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Discuss the impact of technology on today’s art/design world comparing it with the tools available prior to the computer and Internet age.

The Impact technology has in today’s art and design world has rapidly changed since the pre digital age which became established around the early 1980’s in the British design industry of printing due to our technology and tools, Designers were not able to turn on a computer and print out loads of copies photo shopping imperfections. I want to look at the tools they had during the first method of printing and what they could create using these tools, how the artists managed with the limited tools they had. I also want to look at the development of work throughout the years as the tools and technology develop. I will compare if the technology we use today has changed the way we design, and the designers that have started this off and their techniques used. Since the 1960s the design world had rapidly changed their methods of producing work. As they started off doing everything by hand, using off set printing (a method still used today), using a letterpress, (for books and news papers) to now using Photoshop, digital cameras, computers and laser printers. Now the design world moves a lot faster and we have a pimple production process as we have the tools to create the designs and produce them easily. Before the digital age designers didn’t have it as easy as us, to create a piece of work they could not just create it on the computer and send it to the printer, what the had to do was do everything by hand and then print it out. One of the methods was called screen prints (which was created by Andy Warhol in 1962). The 1960’s is where digital printings journey had started but It was not really a reality in studios until later and it was more established across the industry till the 1980’s. The history of industrial printing starts from the 906 with Chinese blocks printing. I think the first method of multi copy of printing was actually in 1476, where the first Gutenberg printing press was made. William Caxton was the first to introduce this method of printing to England. He was a writer and used this method to print his books of which were Chaucer's 'Canterbury Tales', Gower's 'Confession Amantis' and Malory's 'Le Morte d'Arthur'. Each letter was made individual (in reverse as it would print in reverse) then placed in a block made of soft metal (usually copper) printing in Back and White.


It took a long time for this method to develop. Almost 200 years later the first newspaper was created in1605 in Belgium using this method. Then in 1660 another form of printing was invented, mezzotint technique. Print made using a copper plate, which has been worked over ('grounded') using a semi-circular fine-toothed tool ('rocker') so that the entire surface is roughened. In this state, when inked the plate will print solid black. Scraping down and polishing areas of the plate then create the design. These will hold less ink and so print more lightly than the unpolished areas. The mezzotint plate is particularly prone to wear during printing. The result is that the earliest impressions are the finest and print very dark with strong definition whereas later ones are noticeably fainter. During the 1700’s to the 1800’s the industry started to change faster, making iron printing press and rotary printing press, but by 1841 it became the industrial age printing. The first type-composing machine was developed. By the 1870’s paper was made from wood pulp begun mass production meaning that it was used more so they needed to create a mass production. The things produced would be mainly black and white however if there was colour it would be very basic and not a lot used, and usually painted by hand. During 1892 the first 4-colour rotary press was invented, this would include the 4 basic colours red, yellow, blue and black. After this was created i think the industry vastly changes, the offset lithography was being used for posters, maps, books and packaging. And soon after this in 1953 the first printer was made this is where the early digital printing period started. During the early digital printing period various printers were produced improving year by year. By 1979 cannon succeeds in developing the first laser printer, and 5 years after HP introduce both inject and laser printers for the desktop.


The First GutenBurg Printing Press made and introduced by William Caxton Chinese Block Printing 906

Paper was made from wood pulp and began production

The mezzotinet technique was invented 1476

1660

1605

Cannon creates the first laser printer

The first 4 colour roatary presswas invented 1870

1892

1979

1953 1984

1841 The First Printer

The First news paper was The first type co created in belgimusing posing machine was the gutenburg print press develloped

Cannon introduced printer 70 as tthe worlds first plain paper printer for the computer

The digital printing age started in 1984 when cannon introduce PC printer 70 as the worlds first plain paper printer reader/printer for COM after this graphics world changed dramatically, it became a big thing as now people were able to print things at home. As we are in the new printing age where we have access to I phones, tablets where we don’t even need a printer or paper we can access the things we want via internet and design is now created by the click of a button. Now the technology is so advanced we can even scan handmade drawings, paintings and designs in to the computer and edit them on the computer. But that is the home printing the commercial business has dramatically changes and they can now print and process things with the best of quality and in a short space of time by using computers linked the designer directly to the print industry so you did your own type setting, 4 colour printing. This then led to multimedia options with the advent of the internet. Over the past few years’ technology has become very important to our lives, changing the design world dramatically. We now have the tools and software that is now very accessible, as we can just download the software and create anything we want using the software at home, we are now able to crop and cut very high quality photographs edit them and adjust them. Almost like a collage but a very clean cup of one with no messy glue or rough edges, the pint was a lot more basic when graphic design started it has only recently became more accessible. Before they only printed in black and white soon progressing to Magenta, cyan and Yellow. A technique used in the 1950’s called the Ben-day dots printing process was used for comic books. Depending on the effect, color and optical illusion needed, small colored dots are closely-spaced, widely-spaced or overlapping. Magenta dots, for example, are widely-spaced to create pink. 1950s and 1960s pulp comic books used Ben-Day dots in the four process


colors (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) to inexpensively create shading and secondary colors such as green, purple, orange and flesh tones. The Ben-day technique was used This was a very clever technique used as they were able to create colours without mixing them so they used the space to create shades and colours. “Ben-Day dots were considered the hallmark of American artist Roy Lichtenstein”

Screen printing (also known as silk screening) is one of the oldest methods of printmaking. The process involves creating a stencil of an image on a screen of porous mesh, traditionally made of silk. A roller or squeegee is used to pull paint-like ink over the stencil, forcing it through the mesh onto the paper being printed. Unlike the inks used in some other forms of printing, screen printing ink sits right on the surface of paper, resulting in incredibly rich, vibrant color. However screen prints are a very long process as its done by hand and when printing the image if you would want to use more than one colour you would have to wait for it to dry, make another stencil and then print over it. However we are lucky enough to have the technology where we can almost create and print any colour we would like using an ink jet printer; An inkjet printer is any printer that places extremely small droplets of ink onto paper to create an image or a laser printer. When a text or image is entered into the CPU, it produces a series of varying voltages. This controls a LED(light emitting diod) in the printer. This emits flashes of laser, when it falls on a charged photo-conducting drum. The area corresponding the text or image will either be neutralized or oppositely charged. A toner which has the same charge as the background is sprayed onto it. It only sticks to the text or image and is repelled by the background. A fresh paper is now pressed onto the toner and is slightly heated so that it sticks firmly on the paper our up to date work will be of a good quality. The only way we can make such amazing work is by a good camera and the technology of transferring the images from a card on to the computer screen. Its now also possible to scan images or hand made work in to the computer edit them and mix them with the computer design too therefore we are able to combine the techniques. As the commercial graphics and design world has developed over time I think that’s the standers of the work has changed, as in the 1940’s the work was dull and looked brown


unclear as the quality was not good. During this time was the war therefore there were may war posters out. In the war poster below shows that the posters were very basic. “In 1942, Pittsburgh artist J. Howard Miller was hired by the Westinghouse Company's War Production Coordinating Committee to create a series of posters for the war effort.”

During the 1960’s the style had changed as the posters and advertisements became brighter and bolder although they are still not as detailed as the posters and advertisement now. While researching posters I have realized that throughout the years the styles of how we create and design posters are a lot different, before we had color printers everything was in black and white or hand painted of which was impossible to make a mass production doing it by hand. Therefore when it was possible to print using colour the design world opened up and we was able to advertise films, theaters, music, food and many more products. This was due to the attraction of colours. The colours on the poster would draw your eye to it more than a black and white image due to it being athletically pleasing. Different colours would mean different things and this could change the mood for the advert and could persuade you. Red would symbolize power and energy, as red is an attractive colour to nearly everyone “it’s the first colour babies can see, the most popular colour among children and generally liked by adults.” it’s also an exciting colour, it can “increase breathing and pulse rate”. Red is also a stimulate for appetites therefore they use it in food advertisements.


Green is the colour of nature and has a “very strong association with the get-green fad and environment movements. The colour green can represent health and nature therefore its used in advertisements with these topics. Green is usually used for a tick mark or a green traffic light for go (where red is used for a cross mark or a red traffic light for stop) therefore its known as a “good colour” “the right thing. Green is associated with go, refreshing drinks, health and money as the US dollar is green.

The colour blue is known to be a cool shade. The colour blue show, clarity, intellect and precision. Deeper shades resemble elegance. A cooler shade of blue is used to show refreshing cold drinks and glass that’s y its used a lot in window cleaning adverts as it shows purity and clarity. It’s also a colour to resemble masculinity.”Blue loses out on food products as it suppresses the appetite. Therefore its unwise to used blue in the field of food”


Yellow can be an energetic, fun colour that sometimes symbolizes rejuvenation this is why the colour is used a lot in beauty products. However it can be distasteful to men as it’s also a cheap colour. Many people tend to associate yellow with happiness and sunshine.

Before the graphics design world had become what is today we didn’t understand what the effects of colour would do to the advertising world. I think this was due to the basic colours they had and they did not know what would work well with different fields of advertisements. However we now have the technology to print out a range of colours and we have scientifically be proven that’s different colours will influence and persuade people to buy some products. If you look at these products most of them are printed on plastic bottles and containers this would have never been possible at the start of the printing industry as it would have been impossible to print using their methods and there ink would have just slipped off the plastic. But we have now been able to develop ink that is suitable for plastics. The industry of printing has vastly increased as they started off just printing on wood pulp paper to now very clear high quality printing on plastic bottles. Even though the industry has advanced and “improved” I still think that by doing it by hand can give a nice effect and by incorporating both. People who have lived in the transaction of the computer age starting off did not understand the impact on what it would do for today’s world. Therefore now there is so much to learn about this new advance way of creating and designing therefore the newer generation of designers will know how to lean the technology as they have been brought up with it, this can be an advantage however I think that it is a disadvantage to the newer designers as the older designers will have an experience doing it the hand crafted way therefore they can incorporate this in the new designs using the new technology to develop the work. During the mid to early stages of the printing industry many people thought it wouldn’t be come such a large industry but I think that the main reason for the industry to be growing is the competing in products and one way to sell your product is it to look nice and most people will look at the packaging and decide whether to buy it or not by judging.


I have chosen an image showing the Cadburys chocolate bar in 1907 and one in 2013. The biggest difference is the material of the Packaging, the 1907 bar was probably made from paper with a tin foil inside to keep the chocolate fresh however I think this was a very delicate material to work with as its easily broken or ripped. However this was probably made using a print or stencil but the quality of the packaging looks old and basic. Whereas the 2013 packaging looks instantly stronger the plastic almost looks metal as its so shiny giving the illusion that it’s a strong packet. The quality of this packaging is very strong and it is difficult to split or rip. I think the main reason for the packaging changes is because it will keep the chocolate a lot more better but they have also thought of the idea of keeping it fresh and being able to close the chocolate up. On the 2013 bars there is a reseal on the back where you just close it back up and it has a sticky seal this will keep the chocolate fresh . Now we can do so much with packaging and this wouldn’t of happened if we didn’t have the technology to be able to print on plastic. The quality of the plastic is very thick and strong I think that the quality of the 2013 packaging was designed to be easy to produce, recyclable, strong, light and cheap and they had successfully created it where the 1907 bar was like a draft it wouldn’t have been very strong or be very easy to produce as it would have been something to do with a printing process and not a digitally printing process. To create something of this standard has taken a lot of planning and experimenting to create an outcome like we have today. It was not till 2000 till Cadbury’s had stated printing on plastic therefor I think this shows how we are at the beginning of the industry and it will advance a lot more in the future. I think that the process of printing started off very slowly however as the printing industry has grown it has steeply got faster and we have advanced in what we can do with printing a lot within the last 50 years. The Colour on the 1907 packaging is dull, bland and does not really excite the viewer or tempts them to buy it on the other had the 2013 packaging is vibrant and smooth and has a nice finish to I, it also has a image of the chocolate bar on the top of it of which is very persuading to the viewer. I think the 2013 bar is a lot smoother whereas the 1907 bar looks rough. In relation to my project I have experimented (narrative) with the use of both practical making and computer skilled making and I do think that you have to have the skills of practical design to start off and then we are able to refine this by perfecting it using the technology on the computers. I started off experimenting with the computer but I felt that it didn’t have the same feeling as the hand produced drawings so I then combined both I


produced 2 prints and some ink marks, to combine this I then scanned everything and edited it on the computer by changing colours and layered lines to create my outcome. I feel that it’s still better to do things by hand as the technology cannot recreate the same marks to the handmade work.


Final essay