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Gina Fantoni 2013


Norwich University School of Architecture & Art Fall 2009 - Fall 2012


Intro AP111 AP118 AP211 AP212 AP311 AP312 AP411 AP412 Misc Appendix 004 004

Table of Contents 006. Intro Letter of Application Self-Assessment

012. AP 111 Project 1 - Analysis - Edouard Manet, Blue Venice Project 2 - Folly Project 3 - City Project

026. AP 118 Project 1 - City Poster Project 2 - Athenaeum Project 3 - Disaster Relief - Haiti

040. AP 211 Project 1 - Boston Public Library Case Study Project 2 - Poetry Vehicle Project 3 - Poet’s Retreat Project 4 - Williamstown Public Library

058. AP 212 Project 1 - So-Il Architecture Case Study Project 2 - Sculpture Gallery Project 3 - Pointe Saint Charles Metro


076. AP 311 Project 1 - Richard Meier Case Study Project 2 - Montpelier Performing Arts Center

094. AP 312 Summer Design/Build - RAE(v) Solar House

098. AP 411 Project 1 - Fear Diagrams Project 2 - Das Leben der Anderen Project 3 - Teufelsberg

114. AP 412 Project 1 - Mauer im Kopf

132. Misc Sketching School NUVA Nicaragua NUVA Thailand

148. Appendix Writing Sample GPA Transcript

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Letter of Application I am hoping to be considered as a candidate for admittance into the Norwich University School of Architecture & Art Master of Architecture program. Nearly ten years of learning and introspection have brought me to this, the apex of my academic career. My desire to establish a career in the field of architecture has been and will always be a driving force in my life. I am confident that by participating in this program, I will be able to realize my life goals of contributing to a global society as well as the greater architectural community. In pursuing this degree, I would focus my attention on developing a familiarity with humanitarian architecture through thematic investigation. This would be an unbelievably valuable experience in progressing my architectural skills, knowledge, beliefs, and aspirations. It would also help to shape my global awareness in terms of architecture and its varied applications. Upon completing the program, I hope to put my degree to work and become a licensed architect, one day buildign an organization that would specialize in sustainable, culturally-informed humanitarian design projects. Obtaining a Master of Architecture degree would singularly render the dream that I have held dear for nearly ten years a far more obtainable reality and it is for that reason that I am hoping to be considered for admittance into the program.


In specific terms concerning a potential thesis project, I would be intrigued to investigate any number of topics within the umbrella topic of humanitarian architecture. I am fascinated with the idea of language and the role it plays in the design process, especially in multicultural design environments. I would love to investigate the idea of a universal language that exists uniquely in the often non-verbal architectural vocabulary. I am also interested in the intertwining nature of the studies of psychology and architecture and how that dynamic affects cultural building traditions. These themes appeal to me largely on account of my overarching architectural beliefs. I believe that architecture is a nebulous and omnipresent force in our daily lives. It is a language. I believe that, despite the apparent differences from one region to another, architecture universally possesses the power to subtly communicate basic needs, hopes, and goals, relating people the world over to one another. It is the universal fact that people need shelter. It is the idea that everyone needs a space to own. It is the fact that people want to share their passions with family, friends, and sometimes even strangers. Architecture gives people a reason to travel and a desire to explore. It is an element which helps to define us.

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I find meaning in architecture in its ability to transform the patterns of daily life. With the ability to establish beloved, sacred spaces, a thoughtfully-designed space can alter the way people relate to their community, to one another, to nature, to the rest of the world. It is an underlying commonality between people of all cultures and walks of life. The fact that humans all interact with the built environment in one way or another links us together in the world of architecture and thus it possesses a certain power over our societies. It establishes a sense of identity and a sense of pride within subsets of cultures. With that power in mind, I behold architectural design as a life-altering art form. A sensitive architect has the power to drastically change the course of someone’s life. I read about Shigeru Ban’s disaster relief efforts in Turkey and was blown away. I found it incredible that his paper shelters were the only structures the earthquake victims felt comfortable in after the devastating earthquake. What more does a person need than a comfortable shelter after a terrible experience like that? Architects have the ability to not only create structures which provide shelter, they can create structures which have a sensitivity to the needs and feelings of human beings.

Letter of Application


I hope to use architecture as a way to better life for other people. Regardless of exterior influences, we are all nothing more than a bunch of primal beings with similar needs. I relish the nuances in culture and lifestyle which manifest themselves in architecture. I hope to practice internationally on projects which are concerned with anything from disaster relief to small-scale, rural community development projects. I hope to gain an understanding of the universal hopes, needs, and feelings of mankind and I hope to employ architecture as a means of bettering the global community.

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Self Assessment Before beginning classes at Norwich, I was able to explore the world of architecture in various ways. As a kid, I took studio art classes where I played around with watercolors, oil paints, and acrylics. Later on, in middle school, I was first introduced to architectural drafting. From there, I was convinced that I wanted to be an architect. In high school drafting and design classes I was able to hand-draft and blueprint my design for a two-thousand square foot shingle-style home as well as design a drafting chair and a detached garage with the aid of AutoCAD and Photoshop. These exercises were my first real exposure to graphic design. It was, however, just before my senior year in high school when a lecture at the Boston Architectural College’s Summer Program changed my personal ideologies concerning architecture altogether. A professor at RISD presented her humanitarian work in Mexico which exhibited an economy, sensibility, and sensitivity I had never before seen in architecture. It was from that intense revelation that I entered Norwich. Looking back on the work that I produced during my first year, it is clear that I was wholeheartedly dedicated to developing as a designer. I was, however, not confident with my hand-drawing skills.


Judging from the sketches and the synthesis drawing that I produced in comparison to my hand-drafted mylar drawings, I felt more comfortable representing my ideas through modeling and drafting than I did through sketching or rendering. I feel that the opposite is true now. This past semester, I produced a large volume of sketches and I found it very helpful to work through designs with quick renderings. From looking at my rendering abilities, I feel that I have expanded my artistic repertoire and I feel entirely more confident with my hand-drawing skills. I also feel that I have gradually worked towards becoming a humanitarian architect by developing through my studio projects a base level of knowledge and skills which I will be able to take with me in a potentially rural, foreign, or even disaster-stricken environment. I have incorporated rigorous solar studies, explored different materials and construction techniques as well as economical solar shading designs all with the idea of maintaining a level of affordability, practicality, versatility, and relevance. I feel every bit as enthusiastic today as i did at the beginning of architecture school when it comes to design and the possibilities within the realm of architecture.

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AP 111 Fall 2009


Professor D’Aponte Professor Van Aalst Professor Schaller

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Project 1 Analysis - Edouard Manet, Blue VEnice

Analyze a given painting using three various design principles such as line light, pattern, texture, color, etc. Represent the three most important design principles of your painting in three two-dimensional presentations. combine elements from these analyses into a synthesis drawing. Manet created a distinct relationship between objects in this painting which are in motion, and objects which are still. He also used very subtle implied lines and a skillful juxtaposition of light and shadow. It was clear to me that line, light, and motion were the three aspects of the painting which were most noteworthy. It was important to highlight the way Manet employed hard vertical and horizontal lines with the buildings in the background. Also, with regards to line, the poles read as vertical members yet include an element of horizontality which communicates directly to the horizontal lines of the boat. The light comes from the top left corner of the painting and filters lazily like the water throughout the painting. The boat, unlike its light environment, casts deep shadows and seems to ignore the bright sunshine which every other object reflects. The top half of the painting - the buildings in the background - read as entirely static while the boat and water dance across the canvas with nothing but the poles to stop them.

Blue Venice - Edouard Manet

AP 111

Fall 2009

Professor D’Aponte

Professor Van Aalst

Professor Schaller


Line

Light

Motion

Synthesis Project 1

Analysis

Edouard Manet - Blue Venice

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Project 2 Folly

Take from the synthesis drawing completed in project 1 and use certain forms and patterns to compose a three-dimensional model. From this preliminary model, extract a cross-section and expand it into a larger model which should contain one removable piece. From this model, continue developing various iterations in concordance with your assigned duality. The folly generated will serve as a gallery space in which your original painting from projct 1 will be displayed. People should be able to view the painting from above as well as at eye-level. The final iteration is to be constructed in wood. I was intrigued by the swooping forms generated in my synthesis drawing. I took a piece of cardboard which was in the general shape of one of those forms and I rolled it to mimic the vertical forms which were also present in that synthesis drawing. From there, I tried to include as many of the fractal, triangular pieces as I could in order to layer the model as thoroughly as Manet layered his painting. From there, I chose to expand the vertically swirling pole form. I worked through several different ideas and iterations via model and found that my assigned duality of center/edge was best represented with a central void surrounded by ascending triangular forms which implied a sense of continuous motion just like the painting. My removable piece was intended to act as the central axis from which everything spiraled. I intended for the painting to be hung from the removable piece so that it could float along throughout the space freely as if it were lazing about on a river.

AP 111

Fall 2009

Professor D’Aponte

Professor Van Aalst

Professor Schaller


3D Model Project 2

Folly

Edouard Manet - Blue Venice

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Folly Iterations

Final Folly Design AP 111

Fall 2009

Professor D’Aponte

Professor Van Aalst

Professor Schaller


Project 2

Folly

Edouard Manet - Blue Venice

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AP 111

Fall 2009

Professor D’Aponte

Professor Van Aalst

Professor Schaller


Folly - Wood Model

Project 2

Folly

Edouard Manet - Blue Venice

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Project 3 City Project

Analyze a second painting and use it to establish a language which your group will use to rationalize the organization of a city which - once constructed - will house all of your follies. There must be a clear, major path throughout the city which figuratively links all of the follies and engages them with the landscape of the city. There must also be serveral minor paths. Every design decision must link in some way to the analyzed painting. A major element which we analyzed in Sharon Booma’s painting “blue divide” was balance. we analyzed how the painting also juxtaposed various geometric forms and patterns. From here, we sketched a basic shape of our city and then, by analyzing the geometry present in the painting, began assigning locations for each of our individual follies. We constructed the landscape in a manner which was organized by chaos and order. We began with a chaotic, monumental form, and constructed the landscape in a progressively more ordered, rational way as the city proceeded. Our eyes were drawn to the dark, chaotic smudge in the middle of the painting and generally followed a path down and around the left side until finally resting at the calm, understated, rational block of green at the bottom. We mimicked this by starting with a dominant form, leading the viewer around in a horseshoe shape towards the highly ordered, rational blocks.

Sharon Booma - Blue Divide AP 111

Fall 2009

Professor D’Aponte

Professor Van Aalst

Professor Schaller


Project 3

City Project

Sharon Booma - Blue Divide

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City Plan - Final Iteration AP 111

Fall 2009

Professor D’Aponte

Professor Van Aalst

Professor Schaller


City Model

Project 3

City Project

Sharon Booma - Blue Divide

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AP 118 Spring 2010


Professor D’Aponte Professor Arnold Professor Cox

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Project 1 City Poster

Research your assigned city and compile a poster with original diagrams describing the historic growth of the city, population density, the organization of the city, etc. The poster should present your interpretation of the fabric of the city as well as major attractions and significant districts. This poster should be a total graphic representation of the city’s composition and identity. The fabric of istanbul is comprised of various threads. The city contains an innumerable amount of historical sites which predatedate Byzantium and the Ottomans. I was fascinated too that the city spans the continents of Europe and Asia. I wanted to highlight how historically rich this city is. I also wanted to show that the Golden Horn possesses a truly breathtaking skyline by layering images of the Blue Mosque and the Hagia Sophia. I wanted the poster to reflect the complex layering of historical mosques, baths, schools, and markets along with modern-day shops, restaurants, and hotels which cater to the ever-present, ever-curious tourist.

AP 118

Spring 2010

Professor D’Aponte

Professor Arnold

Professor Cox


Project 1

City Poster

Istanbul, Turkey

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Project 2 Athenaeum

Using a kit of parts, design a gathering space within the city analyzed in project 1. This space should work within the fabric of the city and should represent the identity of the city. There should be a major gathering place for outdoor concerts or festivals, as well as a smaller, covered gathering area, a small interior gallery and facilities. I selected my site based upon the fact that it was surrounded by a diverse array of all that Istanbul has to offer. There are historical baths, the Palace of Sultanahmet, several universities, as well as a myriad of shops, restaurants, and hotels for tourists. On the site that I selected, there is pedestrian access as well as two bus stops. I drew lines from the surrounding streets and found that they converged on my site in a specific location. From there, I sketched a series of hills, birms, and ramps which flowed into the existing flat landscape. I constructed overhangs for the necessary indoor spaces in a way which focused attention on the large, central green. I then employed columns to serve as cues for leading people through the site.

AP 118

Spring 2010

Professor D’Aponte

Professor Arnold

Professor Cox


Gulhane Park

Athenaeum Form Sketches

Project 2

Athenaeum

Istanbul, Turkey

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Final Form Model AP 118

Spring 2010

Professor D’Aponte

Professor Arnold

Professor Cox


Athenaeum Model in Context

Project 2

Athenaeum

Istanbul, Turkey

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Athenaeum Rendering

AP 118

Spring 2010

Professor D’Aponte

Professor Arnold

Professor Cox


Project 2

Athenaeum

Istanbul, Turkey

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Project 3 Disaster Relief - Haiti

Design a relevant intervention for disaster relief in Haiti. The goal of this intervention should be the relieving of some issue you have researched which was caused by the earthquake in January of 2010. This intervention should be designed with the current cultural and political conditions of the country in mind. The issues discussed could range anywhere from sanitation, healthcare, housing, transportation, etc. After several discussions as to the current needs in Haiti, our group found that adequate housing was the issue we felt most pressing. We devised a transitional shelter system which used a simple kit of parts. The user would need a specially-constructed joint which would be attached to a tree, pole, existing building, etc. which would then support framework on which a facade could be hung. We surmised that one might start out with a tarp for immediate shelter and then transition to a more permanent skin. We felt that stressing the idea of connecting a shelter to a tree in Haiti would serve the shelter structurally since a tree can sway in an earthquake unlike the current masonry-style buildings which readily collapsed.

Joinery Precedent AP 118

Spring 2010

Professor D’Aponte

Professor Arnold

Professor Cox


Gabion Cage Brick

Corner Joint Project 3

Joinery with Tree Disaster Relief

Haiti

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The Problem

On January 12, 2010, Haiti experienced a catastrophic 7.0M earthquake that left nearly 1,000,000 people without shelter. The major problem with their homes was the lack of structural reinforcement and an abundance of non-flexible, concrete block constructions.

Haiti Relief: Transitional Structure Our Solution

In developing these Transitional Structures, we addressed a few different problems that we discovered about Haiti. After seeing photographs of abundant tents and the general lack of sturdy structures, we decided to focus on creating a transitional house – one that could be built quickly for immediate shelter and then could gradually become a more permanent fixture. Out of this, we designed joints to make the construction of the frame efficient and easy. The transitional function is created through the use of different skins that are changed after time and in harmony with available materials. In order to create a structure that could withstand future earthquakes and other natural disasters, we wanted to incorporate a tree into the frame to replace one of the four posts. This would allow the entire structure to bend and sway, mimicking natural the flexibility of the tree while the roots would act as a footing, providing more strength and structure.

The Frame

Emergency Skin

Structural Temporary Skin

Permanent Skin

AP 118

Spring 2010

Professor D’Aponte

After the disaster, this frame can be put together quickly and easily with surrounding timber and the pre-made joints. The frame can be used to make stable shelters that can be used for anything from houses, medical centers and even schools. While it can be built to stand alone, it can also be built with a tree to capitalize on the tree’s flexibility in case of another earthquake.

After the frame is constructed, a tarp can be tied around it for immediate protection. The tarp is only a temporary wall used for protection from the elements and privacy. The tarp is meant to be used for the first couple of days after the disaster.

Later, the bottle wall can be used to provide a more stable and protective wall. The wall is made up of a series of bottles that are strung together with wire. The wire is wrapped around a frame to form closely knit columns. From there, the tarp can be reused and weaved in between the bottle columns. To add extra support, more wire can be fastened horizontally. This bottle wall is still a temporary skin that would be used for only a few weeks at most. Then, the gabion cages would be employed for greater structural integrity, privacy, and security.

Gabion cages have been used for many years to create sturdy and effective walls. A Gabion cage is a cage made of wire that is filled with various materials. The filling is used to give the basket form, weight, and structure and can include any item around the devastated area, including ruble, empty bottles, rocks, etc. The baskets are then stacked on top of each other and eventually plastered over. This wall would be the permanent wall for the frame.

Professor Arnold

Professor Cox


Project 3

Disaster Relief

Haiti

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AP 211 Fall 2010


Professor Sagan Professor Sawin Professor Schaller

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Project 1 Case Study - Boston Public Library

From the list of prominent libraries, analyze one with your group and compile a book of analysis. This book should have a cover and binding which exibits the distinctive qualities of the library itself. The analysis should be entirely non-verbal i.e. diagrams describing the internal organization, the relationshp of the building to its site, the hierarchy of spaces, the structural systems, etc. After a site visit, it was clear that the Boston Public Library was laid out in a very formulaic, rational way. The natural light typically comes from above and filters through the thick masonry facade. The hierarchy of space is alighted on a central axis, allowing the patron to enter the building, passing straight down the dominant axis until they reach the grand lion staircase. There, one proceeds into the reading room. This communicates the fact that the reading room is the ultimate destination. We designed the cover of our book to communicate the importance of the reading room to the overall composition of the library.

Book Cover AP 211

Fall 2010

Professor Sagan

Professor Schaller

Pro


ofessor Sawin

Boston Public Library Facade

Circulation

Light Project 1

Hierarchy Case Study - Boston Public Library

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Project 2 Poetry Vehicle

Construct a device, object, or container which will serve as a way to experience poetry. It should be able to display six poems from any array of genres, poets, or epochs. The vehicle which you design and construct must relate to the poems it houses and/or displays. The goal of this object is to engage people with the poetry in a three-dimensional realm. I was first intrigued by poems of the sea by various poets. I read several from Pablo Neruda which especially sparked my idea for this poetry vehicle. I designed the three nesting rectangles to fit the golden ratio, reminiscent of a nautilus shell which represented the maritime poetry I had found. These panels were painted black on the back side so that the clear plexi looked colored from above but when you looked at it as with water, it was actually clear. Only the background and the reflection on the surface provided the color. The letters of the poetry were in white as if they were fortuitously-arranged specks of foam dancing on the surface of the water. The panels slid back and forth over one another like waves to reveal more poetry beneath.

AP 211

Fall 2010

Professor Sagan

Professor Schaller

Pro


ofessor Sawin

Project 2

Poetry Vehicle

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Project 3 Poet’s Retreat

Design a retreat for a poet on the open site behind the Langdon Street Cafe in downtown Montpelier, Vermont. This retreat should include all the comforts of home, i.e. sleeping quarters, a personal kitchen and dining room with private bathroom. There should, in addition to the poet’s living space, also be a space in which people can gather for poetry readings. There should also be a small informal gathering space in addition to this more major space. There should be included some consideration of parking and exterior gathering spaces. You will have your own unique constraints in which you can build. Your site will be divided by two converging buildable areas. You may not build outside of this prescribed area. My buildable area formed an off-center T. I wanted to accentuate the relationship of the site to the river by canting the building on the site and subtracting space within the buildable area so that the views were oriented towards the bridges on either side of the river. I also plunged the large gathering area below ground so that poetry readings could be held in an environment entirely devoid of distractions. When we held a poetry reading at the Langdon Street Cafe, there were coffee machines and people coming in and out and it was almost impossible to focus on the poetry itself. I took this idea and applied it to the poet’s living quarters as well, holding his space aloft over the river so that he may commune with nature and separate himself from the hustle and bustle of the communal spaces below if he so chose.

Buildable Area AP 211

Dissecion of Buildable Area Fall 2010

Professor Sagan

First Iteration Professor Schaller

Professor Sawin


First Iteration Project 3

Poet’s Retreat

Montpelier, VT

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048 AP 211 Fall 2010 Professor Sagan Professor Schaller Professor Sawin

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Elevation from River - Final Iteration

Elevation from Street - Final Iteration

Site Plan - Final Iteration Project 3

Poet’s Retreat

Montpelier, VT

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Final Iteration

AP 211

Fall 2010

Professor Sagan

Professor Schaller

Professor Sawin


Project 3

Poet’s Retreat

Montpelier, VT

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Project 4 Williamstown Public Library

Design an addition or intervention for the Williamstown Public Library which addresses its neeed for more storage, more meeting rooms, and also more room for stacks. Also address the wishes of the board of trustees whose wish is to maintain as much as possible the integrity of the original, culturally-significant, building. Keep in mind the constraints placed upon the library by its geographic location as well as the surrounding context of the town of Williamstown, Vermont. Upon visiting the site, I was frustrated by the site on which the library sat. It sits at the convergence of two very busy roads with constant through traffic. I began my process by setting up walls to block out unwanted views, noise, etc. and which would allow for voids to accentuate desirable views. I eventually devised a scheme with the original library serving as an entrance and welcome center with a central, circular space for meeting space and storage in the basement and for much-desired social space on the second floor.

AP 211

Fall 2010

Professor Sagan

Professor Schaller

Professor Sawin


Left Column: Initial Diagram Project 4

Right Three Columns: Three Versions of Initial Diagram Williamstown Public Library

Williamstown, VT

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Latitudinal Section - Final Iteration

Longitudinal Section - Final Iteration

First Floor - Final Iteration AP 211

Fall 2010

Professor Sagan

Professor Schaller

Professor Sawin


Front Elevation - Final Iteration

Side Elevation - Final Iteration

Second Floor - Final Iteration Project 4

Williamstown Public Library

Williamstown, VT

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Final Iteration AP 211

Fall 2010

Professor Sagan

Professor Schaller

Professor Sawin


Project 4

Williamstown Public Library

Williamstown, VT

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AP 212 Spring 2011


Professor Van Aalst Professor Sawin Professor Kredell

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Project 1 Case Study - So-Il Architecture

Select an architecture firm younger than ten years old. From their portfolio, select a steel structure and compile a series of diagrams describing the building. Note that you will have to present the design ideology of the firm, the structural system of the building, the building’s organization, etc. in an entirely graphical way. You will not be able to speak when presenting your analysis of your firm’s building. I found So-Il architecture on an AIA article announcing the top young firms of the year. One partner is a young man from New York and the other is a young woman from China. Their work spans the continents of North America, Europe, and Asia. They strive to create modern works with careful attention to detail. Their works are simple and universal. I was especially intrigued by their wedding chapel in Nanjing, China. At first glance it presents itself as not much more than a roof structure mimicking a fallen leaf. Within, it is a wedding chapel with a long, cascading promenade to a central stage all circumvented by rows of seating with organic voids allowing air and views to the beautiful landscape. I analyzed the fact that the outer edges are the most private and the interior stage at the center remains the most charged space.

Wedding Chapel AP 212

Spring 2011

Professor Van Aalst

Professor Kredell

Professor Sawin


Project 1

Case Study

So - Il Architecture

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Project 2 Sculpture Gallery

Choose a sculpture from the list which you find personally intriguing. From analyzing this sculpture, develop an interior space in which the sculpture will be viewed. From that interior space, develop an exterior space which will serve as enclosure to your previously designed interior space. Finally, develop a landscape in which your gallery will reside. Each successive layer must accentuate the previous with the culmination occurring at the sculpture you selected at the very beginning. These exercises will be done in rapid succession in order to develop quick decision-making skills. Naum Gabo’s Linear Construction No. 4 requires a very dynamic situation from which to view it. I started by suspending it from a distorted hypar form which would receive shadows cast from the sculpture and which patrons would have to proceed under in order to view the sculpture itself. I then enclosed this in sweeping forms with a simple roof structure which allowed for gathering space and which highlighted the dominant interior form. I then situated the entire building on a lake which would reflect light and serve as a dynamic, shimmering boundary.

Interior and Exterior AP 212

First Iteration of Landscape Spring 2011

Professor Van Aalst

Linear Construction No. 4 - Naum Gabo Professor Kredell

Professor Sawin


Interior, Exterior, and Landscape Project 2

Sculpture

Gallery

Naum Gabo - Linear Construction No. 4

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Interior, Exterior, and Landscape

AP 212

Spring 2011

Professor Van Aalst

Professor Kredell

Professor Sawin


Interior Perspective

Project 2

Sculpture

Gallery

Naum Gabo - Linear Construction No. 4

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Project 3 Pointe Saint Charles Metro

Analyze the borough of Pointe Sainte Charles in Montreal and then develop a design for the metro stop in the middle of the neighborhood. The design should replace the temporary cabine which houses merely the entrance to the metro stop below. The new intervention should include a large gallery with two smaller private gallery spaces, a cafe, the metro entrance, private artist studios, as well as administrative space. All esign decisions should be engineered to work with the history and culture surrounding the neighborhood of Pointe Sainte Charles as well as the greater context of the city of Montreal. The day we visited Pointe Saint Charles just so happened to be the worst winter weather I had ever experienced. I began designing this intervention with the idea that I wanted the user to be able to enjoy sunlight and its radiant warmth no matter what the season. I ran with the idea of creating light shafts which would carry light all the way down into the depths of the metro and which would amplify the natural solar radiation in a way which would naturally heat the building in the winter yet which would not overheat the building during the short summer months. I did numerous solar studies and with the idea of abruptly bending the light shafts like the ever-present staircases in Montreal, I used the light shafts to define the spaces of the building. I also established them as celebratory spaces in which you would either be ascending or descending. The major circulation is located in these celebratory light shafts while the support spaces are located on the side of the site abutting the nursing home. I employed a rain screen to filter the light and also add a layer of interest and intrigue to the building.

Site Diagram AP 212

Montreal Stair Analysis Spring 2011

Professor Van Aalst

Professor Kredell

Professor Sawin


Form 1 - Curving Volumes

Form 2 - Shell with Curving Interior

Form 3 - Vertical Elements Project 3

PSC Metro Station

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

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Season and Sun Diagram

Shadow Diagrams AP 212

Spring 2011

Professor Van Aalst

Professor Kredell

Professor Sawin


Preliminary Iterations

Development of Lightwell Form

Project 3

PSC Metro Station

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

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Third Floor - Final Iteration

Second Floor - Final Iteration

First Floor - Final Iteration

AP 212

Spring 2011

Professor Van Aalst

Professor Kredell

Professor Sawin


Site Plan - Final Iteration

Longitudinal Section - Final Iteration

Latitudinal Section - Final Iteration

Project 3

PSC Metro Station

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

071


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Interior and Exterior Perspectives of Final Iteration

AP 212

Spring 2011

Professor Van Aalst

Professor Kredell

Professor Sawin


Night-time View of Final Iteration

Project 3

PSC Metro Station

Montreal, Quebec, Canada

073


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Final Iteration AP 212

Spring 2011

Professor Van Aalst

Professor Kredell

Professor Sawin


Final Iteration in Context Project 3

PSC Metro Station

Wall Section Model Montreal, Quebec, Canada

075


076

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AP 311 Fall 2011


Professor Hoffman Professor Eichenlaub

077


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Project 1 In the Manner of - Richard Meier

Research the major works of your major architect with your group and compile a book of diagrammatic analyses of three of his most significant works. The criteria which you employ to judge significance is entirely up to your group. These diagrams should describe notable commonalities or differences within the separate works. From your research, you should also ascribe five main, guiding principles which exist throughout your architect’s body of work. This research should be bound in a book which reflects your architect’s style and design ideologies. Finally, construct a model of one of the buildings you analyzed. I was first intrigued by Richard Meier’s Athenaeum due to the fact that most of his major design ideologies are represented in this building alone. I chose to analyze this building diagrammatically looking at its unique circulation pattern. One proceeds from a boat up a long, straight ramp into the building under an overhang. From there, the patron walks up a ramp where they ultimately either turn into the auditorium or proceed straight down another long, straight ramp into town. This building serves as a utopian gateway to a former utopian settlement. The composition is mainly designed in plan and in elevation. Meier establishes a grid from his long pathway and then cants that grid by five degrees to add interest and to establish a hierarchy within the building. He also layers the facade in a way which filters light not only into the building but also out of the building. This was something I found most interesting and we chose to represent this idea in the presentation of our model by illuminating it from within.

AP 311

Fall 2011

Professor Hoffman

Professor Eichenlaub

Project 1


Circulation

Grid System

Layering

Solid-Void Catalyst - In the Manner of

Site Relationship Richard Meier

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Athenaeum Model

AP 311

Fall 2011

Professor Hoffman

Professor Eichenlaub

Project 1


Catalyst - In the Manner of

Richard Meier

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Project 2 Montpelier Performing Arts Center

Construct a performing arts center on the river in Montpelier, Vermont which represents the spirit of the city and which also contains a theater, an outdoor gathering area and necessary support spaces. This building should comply with local building and zoning codes, and it should als communicate with the culture and significance of the site. Inspired by the spirit of Montpelier, I wanted this performing arts center to serve as a means of inspiration for any passerby. I wanted to engineer this building to be a space in which anyone could express themselves freely in whatever means they felt personally relevant. I began with the idea of establishing a grid as Richard Meier typically would but found my resulting forms too restrictive for the kind of open spirit I wanted for this building. I switched to the idea of layering which Meier typically displays with his facades and layered forms around the theater. These forms were large and massive and led me to explore different materials. I found a firm in Vancouver B.C. which developed a rammed-earth wall system for cold, wet climates. I employed this material for its unique acoustical qualities, and also for the fact that voids and niches could be carved within it. I took advantage of this quality and carved little spaces for people to sit down with a guitar or a notebook and just explore their own creativity and that of those around them.

Mission Statement AP 311

Fall 2011

Professor Hoffman

Professor Eichenlaub

Project 3


Site Conditions

Solar Diagram

Zoning Diagram

10 Minute, 30 Minute, and 1 Hour Walking Radius

Performing Arts Center

Montpelier, VT

083


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Plan Evolution AP 311

Fall 2011

Professor Hoffman

Professor Eichenlaub

Project 3


Preliminary Iterations Performing Arts Center

Montpelier, VT

085


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Site Plan - Final Iteration

AP 311

Fall 2011

Professor Hoffman

Professor Eichenlaub

Project 3


First Floor - Final Iteration

Second Floor - Final Iteration

Performing Arts Center

Montpelier, VT

087


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East Elevation - Final Iteration

West Elevation - Final Iteration

AP 311

Fall 2011

Professor Hoffman

Professor Eichenlaub

Project 3


North Elevation - Final Iteration

South Elevation - Final Iteration

Performing Arts Center

Montpelier, VT

089


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Longitudinal Site Section - Final Iteration

Longitudinal Section - Final Iteration

Latitudinal Site Section - Final Iteration

AP 311

Fall 2011

Professor Hoffman

Professor Eichenlaub

Project 3


Box Office Perspective - Final Iteration

Entrance Perspective - Final Iteration

Performing Arts Center

Wall Section - Final Iteration

Montpelier, VT

091


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Model - Final Iteration

AP 311

Fall 2011

Professor Hoffman

Professor Eichenlaub

Project 3


Performing Arts Center

Montpelier, VT

093


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AP 312 Summer 2011


Professor Sagan Professor Kredell Professor Lutz

095


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Summer Design/Build Studio RAE(v) Solar House

This one thousand square foot house is a response to the design problem proposed by the US Department of Energy as a part of the Solar Decathlon competition. Since 2009, teams of students have been working on designing the ideal net-zero, affordable, and transportable single-family home with the hopes of submitting the design to the competition to be held in Irvine, California in 2013. This particular Summer, students picked up where the last group left off, framing interior walls and installing high-hat channels. While many plans had been finalized, decisions still remained regarding the design of the rain screen, the design of the sun shading system, the application of the solar array, etc. I was able to interact directly with design decisions, learn various new skills, and take charge of learning and applying new technology to the project. I arrived with a cursory knowledge of carpentry and was properly trained on all of the available equipment. Typically working with a partner, I was able to work on framing the interior walls on the east module, designing a proposal for the solar shade involving vines, building a deck for our workspace, designing and installing a flashing cap detail, installing high-hat channels and tar paper, and designing, testing, ripping boards for, staining and sealing boards for, and installing the rain screen. I also was able to learn the basics of land surveying. Towards the end of the summer, I took the responsibility of learning and monitoring the software for the climate tracking system.

Summer Design/Build

Professor Lutz

Professor Sagan

Professor Kredell


Gutter Detail

Corner Detail

RAE(v) Solar House

North Module

June 2011 - August 2011

097


098

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AP 411 Fall 2012


Professor Meuller

099


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Project 1 Fear Diagrams

Create diagrams that describe your greatest fear. Describe graphically what your fear is. Then describe how it is exacerbated. Is your fear different at different times of day or year? How can your fear be conquered? Illustrate an intervention that would enable you to conquer your fear. Large fish are uniquely terrifying to me. I find them horrible and grotesque. I described my fear with an aura of tension. If I cannot see the water containing unknown quantities of large fish, I feel relatively little fear. The closer I am to the water, the more fear I perceive as the fish and I are becoming closer and closer in proximity and the risk is elevated. I described the idea that my fears are elevated in proportion to the amount of visibility I have. the later the hour, the murkier the water, the more fear I feel. I proposed an environment which would take away the risk of the dark, oxygen-less environment where the fish call the shots and introduce some comforting elements such as a dry, warm place with air to breathe and a barrier between the human and the fish. With basic risk nullified, the person might even be able to see the fish in a positive way and appreciate the dark, quiet solitude of the fish’s environment.

AP 411

Fall 2012

Professor Meuller

Project 1

Fear Diagrams


Fear Bubble

Fear Over Time

Emotions In Space

Rendering of Intervention

101


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Project 2 Das Leben der Anderen

As an introduction to the impact of recent German history on contemporary Berlin, the film Das Leben der Anderen film depicts the role of the Stasi, the secret police of the GDR, in the mid 1980s. There exists a correlation between the oppressive regime and the way the affected people react to this risk. The spaces they create and inhabit are unique to their greater environment. Create a series of three drawings demonstrating spaces which felt representative of Stasi rule. I found that the first striking space in the film was the interrogation room. There was a man place specifically at the end of a desk being subjected to a slow and terrible interrogation. He was demonstrating true human emotion while the emotionless guards behind him represented an impermeable barrier. He was undergoing an excruciating experience and the interrogation was being broadcast before a group of GDR officials in a lecture hall. Their disconnect between the human suffering taking place, in a way, within the speakers broadcasting the interrogation. the second space which struck me was that of the men meeting in the park. They felt as though they were safe out in the park whose openness exists in stark contrast to most of the other enclosed spaces shown within the movie. the third space which struck me was the archive, where people were reduced to files and paperwork put away in an inhumanly-scaled series of shelves.

AP 411

Fall 2012

Professor Meuller

Project 2

Das Leben der Anderen


Scene within Scene

Archive

Park

103


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Project 3 Teufelsberg

this hill exists as one of the last major topographical fluctuations between Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. It began as the site of the Military Technical Institute proposed by the Nazi party. Construction was not yet completed when the institute was bombed. The existing buildings were too solid to deconstruct and so the decision was made to truck the rubble from all of the destroyed buildings within Berlin to the site and bury the failed military school. The hill was left to grow over when British and American intelligence constructed a spy tower atop the hill. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the spy center atop the hill fell into disrepair and has since nurtured the burgeoning graffiti sub-culture so prevalent in Berlin. The task is to revitalize this special site with an intervention. Principally I investigated the way a community garden would function on Teufelsberg and it was this investigation which led me to reconsider the role of Teufelsberg as a natural site within an urban context. I diagrammed the history of the site and saw the theme of superimposition. The military Institute was superimposed upon a natural context, the rubble was superimposed upon the military institute, the spy station was superimposed upon the rubble, and now nature is beginning to superimpose itself upon the decaying spy station and the ironically man-made hill of man-made materials is beginnign to succumb to the powers of nature. I investigated precedents regarding the treatment of ruins and was especially struck by the idea of letting ruins decay. If Teufelsberg were to be left to decay, the site would attract even more magnetically a specific sub-culture of urban explorers, writers, photographers, artists, etc. The theme of superimposition would also be perpetuated by the idea that nature would be entirely superimposing itself upon the site and Teufelsberg would thus be a wild island of nature within an urban environment. Seeing as the site itself would be an island, the border of this island would be marked with an illuminated border where the groundcover would be cut away to display the rubble beneath. This border would force someone to make the conscious decision to enter the site at their own risk. They would find their way through this sea of nature by looking up towards the illuminated central spy tower that would then house an illuminated waterfall within the elevator shaft which would reinforce the idea that nature is a constant force more powerful than the man-made world.

AP 411

Fall 2012

Professor Meuller

Project 3


Teufelsberg

Berlin, Germany

105


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People Sustained by Gardening per Square Meters

Community Garden Sketches AP 411

Fall 2012

Professor Meuller

Project 3


Community Garden Site Plan

Community Garden Site Section Teufelsberg

Berlin, Germany

107


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Overgrown Teufelsberg Sketch

Jungle in Berlin Diagram

Enclosure Diagram

AP 411

Overgrown Teufelsberg Sketch

Perimeter Construction Sketch

Fall 2012

Professor Meuller

Project 3


Superimposition Diagram

Teufelsberg

Lighthouse Comparison

Berlin, Germany

Perimeter Composition Diagrams

109


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Perimeter Condition - Final Iteration

AP 411

Fall 2012

Professor Meuller

Project 3


Elevator Shaft Waterfall - Final Iteration

Teufelsberg

Berlin, Germany

111


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Perimeter Condition - Final Iteration

Longitudinal Section - Final Iteration

AP 411

Fall 2012

Professor Meuller

Project 3


Decay over Time Diagrams

Teufelsberg

Berlin, Germany

113


114

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AP 412 Spring 2013


Professor Meuller

115


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Project 1 Mauer im Kopf

Since the fall of the Berlin wall, vacant sites that ran along the wall in the so-called “death strip” have been slowly developed in various ways. The site chosen for this studio is one of the very few remaining sites that remains vacant. It has become overgrown with vegetation and will soon become the site for an apartment building of some sort. Although it has been years since the site has been dominated by the Berlin wall, there still exists a well-known sentiment known as the “Mauer im Kopf” which describes the idea that the presence wall can still be perceived although its physical wall has long-since been demolished. This studio asks that an intervention bridge the literal gap between the former hinterlandmauer and the Berliner mauer while attempting to demolish the “Mauer im Kopf” idea. In first visiting the site, I was struck at the presence of nature and the feeling that I had transgressed an urban environment and been transported into a purely natural space. I felt that that was an incredibly special quality as there are no other sites within Berlin in which I have felt quite the same level of urban disconnect. Shorty after receiving the assignment, we watched The Invisible Frame in which the path of the Berlin wall is followed by bicycle in the summer of 1989 and again in 2009. I took notice that in the 1989 journey, the cyclist was always conscious that someone was watching, that they were never alone, and that they were never lost. The wall was so demanding and so present that it controlled how you moved. In 2009, the cyclist was always having to stop and think about where they were going, checking maps and making sure they were on the correct route. The wall was still something that the cyclist wanted to explore, although it wasn’t there anymore. It displayed the “Mauer im Kopf” idea. In considering the site, I felt that in bridging the gap between the hinterlandmauer and the Berliner mauer it would be best to preserve the fact that this site is natural and provides a different experience than the surrounding urban environment. In that way, I proposed an artificial landscape which people could climb over, around, and through, so that they would always be experiencing a different path and never be controlled by the imposing presence of the wall. The construction of the landscape would appear to be crumled, mangled bits of man-made material which people would be climbing over freely to promote the idea that people have reclaimed the site and the hierarchy of power on the site has shifted from the Berlin wall to the people.

AP 412

Spring 2013

Professor Meuller

Project 1


Mauer Overview

Mauer im Kopf

Berlin, Germany

117


118

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Buildup to Mauer

AP 412 Spring 2013 Professor Meuller Project 1


Construction of Mauer

Mauer im Kopf

Berlin, Germany

119


120

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Opening of Mauer

AP 412 Spring 2013 Professor Meuller Project 1


Dissolution of GDR

Mauer im Kopf

Berlin, Germany

121


Intro AP111 AP118 AP211 AP212 AP311 AP312 AP411 AP412 Misc Appendix 122

Reflective Walkway Site Plan - Preliminary Iteration

Reflective Walkway Site Sections - Preliminary Iteration

AP 412

Spring 2013

Professor Meuller

Perspectives Diagram

Project 1


Climbing Structure Section Sketch

Cafe Sketch

Climbing Structure Sketch

Mauer im Kopf

Analysis of Forms

Berlin, Germany

Bridging Site Diagram

123


Intro AP111 AP118 AP211 AP212 AP311 AP312 AP411 AP412 Misc Appendix 124

Site Perspectives - Preliminary Iteration

AP 412

Spring 2013

Professor Meuller

Project 1


Site Plan - Preliminary Iteration Mauer im Kopf

Berlin, Germany

Site Sections - Preliminary Iteration 125


Intro AP111 AP118 AP211 AP212 AP311 AP312 AP411 AP412 Misc Appendix 126

Initial Diagrams AP 412

Physical Presence of Mauer Spring 2013

Professor Meuller

Project 1


Site Sections - Final Iteration Mauer im Kopf

Possible Construction Diagram Berlin, Germany

127


Intro AP111 AP118 AP211 AP212 AP311 AP312 AP411 AP412 Misc Appendix 128

Site Plan - Final Iteration

AP 412

Spring 2013

Professor Meuller

Project 1


Site Perspectives - Final Iteration

Mauer im Kopf

Berlin, Germany

129


130

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Misc.


Sketching School NUVA Nicaragua NUVA Thailand

131


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Sketching School Professor Leytham San Juan, Puerto Rico - March 2010 Lunenburg, Nova Scotia - August 2010


133


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Sketching School

Professor Leytham

San Juan, Puerto Rico - March 2010

Lunenburg, Nova Scotia - August 2010


135


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NUVA Nicaragua Sembrando Esperanzas Centro de Naturaleza La Finca de la Hermandad San Ramon, Nicaragua


Sembrando Esperanzas is a non-profit organization that works in the greater Matagalpa area providing assistance wherever necessary. The organization promotes a higher standard of living by supporting high school students with scholarships so that they might finish their education, it provides funding and volunteers for women’s clinics specializing in rendering services to rural women with high-risk pregnancies, for educational enrichment programs for primary and secondary schools in rural communities, for community enrichment programs and activities, and for its own fully functioning library in the city of Matagalpa. As a volunteer with Norwich’s NUVA Nicaragua program, I was able to volunteer with Sembrando Esperanzas during May of 2011. One of the first tasks we tackled was a small construction project just outside of the small town of San ramon where we were living with host families. The construction project was on a large coffee farm called La Finca de la Hermandad and the building was a nature education center for Sembrando Esperanza’s annual coffee camps. The camps offer support to families in the area who depend upon the brief but intense harvesting season as their main annual income. While their parents are busy working, the children are often left without adequate supervision and nutrition. The camps offer a hot, nutritious meal with plenty of enrichment activities to keep the kids engaged and educated. The camps were so successful that Sembrando Esperanzas added this nature center for kids to learn about local flora and fauna. By the time we had arrived, the first courses of adobe bricks were laid and cured. We were immediately consumed with hauling water from the reservoir in the jungle up to the site, machetteing bunches of hay for the adobe, tromping around and mixing the adobe in a huge pit, laying courses of adobe blocks, mixing concrete for the patio, learning how bamboo can be fashioned into a substitute for re-bar, and how to avoid glitter attacks from some feisty kids. 137


Intro AP111 AP118 AP211 AP212 AP311 AP312 AP411 AP412 Misc Appendix 138

NUVA Nicaragua

Sembrando Esperanzas

El Centro de Naturaleza

La Finca de la Hermandad


San Ramon, Nicaragua

May 2011

139


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NUVA Thailand Professor Cox Nicole DiDomenico Suvannee Promchan Ban Phachan, Isaan Province, Thailand December 2010 - January 2011 December 2011 - January 2012


In December of 2010, the villagers in Phachan, Thailand were relying on a kitchen situated informally on the edge of the woods behind the community center to cook large group meals. The cooks would crouch on the ground to wash, chop, cook, and prepare the charcoal for cooking all while constantly fending off hungry dogs. After integrating into the village and getting to know the cooks, builders, and community leaders, We drafted plans based upon the village’s local, available materials, cultural beliefs, values, and way of life, and we made sure that the village would have a kitchen it could be proud of. With the plans approved, no one could wait to start building. After months of deliberation on cost estimates, itineraries, etc. it was December of 2011 and time to return to Phachan. Our first task was to raise the reinforced concrete columns. Before anything could start, the village elders composed three arrangements of five distinct and spiritually-significant leaves, and bound them to the columns as a blessing. At that moment, it all finally felt real. Not only had I worked tirelessly to design the kitchen appropriately, but I would be there to see it grow into a real entity. What’s more, it became strikingly clear that this kitchen meant as much to the village as it did to me. From then on, we rose with the sun and returned to our Thai mothers all too late every night covered in concrete, mud, and paint. One day, questions arose concerning which walls were to use which type of blocks. I spoke to the foreman through several translators and developed a series of drawings to communicate to thai and English speakers alike just how each wall was to be composed. Before long, we had a kitchen and our van lumbered out of Phachan one last time. This series of trips affected me deeply. My goal is to use architecture to improve daily life within rural communities. Communities such as Phachan deserve a chance to have a place to express their cultural identity – a special space which inspires future generations to celebrate where they came from and to also share that with the broader populace. 141


142 NUVA Thailand Professor Cox Nicole Didomenico Suvannee Promchan

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Ban Phachan, Isaan, Province, Thailand

December 2010 - January 2011

December 2011 - January 2012

143


144 NUVA Thailand Professor Cox Nicole Didomenico Suvannee Promchan

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Ban Phachan, Isaan, Province, Thailand

December 2010 - January 2011

December 2011 - January 2012

145


146

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Appendix


Writing Sample GPA Transcript

147


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Writing Sample Professor Armstrong Fall 2011

Writing Sample

Professor Armstrong

Fall 2011

Henri Lebrouste


Fantoni 1

Introduction - Born at the turn of the 19th century, Henri Lebrouste was an inventive Henri Lebrouste’s Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve Gina Fantoni December 5th, 2011 Professor Armstrong History and Theory of Architecture III

architect who represented the restrained classical ideals of antiquity while simultaneously challenging the dogma of his contemporary architectural institutions. Born in Paris, this French architect began his career at the prestigious Ècole de Beaux Arts. There, he dedicated himself to researching classical ideals. This newfound classical knowledge led him to utilize proportion and restrained detailing as his tools for creating beautiful, triumphant works of art. 1 Although his studies of Greek ruins ruined his relationship with the Ècole de Beaux Arts, Henri Lebrouste adapted through these exercises an enlightened personal philosophy on civic buildings. From this new ideal, Lebrouste was able to present Paris with spaces which could truly be treasured. He designed for the average citizen with time-tested foreign principles. 2 He created lovely and successful spaces with an advanced knowledge and daring display of structure and materials which still today serve the public as nobly and timelessly as Greek temples serve their populace. Lebrouste possessed an iconic, scientific intimacy with classical design sensibility while simultaneously challenging the accepted rules of civic structures and their traditional forms, materials, and decor. Henri Lebrouste’s Personal Philosophies on Architecture - Architect Henri Lebrouste formed his ideologies upon attending the famous Ècole de Beaux Arts in Paris in 1819. There, he participated in the Lebas-Vaudoyer workshop. This workshop expressly introduced him to classical ideals of proportion and calculated restraint in detailing. The workshop also stressed that design was to be employed as a public service which would represent the poise and decorum of the nation and its people. 3 As an architect and a representative of the ideals of the Ècole de

1 2

Marvin Trachtenberg and Isabelle Hyman, Architecture, from Prehistory to Post-Modernism (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1986); 121. Marvin Trachtenberg and Isabelle Hyman, Architecture, from Prehistory to Post-Modernism (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1986); 121.

3

Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v., “Henri Labrouste (French Architect),” accessed March 26, 2011, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/327046/Henri-Labrouste/, 1.

149


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Fantoni 2

Fantoni 3

Beaux Arts, Henri Lebrouste has been considered by scholars a romantic rationalist with a

previously believed. He responded to this fact in his designs, choosing to modernize the ancient

passion like that of predecessor Jacques-Ignace Hittorff for the research and adaptation of Greek

buildings in a way which showcased the inherent functionality – humanizing the space rather

and Roman classicism. Rationalism, as an architectural philosophy, stems from the theories of

than deifying. 8 His works decidedly reflect the industrial and mechanical nature of the physical

Vitruvius in his famous work De Architectura and embodies the idea of formulating and

context with a restrained elegance in the usage of exposed structural elements and iconic displays

calculating architecture in a scientific manner. 4 This quality of Henri Lebrouste and his

of structural materials such as iron in beautiful, delicate arches and columns. These qualities are clearly displayed in his two best-known and critically acclaimed

architectural taste was further enriched as he traveled to Rome in 1824 with the French Academy where, for six years, he was charged with the task of calculating and measuring Roman ruins.

commissions in Paris – the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève finished in 1851, and the Richelieu

The sole purpose of this excursion was so he might find patterns in the laws of proportion of

branch of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France finished in 1868. Considered a trademark

Roman architecture so that these calculations may be used as formulas in contemporary French

example of 19th century architecture, the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève was an opportunity for

architecture. 5 In possessing a commanding knowledge of these proportions, architects of the

Labrouste to express his refined, modernized classical ideas in a public program and

rationalist movement dignified architecture as an intellectual science rather than the practice of

consequently, the project became a lauded magnum opus in its time representative of “the

inanely replicating patterns.

Romantic School” and its Greek allusions. 9 While limited by the constraint of a thin site located

During his time in Italy, Henri stayed in the Medici Villa and toured a variety of cities

on the square opposite the Place du Pantheon, Labrouste brilliantly completed a building with

including Florence, Bologna, Milan, and Turin. It was about this time that Henri distanced

sensible proportions and a functional circulation. The façade of the library is ornamented plainly

himself with the Ècole de Beaux Arts. In 1828, he decidedly divorced himself from the

with clean, rhythmic arches and carvings of the names of prominent authors which were inspired

institution after his controversial restoration of the Greek ruins of the Temples at Paestum. 6 With

by the arches, décor, and proportions of the temples Labrouste studied during his time in Italy. 10

this experience, Henri formulated his own personal ideas even further, adapting his designs to fit

This work of architecture is better known for the reading room whose lofty, barrel vaulted

7

the context of its patron society. Henri received much criticism from the Ècole de Beaux Arts as

ceilings are supported by delicate and decorative cast iron which was a revolutionary material at

he researched the temples at Paestum and compared the layout of these ruins with those of other

the time. Throughout the building, classical detailing and careful attention to specific proportions

temples and civic structures from ancient Greece. He surmised that in their time in

are kept in mind as the space remains as free of superfluous ornamentation as possible.

approximately 550 BCE, these ruins served as civic halls rather than places of worship as 4 5 6

Elizabeth Gilmore Holt, From the Classicists to the Impressionists: Art and Architecture in the 19th Century (New York: Anchor, 1966), 296. Banister Fletcher and John Musgrove, Sir Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture (Boston: Butterworths, 1987), 480-483.

Viollet le Duc, Eugène Emmanuel, Henry van Brunt, Benjamin Bucknall, eds., Discourses on Architecture (Boston: James R. Osgood & Co., 1875), vi-vii.

Banister Fletcher and John Musgrove, Sir Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture (Boston: Butterworths, 1987), 480-483.

Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v., “Western Architecture: France,” accessed March 26, 2011, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/32952/Western-architecture/47405/National-and-regional-variations#ref489548/, 8.

Professor Armstrong

Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v., “Western Architecture: France,” accessed March 26, 2011, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/32952/Western-architecture/47405/National-and-regional-variations#ref489548/, 8.

9

7

Writing Sample

8

10

Fall 2011

Marvin Trachtenberg and Isabelle Hyman, Architecture, from Prehistory to Post-Modernism (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1986); 122.

Henri Lebrouste


Fantoni 4

Fantoni 5

sociable. If the space exists for the people, then the people should not feel intimidated. It should

The classical, approachable simplicity and restraint in the civic structures of Henri Lebrouste are also seen in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. Most notably, Lebrouste

welcome and nurture forward thinking as well as the open, uninhibited sharing of ideas. Lastly, it

succeeded in his designs for the Salle de Travail – the reading room – and the magasin – the

should be comfortable as well as inspiring. I feel that Lebrouste took this idea to heart and

stack room – as these spaces displayed his ability to develop functional designs around the

ensured that both of his major libraries remained beautiful, simple, approachable, practical, and

everyday needs of the library while taking the opportunity to design with innovative forms and

ingeniously innovative in the usage of materials and the unashamed celebration of the structural

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materials such as iron and glass. Unlimited by a narrow site as with the Bibliothèque Sainte-

systems which make the buildings possible. In celebrating the structure, Lebrouste similarly

Geneviève, Labrouste thus worked uninhibited, freely displaying his design ideals in a bold use

celebrates the average citizen without whom the city would not function. I also find value, as

of sinuous columns which blossom at the ceiling in fanned arches supporting open domes. From

Lebrouste clearly did, in learning from successful past works of architecture. I agree with his

these domes, light pours into the space creating – via the use of simple materials and classical

ideas of maintaining the successful employment of classical ideology. In this way, I believe that

restraint – a divinely dramatic public space. The nine terra-cotta domes of the reading room, each

his ideas are still relevant today. In some contemporary works of architecture, the designer

on pendentives and held aloft by four rows of graceful iron columns – again demonstrate the

clearly abandons careful restraint in detailing his design and thus we are left with partially-

unexpected use of materials representative of Paris and its industry celebrating simply and

developed messes devoid of clarity and direction. These works exist to challenge the classical

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elegantly the structural quality of the space. Thanks to his knowledge of classical architectural

standards in totally perverse ways. I believe that beauty lies in simplicity and elegant solutions

ideology, Labrouste inspired generations of successive designers by melding metal and glass in

and thus, Henry Lebrouste could teach Frank Gehry a lesson in executing successful works of

learned, delicate simplicity.

architecture instead of minimally-developed and poorly-edited displays of architectural rebellion. Conclusion - Prized as an advocate for classicism, romanticism, rationalism, and

My Personal Views on Henri Lebrouste’s Architectural Philosophy - I personally agree with several of the ideals of Henri Lebrouste. I believe that he was correct in his designs

adventurous employment of inventive structural and material systems, Henri Lebrouste is an

for civic buildings. I enjoy the fact that he was careful in designing the space in regards to its

invaluable asset to the architectural community. His still-relevant ideals speak for the true

physical context. In his use of glass and metal, Lebrouste stayed true to the industrial nature of th

purpose of civic structures. He designed in a calculated and beatiful way. He said as much as

Paris as it was one of the major world cities undergoing an industrial revolution during the 19

possible with as little as possible. His designs were the true epitome of elegance in that they were

Century. He made sure to not turn his back on the average city dweller with overly ornate and

not only functional and modest, but they were also beautiful and ingeniously innovative. Henri

unapproachable buildings. I personally agree that a civic building should be beautiful as well as

Lebrouste defied that which he was initially taught. He defined his career around the idea that

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civic structures are just those – they exist for the purpose of serving the general public. His civic

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Marvin Trachtenberg and Isabelle Hyman, Architecture, from Prehistory to Post-Modernism (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1986); 122. Elizabeth Gilmore Holt, From the Classicists to the Impressionists: Art and Architecture in the 19th Century (New York: Anchor, 1966), 296.

structures are designed with the idea that they should be approachable and distinctly attractive.

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Fantoni 7

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Works Cited

He celebrated the spirit of the local civilization and the local context through structure and materials while maintaining calculated proportions, clean adornments, and functional layouts.

Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v. “Henri Labrouste (French Architect),”

Henri Lebrouste celebrated the local context through inventive uses of materials and structure in

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/327046/Henri-Labrouste/ (accessed March

a way which embodied archaic ideals of restraint and beauty while maintaining the integrity of

26, 2011). Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v. “Western Architecture: France,”

the essence of civic structures.

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/32952/Westernarchitecture/47405/National-and-regional-variations#ref489548/ (accessed March 26, 2011). Fletcher, Banister, and John Musgrove. Sir Banister Fletcher's A History of Architecture. Boston: Butterworths, 1987. Holt, Elizabeth Gilmore. From the Classicists to the Impressionists: Art and Architecture in the 19th Century. New York: Anchor, 1966. Trachtenberg, Marvin, and Isabelle Hyman. Architecture, from Prehistory to Post-Modernism. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1986. Viollet le Duc, Eugène Emmanuel, Henry van Brunt, Benjamin Bucknall, eds. Discourses on Architecture. Boston: James R. Osgood & Co., 1875.

Writing Sample

Professor Armstrong

Fall 2011

Henri Lebrouste


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GPA

Fall 2009 - Fall 2012

GPA Fall 2009 - Fall 2011


Cumulative Studio GPA AP 111 - Fall 2009 - A AP 118 - Spring 2010 - A AP 211 - Fall 2010 - AAP 212 - Spring 2011 - B+ AP 311 - Fall 2011 - A AP 312 - Summer 2011 - B+ AP 411 - Fall 2012 - A

GPA: 3.74

Cumulative Norwich GPA Fall 2009 - 4.0 Spring 2010 - 3.91 Fall 2010 - 3.92 Spring 2011 - 3.53 Fall 2011 - 3.84 Spring 2012 - 3.81 Fall 2012 - 3.94

GPA: 3.85 155


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Transcript

Fall 2009 - Spring 2012


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Gina Fantoni Thesis Architecture Portfolio