenon and developing simultaneously in their own markets, muscle cars also emerged in their own fashions in Australia, South Africa, the UK, and elsewhere. According to the June 1967 issue of Road Test magazine, a “muscle car” is “exactly what the name implies. It is a product of the American car industry adhering to the hot rodder’s philosophy of taking a small car and putting a BIG engine in it. The Muscle Car is Charles Atlas kicking sand in the face of the 98 hp (73 kW) weakling.” Peter Henshaw, the author of the book Muscle Cars, from which this quote is drawn, further asserts that the muscle car was designed for straight-line speed, and did not have the “sophisticated chassis”, “engineering integrity” or “lithe appearance” of European high-performance cars. However, opinions vary as to whether high-performance full-size cars, compacts, and pony cars qualify as muscle cars. DIRECTOR: andres benito. DISEÑADOR: andres benito. ILUSTRADOR: giovanny baene. FOTOGRAFIAS: internet exploer. EDICION: andres benito. CORRECION: armando benedetti. MONTAJE: andres benito.

2


The

Chevrolet

Camaro

history Four distinct generations of the Camaro were developed before production ended in 2002. The nameplate was revived again on a concept car that evolved into the fifth-generation Camaro; production started on March 16, 2009. The car was also featured in Transformers, as a main character named Bumblebee. The Camaro was first shown at a press preview in Detroit, Michigan, on September 12, 1966, and then later in Los Angeles, California, on September 19, 1966. The Camaro officially went on sale in dealerships on September 29, 1966, for the 1967 model year.

THE AMERICAN MUSCLE

First genertion: 1967–1969

3

First-generation Camaro debuted in September 1966, for the 1967 model year, up to 1969 on a new rear-wheel drive GM F-body platform and would be available as a 2-door, 2+2 seating, coupe or convertible with a choice of 250 cu in (4.1 L) inline-6 and 302 cu in (4.9 L), 307 cu in (5.0 L), 327 cu in (5.4 L), 350 cu in (5.7 L), or 396 cu in (6.5 L) V8 powerplants. Concerned with the runaway success of the Ford Mustang, Chevrolet executives realized that their compact sporty car, the Corvair, would not be able to generate the sales volume of the Mustang due to its rear-engine design, as well as declining sales, partly due to the bad publicity from Ralph Nader’s book, Unsafe at Any Speed. Therefore, the Camaro was touted as having the same conventional.

Second generation: 1970–1981 Introduced in February 1970, the second generation Camaro was produced through the 1981 model year, with cosmetic changes made in 1974 and 1978 model years. The car was heavily restyled and became somewhat larger and wider with the new styling. Still based on the F-body platform, the new Camaro was similar to its predecessor, with a unibody structure, front subframe, an A-arm front suspension and leaf springs to control the solid rear axle. Road & Track magazine picked the 1971 SS350 as one of the 10 best cars in the world in August 1971. RS, SS and Z28 performance packages gradually disappeared. The Z28 package was reintroduced in 1977, largely in response to the huge success of its corporate stablemate, the Pontiac Trans Am. 1980 and 1981 Z28s included an air induction hood scoop, with an intake door that opened under full throttle.

Third generation: 1982–1992 The third generation Camaro was produced from 1982 to 1992. These were the first Camaros to offer modern fuel injection, Turbo-Hydramatic


Chevrolet Camaro

700R4 four-speed automatic transmissions, five speed manual transmissions, 16 inch wheels, a standard 4-cylinder engine, and hatchback bodies. The cars were nearly 500 pounds (227 kg) lighter than. The IROC-Z which stands for International Race of Champions was introduced in 1985 and continued through 1990. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Regulations required a CHMSL (Center High Mounted Stop Lamp) starting with the 1986 model year. The new brake light was located on the exterior of the upper center area of the back hatch glass. In 1987, the L98 5.7 L V8 engine became an option on the IROC-Z.

Chevolet Camaro 2010

Fourth generation: 1993–2002 Camaro debuted in 1993 on an updated F-body platform. It retained the same characteristics since its introduction in 1967: a coupe body style with 2+2 seating (with an optional T-top roof) or convertible (introduced in 1994), rear-wheel drive, and a choice of V6 and V8 engines. The standard powerplant from 1993-1995 was a 3.4 liter V6. A more powerful 3.8 liter V6 was introduced as an option in 1995 and made standard in 1996. The LT1 V-8 engine, which was introduced in the Corvette in 1992, was standard in the Z28. Optional equipment included all-speed traction control and a new six-speed T-56 manual transmission; a four-speed automatic transmission was also available. Anti-lock brakes were standard equipment on all Camaros. The 1997 model year included a revised interior, and the 1998 models included exterior styling changes, and a switch to GM’s aluminum block LS1 used in the Corvette C5. The Camaro remained in production through the 2002 model year, marking 35 years of continuous production. Based on the 2006 Camaro Concept and 2007 Camaro Convertible Concept.

4


The

Chevrolet

Camaro

THE AMERICAN MUSCLE

Fifth generation: 2010–present

5

The fifth-generation Camaro was engineered by General Motors Holden in Melbourne, Australia, and is based on the highly-successful GM Holden Zeta RWD platform. Production of the coupe began on March 16, 2009, in LS, LT, and SS trim levels. LS and LT models are powered by a 3.6 L (220 cu in) V6 producing 304 hp (227 kW) (or 312hp for the 2011 model) mated to either a 6-speed manual or a 6-speed automatic with manual shift. The SS is powered by the 6.2 L (376 cu in) LS3 V8 producing 426 hp (318 kW) and is paired with a 6-speed manual. The automatic SS gets the L99 V8 with 400 hp (300 kW). The RS appearance package is available on both the LT and SS and features 20-inch wheels with a darker

gray tone, halo rings around xenon headlamps, a unique spoiler, and red RS or SS badges. For the 2012 model year, several changes have been made to the Camaro line. The “Jewel Red Tintocoat” color has been replaced by a color known as “Crystal Red Tintcoat” and the “Synergy Green” color option was removed. The V6 is updated to a 3.6L engine named “LFX” that has an output of 323 horsepower. The SS model has also received an upgrade to the suspension system, with an engine update in the makings. All Camaro models from 1LS to 2SS are now outfitted with standard RS spoiler, and Taillight details. Also, wheel-mounted volume and radio controls are standard, as well as Bluetooth connectivity controls. Some minor modifications, such as a revised steering wheel design and updated instrument panels keep the interior up to speed with the other updates. Chevrolet announced the new 2012 ZL1 Camaro, it will have a 6.2L LSA supercharged V8 and is estimated to produce 550+ horsepower. The LSA motor is the same used in the Cadillac CTS-V and makes it the fastest production Camaro ever produced. Some other features include 2-stage exhaust, addition of suade to the seats, steering wheel and the shift knob, and LT1-exclusives 120” aluminiu wheels.


Chevrolet Camaro

interior desing

RACING CAR series in new era On April 1, 2010, the Camaro was named the World Car Design of the Year at the World Car of the Year Awards. In late January 2011, the production of 600 2011 Camaro Convertibles started. The first going to Rick Hendrick via Barret-Jackson Car Auction. Convertibles had the same options as the coupe (engines, RS, SS, etc.). The Camaro Convertible features an aluminum brace over the engine assembly, and under the transmission. Due to the 2011 Fukushima earthquake, certain pigment colors were not available to make certain colors for both the coupe and convertible. The Camaro was one of the prominent vehicles in the SCCA-sanctioned Trans-Am Series. Chevrolet worked with Roger Penske to operate their unofficially factorybacked Trans Am team, winning the title in 1968 and 1969 with Mark Donohue. Jim Hall’s Chaparral team replaced Penske for the 1970 season. Warren Agor of Rochester, NY, was the series’ leading Camaro privateer, his orange #13’s o, 1993, 1994, and 1998. There was also another SCCA Trans-Am Series Camaro that was not popular because of racing but because of its body modifications. This Camaro, proudly wearing the number 13, had been built and driven by Henry “Smokey” Yunick. Smokey Yunick was an innovative car builder, who worked to reduce the weight of his cars by acid-dipping body parts, and installing thinner safety glass. The Penske/Donohue Camaros also had the front sheet metal dropped, all four fenders widened, windshield laid back, front sub-frame “Z’d” to lower the car, the floor pan moved up and even the drip-rails were moved closer to the body. This Camaro had always kept its stock look and only had a 302 engine that was able to produce 482 horsepower. This Camaro had later on been bought by Vic Edelbrock. At this time he put it to use a0brock Cross-Manifold. To this day the Smokey Yunick 1968 Camaro is owned by Vic Edelbrock Jr.

6


The

poNTIAC

GTO RACE

THE AMERICAN MUSCLE

history

7

The Pontiac GTO is an automobile built by Pontiac Division of General Motors in the United States from 1964 to 1974, and by GM subsidiary Holden in Australia from 2004 to 2006. It is considered an innovative, and now classic muscle car of the 1960s and 1970s. From 1964 until midway through 1973 it was closely related to the Pontiac Tempest/LeMans and for the 1974 model year it was based on the Pontiac Ventura. The 21st century GTO is essentially a left-hand drive Holden Monaro, itself a coupe variant of the Holden Commodore. The GTO was basically a violation of GM policy limiting the A-body intermediate line to a maximum engine displacement of 330 cu in (5.4 L). Since the GTO was an option package and not standard equipment, it could be considered to fall into a loophole in the policy. Pontiac General Manager Elliot “Pete” Estes approved the new model, although sales manager Frank Bridge, who did not believe it would find a market, insisted on limiting initial production to no more than 5,000 cars. Had the model been a failure, Estes likely would have been reprimanded. As it turned out, it was a great success.

First genertion: 1964 The first Pontiac GTO was an option package for the Pontiac LeMans, available with the two-door coupe, hardtop coupe, and convertible body styles. Despite rumors, Pontiac never built a GTO station wagon on its assembly lines. The US$ 296, package included a 389 cu in (6.4 L) V8 rated at 325 bhp (242 kW) at 4800 rpm) with a single Carter AFB four-barrel carburetor and dual exhaust, chromed valve covers and air cleaner, 7 blade clutch fan, a floor-shifted threespeed manual transmission with Hurst shifter, stiffer springs, larger diameter front sway bar, wider wheels with 7.50 × 14 redline tires, hood scoops, and GTO badges. Optional equipment included a four-speed manual, Super Turbine 300 two-speed automatic transmission, a more powerful “Tri-Power” carburation rated at 348 bhp (260 kW), metallic drum brake linings, limited slip differential, heavy-duty cooling, ride and handling package, and the usual array of power and convenience accessories. With every available option, the GTO cost about US$ 4,500 and weighed around 3,500 lb (1,600 kg). Most contemporary road tests used the more powerful Tri-Power engine and four-speed. Car Life clocked a GTO so equipped at 0–60 miles per hour


poNTIAC GTO RACE

(0–97 km/h) in 6.6 seconds], through the standing quarter mile in 14.8 seconds with a quarter mile trap speed of 99 mph (159 km/h). Like most testers, they criticized the slow steering, particularly without power steering, and inadequate drum brakes, which were identical to those of the normal Tempest. Car and Driver incited controversy when it printed that a GTO that had supposedly been tuned with the “Bobcat” kit offered by Ace Wilson’s Royal Pontiac of Royal Oak, Michigan, was clocked at a quarter mile time of 12.8 seconds and a top speed of 200 mph (320 km/h) on racing slicks. Later reports strongly suggest that the Car and Driver GTOs were equipped with a 421 cu in (6.9 L) engine that was optional in full-sized Pontiacs. SECOND GENERATION: BOBCAT Throughout the 1960s, Ace Wilson’s Royal Pontiac, a Pontiac car dealer in Royal Oak, Michigan, offered a special tune-up package for Pontiac 389 engines. Many were fitted to GTOs, and the components and instructions could be purchased by mail as well as installed by the dealer.

The name “Bobcat” came from the improvised badges created for the modified cars, combining letters from the “Bonneville” and “Catalina” nameplates. Many of the Pontiacs made available for magazine testing were equipped with the Bobcat kit. The GTO Bobcat accelerated 0-60 mph in 4.6 seconds (this 0-60 time is now equalled by the factory 2005-06 GTO with automati transmission, fuel injection, and no modifications). The precise components of the kit varied but generally included pieces to modify the spark advance of the distributor, limiting spark advance to 34-36° at no more than 3,000 rpm (advancing the timing at high rpm for increased power), a thinner head gasket to raise compression to about 11.23:1, a gasket to block the heat riser of the carburetor (keeping it cooler), larger carburetor jets, high-capacity oil pump, and fiberglass shims with lock nuts to hold the hydraulic valve lifters at their maximum point of adjustment, allowing the engine to rev higher without “floating” the valves. Properly installed, the kit could add between 30 and 50 horsepower (20-40 kW), although it required highoctane superpremium gasoline of over 100 octane to avoid spark knock with the higher compression and advanced timing.

8


The

poNTIAC

GTO RACE

THE AMERICAN MUSCLE

Thirth genertion: 1984

9

The Tempest line, including the GTO, was restyled for the 1965 model year, adding 3.1 inches (79 mm) to the overall length while retaining the same wheelbase and interior dimensions. It sported Pontiac’s characteristic vertically stacked quad headlights. Overall weight increased about 100 pounds (45 kg). Brake lining area increased nearly 15%. The dashboard design was improved, and an optional rally gauge cluster ($86.08) added a more legible tachometer and oil pressure gauge. The 389 engine had revised cylinder heads with re-cored intake passages, improving breathing. Rated power increased to 335 hp (250 kW) at 5,000 rpm for the base 4—barrel engine; the Tri-Power was rated 360 hp (270 kW) at 5,200 rpm. The Tri-Power engine had slightly less torque than the base engine 424 lb·ft (575 N·m) at 3,600 rpm versus 431 lb·ft (584 N·m) at 3,200 rpm. Transmission and axle ratio choices remained . The restyled GTO had a new simulated hood scoop. A rare, dealerinstalled option was a metal underhood pan and gaskets that allowed the scoop to be opened, transforming a cosmetic device into a functional

cold air intake. The scoop was low enough that its effectiveness was questionable (it was unlikely to pick up anything but boundary layer air), but it at least admitted cooler, denser air, and allowed more of the engine’s formidable roar to escape. Car Life tested a 1965 GTO with Tri-Power and what they considered the most desirable options (close-ratio four-speed manual transmission, power steering, metallic brakes, rally wheels, 4.11 limited-slip differential, and Rally Gauge Cluster), with a total sticker price of US$3,643.79.


poNTIAC GTO RACE interior desing

fOURTH genertion: 2004 With two testers and equipment aboard, they recorded 0–60 miles per hour (0–97 km/h) in 5.8 seconds, the standing quarter mile in 14.5 seconds with a trap speed of 100 miles per hour (160 km/h), and an observed top speed of 114 miles per hour (182.4 km/h) at the engine’s 6,000 rpm redline. Even Motor Trend’s four-barrel test car, a heavier convertible handicapped by the two-speed automatic transmission and the lack of a limited slip differential, ran 0-60 mph in 7 seconds and through the quarter mile in 16.1 seconds at 89 miles per hour (142.4 km/h). Major criticisms of the GTO continued to center on its slow steering (ratio of 17.5:1, four turns lock-to-lock) and mediocre brakes. Car Life was satisfied with the metallic brakes on its GTO, but Motor Trend and Road Test found the standard drums with organic linings to be alarmingly inadequate in high-speed driving. Sales of the GTO, abetted by a formidable marketing and promotional campaign that included songs and various merchandise, more than doubled to 75,342. It was already spawning many imitators, both within other GM divisions and its competitors. The Pontiac GTO was relaunched in the United States in 2004, based on the Holden Monaro’s.

10


The

FORD

MUSTANG

THE AMERICAN MUSCLE

history

11

The Ford Mustang is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. It was initially based on the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car. Introduced early on April 17, 1964, as a “1964½” model, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker’s most successful launch since the Model A. The model is Ford’s third oldest nameplate in production and has undergone several transformations to its current fifth generation. The Mustang created the “pony car” class of American automobiles—sports car-like coupes with long hoods and short rear decks—and gave rise to competitors such as GM’s Chevrolet Camaro, AMC’s Javelin, and Chrysler’s revamped Plymouth Barracuda. It also inspired coupés such as the Toyota Celica and Ford Capri, which were exported to the United States. Mustangs grew larger and heavier with each model year until, in response to the 1971–1973 models, Ford returned the car to its original size and concept for 1974. It has since seen several platform generations and designs. Although some other pony cars have seen a revival, the Mustang is the only original pony car to remain in uninterrupted production over four decades of development and revision.

First generation (1964–1973) As Lee Iacocca’s assistant general manager and chief engineer, Donald N. Frey was the head engineer for the T-5 project—supervising the overall development of the car in a record 18 monthswhile Iacocca himself championed the project as Ford Division general manager. The T-5 prototype was a two-seat, mid-mounted engine roadster. This vehicle employed the German Ford Taunus V4 engine and was very similar in appearance to the much later Pontiac Fiero. It was claimed that the decision to abandon the two-seat design was in part due to the low sales experienced with the 2-seat 1955 Thunderbird. To broaden market appeal it was later remodeled as a four-seat car (with full space for the front bucket seats, as originally planned, and a rear bench seat with significantly less space than was common at the time). A “Fastback 2+2” model traded the conventional trunk space for increased interior volume as well as giving exterior lines similar to those of the second series of the Corvette Sting Ray and European sports cars such as the Jaguar E-Type. The “Fastback 2+2” was not available as a 1964½ model, but was first manufactured on August 17, 1964.


FORD MUSTANG

Second generation (1974–1978) For 1967, the Mustang retained the original body structure but styling was refreshed, giving the Mustang a more massive look overall. Front and rear end styling was more pronounced, and the “twin cove” instrument panel offered a thicker crash pad, and larger gauges. Hardtop, fastback and convertible body styles continued as before. A host of Federal safety features were standard that year, including an energy-absorbing steering column and wheel, 4-way emergency flashers, and softer interior knobs. For 1968 models, the 1967 body style continued, but with revised the side scoops, steering wheel, and gas caps. Side marker lights were also added that year, and cars built after January 1, 1968 included shoulder belts for both front seats. The ‘68 models also introduced a new V8 engine, the 302. This small-block engine was designed for Federal emissions standards that were to take effect, and ended up being used in large number of other Ford vehicles for many decades. For 1969 and 1970 models, the Mustang received a larger body, a more aggressive stance, and a wider grille. ‘69 models

featured “quad headlamps” which disappeared to make way for an even wider grille in the ‘70 models. A variety performance and decorative options were available including functional (and non-functional) air scoops, cable and pin hood tie downs, and both wing and chin spoilers. Additionally, the Boss 302 and 429 models were introduced to homologize the engines. Lee Iacocca, who had been one of the forces behind the original Mustang, became President of Ford Motor Company in 1970 and ordered a smaller, more fuel-efficient Mustang for 1974. Initially it was to be based on the Ford Maverick, but ultimately was based on the Ford Pinto subcompact.

12


The

FORD

MUSTANG

Third generation (1979–1993) The new model, called the “Mustang II”, was introduced two months before the first 1973 oil crisis, and its reduced size allowed it to compete against imported sports coupés such as the Japanese Toyota Celica and the European Ford Capri (then Ford-built in Germany and Britain, sold in U.S. by Mercury as a captive import car). First-year sales were 385,993 cars, compared with the original Mustang’s twelvemonth sales record of 418,812.

Lee Iacocca wanted the new car, which returned the Mustang to its 1964 predecessor in size, shape, and overall styling, to be finished to a high standard, saying it should be “a little jewel.” However not only was it smaller than the original car, but it was also heavier, owing to the addition of equipment needed to meet new U.S. emission and safety regulations. Performance was reduced, and despite the car’s new handling and engineering features the galloping mustang emblem “became a less muscular steed that seemed to be cantering.”

THE AMERICAN MUSCLE

The car was available in coupé and hatchback versions, including a “luxury” Ghia model designed by Ford’s rececently acquired Ghia of Italy. Changes introduced in 1975 included reinstatement of the 302 CID V8 option (after being without a V8 option for the 1974 model year) and availability of an economy option called the “MPG Stallion”. Other changes in appearance and performance came with a “Cobra II” version in 1976 & 1977 and a “King Cobra” in 1978.

13

The 1979 Mustang was based on the longer Fox platform (initially developed for the 1978 Ford Fairmont and Mercury Zephyr). The interior was restyled to accommodate four people in comfort despite a smaller rear seat. Body styles included a coupé, (notchback), hatchback, and convertible. Available trim levels included L, GL, GLX, LX, GT, Turbo GT (1983–84), SVO (1984– 86), Cobra (1979–81; 1993), and Cobra R (1993). In response to slumping sales and escalating fuel prices.


FORD MUSTANG interior desing

Fourth generation (1994–2004) In 1994 the Mustang underwent its first major redesign in fifteen years. Code-named “SN-95” by the automaker, it was based on an updated version of the rear-wheel drive Fox platform called The new styling by Patrick Schiavone incorporated several styling cues from earlier Mustangs. For the first time since 1974, a hatchback coupe model was unavailable. The base model came with a 3.8, and was mated to a standard 5-speed manual transmission or optional 4-speed automatic. Though initially used in the 1994 and 1995 Mustang GT, Ford retired the 302 cid pushrod small-block V8 after nearly 40 years of use, replacing it with the newer Modular 4.6 L (281 cid) SOHC V8 in the 1996 Mustang GT. The 4.6 L V8 was initially rated at 215 bhp (160 kW), 1996–1997, but was later increased to 225 bhp (168 kW) in 1998. For 1999, the Mustang received Ford’s New Edge styling theme with sharper contours, larger wheel arches, and creases in its bodywork, but its basic proportions, interior design, and chassis remained the same as the previous model. The Mustang’s powertrains were carried over for 1999, but benefited from new improvements. The standard 3.8 L V6 had a new split-port induction system, and was rated at 190 bhp (140 kW) 1999–2004, while the Mustang GT’s 4.6 L V8 saw an increase in output to 260 bhp (190 kW) (1999– 2004), due to a new head design and other enhancements.

14


The

dodge

viper

THE AMERICAN MUSCLE

history

15

The Dodge Viper underwent a major redesign in 2003, courtesy of DaimlerChrysler’s Street and Racing Technology group. The new Viper SRT10, which replaced both the GTS and the RT/10 was heavily restyled with sharp, angled bodywork. The engine’s displacement was increased to 505 cu in (8.3 L) which, with other upgrades, increased output to 500 bhp (370 kW) and 525 lb·ft (712 N·m). Despite the power increases, engine weight was reduced to about 500 lb (230 kg). The chassis was also improved, becoming more rigid and weighing approximately 80 lb (36 kg) less than the previous model. An even lighter and stronger chassis was planned, but was abandoned because of cost (parts from the planned suspension were used in the Hennessey Viper Venom 1000 Twin Turbo.) The Viper SRT-10 Coupe was introduced at the 2005 Detroit Auto Show as a 2006 model. It shares many of its body panels with the convertible, but takes its side and rear styling from the Competition Coupe. The coupe looks much like the previous Viper GTS and retains t h e “double-bubble” roof shape of the original along with the original GTS’s tail lights, as well as offering the original GTS Blue with white

First generation (1992–1995) stripes paint scheme on the initial run of First Edition cars like the original Viper coupe. The engine is SAE-certified to produce 510 bhp (380 kW) and 535 lb·ft (725 N·m). Unlike the original coupe, the chassis was not modified. This makes the coupe heavier than the convertible, and thus slightly slower to accelerate. Handling and highspeed performance are improved by the coupe’s stiffer frame, reduced drag, and increased downforce. In 2008, with the introduction of the 510 cu in (8.4 L) V10, the Viper produced 600 bhp (450 kW) at 6000 rpm and 560 lb·ft (760 N·m) at 5100 rpm, and also received better flowing heads with larger valves, Mechadyne cam-in-cam variable valve timing on the exhaust cam lobes, and dual electronic throttle bodies. The rev limit could be increased by 300 rpm due to the improved valvetrain stability from both the new camshaft profiles and valve-springs.


dodge viper

Second generation (1996–2002) The engine was developed with some external assistance from McLaren Automotive and the Ricardo Consulting Engineers. Electronic engine control is developed by Continental AG; the controller can monitor the crankshaft and cylinder position up to six times during each firing and has 10 times more processing power than the previous unit. Changes outside of the engine were less extreme. The Tremec T56 transmission was replaced with a new Tremec TR6060 with triple firstgear synchronizers and doubles for higher gears. The Dana M44-4 rear axle from the 2003–2006 model now has a GKN ViscoLok speed-sensing limited-slip differential that greatly helps the tires in getting grip under acceleration. Another performance upgrade was the removal of run-flat tires; the new Michelin Pilot Sport 2 tires increased grip and driver feedback and, along with revised suspension. modifications made to the 2008 model year car were enough for Chrysler to make it distinct from the first SRT-10, and the 2008 model became known as Gen IV, just in time for release with Chevrolet’s 638 hp (476 kW) Corvette ZR1.

16


The

dodge

viper

THE AMERICAN MUSCLE

Third generation (2003–2006)

17

Another notable change is the reworking of the exhaust system; previous third-generation Vipers had their exhaust crossover under the seats which resulted in a large amount of heat going into the cockpit, which was done initially to help improve the car’s exhaust note, since the first 2 generations of Viper, which had no crossover, were criticized for their lackluster exhaust notes. The 2008 Viper exhaust utilized a new exhaust system with no crossover, reducing the heat that enters the cockpit. The electrical system was completely revised for 2008. Changes included a 180-amp alternator, twin electric cooling fans, electronic throttles, and completely new VENOM engine management system. CAN bus architecture has been combined with pre-existing systems to allow for regulatory compliance. The fuel system was upgraded to include a higher-capacity fuel pump and filtration system. Car and Driver magazine tested the car, and found a 0-60 mph (97 km/h) time of 3.5 seconds, a 0-100 mph (160 km/h) time of 7.6 seconds, and a quarter-mile time of 11.5 seconds at 126 mph (203 km/h). Dodge’s claims for top speed are 197 mph (317 km/h) and 202 mph (325 km/h), for the Roadster and Coupe respectively. Car and Driver also tested the Viper’s track performance, and managed a fast sub-3 minute lap time around Virginia International Raceway. The Viper’s time, despite hot weather, was faster than the Corvette Z06, Ford GT, Nissan GTR, Porsche 911 Turbo, 911 GT3, and 911 GT2, Audi R8, and similar cars. According to Car and Driver and Motor Trend, the car’s slightly-adjusted suspension setup and new differential gave it cornering ability as sharp as before with better control, feedback, and response. On November 4, 2009, Dodge Car Brand President and CEO Ralph Gilles had announced that the Viper

interior desing


The

AMERICAN

MUSCLE


The American Muscle