CONSULAR | DIPLOMATIC
WINTER 2017 - VOLUME 4, NO. 3
Consuls Respond to Las Vegas Mass Shooting
INSIDE… FROM THE DEAN .
PROFESSIONAL ADVICE: CHALLENGES IN EMBASSY, CONSULATE, AND MISSION BANKING IN THE US
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CONSULAR NEWS: MEET OUR INCOMING DEAN .
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MAKING OUR CASE: NORWAY: STRONG BONDS ACROSS THE ATLANTIC .
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2018 CCC SYMPOSIUM AGENDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PAGE 7 CONSULAR CONNECTIONS: SMORGASBORD OF BOOKS FROM COUNSEL: US COURTS GENERALLY REFUSE TO SECOND-GUESS FOREIGN ARBITRAL DECISIONS© . . .
. . . . . . PAGE 10
OUTREACH TO CONSULAR OFFICERS NACCHO’S ROLE IN PUBLIC HEALTH PREPAREDNESS . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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LAST WORD: NEVER MORE PROUD; NEVER MORE
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CONTENTS FROM THE DEAN
JOHN A. WRIGHT
CONSULAR NEWS: Meet Our Incoming Dean
CONSULAR NEWS: Symposium Moved to March to Meet Members’ Needs
2018 CCC Symposium Agenda
FROM COUNSEL: US Courts Generally Refuse to SecondGuess Foreign Arbitral Decisions©
THE CONSULAR | DIPLOMATIC
FORUM© OUTREACH TO CONSULAR OFFICERS: NACCHO’s Role in Public Health Preparedness: What Consuls Need to Know
The Consular Corps College Quarterly Publication winter 2017 VOL. 4 NO. 3
SHOOTING IN LAS VEGAS
Massacre in Las Vegas
Consular Reaction and Response Following the October 1, 2017 Mass Shooting in Las Vegas
• Written for Consular Oﬃcers • Reaching over 1,200 career and Honorary Consulates across the ﬁfty U.S. States and Puerto Rico, as well as the Embassies in Washington, D.C. and the U.N. Permanent Missions in New York City Publisher Consular Corps College (CCC) Editor Katherine Moss, Director General Editorial Assistant Krista Quicker
PROFESSIONAL ADVICE: Challenges in Embassy, Consulate, and Mission Banking in the US OLIVER M. MOSS
Art Director Gina Marie BalogSartario
MAKING OUR CASE: NORWAY: Strong Bonds Across the Atlantic CONSULAR CONNECTIONS: Smorgasbord of Books on Consuls
Consular and Diplomatic FORUM is published quarterly by The Consular Corps College, a nonproﬁt organization, and its members across the United States.
All editorial inquiries should be directed to Katherine Moss at (240) 5439735, email: KMossCCCollege@gmail.com. Distribution is free to members in good stand ing of CCC; subscriptions are $19.95 per year.
THE LAST WORD
KATHERINE (KIT) MOSS
2018 CCC Symposium Registration Form
CCC MEMBERSHIP FORM
Member Bulletin Board rForum© WINTER 2017
Inside Back Cover
Send address changes to: The Consular Corps College, 4804 Enfield Road, Bethesda, M.D., 20814. Allow four weeks for completion of changes. SUBSCRIPTION RATES: $19.95 U.S., Canada $45, International $110 annually. TO ORDER call (240) 5439735, Email: KMossCCCollege@gmail.com. Consular and Diplomatic FORUM is a copyrighted publication of The Consular Corps College, 2017. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without written consent from the publisher.
from the dean
John A. Wright HONORARY CONSUL OF SENEGAL, ST. LOUIS, MO
I BRING YOU GREETINGS AND WISHES FOR A HAPPY NEW YEAR on behalf of the Chancellors and Consular Corps College administration. This will be the last time I will be addressing you in my role as Interim Dean. Next month I will turn over the reign to Dean Siri Frette Allsted, Head of Consular Affairs for the Embassy of Norway. She is eagerly waiting to assume her role and the challenges that will take the College on its course for continued excellence. I want to especially thank Katherine Moss, the Director General of the CCC for her leadership and the assistance she has provided me during my tenure as Acting Dean. A special thanks also goes to Louis J. Vella, Honorary Consul General of Malta, for stepping in as Interim Vice Dean. With the ever increasing demands and expectations being placed on us as consular officers, my appreciation for the Consular Corps College grows deeper each year. It has enabled me to keep abreast of many of the issues I am confronted with as I carry out my assignment as an honorary consul representing my county and its citizens. Those who have been involved with the CCC have shared that same sentiment with me. The goal of the College is to make the CCC an essential part of every member’s “where-to-go places” to find assistance and to identify resources. Since the Consular Corps College belongs to all of us, we want to hear from you by way of a survey that you will be receiving soon. The Chancellors and CCC administration want to make sure they are meeting your needs and addressing your concerns. I encourage you to attend the up-coming Symposium in March. Our growing relationship with the Department of State has made it possible for the CCC to bring you the most up-to date information on issues that might impact you as you carry out your assignment. You will also have opportunities to voice your concerns to responsible individuals in the Department of State regarding certain issues you feel need to be addressed. This year’s agenda will help participants hone and enhance their consular trade promotion skills, and up-grade their trade promotion toolbox. You also do not want to miss the opening Gala at the Embassy of New Zealand. I would like to end by stating it has been an honor and a pleasure serving as your Interim Dean. I look forward to seeing you and sharing valued learning experiences in Washington at the Symposium, March 21-23, 2018.
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Meet Our Incoming Dean NEXT MONTH, the Consular Corps College will welcome our next Dean, Siri Frette Allsted of Norway. A career diplomat and consular officer, Siri Allsted currently heads up US Norwegian Consular Affairs as well as Administration for the Royal Norwegian Embassy. Incoming Dean Allsted brings both an exceptional empathy for those in need and an acute understanding of funding and managing budgets to this position, having worked in the Norwegian Foreign Ministry’s Department for UN and Humanitarian Affairs. She will take over the reigns of from Acting Dean John Wright, Honorary Consul of Senegal in St. Louis, as of January 1, 2018. Siri joined the Consular Corps College and participated in her first Symposium in 2016. She is a great supporter of the Consular Corps College and its training mission. The Chancellors look forward to formally presenting her to the membership in January and to an exciting, expanding CCC during her tenure.
Until all our members have the pleasure of meeting her in person, here is Siri’s bio, so that everyone will know a little more about our next Dean: Siri Frette Allsted assumed her position as Counselor for Administrative and Consular Affairs, Norwegian Embassy in Washington, D.C. in August 2016. Previously she served as Counselor for Aid Administration at the Norwegian Embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from 2012-2016, where she had the overall responsibility for the Embassy’s grant management. Prior to assuming this position, she was Assisting Director and later Acting Director in Section for Budget, Financial Monitoring and Management in the Department for UN and Humanitarian Affairs in the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 2008-2012. Siri has been in the Norwegian Foreign Service since 2002. Siri holds a Master of Business and Administration from BI Norwegian Business School.
Another Service Added to the Website THE CONSULAR CORPS COLLEGE WEBSITE keeps getting better and better with new features and capabilities being added regularly. One new feature is the ability to have your CV or bio posted in the Directory under your name, so that other CCC members can read about you and your accomplishments. This idea was proposed by one of our members, who saw the value in sharing strengths and competencies within the CCC membership. To have your bio added to your Directory entry, simply email a copy of it to KMossCCCollege@gmail.com, and it will be uploaded. Have an idea to enhance the value of the website? Email it to KMossCCCollege@gmail.com. Our “Suggestion Box” is always open to members’ new ideas. Forum© WINTER 2017
Symposium Moved to March to Meet Members’ Needs CONSULS ARE NOTHING IF NOT DEDICATED, determined, responsible, and flexible. This year has truly tested the mettle of our consular colleagues around the country. From the devastation of Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria, to the tragedy of the Las Vegas mass shooting, to the destructive infernos still raging through California, our consular officers have had to deal with losses and dangers of their own, even as they have set out day after day to find and render aid to the foreign nationals they have pledged to help. With all of these challenges and lingering duties to see through, many of our members could not make the Symposium in November. With such a strong and timely agenda, they sincerely regretted having to miss this year’s conference. Given this “perfect storm” of a year, Acting Dean Wright and the Chancellors determined that the CCC needed to respond to our members’ situations, just as our members had responded to their constituents’ needs. All of our speakers and trainers, including those at both the Departments of State and Commerce, and at the Embassies of New Zealand and Lithuania immediately agreed. With the support of all involved, we were able to move the entire Symposium to March 21 – 23, 2018. Shifting the Symposium to those exact new dates is truly serendipitous. Not only will more members be able to attend, but the Symposium comes to a close the 6
evening before the official Opening of the National Cherry Blossom Festival, when the US and Japan put on a tremendous celebration of Spring, enduring friendship, and cultural exchange. For anyone who has never seen the famous cherry blossoms or experienced the citywide festival, being there in DC is a must. For consuls whose duties include promoting cultural exchange, the National Cherry Blossom Festival offers attendees the opportunity to experience cross-cultural exchange at its very best. Finally, as if this were all part of some celestial plan, the Cherry Blossom Festival also heralds the following year’s Symposium deep dive. For our 50th Anniversary Symposium, we plan to concentrate the first day on Cultural Promotion, in honor of our Founder, Consul General Walter Rigerer of Austria. The Agenda follows for you to see. Registration is already open, and participants have already begun filling the spaces. To claim your spot, you can either use the Registration Form at the back of this issue or go on line to www.consularcorps-college.org and register there. Hotel space at that time of year is hard to find, but we have our block at the Holiday Inn Central/White House. You can access that through the link posted on our website, as well. Don’t miss this exceptional opportunity to join your consular friends and meet new colleagues, receive unparalleled training on critical consular topics, celebrate consuls and the important work they do, and then stay on for the National Cherry Blossom Festival. Forum© WINTER 2017
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US Courts Generally Refuse to Second-Guess Foreign Arbitral Decisions©ı Laina Lopez ATTORNEY, CCC
Laina Lopez is an experienced attorney and Partner practicing law in Washington, D.C. at the boutique law firm, Berliner, Corcoran & Rowe LLP. She defends foreign nations, as well as their instrumentalities, embassies, heads of state, and officials in court proceedings throughout the United States. She also publishes a blog, foreignsovereignblog, dedicated to issues relating to foreign sovereign immunity, and has spoken and written extensively on immunity issues. Please feel free to contact her with questions or comments at LCL@BCRDC.COM, or 2022939096.
A similar article was published by Ms. Lopez on her blog, foreignsovereignblog.com, in August 2017. Ms. Lopez is an attorney with Berliner Corcoran & Rowe LLP. She represents foreign nations, their embassies, consulates, instrumentalities, and agencies in legal proceedings throughout the United States. 10
U.S. COURTS GENERALLY WILL NOT SECOND-GUESS DECISIONS issued by foreign arbitral tribunals. The ruling issued on July 7, 2017 by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit in Getma International v. Republic of Guinea, Case No. 16-7087, is a good reminder of the high bar required to convince a U.S. court to “intervene in [a] quintessentially foreign dispute.” (Slip Op. at 2). In 2008, Getma International entered into a contract with the Republic of Guinea to expand and operate Guinea’s port in Conakry. The contract contained an arbitration clause. Following a change in administration, Guinea terminated the contract in 2010, causing Getma to seek arbitration for breach of contract before the Common Court of Justice and Arbitration of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (CCJA). A panel of three arbitrators was appointed. The CCJA set the arbitrators’ fees at €61,000 in accordance with its rules, but the arbitrators demanded a fee of €450,000. The CCJA rejected the arbitrators’ demand and warned that an invalid fee arrangement could subject the underlying award to annulment. The arbitral panel awarded Getma €39 million plus interest, and despite the CCJA’s warning, continued to demand €450,000 as their fee. Getma acceded to the demand and paid €225,000 to the arbitrators. Guinea did not, so the arbitrators filed suit in Paris to collect the remaining €225,000 from Guinea. Guinea meanwhile sought annulment of the underlying breach of contract arbitral award before the CCJA. The CCJA granted Guinea’s petition, noting that the entire award should be annulled because the arbitrators deliberately ignored the CCJA’s fee rules and thus breached their duties. The CCJA informed Getma that it could seek to have the underlying proceedings reopened. Instead of continuing to fight before the CCJA, Getma filed a petition to enforce the original-but-now-vacated arbitral award against Guinea in U.S. court. Getma argued that the U.S. court should enforce the original award because the CCJA’s annulment order violates U.S. public policy and basic notions of morality and justice. The D.C. Circuit disagreed. The court held that Getma and Guinea had agreed, in their original contract, to be bound by CCJA’s arbitration rules – which includes the CCJA’s fee rules – so it did not violate any basic notion of justice to require both parties to play by those rules. Moreover, there was insufficient evidence that the CCJA proceedings were tainted or that the CCJA failed to act in accordance with its own rules. This case is just one more example that U.S. courts will not undo foreign arbitral rulings except in extraordinary circumstances.■ Forum© WINTER 2017
The State of the Local Consular Corps Around the Country THE NUMBERS TELL an The first insight into the state of FROM THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE interesting and complex story about the local consular corps comes when VERY FIRST CONSULAR ASSOCIATION IN the presence, health, and vibrancy of searching for the most basic number PHILADELPHIA IN THE 19TH CENTURY the local consular corps in the United of all: How many consular corps are TO THE CURRENT ORGANIZING OF A States. From the establishment of the there in the US? The answer should NEW SOUTH CAROLINA CONSULAR very first Consular Association in be one number and readily CORPS, CONSULS HAVE PERENNIALLY Philadelphia in the 19th century to accessible, but it is neither. There the current organizing of a new are now over 40 consular corps RECOGNIZED THE VALUE AND South Carolina Consular Corps, organizations throughout the nation, IMPORTANCE OF A CONSULAR consuls have perennially recognized however, the State Departmentâ€™s ASSOCIATION. the value and importance of a Office of Foreign Missions lists only consular association. While the 24 on their website. With no central, mission of the local consular corps definitive list, one must comb the has always been to bring consular officers together, to web and search for local consular corps. There, too, provide a nexus for information on international information is scattered and often difficult to find. exchange and the protection of foreign nationals, to share Some consular corps do have dedicated websites, while best practices, and to support each other in their consular others appear as pages on their state or municipal work, the scope of the many consular corps in America websites. Some consular corps have just a Facebook varies tremendously. Regional coverage, levels of activity, page. In addition, many websites list the last updates as and membership differ sharply. Regrettably, so do the a year or more ago. The absence of a readily available expectations and perceived benefit on the part of both official list of US consular organizations combined with members and non-members. outdated information suggests a lack of significance. Yet judging from some of the programs and initiatives undertaken by a number of local consular associations, the consular corps as an organization is anything but irrelevant. Numbers also reveal other factors that influence the activity and vitality of the various consular corps around the US. While some states have multiple consular corps organizations, less populous states may have only one, if any. In states with more than one consular corps, consular officers often join two or more of them, so each of the organizations enjoys a healthy membership level. On average, a consular corps has 45 members, but there is a large variance in membership from over 100 members to under 10. While the various consular corps in the United States CONTINUED ON PAGE 12
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practices, and discuss what issues they face, what particular needs they IN THE UNITED STATES DIFFER IN AGE differ in age and size, they all serve and their foreign national communiAND SIZE, THEY ALL SERVE AN an important role in bolstering ties have, and how they address IMPORTANT ROLE IN BOLSTERING consular cohesion and supporting them. By casting a net across the 50 the foreign communities, companies, states, Puerto Rico, and Guam, the CONSULAR COHESION AND visitors, students, and international Consular Corps College hopes to SUPPORTING THE FOREIGN exchange programs in their area. As harvest a wealth of ideas and innovaCOMMUNITIES, COMPANIES, VISITORS, with all organizations, challenges do tions for all to share so that every sisSTUDENTS, AND INTERNATIONAL exist. No matter the location or the ter consular corps can rejuvenate, EXCHANGE PROGRAMS IN THEIR AREA. size, consular corps events vie for grow its membership, and flourish. members’ time. An active consular This will be an on-going initiative, association needs an equally which we will soon take to the web, dedicated leader and administration. as well, opening up a chat room and Membership costs money, and discussion board. We welcome your members must see value in belonging and get a real input and thank you in advance for participating in the “return” for the time and effort they invest in their open discussion. If you wish to contribute an article about consular corps. Beyond those ubiquitous hurdles, there your local consular corps, have suggestions regarding are always challenges that are unique to a consular effective solutions, or have a challenging question to pose association’s situation. The realities of a single consular to your CCC colleagues, please contact Kit Moss at corps in a large or rural state have little in common with KMossCCCollege@gmail.com.■ those in large, international cities. Focusing only on challenges, however, detracts from acknowledging the great good that local consular corps do. Not all consular association ranks are falling. Some DID YOU KNOW? consular corps enjoy healthy membership numbers, WHILE THE NUMBER OF NEW HONORARY CONSULS GREW stimulating programming, and innovative offerings. TREMENDOUSLY IN 2015, THE RATE OF GROWTH SLOWED What is their magic sauce? How do they defy the odds APPRECIABLY IN 2016. IN 2017, THE NUMBER DID NOT INCREASE AT and buck the trends? ALL. IN 2015, THERE WERE 46 NEW HONORARY CONSUL ACCREDITED, Some answers are quite simple, even if REPRESENTING 29 DIFFERENT COUNTRIES. MANY OF THOSE implementation may vary in ease. Some cost little or COUNTRIES ADDED 2, 3, AND IN ONCE CASE 4 NEW HONORARY nothing at all. Many challenges, however, belie quick CONSULAR OFFICERS TO THEIR RANKS. IN 2016, THERE WERE 4 NEW fixes and may require modification under differing HONORARY CONSULS ACCREDITED, WITH 3 STILL AWAITING circumstances. That does not mean that they can’t be NOTIFICATION. THEY REPRESENT 6 DIFFERENT COUNTRIES, WITH achieved. Across this land, career and honorary consular ONLY ONE OF THE COUNTRIES APPLYING FOR 2 NEW HONORARY officers have great ideas for overcoming roadblocks and CONSULS. launching meaningful programs and events. The Consular Corps College recognizes the various THE LACK OF NEW ACCREDITATIONS IN 2017 DOES NOT MEAN THAT struggles faced by sister consular corps and wishes to facil- THE GROWTH IN HONORARY CONSUL NUMBERS HAS HALTED. THESE FIGURES DO NOT INCLUDE THE NUMBER OF HONORARY CONSUL itate dialogue between our members and the many local consular corps to explore solutions. To do this, we are be- APPOINTEES THAT AWAIT ACCREDITATION. THE PROCESS TAKES QUITE A WHILE. IT MAY WELL BE THAT 2018 WILL SEE ANOTHER ginning a new series of articles in the Consular | Diplomatic Forum, covering sister consular corps all across HUGE INCREASE IN ACCREDITATIONS, AS THOSE IN THE PIPELINE NOW CLEAR THE ACCREDITATION PROCESS AND TAKE UP THEIR NEW the United States. In these articles, members from large DUTIES AS HONORARY CONSULS. and small consular corps will share their insights and best CONTINUED FROM PAGE 11
WHILE THE VARIOUS CONSULAR CORPS
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outreach to consular officers
NACCHO’s Role in Public Health Preparedness: What Consuls Need to Know Dr. Oscar Alleyne participated in the afternoon panel at the 2016 Symposium on Consular Response to Pandemic. In his presentation, he underscored the critical role that local health departments will play if and when a pandemic strikes. He urged all consular officers to proactively connect with their local health departments before the next outbreak of Spanish Flu or SARS. Dr. Alleyne returns now to expand his message and to emphasize that local health department officials actively seek to connect with the career and honorary consuls in their areas. Local health department officials recognize that in a health emergency, consuls provide vital direct links to their national communities. Serious health-related problems can occur anytime. Whether an infectious disease breaks out, a food-borne illness strikes, or a health issue develops after a disaster like Hurricanes Harvey or Maria, foreign nationals are at the same risk of falling ill as Americans. Consuls need to ready with previously made connections and access to the latest information so that they can quickly alert their communities and tell them where to go and what to do. Dr. Alleyne sent in this article and strongly encourages all of our readers to get connected with him at NACCHO and to your local health departments. THE NATIONAL illnesses. They protect children and ASSOCIATION OF COUNTY adults from infectious diseases NACCHO SUPPORTS LHDS IN AND CITY HEALTH OFFICIALS through immunization. PREPARING FOR, RESPONDING TO, AND (NACCHO) is the only organization NACCHO’s public health RECOVERING FROM EMERGENCIES AND dedicated to serving every local preparedness portfolio includes a DISASTERS WITH INITIATIVES THAT health department (LHD) in the range of projects that influence BUILD SUSTAINABLE CAPACITY FOR United States. NACCHO serves preparedness policy with federal more than 13,000 individual decision-makers and develop EMERGENCY RESPONSE, FOSTER members in more than 2,800 LHDs practical solutions that help LHDs PARTNERSHIPS WITH HEALTH and is the leader in providing build resilient communities. COALITIONS AND VOLUNTEERS TO professional resources and programs, NACCHO supports LHDs in SUPPLEMENT BUDGET-STRAINED and supporting effective local public preparing for, responding to, and WORKFORCES, AND DEVELOP health practice and systems. As the recovering from emergencies and voice of LHDs, NACCHO helps disasters with initiatives that build INNOVATIVE TOOLS AND RESOURCES. LHD leaders develop public health sustainable capacity for emergency policies and programs to ensure that response, foster partnerships with communities have access to the vital health coalitions and volunteers to programs and services people need to keep them supplement budget-strained workforces, and develop protected from disease and disaster. innovative tools and resources. Across the United States, LHDs help create and NACCHO’s has worked with LHDs to increase maintain conditions in communities to support healthy preparedness for Ebola, Zika, and other infectious life style choices in areas such as diet, exercise, and diseases in the United States by coordinating between tobacco control. They lead efforts that prevent and members at LHDs and federal and public health reduce the effects of chronic diseases, including diabetes partners such as the Center for Disease Control and and cancer. They detect and stop outbreaks of diseases Prevention (CDC) and the Office of the Assistant including measles and tuberculosis and of food-borne
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Shooting in Las Vegas Consuls’ Response and Experience IT’S A CALL NO ONE EVER WANTS TO GET - news that there has been a mass shooting, and someone you know, love, or are responsible for may be a victim. Worse still, that there may be multiple victims. Even as the frequency of these tragic events increases in the US, so does the number of victims. When they occur in a top tourist destination like Las Vegas, it is a very safe bet that foreign nationals will also number among the casualties. They were. For consuls, breaking news of a mass shooter triggers not just horror and fear for family or friends who may be in the area, but also urgent phone calls from the foreign ministry and desperate emails from families of students, travelers, and expats who might be there, as well. As mass shootings are a relatively new phenomenon, consular response training for such an event is not widespread. OFM Regional Offices and Emergency Management Agencies in major US cities do offer such training, but the specific instruction and the attendees who participate are usually connected to those metropolises. This past October 1st, horror struck again, only this time it happened in Las Vegas, a city brimming with thousands of American and international tourists. While Las Vegas hosts enormous numbers of visitors from all over the world, the closest OFM Regional Office to Las Vegas is in Los Angeles. In addition, most of the consular officers in Las Vegas are honorary consuls. How the consular community responded showed grit, creativity, and dedication. Career Consuls General from Los Angeles immediately called Gayle Anderson, Chief of Protocol for the City of Las Vegas and Consular Corps College Chancellor, for information, because they knew she has excellent connections in the city and could put them in touch with the various people in authority. Many CGs sent their consuls, or came, themselves, to see if any of their citizens numbered among the victims. Honorary Consuls in Las Vegas also activated and did whatever they could to find out about the casualties and determine if their foreign nationals were involved. Honorary Consuls Lena Walther, Honorary Consul of Sweden and Dean of the Nevada Consular Corps, and Kathleen Blakely, Honorary Consul General of Japan in Las Vegas and Consular Corps College Chancellor share their experiences and their take-aways from that fateful night and the ensuing days after.■ 14
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Massacre in Las Vegas By Lena D.I. Walther, Dean of the Nevada Consular Corps and Honorary Consul for Sweden to Nevada As the whole nation knows, on citizens involved. Under more norI CONTACTED TWO OF THE October 1st this year, Las Vegas mal circumstances, i.e. not such a HOSPITALS WHERE VICTIMS WERE became the site of the worst mass large attack with so many people inTAKEN, BUT JUST GOT THE shooting in the US history. Over 500 volved, one can get through to police ANSWERING SERVICES AND people were severely injured and 58 and hospitals. Some of us Consuls fatally shot. have lists of already established conEXPLANATION THAT NO ONE HAD The investigation is still on-going tacts that we can get in touch with ANY CONTROL OVER NATIONALITIES and will be for some time. There will and who will help out in getting the OF THE INJURED OR DECEASED. IT be some major changes in the way information to us. However, this was WAS TOO OVERWHELMING. I casino properties handle their security not the case, and the situation could COULD NOT REACH THE in the future. only be described as pure chaos. The shooting started right around The following morning a few EMERGENCY RESPONDERS FOR THE 10pm Sunday night, October 1st. I emails were being sent among us LAS VEGAS STRIP, WHOM I had just turned on the television for Consuls to see if anyone knew anyINCIDENTALLY HAD VISITED A WEEK some evening news, and needless to say thing or had some “magic number” to EARLIER, THE SAME WENT FOR THE I was shocked. I live about four miles call. The Consuls of Monaco and POLICE CONTACTS. from the Mandalay Bay Casino and Chile, who were in Canada during could hear the sirens. The dedicated this time, recommended the Facebook Consulate mobile phone started ringpage for missing people, which was an ing as journalists from Sweden watched the same news excellent suggestion. I contacted two of the hospitals coverage I did and wanted to know the latest. I was not where victims were taken, but just got the answering able to give them anything other than what was being service and an explanation that no one had any control shown on television, and I asked them to check in with over nationalities of the injured or deceased. It was too the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in Stockholm instead, as I overwhelming. I could not reach the emergency responwould be reporting to them via the Embassy in ders for the Las Vegas Strip, whom I incidentally had Washington, D.C. That is standard protocol. Per direcvisited a week earlier, and the same went for the police tive from the Ministry, Honorary Consuls should avoid contacts. I finally got the phone number and location talking to journalists and refer them to the Press Secretary of the “temporary” emergency command post set up at at the Embassy in the respective country or the Ministry the Convention Center. I spent a few hours there trying in Sweden instead. That way we are consistent in what is to get information and checked on some names I had being said and it cannot be misconstrued. gotten from my Armenian Consul colleague. I advised After watching the news coverage in pure disbelief everyone who had names (rather than nationalities) to and horror, and before going to bed at 2am, I sent an go down to the command center and have them check email to the Embassy so they would have the report their lists. In these instances, phones are seldom effiupon arriving at work in the morning. I also talked to cient enough. them very early in the morning but had no further inMost of us were lucky and had no citizens involved. formation at that time. When something like this hapAs far as I know, only a Romanian man was injured but pens and lives are lost, the first thing the Foreign Minsurvived. There had been a large number of Swedes at the istry wants to know is whether there are any Swedish CONTINUED ON PAGE 16
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Concert, but they had all left early to catch a flight to Texas. We don’t have a Canadian Honorary Consul in Nevada, who otherwise would have been very involved, but I believe both the Consul General for Canada and Switzerland flew in from Los Angeles to assist. For several years, the Swedish Embassy had emergency training for Honorary Consuls in the US during our annual Consul Conference. We are 29 Swedish Honorary Consuls serving the US. This was an excellent exercise, especially for newly appointed Consuls. We debated many times about the quickest way to find citizens. Some suggested one should go to the area of concern with a Swedish flag and look for Swedes. I have always been opposed to that. You are in the way and can normally not even get into the actual disaster zone, since it is closed off.
In my experience, the best is to have your contact numbers already set up and established so if you do need assistance, you will generally get it. I have gotten so much help from the police, who have virtually done the “legwork” for me and called around to find out if and where Swedish victims have been taken after an accident, etc. They have then passed along the information to me and told me whom to talk to. In small states, like Nevada, most people don’t know what a Consul is, and hospital officials and others are less likely to talk to you, especially on the phone. Our Consular Corps tries to either visit or have officials come to us from the police department, detention centers, Customs & Border Patrol, FBI and others. This is very important and should be done on a regular basis. This way they will know who we are, and we will know whom to call.■
Consular Reaction and Response Following the October 1, 2017 Mass Shooting in Las Vegas THE CALLS TO MY HONORARY CONSULATE MOBILE PHONE started at 11:11PM on Sunday, October 1, 2017. Additional calls were recorded early Monday morning, October 2nd at 12:36 AM, 1:58 AM and 3:56 AM until a call to my home phone woke me up at 4:00 AM. My mobile phone was downstairs, charging up after a 9-hour drive home from Twin Falls Idaho. I hadn’t even heard the news reports, since we returned home on that Sunday evening too tired to turn on the television. That call from the Consul Sakuta asked what I knew of the shooting and whether any Japanese citizens might be involved. I raced downstairs and tuned into the local television news, watching reports of the mass shooting and press releases from Sheriff Lombardo. I immediately sent a text to my contact for intergovernmental relations at the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department, requesting information. I emailed the public information 16
representative at University Medical Center, hoping to get a reply. The news reports of hundreds wounded made it obvious that victims would be going to all the valley’s hospitals, not just UMC’s trauma center. News media broadcast a telephone hotline number that would ring “busy” for hours that morning. 58 dead and 546 wounded. The Las Vegas Strip was closed at the south end and McCarran Airport shut down. It was unbelievable and horrifying. I have lived here over 25 years, and an incident of this magnitude was unprecedented and left the entire community in shock. The reaction from the Consulate General of Japan in San Francisco was immediate, with requests for information as the top priority. A text message from Consul Sakuta at 6:43 AM on Monday, October 2 notified me that a consul would be dispatched here today. Consul Kamono arrived at 3:20 PM. Our first stop was the temporary family reunification and victim assistance Forum© WINTER 2017
center set up at the south hall of the Las Vegas Convention Center. There we saw stacks of donated food items, bottled water, personal items and disposable baby diapers, all donated by our community to help the shooting victims and their families. The communication center included an agency sign-in sheet for future contacts once victims were identified; we signed in. Response from LVMPD’s Office of Intergovernmental Services Director Calloway was immediate, with text messages beginning at 4:30 AM Monday morning explaining that it was too early to confirm identities of victims but he would call me once information was available. I shared each update with Consul Sakuta and then with Consul Kamono once he arrived. A text message from Consular Corps College Director General Katherine Moss at 6:25 AM asked if I was okay and was followed by contact information for the OFM Regional Office in Los Angeles. Calls to OFM yielded requests to leave messages for the staff, but no information was provided. Tuesday morning, October 3, I drove Consul Kamono to the Coroner’s Office and was advised by LVMPD officers at the entrance that Coroner John Fudenberg, along with LVMPD and city and county emergency management officials, was at the communication center at the Convention Center. We stopped by the LVMPD headquarters and spoke briefly with Intergovernmental Affairs personnel before proceeding to the Convention Center. We were advised that an OFM official had arrived, but that he was unavailable. We met briefly with Coroner Fudenberg and were advised that there were no confirmed Japanese citizens among the deceased. Wednesday morning, October 4, we went directly to the Convention Center in hopes of meeting the OFM representative. Unfortunately, he was once again not available. We had heard media reports that President Trump would be visiting Las Vegas, and watched the news. Since Consul Kamono’s flight was scheduled for departure that afternoon, we went to the airport. Although we did not have the official list of the victim’s names, we had sufficient information to assure us that no Japanese citizens were involved. I met with LVMPD Intergovernmental staff a few weeks after the shooting to ask how lines of communication could be improved. We know that the Forum© WINTER 2017
Coroner’s Office cannot release names of victims until after family notification and hospitals can’t provide information about their patients. So, how can we obtain sufficient information about the nationality of victims? The short answer is that as things stand now, “we can’t”. This horrible tragedy has turned a harsh, bright light on the protocols we have in place. It should motivate all government agencies and emergency medical services to work together, create open lines of communication that preserve privacy while allowing consulates to deliver services to their citizens. As the Honorary Consul General of Japan in Las Vegas, I am proud of the response from the Consulate General in San Francisco – the response was timely, sensitive and very much appreciated by the community. I’m also proud of the response from my community, with $16 million in donations raised for victims and their families. We are VEGAS STRONG.■
Challenges in Embassy, Consulate, and Mission Banking in the US Oliver M. Moss PRESIDENT, GLOBAL BUSINESS CONSULTING EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT, THE POTOMAC EXCHANGE
Oliver Moss is President of Global Business Consulting where he assists embassies, consulates and diplomatic missions in evaluating banking services to achieve cost effective and optimal solutions. He is E.V.P. at The Potomac Exchange, a membership organization that connects newly arrived ambassadors with leading US and international companies. Prior to this, he was Director and Market Executive in the Global Government Division of Bank of America. Mr. Moss has worked in the banking industry for 37 years. He graduated from Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service with a Bachelor of Science degree in Foreign Service and an Undergraduate Certificate of Arab Studies. He is a recipient of the Order of Merit from the Federal Republic of Germany. A graduate of Leadership Montgomery, Mr. Moss serves as Chair of TransCen, Inc. as well as Treasurer of the German American Business Council in Washington.
“YOUR ACCOUNT WILL BE CLOSED IN 60 DAYS and the relationship with our bank will cease.” These are frightening words to many in the diplomatic community, both for those who manage the official accounts of a diplomatic mission, but also for certain diplomats considered by US regulators to present a higher risk. Having managed Bank of America’s Global Government Division for 11 years and having worked with diplomats from around the world for more than 20 years, I witnessed the change in perception of embassy/consulate clients from being viewed as highly desirable to being classified as high-risk entities. Most readers of the Consular|Diplomatic Forum will be familiar with diplomatic or sovereign immunity, a mysterious term for most banks and financial institutions in the US. Up until 2001, there was limited concern among US bank regulators of this very unique client segment. ECMs (embassies, consulates and missions) in general were considered to be valued clients, with attractive bank balances, a loyalty to their bank that is less common among corporate or commercial clients, and having a certain cache because of what they were—diplomatic and consular missions. Access to ambassadors and senior officials in politics, defense, economics and trade was considered an additional positive by-product of having an official account with an embassy, and having the ambassador’s account was the icing on the cake. That perception changed markedly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, which saw an immediate reaction by the US government in the passage of the USA Patriot Act to address terrorism financing, prevent establishment of illicit bank accounts, and to implement additional anti-money laundering (AML) measures. This led to more stringent “Know Your Customer” (KYC) guidelines surrounding the establishment of banking relationships and the opening of bank accounts. Increased vigilance by regulators centered on the source of funds in bank accounts with greater concern concentrated on funds that came from overseas, precisely because of the lack of transparency on the origination of foreign monies. ECMs are foreign government entities that don’t have a US tax identification number, nor do they have articles of incorporation or a corporate registration. The only verification available is through the US Department of State. Although the Patriot Act imposed increased oversight of ECM bank accounts, it was ultimately misconduct by the largest, and arguably the most prestigious, bank in Washington, DC, that sealed the fate for embassy and consulate banking in the United States. Riggs Bank, which had built a reputation as the “Embassies’ Bank,” failed to comply with certain government regulations. The ensuing Forum© WINTER 2017
investigation also revealed poor oversight and account management practices with ECMs and diplomats, causing Riggs to be fined $25 million for violating the Bank Secrecy Act. At the time, it was the largest ever fine assessed against a domestic US bank in connection with money laundering. (http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/14/business/regulatorsfine-riggs-25-million.html) (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A415842005Jan27.html) Ultimately, the scandal and the fine caused the bank to divest itself of all business with ECMs as well as diplomats, causing a panic among the diplomatic community in Washington in 2004. Every Riggs Bank ECM client had to find a new bank in short order, ranging from 30 to 90 days, the notice given by Riggs before the account would be closed. The same was true for diplomats, some of whose credit cards and accounts were blocked immediately. While some may have said it was an opportunity for Riggs’s competitors, it was a mixed blessing, as government regulators subsequently classified embassies and related foreign government entities as representing a higher risk, in large measure because of what had occurred at Riggs. The few banks that had “embassy” or “diplomatic banking” groups found themselves immediately scrutinized intensely to ensure that they had enhanced risk measures and controls in place for this high-risk clientele. The additional compliance requirements placed on banks operating in this space was demanding, ultimately leading to almost all US banks electing to de-risk and exit the business of working with ECMs. This even impacted diplomats, especially those classified as Senior Foreign Political Figures (SFPS), such as ambassadors and consuls general, as well as their immediate family members, e.g. spouses and children, who are known as Politically Exposed Person, aka PEPs. While this seemingly unfair scrutiny angers senior diplomatic and consular officials, most diplomats and consuls general do not know that the SPF and PEP designations apply equally to high ranking government officials in the US. ECMs contacted the State Department to request assistance and intervention on their behalf, noting that according to Article 25 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, “The receiving State shall accord full facilities for the performance of the functions of the Forum© WINTER 2017
mission.” This is construed to include having access to banking services. In contrast to other countries, banking in the US is strictly in private hands. There are no government-owned banks that provide commercial and private banking services. The Federal Government can request that banks provide banking services to foreign missions, diplomats, and consular officers, but they cannot compel them to do so. By 2015, only a handful of banks continued to offer services to ECMs, and those that remained often raised their fees to offset the high cost of regulatory compliance and oversight required to maintain such accounts in compliance with The Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), the USA Patriot Act, and the required implementation of a Customer Identification Program. Compliance requirements demand sophisticated capabilities and a large, highly trained staff dedicated to ensuring that all of the ECM banking accounts stay in compliance. Most banks simply cannot make either the financial or personnel commitments necessary to meet those demands. Every ECM bank account is subject to all of the following requirements: THE BANK SECRECY ACT (BSA) AND USA PATRIOT ACT REQUIREMENTS The BSA, as amended by the USA PATRIOT Act and its implementing regulations, requires financial institutions to develop an Anti-Money Laundering Program. At a minimum, the financial institution must: • Create policies, procedures, and controls reasonably designed to achieve compliance with the BSA and its implementing regulations • Develop policies and procedures to detect and report suspicious activity • Designate an AML (Anti-Money Laundering) officer • Provide ongoing employee training • Undergo Independent testing CUSTOMER IDENTIFICATION PROGRAM (CIP) REQUIREMENTS Section 326 of the USA PATRIOT Act requires a written Customer Identification Program. Financial institutions, at a minimum, must: CONTINUED ON PAGE 20
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• Obtain customer identifying information prior to account opening (Name, Date of Birth, Address, Tax ID Number/Passport Number). • Verify the identity of each customer within a reasonable time before or after account opening • Maintain a record of such verification for a minimum of five years after account closure • Determine whether a customer appears on any list of known or suspected terrorist organizations CURRENCY TRANSACTION REPORTING (CTR) A Currency Transaction Report (CTR) must be filed for each currency transaction (deposit, withdrawal, exchange, or other payment or transfer) of more than $10,000 by, through, or at the bank. Multiple transactions that aggregate over $10,000 are also reportable if they are known to benefit the same person/entity. For an embassy, consulate, or mission, failure to follow U.S. banking laws and regulations and activity without a reasonable business explanation may result in action up to, and including, account termination and/or law enforcement notification. Failure to implement those laws and regulations by a bank can have very negative consequences. Two high profile examples include the aforementioned Riggs Bank as well as HSBC. EXAMPLES OF PENALTIES Riggs Bank, July 2004: A 96-page US Senate Report highlighted deficiencies in Riggs Bank’s treatment of foreign government, embassies, and PEP relationships, including: • Assisting former Chilean General Augusto Pinochet by setting up offshore shell corporations; hiding his accounts from regulatory agencies; and assisting in the transfer of cash to circumvent seizure efforts. • Allowing a senior official from Equatorial Guinea to illegally siphon millions in funds through embassy accounts. The penalties for these were a $25 million fine by Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) and the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), and an additional $16 million fine by the Justice Department, and being forced to sell its assets. 20
HSBC, July 2012: A 340-page US Senate Report found AML Program deficiencies across multiple businesses over multiple years, specifically, HSBC: • Had a high-risk business model without sufficient risk-based controls • Did not adequately assess the risk of its operations, which led to insufficient risk-based controls • Did not dedicate adequate resources to the AML program • Disregarded identified risks and even indicators of probable money laundering HSBC was fined $1.9 billion. As private companies, answerable only to their shareholders and bearing no responsibility for banking accessibility guaranteed in Article 25 of the VCDR, banks have taken a hard look at the costs of providing banking services to a “High Risk Industry” rated alongside Correspondent Banking, Money Service Businesses (check cashing and money transmitters), Marijuana Businesses, and Currency Dealers. The challenges of providing Enhanced Due Diligence, coupled with the ever-rising costs associated with monitoring high risk accounts and the short supply of resources and expertise to fully implement the regulators’ requirements have led most banks to “derisk,” or simply exit the ECM business all together. The banks that have stayed in have adopted sound risk management plans, decreased their portfolios, and encouraged their customers to adopt banking best practices in order to help control the cost of monitoring. Diplomatic and consular officers have understandable difficulty in comprehending what makes their missions’ accounts “High Risk.” According to the Bank Secrecy Act Anti-Money Laundering Examination Manual, embassies, consulates and missions have been known to engage in financial activities that the US regulators consider suspicious. Such transactions trigger heightened scrutiny and concern. They include: • Accounts that are from countries that have been designated as higher risk. • Substantial currency transactions take place in the accounts. • Account activity is not consistent with the purpose of the account • Accounts directly fund personal expenses of foreign Forum© WINTER 2017
nationals without appropriate controls including, but not limited to, expenses for college students. • Official embassy business is conducted through personal accounts. Heavy reliance on cash, a practice that is common in some countries, is another area of concern for US regulators. Fungible and non-transparent, the source and use of cash is difficult to track. Extended overdrafts while ECMs await account replenishment and non payment of credit card balances also tarnish the luster of an ECM’s account(s). Of course, very few ECMs actually commit such financial improprieties, but a few bad experiences bring down the perceived credit worthiness of the entire sector and factor into the “High Risk” designation. In this difficult banking climate, full compliance with the bank’s “Know Your Customer” requirements and adopting banking best practices are the two most important things that any embassy, consulate, or mission can undertake. Best practices include:
For Cash: • Understanding the requirements of Currency Transaction Reporting (Note that attempts to avoid or evade reporting requirements is called structuring and is illegal) • Anticipating questions about source and destination of large cash deposits and withdrawals • Notifying your Bank of any large cash requests, or cash payments to individuals or other entities For Checks: • Making payments directly to vendors (avoid reimbursement of personal accounts) • Utilizing the memo line – helps with monitoring • Proper account management needed to avoid overdrafts • Anticipating questions about source and destination of funds
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For Credit/Debit Cards: • Making payments directly to a vendor • Proper account management needed to avoid overdrafts For Wire transfers: (Preferable method for funding from international sources) • Making large payments directly to vendors • Anticipating questions about source and destination of funds • Notifying the Bank of any non-recurring large wires in/out, or any other transaction activity that is out of the ordinary. Other Best Practices • Ensuring that the ECM has at least two account signatories, that it reconciles accounts continuously (at least monthly), exercises good financial controls, and audits its Bank activity at least annually. • Missions should notify their bank immediately if any unusual or suspicious activity is detected. • Utilizing available cash management platforms to simplify and streamline operations. • Platforms can allow for the initiation of Wire Transfers, Checks, ACH (credit/debit/payroll), among other features. For Personal Accounts: • Proper account management is expected and individuals should reconcile accounts at least monthly. • Take advantage of banking services including wires, credit and debit cards, and other electronic payment methods. • Avoid overdrafts - if credit is needed, ask the Bank about options or use a savings account for overdraft protection. • Sign-up for the bank’s online banking service. • Personal accounts are for personal activity – there should be no conducting of ECM business, any other non-ECM business, or business for other persons through personal accounts. • For repatriation of earnings or sending money to 22
family, electronic methods are preferred citing clear purpose and beneficiaries. Today, for US banks to keep embassy and foreign consulate accounts, they must demonstrate strong risk mitigation programs and regulatory compliance. This means that banks must obtain comprehensive due diligence information on embassy and foreign consulate account relationships. For private banking accounts for non-U.S. persons specifically, banks must obtain due diligence information. The bank’s due diligence related to embassy and foreign consulate account relationships must be commensurate with the risk levels presented. In addition, banks are expected to establish policies, procedures, and processes that provide for greater scrutiny and monitoring of all embassy and foreign consulate account relationships. Management should fully understand the purpose of the account and the expected volume and nature of account activity. Ongoing monitoring of embassy and foreign consulate account relationships is critical to ensuring that the account relationships are being used as anticipated. In order to help its bank meet the regulatory requirements, an embassy, consulate or diplomatic mission must exercise proper management of its accounts in accordance with US banking requirements and practices, and the same is true for individual diplomats and consuls. Because of the high-risk classification, ECMs and diplomats should expect to receive more questions than they might otherwise be accustomed to. ECMs and diplomats should be patient with their banks and bankers, since they are subject to higher standards of compliance by government regulators for this particular client segment. The banking issue for ECMs is an on-going challenge. No permanent, definitive solution has been found as of yet. Well-intended banking regulations, created to protect US security, have had unintended consequences for diplomatic and consular missions. Federally prescribed anti-terrorist and anti money laundering realities have pitted basic ECM banking needs against the risk-averse, private US banking industry. For the present, solutions require understanding the demands placed on the banks and helping those banks that still value ECM business efficiently comply with the mandated oversight by adopting best banking practices.■ Forum© WINTER 2017
making our case: norway
Strong Bonds Across the Atlantic WHEN NORWAY REGAINED ITS FULL INDEPENDENCE in 1905, after centuries of unions with neighboring countries, the United States was among the very first countries to recognize the new nation. The bonds were already strong at the time, not least because of the many Norwegian immigrants in the Midwest and other parts of the continent. Since then, the ties that bind us have only become stronger — and more numerous. For decades, Norwegians from all walks of life have looked to the United States in search of inspiration, knowledge and partnership. Members of the Royal Family lived here during the Nazi occupation of Norway from 1940 to 1945. Cabinet ministers, members of parliament and delegations from various municipalities visit regularly. Businesses are constantly looking for opportunities. Most of our high-ranking military officers received part of their training in the United States. Norwegian performers and painters cross the Atlantic to find inspiration and recognition. Students come here for high quality programs. And scholars and academic institutions are constantly
building relationships with American colleagues and counterparts. Norway, today, is very a different place than it was at the height of immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Back then, Norway was among the poorest countries in Europe. Today it is one of the world’s most prosperous. In fact, Norway has repeatedly been rated by the United Nations as the best country to live in. The ranking, the UNDP Human Development Index, is based on a composite of social and other indicators, including education, level of equality and average income. And according to the World Happiness Report, an initiative by the renowned economist Jeffrey Sachs, Norway is also the happiest country in the world! How can a rugged country partially located north of the Arctic Circle even be considered a decent place to live, let alone the best? The answer is complex, and includes cultural issues such as a focus on equality, a high level of trust throughout society and transparent institutions. But another important part of it is money. The average CONTINUED ON PAGE 24
Photo courtesy of Visit Norway www.visitnorway.com
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income per capita is among the highest in the world, thanks not least to revenues from petroleum activities in the North Sea. Much of that money goes to fueling extensive social programs, a cradle-to-grave social welfare system, universal healthcare and free college education for all. Parents may take turns staying at home with full pay throughout their child’s first year. A considerable amount of money is being set aside every year in a fund for future generations. With more than 1 trillion USD in assets in 77 countries, this is now the world’s largest sovereign wealth fund. Thanks in large part to the fund, Norwegian investments and trade support nearly half a million jobs in the United States. A recent report by the Embassy of Norway in Washington, D.C. documents how these jobs are distributed all over the United States. Norway has chosen to remain outside of the European Union. Twice, in 1972 and 1994, the Norwegian people have rejected the idea of membership. Two agreements still make Norway very much a part of Europe: The Agreement on the European Economic Area gives Norway access to the single market, along with the rights and obligations that come with it. And the Schengen Agreement places Norway inside the Schengen area, where internal border checks have largely been abolished. In spite of reluctance to join the EU, Norway maintains a strong international commitment. Few countries, if any, spend a larger share of their gross national product on foreign aid or humanitarian 24
Above: Fosse Falls. Photo courtesy of Visit Norway www.visitnorway.com
assistance. Norwegian officials have on several occasions served as facilitators in peace talks between the parties to longstanding conflicts. A recent example is the peace agreement in Colombia, which ended 50 years of civil war. Norway has also taken on a leadership role in global efforts to combat climate change and reduce its effects. Global security is another area in which Norway is active internationally, in particular through a close cooperation with the United States. Norwegian armed forces monitor NATO’s northern flank and are present in the Baltic Sea area. Rotating contingents of U.S. Marines get valuable training in Norway, including for cold weather operations. The recent acquisition of up to 52 American F-35 fighter aircraft will strengthen Norway’s role as “NATO in the North,” maintaining security on behalf of allies in the transatlantic security community. Norway also contributes to fighting ISIS and international terrorism, including through military contributions on the ground in Iraq, Afghanistan and Syria. In 2014, Norway played a pivotal role in transporting chemical weapons out of Syria, preventing what could easily have turned into a major catastrophe, given later developments in the country. It is often said that the United States is Norway’s most important ally. But Norway is also not without importance or relevance for the United States. As a consular representative, I am pleased to notice an increasing interest in what Norway has to offer. The already strong bonds between our countries will only continue to strengthen in the years to come.■ Forum© WINTER 2017
Smorgasbord of Books on Consuls AS WE NEAR THE START OF A NEW YEAR full of challenges in the diplomatic world, it might of interest to our reading audience to see the scope of works on consuls, both fiction and non-fiction. This is by no means a comprehensive list, however, we at The Consular | Diplomatic Forum hope that you will enjoy getting a sampler of some interesting books on the subject. FICTION The Consul’s File by Paul Theroux Paul Theroux takes you on a journey through small town Malaysia through the eyes of the exuberant Spencer Savage in his novel The Consul’s File. Spencer Savage, a young American consul, is posted to Ayer Hitam, a small Malaysian town, in the 1970s. Told to close down this remote outpost in the sweltering jungle, he instead finds himself drawn to the many characters he meets among the Malays, Indians, Japanese, Chinese and the expat Brits. Through his eyes we see the rich tapestry of multi-ethnic life in post-colonial Malaysia, from adultery to murder, from ghost stories to the murky waters of diplomatic politics. It is a portrait of a vanished time, a lost landscape and scattered peoples. Paul Theroux is known for the rich descriptions of people and places that is often streaked with his distinctive sense of irony; his novels and collected short stories. The Honorary Consul by Graham Greene One of Graham Greene’s most famous works, this novel is set in a provincial Argentinean town. Charley Fortnum, a British consul with dubious authority and a weakness for drink, is kidnapped by Paraguayan revolutionaries who have mistaken him for the American ambassador. Dr. Eduardo Plarr, a local physician with his own divided loyalties, serves as the negotiator between the rebels and the authorities. These fumbling characters play out an absurd drama of failure, hope, love, and betrayal Forum© WINTER 2017
against a backdrop of political chaos. The Honorary Consul is both a gripping novel of suspense and a penetrating psychological and sociological study of personal and political corruption. Death of an Irish Consul by Bartholomew Gill Peter McGarr, Chief Inspector of Detectives Dublin and Superintendent of Garda Soichana, finds himself regularly called upon when a puzzling and brutal crime occurs in Ireland. The Death of An Irish Consul takes McGarr away from Ireland and to Italy where he is afraid the newly appointed British ambassador to Italy, Sir Colin Cummings, will be murdered. McGarr and his men have been investigating separate but identical murders of former heads of the British S.I.S in a vacation house near Slea Head in southwestern Ireland. McGarr believes an experienced killer, a former S.I.S. agent, has been part of the executions and plans on killing Cummings. Cummings’ wife, the former Enna Ricassoli is waiting for their arrival in her family’s palazzo in Siena. One of Enna’s former suitors promised years ago to kill Cummings if he dared return to Siena. NON-FICTION The Foreign Consuls Among US: A Guide to Citizen Diplomacy by Cami Hofstadter, Ph.D. The United States is host to almost 3,000 consular officers who represent more than 130 foreign countries. This book covers the ins and outs of being a consul in the United States, basically as primer on how consuls are natural bridges to globalism. What is meant by the term consul? What is the difference between a career and an honorary consul? Why are some consuls foreign nationals while others are U.S. citizens? What should be known about them? How should they be greeted appropriately? CONTINUED ON PAGE 26
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The book focuses on consuls’ interaction with corporate executives and commercial interest groups, colleges and universities with an international dimension, and organizations seeking the benefits of a consular network. Lastly, it is intended for career and honorary consuls with a stake in being recognized for their official position. This combination memoir and how-to manual shows how to partner with consul in the US in their efforts to promote effective citizen diplomacy. The American Consul: A History of the United States Consular Service, 1776-1914 (Contributions in American History by Charles Kennedy This book is a history of the United States Consular Service, an element in the promotion of American commerce and influence abroad from the Revolution onward. A group of relatively minor officials, appointed by
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the vagaries of political patronage and virtually ignored by successive Secretaries of State, American consuls were established in most major foreign ports and trading centers early in the history of the Republic. Consular officers were major players in America’s overseas presence because of their special responsibility for seamen and shipping. They were the officials most concerned with the Barbary pirates and worked with the United States Navy to remove them from the Mediterranean. Until 1822 they were the only official representative of the U.S. government in the emerging republics of Latin America. American consuls in Britain helped prevent the Confederacy from assembling and supplying a fleet out of European ports. The SpanishAmerican War was essentially a consular war-fought in colonial territories where consuls supplied intelligence and support for American military actions. It introduces, through brief histories, anecdotes, and vignettes, some of the men sent abroad by an imperfect system to represent our country. It is an evolving chronicle of their contributions to the expansion of American influence from the start of the Revolutionary War to the eve of the First World War, when American diplomats assumed the predominant role in America’s foreign relations. American Consuls in the Holy Land, 1832-1914 by Ruth Kark This volume provides new insights into the role of U.S. consuls in the Ottoman Middle East in the special context of the Holy Land. The motivations and functioning of the American consuls in Jerusalem, and of the consular agents in Jaffa and Haifa, are analyzed as part of the US diplomatic and consular activity throughout the world, and of Western involvement in the Ottoman Empire and in Palestine during the century preceding World War I. The processes of cultural, demographic, economic, environmental, and settlement change and the contribution of the US consuls and American settlers to development of and modernization of Palestine are discussed. Based on primary archival sources, such facets as the role of consuls regarding the use of extraterritorial privileges, Western religious and cultural penetration, control of land and land purchase, non-Muslim settlement, judicial systems, and technological innovations are considered from American, Ottoman, and local viewpoints.■ Forum© WINTER 2017
consular connections CONTINUED FROM PAGE 13
Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. One example of a specific infectious disease program called Flu on Call® is an outreach initiative, encouraging the general public to call into a center where experts are made available. This new pandemic preparedness capability is a critical element in preparing for the next flu epidemic whenever it may strike. The year 2018 will mark the 100th anniversary of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic (also called the “Spanish Flu”), which is estimated to have killed 3-6% of the world’s population. Since it is nearly impossible to predict when the next pandemic will occur, NACCHO, in partnership with CDC, is conducting ongoing efforts to bolster the nation’s flu response capacity. “We like to think that global is local, so the ability to interface the various Consulates with the vast network of local health officials enhances our combined role in crisis and emerging threat response by strengthening community preparedness, recovery and resiliency,” said
Dr. E. Oscar Alleyne, senior advisor for public health programs at NACCHO. To learn more about public health preparedness, and how it interfaces with global initiatives, consider attending the 2018 Preparedness Summit. The upcoming summit will take place at the Hyatt Regency in Atlanta, Ga., April 17-20, 2018. The theme is: “Strengthening National Health Security: Mastering Ordinary Responses, Building Resilience for Extraordinary Events.” The Preparedness Summit is the first and longest running national conference on public health preparedness. For more information on NACCHO and its preparedness portfolio, visit The Preparedness Brief blog. The blog provides updates and information from NACCHO's public health preparedness portfolio, which includes a range of projects that influence preparedness policy with federal decision makers and develop practical solutions that help local health departments build resilient communities.■
As the Association serving more than 2,800 LHDs, NACCHO’s preparedness portfolio works to enhance the nation’s capabilities to prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters and other emergencies. Every disaster is a local disaster; NACCHO seeks to support LHDs better serve their communities and build resilience. Forum© WINTER 2017
the last word
Never More Proud; Never More Determined Katherine (Kit) Moss DIRECTOR GENERAL THE CONSULAR CORPS COLLEGE
Katherine Moss is the Director General of the Consular Corps College. In that capacity, she develops innovative training and outreach programs for the foreign consular community in the United States, while growing its national membership. Ms. Moss comes to the Consular Corps College from her position as Founder and Executive Director of The Diplomats’ Washington, Inc. She is also the President of the Potomac Exchange, a membership organization that brings newly accredited ambassadors together with senior Washington officials from major global corporations. A native Washingtonian, Ms. Moss has also lived and worked abroad in France and the United Kingdom and speaks French, German and Italian. She served on the Protocol Advisory Board for the Mayor of Washington, D.C. from 20012005, and has served as the Executive Director of the Society of White House Military Aides. Ms. Moss also sits on the Board of the Consular Corps of Washington, D.C.
THIS PAST YEAR WE HAVE WITNESSED some of the most difficult and challenging crises in the recent past. Our consular colleagues have been out there in the winds and flooded-out streets, they have waded though snake and alligator infested streets, braved washed out roads and giant mudslides. They have searched for their nationals in the hurricane-ravaged skeletons of resort hotels, in the emergency rooms across Las Vegas, and in the torched Northern California wine country and the still burning Southern California canyons. Never have I been more proud of them, or of what they did. Never have I been more determined to raise the visibility of consuls and their work and to let others know what real super heroes consular officers are. Looking ahead to better times in 2018, we will turn our attention from disaster responders to trade promoters. At our rescheduled Symposium this coming March, we will celebrate consuls and all that they do at our Opening Gala Diplomatic Dinner in the Embassy of New Zealand, then we will go to the Embassy of Lithuania to sharpen consular trade promotion tools and skills. Our final day at Main State will offer more stimulating training sessions before we toast each other and another excellent conference at our Awards Ceremony and Vin d’Honneur. Throughout the rest of the year, we will be bringing you new opportunities for learning and for sharing ideas and best practices, as well as ways to network electronically in between Symposia. We have our new Dean coming in, as well as an outstanding Board of Chancellors with several new members who will help us bring vision to reality and reorient some of our traditional offerings. So let us all hope that out of this year’s ashes, a great year will rise – one in which consular officers throughout the US, and especially our valued CCC members, can enjoy building strong ties between the United States and their Sending Nations, even as they stand ready to respond to their nationals’ needs, when called. Warmest wishes for a wonderful holiday season and for a great start to the New Year.
Please feel free to contact me anytime. The Consular Corps College, 4804 Enfield Road, Bethesda, M.D., 20814 Phone: (240) 5439735 Email: KMossCCCollege@gmail.com You can also send a message through our website: www.consularcorpscollege.org Click on “Contact us” to email your thoughts or questions directly to me. 28
Forum© WINTER 2017
2018 Consular Corps College Symposium R gistration Form Re Participan p ts must be b current members of the Con o sular Corps p Colle o ge. 2018 Membership Dues ($125. $ 00) are already included in the Sympposium registration fee. Be sure to complete both this Sy S mposium Registration Form m and the Membership Form on o the flip side and send this page in with your check. Cu C rrent members should deduct $125.00 from Syympposium price. Please make all checks out to The Consular Corps College. Through Februarry 18 , 20 18 the co st of the 20 2 18 Sym posium is $ 67 5.0 00 per attendee. Th is in clu des all prog rams and training sessionns, two networking lunches, the opening D iplomatic Gala Dinner, all materials, and tr t ansportation to and from the various veenues from the Holiday Inn – Central/White House, the Symp m osium’s designated transpor o tation central hotel. Beginning Februar a y 19, 2018, the price goes up to $775.00 per attendee. Remember to deduct $125.00 ffrrom the cost if you have already paid your 2018 Annual Membe b rship Dues. We welcome your gu g est to come along. Guests may register to attend the Gaala Diplomatic Dinner. The price for the G ala Dinner guest is also listed.
Name:_____________________ _ _ ______ _________ _____________________ _ ______________________ _ _ ____________ _ ____ (First Name)
(L L a s t Na me )
Title and Country Represented:__ d: _____ _ ___________________ _ __________ _ ______________________ _ _ ____________ _ ____ Address:_________ _ ______________________ _ _ ____________ _ ___________ ______________ _ __________________________ _ Phone: (___)___________ Mobile: (___)________________ E-Mail:_______________________________ _ _ ________
For Consular Corp ps College p g Symposium y p Attendeee: Price is all-inclusive Symposium, includi dingg 2018 Membership ip
$675.00 ($775.00 afftter 2/18/18)
Symposium, 2018 Membership ip already paiid
$550.00 ($650.00 afftter 2/18/18)
For the Spouses and Guests: Gala Diplomatic Dinner, 3/21/18
$ 100.00 per guest
Name of Spouse or Guest:____________________________________________________ TOTAL REGISTRATION COST:
Kindly send this registration fo form along with youur check in the correct amount to The Consular Corps Collegee, 4804 Enfield uld be made out to the Consular Corps College. ACH paymen Road, Bethesda, MD 20814-3908. Checks shou a nts may also be accepted. Contact Kit Moss at email@example.com to inquire about setting up electronic payment. We have a room block set up at the Holiday Inn – Central/White House (the designated transportation central hotel). Participants sho uld make their ow n reservation s by co ntacting the hotel dir ectly . Ask f or the Con sular Cor ps p College Symposium rate. Guaranteed blo ck pr ices end February 20, 201 8.
The Consular Corps Coollege TH Siri Frette Allsted Allsted, Dean Counselor for Administrative and Consular Aff ffairs, Royal Norwegian Embassy atherin ine H. Moss, Dire rect ctor Generral Ka 240-543-9735 KMossCCCollege@gmail.com K
APPLICA P CATION FOR FU ULL ME EMBER E SHI HIP/R RENEWA WAL IN TH HE CON ONSUL ULAR AR CORP ORP PS COLLEGE GE For Year ar 2018 (Please print) Name:___ _______ _______ _______ _______ _____ ___________________ ____________ ________ _____ __ ______ Title:__ ____ _________ _________ _________ __________ _________ _________ _________ _________ ______ __ _____ Country/Aff ffiliation:__ _____ ________ ________ ________ ________ _________ ________ _________ _____ __ _______ Address:___ _______ _______ ________ _______ _______ _______ ________ _______ _______ _______ ________ ___________ ________________________________________________ ___________________ ___________ City/State/Zip:__ ______ ________ ________ ________ _________ ______________ ________ _______ _______ __ ____ Consulate/Business Phone:__________________________ _____________________ ____ __ _______ Mobile Phone:__ ____ _______ ________ _______ _______ _______ _______ ________ _______________ ___________ __ Telefa fax Consulate/Business:_ ______ _______ _______ ___________ ___________________ ___________ ___________________ ___________ E-mail:__ ______ _______ _______ _______ ________ ______________ _ __ ___ State a Department ID # :_________________________________________________ __________ __ _ I am a member of the Consular Corps in:__ ______ _______ ____________ _______ _______ ____ ______ __ ____ Kindly att ttach a check fo for $125.00 for the annual Membership dues, payable p to the Consular Co orps College, and send both in to 4804 Enffiield Road, Bethesda, MD, 20814. You will receive r a receipt fo for your membership. m
Member Bulletin Board State Gets a New Chief of Protocol The Honorable Sean P. Lawler assumed his duties as Chief of Protocol of the United States, with the rank of Ambassador, effective December 1, 2017.
TH Deanna Tryon Chief of Protocol of the Silicon Valley Office of Protocol will take a seat on the Board of Chancellors this January 1, 2018.
ANNOUNCEMENTS ➔DON’T FORGET! There is still a little time left to nominate your candidate for this year’s Award for Leadership in Promoting the Advancement of Consular Affairs in the United States. This annual award honors distinguished leaders for their commitment to advancing excellence in consular work through the sharing of information, resources, and best practices. We will formally recognize our recipient and bestow the award at our Opening Gala Diplomatic Dinner at the Embassy of New Zealand on March 21, 2018. Nominations will be accepted through January 31, 2018. Contact Kit Moss at firstname.lastname@example.org to learn how to file your nomination. ➔REGISTRATION IS ALREADY OPEN for the rescheduled Symposium! You can register quickly on line by going to www.consular-corps-college.org and clicking on the Register Now button. As the symposium will be just before the opening of the National Cherry Blossom Festival, hotels will be hard to get. We have our hotel block with the Holiday Inn – Central/White House already set up. You will find a link to that on our website, as well. Don’t delay! ➔DO YOU HAVE SOME NEWS or an announcement to share? Send it to Kit Moss at email@example.com to post on our next Member Bulletin Board.
The Consular Corps College 4804 Enfield Road Bethesda, M.D., 20814
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Consular Corps College www.consular-corps-college.org