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Co!ege of Architectur" Visiting Professional /Lecturer: Gilbert Fuentes Basbas 2014




Co!ege of Architecture: Petra University, Jorda& Basbas 2014

Its a great pleasure to be with you today. The theme of my workshop will focus and touch on several aspects of my works and its unique inspirations that has captivated me through years of fascinating journey of exploring and sharing thoughts on my daily design works. I’m here today with former colleagues classmates who together, enjoyed our previous life as student of Cal Poly MArch.. 25 years later we still enjoy working hanging out together, this time Khaled Tarazi is now your head of College of Architecture and with great pleasure to join you here today. Briefly, I will share with you in a nutshell, my years of architectural and planning project experience in the United States, China and other Asia Pacific region countries.

Key Experience Mr. Gilbert Basbas has more than 35 years of professional architectural and urban design + masterplanning project experience in United States, China, India, Philippines and other Asia Pacific region countries.

Basbas Project Images Prior to joining AECOM as its design director of Urban Design, I travelled and worked as Team Sr. Chief designer with award winning and high profiled architectural and urban de-



sign firms in the United States, China, Asian region and the Philippines. I actively participates in various design competitions, conducting design seminars, lecture workshops in China and around the region. I design and manage highly complex transport, community designs creating healthy and beautiful communities of enduring value. A large part of my work involves finding practical and sustainable solutions to the creation of public realm/civic places; creating a sense of place on public realm, while creating new town centers, downtown city centers, which provide social vibrancy, economic “Upcycle” and energy to new places. Energizing visible projects around these regions, demanding contributions calling for application of sustainability principles; formulation of renewable energy use and concept building technologies, net zero emissions on highly visible urban spaces and quality projects that inspire to use renewable energy and smart growth principles. I just love mingling with every kind of culture and sensing its history and determination to improve on their land. My design and lecture workshops focus on analysis and discussions of what are the challenges facing our environment and high performance architecture solutions today. What responses and adaptability and sustainable solutions are happening to meet those challenges. Decisions to make them work and improve on these systems will impact our life. These decisions and changes now and ahead will be our legacy of our generation and choices we do now will affect the next generations to come. The essence of my lecture is the desire to help others, share the curiosity of other people’s work and the commitment to constant im-

provement “good enough” to the very best, making things the right way! More healthful environment! Clean air. Humans have no pollution problems but design problems. Basbas


The goal is to share and design principles that could be adopted everywhere, delightfully safe, diverse, healthy Earth with clean air, water, soil and power- equitably, ecologically, elegantly enjoyed by its inhabitants. While I’m here and basking in the sun, and you around, we will make our world more fruitful and delightfully enjoyable, always desiring to be happy. Like a butterfly looking for flowers!

Lecture on Urban Designs, High Performance Building Technology and Sustainability on New Urbanism Issues The Cha!enges Soil Erosion Water Tables Falling Farmers Losing Water to Cities Land and Water Conflicts Basbas


Cars and People Compete for Grains The Rising Tide of Environmental Refugees Rising Temperature and its effects Melting Ice, Rising Seas Melting Glaciers, Shrinking Harvests Rising Temperatures, Falling Yields The decline of Oil and Coal The Response Energy Efficient Appliances Food Battery “Re-Charging the Land” Zero Carbon Buildings New Lighting Technology Transport Systems, Electrified New Materials Economy Smarter Grids, Appliances, and smart Consumers Energy Savings Design of Cities for People The ecology of Cities Redesign of Urban Transport The Return of Bicycles Farming in the City Cities for people Rescuing Failing States Poverty Eradication Agenda and Budget Restoring Forests and protecting Greening Cities Conserving and Rebuilding Soils Regenerating Fisheries Protecting Plant and Animal Diversity Raising Water Raising Land Sustainability of Agriculture Growing only what we need, Localization Learn and Sharing what we explore to Next Generation Basbas


As depressing as seeing Polar bear looking for ice to walk around and infant milk contaminated to gain more profit; the view that if we don’t stop raping Nature’s riches we’ll bring to ourselves our apocalypse and eventually we, humans dig our own grave. No more zero. Like a tree, wants to emit oxygen and as it grows and wants to get bigger. It want to get more carbon dioxide, to emit more

oxygen..more emissions that we humans like and need. Yet many environmentalists want to eradicate emissions. Symbiotic relationships: Humans need to realize that they can and historically have had symbiotic relationship with rain forest. Rain forest can be seen as a garden, tended by humans and must be encouraged to grow in certain ways. Cities can be designed to reflect like rain forest; tending to offer food, shade, oxygen for the people in it. Ideas will be discussed as we move forward and learn from each other, aspiring to improve for future generations. Internet and Design Studios: A network working together #om Remote locations: The idea is already here. Values. Innovation. Metrics. Beyond the idea of collaboration, I have passionately discussed innovation and value-making through looking around, obesrving Basbas


and seeing the world and thinking how we could all learn from it. The natural world radiates with ideas and “how to” knowledge if we just observed (biomimicry). Whaťs next? The How of keeping Carbon on Earth: How would you feel if you are part of the rejuvenation of your town? Your city? Your planet? At your fingertips is the use of Solar, Wind, Waves and anything around you.Isn’t that a marvelous idea? WE think of energy that can expand into new dimensions instead of laterally focusing on conventional practice. At this moment of our history, our generations have des-

perately been weaning itself off of fossil fuels while reckoning on fuel shortages. Over the past few years we have been contemplating on the products and materials flow, articulating our use of energy and integrating it in design protocols. In a few minutes we will be discuss-



ing a large portion of our lecture series on “how to” of this issue. Energy Integration. No product can be considered exquisite or well designed unless we take into account how much energy used in its production has been tracked or considered. We will look at energy in richly diverse view and seeing how fusion can work together to foster growth and foster abundance during its upcycle. People. Community.Nature. By understanding how people live, individual and mutual values and attempting to address them in new ways, we may discover for ourselves unexpected solutions for energy challenges. We will ask this question: How can we collect energy we need without depleting our seas, forest literally? Energy, Currency Capital and goods Movement. Capital does not “flow” in informal economies but is stored, saved, invested or embodied for future deployment. Capital is not an accumulation of assets but its potential to deploy new production that must be processed and fixed into tangible form before we can release it. “Currency is its lubricant and measure of flow.” Its fascinating to be witnessing how humans are currently burning, burying and otherwise dispersing and po!uting their Earhly Capital.” We all have to plant, seed and then harvest. “plant Capital to grow and harvest.” When we use Petroleum (fossil fuel), we are consuming “ancient sunlight” to borrow from author William McDonough Cradle to Cradle; ancient sunlightrepresent “plant and animal life from long ago. Why not use Sun’s energy instead. Sun radiation -is recurring and its the only income that our



planet receives. Fossil fuel are capital and we could be using currency. Now that Photovoltaic and solar panels and wind turbines are can be considered “currency” why not use them extensively as a currency. We love the sun and lets harness them to the fu!est before we run out of oil or coal and before its too late. Its my favorite and so with wind and waves and geothermal since Philippines sits on volcanoes and .aves ( with 01 storm systems every year). When we look at a particular market, one has to define how people move its goods, how they use energy for food and consume for power. We also look at how a certain group of

people; companies move their people and goods. Iceland creates and power the entire island 100% from geothermal and hydro sources. They invested and could create more power for export. Philippines can do that too on waves and volcanoes heat “geothermal” What Philippines and Iceland have in common is the desire to develop a “battery capacitor” from Earth to store energy and ship it out. From it using Clean energy, we could develop more jobs to run them and multiply onto more jobs down the stream. Biogas. Biope!ets. Wind Plant Wave Plant - Battery Storage Cooperative. I have been working with a group of developers now and have been discussing many ways to use renewables for the planned community. There are local source of energy and the community would have to optimized around a local resource for concentrated energy instead. Biogas? What if we use the highways and our cars to create energy? What if we used highways for energizing running vehicles? To energize using railways on high speed train? Combined wind along rails and power these rails and train? What if our rail right of ways could be line up with solar collectors and run or power up its Basbas


needs? What if our seas and lakes harness wind and waves? What if your home produce solar power and you dont need grid transmissions? If we optimized building designs, appliances and how we consume and how we optimized cars for producing energy then we will not need Power plants? Just the highways and rOW could be utilized to run solar utilities, that would be enough to create several Power Plants and then use to power up and clean the roads replete with solar powered robots cleaning the sidewalks. The Power of Human Waste: People have been misled into thinking that our “ is waste toxic and that it cannot be used back into the natural system.� Your wasteis manure and as beneficial as any manure. Humans can d"4elop sewage into power converting them into Nitroge and Phospate. A new form of conversion into nutrients, making biogas 5om the methane emanating 5om sewage and eventua!y power producing energy , fertilizers, fish foods, chicken feeds, etc to power other operations for landscaping or urban farms. Similarly garbage and recycled garbag" into producing power for transportation, producing power energy for local communities like San Fra&cisco. There are various ways in Permaculture that we obviously gain, using rainwater for watering ditches and farms. and permaculture ways of incorporating trees and organic shrubs. So much of Cities space are underuse; Cities and buildings roof top can be conceived as gardens. Think about the enormous potential of using each roof to farms producing food and sunpower for your city, reducing strain on food supply and on transport of goods; New cities could be built for farming from the ground up in tough terrain for farming in the city, using fertilizers from sewage converting them into phosphate, nitrogen. Local growers optimizing land use for urban farming, optimized water use, and reducing distance for transport; improved permaculture to replace chemical requirements and multi stack greenhouses. Using Wind, Waves and Solar to generate energy to produce food and run appliances.



Mother Nature as Milk: To borrow a phrase #om UN; People, Planet and ProďŹ t. Equity, Ecology and Jobs regeneration and allowing all people and species to harness the earth, its universe now and into the future. Rain Forest has its critical role in our planet, and I like to see the day when it is not rip for fiber or wood. When I was young, I would go to the forest and just enjoy them and observe its wild inhabitants. In an emerging country, the potential of developing an integrated energy and use of renewable technology is as important as architecture itself. The theme of High Performance Architecture, Infrastructure and Sustainable Landscape, Energy and Sustainability combined with ecological and environmental considerations; along with practical solutions of making a pedestrian friendly and walkable town, government center or public open space; will be the theme of the lecture series, combined with integrated en-



ergy technology. Many of today’s communities face an unprecedented struggle to adapt and maintain their environment, economic and social well-being in an era influenced by fiscal constraints, uncertainty about energy prices and supplies, rapid demographics shifts, and accelerated climate impacts. The lecture series attempts to give and discuss ideas, explains how to create and implement an actionable plan for making neighborhoods, communities and regions more environmentally healthy, resource-conserving and economically resilient. • Resilient communities delineates measures for repairing, retrofitting and transforming our built environment through: developing strategies for evaluating, selecting and implementing ‘highleverage’ interventions; • Activating policies, codes, programs, plans and practices, as well as monitoring and upgrading their performance. • Methods for assessing a community’s key sustainability quotient.

The lecture series wi! focus on the Case Studies: Transforming the Built Environment Through Form Based Coding: allocating land uses based primarily on the control of or influence over the physical form, intensity and arrangement of buildings, landscapes and public spaces that enable land or buildings functions to adapt to economic, environmental, energy and social changes over time. Topics in transportation planning, car-sharing, transit station and station area designs, transportation demand management, and performance requirements. 1. Sustainable Urban Design, Green Communities, Landscaping + Food Systems: The system that plans and manages the community food supply produced by local and regional agricultural, ranching and forestry sources. Public streets and other rights of way scaled around pedestrian and transit systems. Parks and other public open space connected to, informed by and in a hierarchical relationship with the surrounding physical context, intensities and landscaped place making, food production (farms) configured into environmental resource areas. 2. “Quality of Life” as a System @ Sustainability: The lecture series will address the following principles for reducing the ecological impact of capital works: •

Energy Conservatio&

Water Conservatio&

Minimisation of fossil fuel usage associated with transpor7



Preservation of natural features of sites

Building materials conservatio&

Waste minimisatio&

Enhancement of indoor environmental quality

Appropriate landscaping

Enhancement of community lif"


3. Sustainable Transportation and Transit Planning. The technologies, infrastructure, and vehicles that comprise the system responsible for the circulation or mobility of people, good, services. Sustainable transport systems make a positive contribution to the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the communities they serve. Transport systems exist to provide social and economic connections, and people quickly take up the opportunities offered by increased mobility. The advantages of increased mobility need to be weighed against the environmental, social and economic costs that transport systems pose. 4. Lecture Series: Neighbourhood Character and Strategic Context: The lecture covers a comprehensive understanding and appreciation of context and the balancing of neighbourhood character and strategic planning systems. This lecture will touch on case studies and hands-on development making that connects it to surrounding public setting, neighboring properties and any identified strategic issues relating to the site. These include discussions on physical attributes to which good design can contribute: • More public open spac" • More vibrant, active streets and public spaces; • Protection of valued qualities .ithin the public real8 • better defined streets • Improved pedestrian and cycl" linkages Basbas


•Increased provision and patronage of public transport services •Better location for commerciał / office activity •Greater mix of uses •More residents •Greater viability for local businesses, perhaps of particular typ" •Improved safety and informal survei!anc" •More evening activity 5.Energy Shifft: The system for the design, management and supply of energy sources required to power devices, equipment, industries, buildings, infrastructures, and communities and includes generation, storage, conveyance, conservation and efficiency. As a global community, one of the most serious threats that we are facing is of global warming and rapid climate shifts. These phenomenon which are apparently beyond our control, have been caused by our own negligence. The excessive burning of fossil fuels and unregulated power emissions are destroying the habitable environment of the planet, which is gradually making life difficult for human beings. In the wake of such a threat, power generation, is one of the most pivotal economic activities of our time, is emphasized to be carried out by means of renewable and eco-friendly sources. 6.Using solar panels and windmills is the best way to utilize the most efficient of renewable energy sources for generation of electricity. As solar and wind energy are being adopted increasingly for commercial electricity generation and institutional use, even in out of space, the technological advances and the sharing of knowledge by a few appreciable technical professionals, this amazing technology has come into the axis of every individual. 7.Building Envelope Series: The location of buildBasbas


ings on their lot, their height and overall shape- lecture series will discuss how it can affect neighborhood character, sunlight to adjoining buildings and open spaces, privacy and overlooking of other uses, quality of spaces inside the building, the amenity and usability of private open spaces, and the sense of pedestrian scale and amenity in nearby streets. It is important to identify characteristics that support the preferred neighbourhood character of an area and to derive a “Design Response” appropriate to that context. Relationships to adjoining buildings; affects the amenity of spaces inside the building, the quality of space between buildings, visual and acoustic privacy and solar access to private and shared open spaces. • Street Pattern and street edge quality • Roof Forms • Wind Protection • Views to and from Residential Units • Relationships to adjoining buildings • Height and Massing • Street setbacks

• Building Entries • Front Fences • Circulation Services • Parking Layout • Circulation Spaces • Site services City Comforts Series: Vibrant Creative Urban Vi!age. These lecture discusses several cas" studies on what comprises an inspiring creative urban vi!ages. Urban vi!ages are seen to provide a& Basbas


alternative to recent patterns of urban development in many cities, especia!y decentralization and urban sprawl. They are genera!y purported to: • Reduce car reliance and promote cycling, walking and transit use • Provide a high level of self-containment (people working, recreating and living in the same area) • Help facilitate strong community institutions and interaction. Urban village ideals have been applied to new greenfield developments, as well as brownfield developments and urban renewal projects. The concept has been widely adopted in many countries and used by both Government development agencies as well as private enterprise as a guiding concept for many projects.

Another strong impetus for urban villages has been growing disenchantment with the urban sprawl that has Basbas


characterized the development of many cities since World War II. Urban villages are seen to create self-contained communities that reduce the need to travel large distances and reduce the subsequent reliance on the automobile.

8. Building Layout and Design Series: These lecture series covers diversity of site design and building form analysis, space and landscape within a site; and involve a careful considerations Basbas


of scale and form, movement patterns and external spaces. Their inter-relationships between these, rather than their individual character will largely determine the eectiveness of the design response. The goal is to achieve the highest architectural standards possible, promoting high architectural quality and visual interest. 9. Natural Built Environment: The ecosystem of biological resources, landscapes, habitat and other natural resources providing a continuous state

of environmental health and sustenance. Ecosystems, air and water resources that provide numerous benefits for humans and other living things. Use of adaptive management and green infrastructure, as well as hydrologic, economic, ecological, and soil studies, to help urban and rural communities sustainably manage their resources. 10. Adaptive Reuse: CASE STUDIES: Every modern buildings can be converted: Increasing numbers of residential and educational buildings have moved in-some through conversion, others a new construction. Rather than demolish or obscure the former brick building, the design preserves the shell and dierentiates the new floors with contrasting architectural elements. The residential conversion of a site is not limited to eiBasbas


ther demolishing the entire structure or slavishly imitating it. Infill Case studies, proves that being a good neighbor does not have to be a choice between replicating the past and completely disregarding it. A contemporary insertion into a heritage town or precinct can reflect the cultural and aesthetic values of its time even as it reinforces the valued character of its context.

Respons" Following initial planning permit issues, the reduced seven-storey building opted for a low podium to define the street frontage and a small tower containing larger apartments to one side. The hospitality focussed retail at ground level successfully activates the promenade.  The project as a whole employs quality materials and careful attention to detail as evidenced by the copper and timber trim and the rooftop landscaping.

Lessons This project has consolidated three lots to create 33 apartments that provide housing density and choice within a typical suburban setting.  Accommodating the scale and density of development has been assisted by the corner location with spatial separation achieved through setbacks on site.  The change in scale from three/four storey to single storey development is substantial, although it is likely that adjoining sites may be redeveloped for higher density in the future.

Respons" The building has been designed around a central, covered open space which provides access, cross ventilation and natural light to Basbas


apartments, and offers a semi-private, allweather outdoor area for tenants. More importantly, it creates a central hub for the development that links the project vertically and connects it both to High Street and the park. The development takes advantage of the site’s raised High Street frontage to provide main pedestrian access half way up the block. Colour, façade variation and deep balconies give individuality to the

Respons" The design chose to utilise the car park as its principal outlook, which works well due to its sunny orientation and an existing row of mature eucalypts acting as a filter. By boldly addressing the car park, the apartments not only provide passive surveillance, but also lift the tone of this utilitarian space, imbuing it with civic qualities more typical of a public square. In contrast the southern façade is more closed and secondary, respecting the privacy of its residential neighbours. Panelling has been used to maximise construction efficiency and provide a good design result.

Cha!eng" This project needed to accommodate a large number of units in a commercially viable manner. It also had to manage potentially difficult relationships with neighbours – to the south existing residential units with overlooking windows and to the north a public car park.

Cha!eng" The developer, sought to demonstrate a new approach to suburban housing development that better integrates the dwellings and the landscape.

Respons" Basbas


The siting and design of the houses was driven by an engagement with environmental and amenity issues like access, solar orientation, views, privacy and the relationships between interior and exterior spaces. The low-profile buildings were pioneering in their use of design to achieve energy eďŹƒcient, environmentally friendly, aordable yet comfortable family homes. Winter Park provides a similar number of dwellings as a conventional subdivision but makes more eďŹƒcient use of outdoor spaces, creates substantial communal parkland and preserves remnant bush and established trees.

Land Use Planning + Urban Strategies: Reformed Residential Zones: Reformed zones for Town planning schemes. Planning zones in towns have been reformed to ensure tha7 they are sti! relevant and adequately reflect th" aspirations of a! inhabitants. Typica!y New and amended zones were approved by the Minister for Planning. The principle of the proposed reformed residential zones is supported. Identifying where growth is, or is not, appropriate is a sound approach. The reformed zones are a suitable method of managing residential growth. We feel the suite of reformed residential zones will provide a greater degree of certainty to both the community and the development industry as to where develop-



ment should occur and to what form it should take. In particular, we support the use of schedules to allow municipalities discretion when establishing preferred future built form character. zone reforms have: •simplified requirements •allowed a broader range of activities to be considered •improved the range of zones to better manage growth. Why were the zones reformed? Suggested reforms of, and improvements to, the State’s planning zones were raised over several years by many industry bodies, local governments and members of the community. The review would normally include release of draft zones for public comment for which a number of submissions were received. Several land use zones review the government approved changes to the residential, commercial and industrial zones. The new and reformed residential zones together with existing zones such as Activity Centre Zone and Comprehensive development Zone will give councils much better tools to identify where residential character will be protected and areas where urban densification will occur. What is the background of the reformed zones? The government committed to improving the efficiency of the planning by reviewing the operation of the zones. The reformed zones included a suite of new or amended residential, commercial, industrial and rural zones. The advisory committee is established to consider all submissions and to advise the government on the zone reforms, including the final form of the zones and how they should be introduced, as well as recommending a set of criteria to help determine the appropriate spatial application of the reformed residential zones. The committee met with submitters and stakeholders including councils, individuals, community and industry groups. The committee provided the government with a residential Zones Progress report and other reports on the commercial and industrial zones. Planning schemes consistsmaps which shows how the Basbas


land is zoned and overlays aecting the land; an ordinance, which sets out the written requirements of a scheme, including local policies and types of use or development which needs a permit and incorporated documents.. Zones refelct the character of the land, such as residential, industrial or rural and indicate the type of use which may be appropriate for that zone. 11. Landscape Ecology + Landscape science Approaches, assessment technologies: Discussion of EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) special pilot study that will explore the possibility of quantifying and assessing environmental condition, processes of land degradation, and subsequent impacts on natural and human resources (including security) by combining the advanced technologies of remote sensing, geographic information systems, spatial statistics, and process models with landscape ecology theory. 12. Sustainable Tourism Planning: Sustainable Tourism attends to the needs of the present tourists and of the receptive regions and the same time protects and promotes the opportunities for the future. It is conceived like a way toward the management of all resources so that can be satisfied the social, economic and aesthetic needs, respecting, the same time cultural integrity, the essential ecological processes, the biological diversity and the systems that maintain the life. The tourist activity is one of the economic activi-



ties with greater capacity to promote a sustainable and stable development, being converted each time more in strategic sector for all economies. 13.“Place-Making:” Sustainable Principles of Urban Retail + New Urbanism: “New urbanism’ - a design philosophy that values the potential of place-making, sustainable communities and design that is ‘people-friendly’ with intelligent use of private and public spaces. Discussion of case studies of historic new towns and new town centers; places to just hang-out and enjoy watching people! 14.Urban Design + Density Guidelines:

Urban Design is the practice of shaping the physical features and to make high-quality connections between places and buildings for the enjoyable and safe activity of people.  While creating places for people, urban design must r"spect and enhance the natural environment and use resources efficiently. •Structure: organise places so their parts relate well to each other •Accessibility: provide ease, safety and choice of access for all people •Legibility: help people to understand Basbas


how places work and to find their way around •Animation: stimulate activity and a sense of vitality in public places Fit and function: support the intended uses of spaces while also allowing for their adaptability Complementary mixed uses: integrate complementary activities to promote synergies between them Sense of place: recognise and enhance the qualities that give places a valued identity Consistency and variety: balance order and diversity in the interests of appreciating both Continuity and change: maintain a sense of place and time by embracing change yet respecting heritage values Safety: design spaces that minimise risks of personal harm and support safe behaviour Sensory pleasure: create spaces that engage the senses and delight the mind Inclusiveness and interaction: create places where all people are free to encounter each other as equals. Current trends indicate that the population will increase in number but will age steadily. New Housing will be needed to accommodate this increase in population and household sizes, as current housing stock lacks the variety to adequately meet these needs. As activity centres ( where people shop, work, meet, relax and live) expand, they are expected to accommodate a broader mix of housing, shops and services to create a vibrant, well connected communities. The clustering of higher density housing in and around activity centers which in turn will provide a wider range of of services, facilities and employment opportunities and housing types. While higher density residential development has the potential to support economic and social activity of activity centres, skillful design is needed to minimize unwanted o-site impacts related to neighborhood character, amenity, overshadowing and access. Quality architecture and vibrant and inclusive urban spaces are the central ingredients of liveable communities. Our aim should be to leave for future generations a legacy of design that continues Jordan’s tradition of great architecture and urban design that responds to the challenges of today and serves the need of the future. Basbas


The principles of density planning and guidelines apply to buildings of four storeys and above and cover aspects including height, neighbourhood character, street setback, open space, overlooking and overshadowing. Where planning controls allow higher density housing, the guidelines will assist designers prepare development applications that respond to the local urban context and which meet the design objectives, and also help council planners in assessing development applications. The guidelines are structured around under six elements of design consideration:

•urban context

•building envelope

•street pattern & street edge quality

•circulation & services

•building layout and design

•open space & landscape design



Under each element is a series of lectures to discuss the general design objectives. Each objective will be a format of Proposal making and case studies that will determine the merit of the specific suggestions in the context of their proposed development and their objectives of the guidelines. Where designers consider a design suggestion should not apply, they should be able to express their clear reasons why this is so and put forward an alternative ways of meeting the objective. The guidelines lecture series will prepare participants to develop creative report with these aims in mind: • Learn to prepare a proposal that responds and contributes to its natural and built context. • Provides an appropriate scale in terms of the bulk and height relative to the scale of the street and surrounding buildings (in keeping with existing or preferred neighborhood character) • Achieves an appropriate built form for a site and building in terms of building alignment, proportions, building type and elements. • Has a density appropriate for a site and its context. • Recognises that landscape and buildings operate as an integrated and sustainable system. • Optimises safety and security for internal and public spaces.



• Responds to social context in terms of access to housing diversity and to services • makes efficient use of natural resources, energy and water throughout its full life cycle. 15. Ecotourism + Tourism Strategy Planning: A travel experience created to fragile, pristine and usually pro-

tected areas that strive to be low impact and usually small scale. It helps to educate the traveler, provides funds for conservation, directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities and fosters respects for different cultures and for human rights. 16. Film Tourism Planning: The reported impact of films on tourist visitation is immense. All the same, most cases appear to be the exception, rather than the rule. This lecture series presents the need of an image strategy to obtain the most sustainable benefits from films. Image strategies require the assessment of a destination’s image, and the role that films play to reinforce or enhance the destination’s positive attributes.



There are local and international films that are good example to theorize the use of Films in tourism; the strategic use of films in a destination image strategy the case of Tourism Philippines and Bourne Identity is used. Implications are that if there is alignment to the actual and market ideal image, then use of the film is indicated. Investment in promoting the alignments will depend on film production investment and potential audience reach. Finally, expectations should not be for an increase in visitors due to a film, instead expectations of enhanced awareness and familiarity with the destination are positive and successful outcomes. 17. Landscape Ecology: Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary science framework that studies the relationship between spatial patterns of landscape characteristics and conditions of and risks to ecological resources, including forests, rangelands, wetlands, rivers, streams, lakes, and urban environmental settings. 18. Monitoring + assessment Ecology: One of the important goals of the Landscape Ecology Program is to quantify the relationships between landscape pattern (measured as spatial metrics), including human activities, and ecological resources at community, watershed, regional, and continental scales. The Landscape Ecology Program )USA) was founded as part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program  in 1992. The primary goals of the program

were similar to those of the program today … (1) to develop landscape pattern indicators of human activities and the environment that relate to observed conditions in ecological resources, including forests, wetlands, streams, lakes, estuaries, arid lands, and (2) to assess landscape pattern across broad areas through the use of comprehensive spatial databases. Local, regional, national, and global economies depend upon both goods and services resulting from ecological resources. Forests provide materials for many different types of paper products; agricultural systems provide food for the world population; coastal waters provide an abundant food resource; wetlands, streams, and rivers provide numerous recreational opportunities. Moreover, these resources provide services that sustain ecological goods, jobs, and human well-being. Forests help reduce flooding risks by intercepting rain and causing water to trickle down to the earth’s surface, as well as slowing the speed of surface flow. As a result of gentle impact with the earth’s surface, forested areas are less likely to loose soil. Wetlands and forested areas along streams and rivers (the riparian zone) help reduce the loss of soil off of agricultural areas and reduce the loading of excess nutrients (for example, nitrogen and phosphorus) to streams and rivers; this helps sustain a healthy fish population.



Both the amount and spatial pattern of ecological resources and human activities affect our ability to sustain desired environments. Agricultural activities on marginal lands, such as farming on steep slopes with highly erodible soils, increase soil loss and loadings of sediment and nutrients to streams. Loss of trees in and around urban areas increases impervious surfaces and the frequency and magnitude of flooding that threaten human life and property. Cumulative loss of forests along streams, where people tend to develop lands, increases soil loss, flooding risk, and the loadings of sediment and nutrients to streams. In order to understand risks to ecological resources and humans, it is important to analyze the spatial pattern of environmental conditions on scales ranging from local communities to entire regions.

Until recently, it was not possible to study the spatial pattern of ecological resources and human environments at a variety of scales. However, advances in computer technology and development of new databases, now make it possible to analyze spatial pattern at scales ranging from communities to the entire globe.

PRODUCTS The Landscape Ecology Program produces a number of products for a wide range of clients. The following are general categories of products produced for clients: •Landscape assessment tools (ATtILA and AGWA) •National assessments •Regional landscape assessments •Watershed-scale, landscape assessments •Journal articles highlighting research findings •Watershed-scale, landscape assessments •Landscape metric databases •Specialized applications of the landscape approach (e.g., Environmental Justice)

GENERAL APPROACHES The following are some general approaches followed by the Landscape Ecology Program: •conduct research (pilot) studies and assessments in areas that are: •high priority to clients that wi! benefit 5om landscape level assessments Basbas


•have sufficient environmental variable to assess specific research and development questions •have extensive landscape and field data •possess a relatively different set of biophysical conditions (e.g., different climate zone) •conduct gradient studies to establish quantitative relationships between landscape metrics and conditions of and risks to ecological resources •answer as many critical research questions in existing pilot areas as possibl" •incorporate EPA Regional staff in the research project in order to facilitate technology transfer •co!aborate with other agencies with interest/needs in landscape approaches •use existing data, where possible, to address research questions •fo!ow up and work with clients to make sure that research and development products meet their needs

Submitted By: Gilbert F. Basbas, IFLA, PALA Urban Designer Architect/Landscape Architect/Town Planner



Workshop: Energy + Urban Design Series #1