Different Perspectives Of Diving by Giorgi Meyer
Ocean’s Call W
hen one hears the word diving they mechanically link it to scuba diving, a form of underwater diving, where divers carry their own breathing gas allowing them greater freedom of movement in the bodies of water. Since the days of Jacques Cousteau, scuba diving has become extremely popular and entertaining. The first commercially successful scuba sets was the Aqualung, developed by Emile Gagnan and Jacques Cousteau, in which compressed air carried in back mounted cylinders is inhaled and then exhaled into the water.
Capitain Jacques Cousteau left his mark forever on the planet and the oceans. When Cousteau and his teams embarked aboard Calypso to explore the world, no one yet knew about the effects of pollution, over-exploitation of resources and coastal development. The films of Calypso’s adventures drew the public’s attention to the potentially disastrous environmental consequences of human polution. Cousteau, through his life and his work, was a major player in the environmental movement.
Seeking a way to explore underwater longer and more freely, Cousteau with engineer Emile Gagnan developed the Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus, now known as scuba or aqualung. In 1943 the world under the sea was opened up to human beings.
After World War II, Cousteau, along with naval officer Philippe Tailliez and diver Frédéric Dumas, became known as “musketeers of the sea” as they carried out diving experiments in the sea and oceans.
In 1950, the famous ship, Calypso, was modified into an oceanographic vessel, equipped with instruments for diving and scientific research, and the great adventure began. She and her crews explored the seas and rivers of the world for the next four decades.
Sky’s Fall I
t might be suprising to hear that first parachute has been invented at 90 B.C in China. As the legend of Emperor Shun fortes us of his father’s attempt to kill him, resulting in Shun fleeing into a high tower. The Emperor tied several large straw hats together and jumped out of the tower, the hats serving as a parachute landed him safely on the ground. The first European construction of a parachute-like device was made during the reign of King Louis XIV of France in the 1680’s. It was Joseph Montgolfier of France, who in the late 18th century, first gave significant meaning to the modern use of the parachute by testing his device while jumping out of a hot air balloon.
The parachutes used at the time were either inflated before a jump or pulled into the airstream from a box attached to the jump-off platform. This static type of parachute proved unsafe and led to the ripcord parachute, invented by Leo Stevens in 1908.
The parachute became a mechanism to save lives. After developing airplanes, and their success, the modern parachute and skydiving came into its own. The first skydiver was Grant Morton who, in 1911, jumped from a Wright Model B airplane over Venice Beach, California using a folded silk parachute.
The next important invention was in 1911. A flexible parachute made by an Italian. The skydiver wore the parachute as a backpack. There was also a specially designed leather cap, which would open into a smaller parachute. The pilots chute pulled off the “hat” during a jump, and the larger parachute in the backpack opened. After World War II, there was a large amount of parachutes no longer needed by the military. Experienced paratroopers started jumping again for the simple pleasure, and skydiving as a recreational and competitive sport was born.
Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard while performing acrobatics. Diving is an internationally-recognized sport that is part of the Olympic Games. The United States dominated international competitive diving through much of the twentieth century.
Diving is a scientific sport. Physics is the dominant technique that can be controlled, especially during the take-off and the acrobatics in the air. At the moment of take-off, two critical aspects of the dive are determined, and cannot be changed during the execution. One is the trajectory of the dive, and the other is the magnitude of the angular momentum.
China came to prominence when the sport was revolutionized by national diving coach Liang Boxi. Other noted countries in the sport include Russia, Great Britain, Italy, Australia, Canada and others. Most diving competitions consist of three disciplines: 1 meter, 3 meter springboards and the platform. Competitive athletes are divided by gender, and often by age group. In platform events, competitors are allowed to perform their dives on either the five, seven or ten meter towers. In major diving meets, including the Olympic Games and the World Championships, platform diving is from the 10 meter height.
The speed of rotation â€“ and therefore the total amount of rotation â€“ may be varied from moment to moment by changing the shape of the body, in accordance with the law of conservation of angular momentum. Excessive forward distance to the entry point is penalized when scoring a dive, but obviously an adequate clearance from the diving board is essential on safety grounds. The greatest possible height that can be achieved is desirable for several reasons: the height attained is itself one of the factors that the judges will reward, a greater height gives a longer flight time and therefore more time to execute a dive. Diving in general is facinating sport. Very unique and exciting and once mastered it becomes even more enjoyable.
• Intoduction • Oceans Call • Sky’s Fall • Diving Pro Scuba Diving Picure aquired on Dec 2nd from: http://www.stockfreeimages.com/p1/scuba-diving.html Sky Diving picture aquired on Dev 2nd from: http://www.stockfreeimages.com/2587803/Sky-diving.html