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P I D An Annotated Bibliography Edited by Gilad Meron


Center for Sustainable Development

P I D Annotated Bibliography of Public Interest Design Edited by Gilad Meron The following bibliography is intended for the student of Public Interest Design, and meant to function as an introductory reader, providing key articles and texts that are foundational to the practice of Public Interest Design. It is structured semi-chronologically, such that subsequent readings build off of one another in order to provide both a history and evolution of community-based practices in the fields of architecture, planning, and design.

This bibliography was created as a supplement to the 2012 Public Interest Design Summer Program Final Report.






6 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 40




Why This Bibliography Was Created




“I think this may be the moment that design has waited for, that design has needed… the next generation of designers… who can be the pioneers of an entirely new way of designing for the public good, at a scale and a pace that we’ve never seen before.” – John Cary

As Public Interest Design grows steadily towards professional legitimization, there exists a significant concern which is rarely addressed; the education of the movement’s future leaders. Despite rising trends and growing demands by students and recent graduates, there remain very few formal academic opportunities for education and training in Public Interest Design. This is not merely the result of a lack of academic programs. It has become increasingly clear that there are critical gaps in the development of pedagogy, curricular materials and educational resources. This void not only limits opportunities for students to learn, it also limits opportunities for instructors to teach. The following annotated bibliography aims to address this gap by compiling the first ever ‘Bibliography of Public Interest Design.’ It is my hope that this bibliography can help work towards two goals. First, to provide young eager students with the resources to educate themselves in the history, theories, ethics and practices of Public Interest Design. Second, to provide instructors with a large compilation of relevant books, articles and texts that can be used to begin building courses in Public Interest Design. I hope this bibliography will spur on further related works, help to better integrate Public Interest Design into university education, and most of all, help prepare the movement’s future leaders to begin “designing for the public good at a scale and pace that we’ve never seen before.” Gilad Meron





Spatial Politics, Civic Activism and Progressive Reform




Part One aims to provide a background in the history of spatial politics in America, the policies and plans that set the course for early city planning, and the development of civic practices in American urbanism. Each of these led to important milestones that helped lay the foundation for socially-oriented practices in architecture, planning and design.

Community and The Politics of Place [1] Author: Daniel Kemmis To Read: Chapters 1-7 (Pages 3-108)

“Thinking about politics in historical terms is second nature, but we tend to be more dubious of the proposition that political culture may be shaped by its place and that places shape our politics.” Through a study of what truly constitutes ‘the public’, Kemmis unpacks the history of political culture in America and its underlying assumptions of man’s communal tendencies. He argues that our founding fathers’ theories of community and public space were the underlying principles of our Constitution, which have in turn led to “a political culture entirely irrelevant of place.” Highlighting the contradictory philosophies upon which our country was built, Kemmis illustrates how these theories are flawed, and yet continue to dominate the contemporary policies that guide community development. His analysis is particularly relevant today as architects and designers increasingly advocate for the importance of public spaces as a means to build a ‘civil society’ and ‘socially just’ cities. Further Related Reading: • Chapter 11: Democratic Citizenship and the Political Community- Chantal Mouffe [2] • Perspectives on Neighborhood and Community- Robert J. Chaskin [3] • Bowling Alone- Robert Putnam [4]



Poverty and Social Science in the Era of Progressive Reform [5] Author: Alice O’Conner To Read: Chapter 1 (Pages 25-54)

“At the end of the nineteenth century social investigators set out to bring new scientific understanding to the problem of poverty… a ‘social ecology’.” O’Conner investigates the origins of social science in America, explaining why and how it evolved in the way it did and what this meant for its role in guiding much of the country’s early urban planning. She meticulously unpacks the evolution of research, specifically surveys and mapping, and their increasing role in reform movements of the time. Her analysis highlights the critical influence of progressive modes of thought in significantly altering the approach to “the poverty question.” O’Conner takes a comprehensive look at the key theories and figures that would eventually lead to The Chicago School and its mission to develop “a new kind of social science.” O’Conner seamlessly weaves together some of the most foundational theories that have influenced many of the major urban planners of the twentieth century. Further Related Reading: • Arguments for and against planning- Richard Klosterman [6] • The Tragedy of the Commons- Garrett Hardin [7] • Chapter 4: From Slum to Ghetto: 1900-1925- David Ward [8] Dreaming the Rational City: The Myth of American City Planning [9] M. Christine Boyer To Read: Chapter 1-3 (Pages 3-56)

“As the American City expanded as a place of production and consumption, it simultaneously deteriorated as a place for human life.” In the first three chapters in her book on American city planning, Boyer weaves together the multitude of social, political, economic, historical, cultural, psychological, environmental, and infrastructural contexts that gave rise to American city planning and she describes how each played a role in its development. By examining the various power structures at play in early American cities, Boyer reveals how moral and ethical decisions were continuously neglected in favor of those that would benefit a capitalistic consumer-driven economy. She is a harsh but honest critic of the early years of the planning profession, illustrating its complete failure in planning cities in multiple respects. The book provides a crucial historical framework for understanding current problems in cities and offers insights into how cities can be planned and designed to be more livable and sustainable. Further Related Reading: • Chapter 1: The Greatest Grid: Plan of New York 1811- Edward K. Span [10] • Chapter 8: Planning in the United States Since 1945- Peter Hall [11] • Chapter 1: Frederick Law Olmstead, The City Beautiful Movement- William Wilson [12] 10



The Death and Life of Great American Cities [13] Jane Jacobs To Read: Introduction (Pages 5-34) (and the rest of book if you have time)

“Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody.” The Death and Life of Great American Cities is arguably the single most influential book on American urban planning. The book attacks the fundamental beliefs of 1950’s modernist urban developers and their top-down urban renewal policies. Jacobs advocates for bottom-up grass roots neighborhoodbased urban revitalization projects that favor mixed-use development, pedestrian-oriented streets, and smart density. Jacobs’ work represents a crucial shift in the theory and practice of urban planning towards a more ‘humanistic management of cities.’ Beyond its influential content, the book has long been praised as a literary masterpiece and an absolute must-read for students of urban planning, policy, architecture, community development, and city government. Further Related Reading: • The Role of Civic Environmentalism in the Pursuit of Sustainable Communities- Julian Agyeman and Briony Angus [14] • Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning- Paul Davidoff [15] • A Ladder of Citizen Participation- Sherry R. Arnstein [16] Communitas: Means of Livelihood and Ways of Life [17] Paul and Percival Goodman To Read: The Whole Book

“When people are personally happy it is astonishing how they make do with improbable means.” In this landmark text brothers Paul and Percival Goodman explore the many intricacies of the world’s cities. The book focuses on the underlying values and purposes behind planning and urban design through the lens of community impact. The book examines three types of societies, one centered on consumption, one on creative actions, and one on social equity, liberty and justice. Goodman advocates for young adults to engage in public service in return for certain societal gains, both moral and tangible. Praised by Lewis Mumford as a book that “stands in a class by itself,” Communitas is a foundational text for understanding the roots of Public Interest Design. Further Related Reading: • Looking backwards- Edward Bellamy [18] • What is a City- Lewis Mumford [19] • The Metropolis and Mental Life- Georg Simmel [20]





Federal Policy, Local Government and Regional Economics




Part Two aims to describe in greater detail the economic and social policies that led to the demand for, and birth of community development in America. Together these readings provide an understanding of how the design and planning of our infrastructure as well as our entire built environment are inherently both socially and politically charged, and thus have the potential to be used as a means towards social justice.

Chapter 3- Swimming Against the Tide: A Brief History of Federal Policy in Poor Communities [21] Alice O’Conner To Read: Chapter 3 (Pages 77-138)

“Community development is America’s response to poverty, but its meaning remains notoriously hard to pin down… what does the historical record have to say to this movement?” This highly critical analysis of the evolution of federal policy in poor communities exposes seven key downfalls of our country’s community development policies. Alice O’conner details how and why various internal contradictions have led to a federal policy that inherently works against itself. She emphasizes that these seven factors are not merely the product of seemingly unchangeable forces, but are ingrained in the very process of policy making. Pointing out the impacts of socio-economic forces, she argues that our federal policy has been held captive by shifting political intentions that do not have any vested interest in sustainable change. O’conner’s rhetoric weaves together numerous influential critiques and provides an important backdrop for understanding modern community development policy in America. Further Related Reading: • The Subjective Necessity of Social Settlements- Jane Adams [22] • Chapter 2: The Search for Regional Balance in America- John Freidman and Clyde Weaver [23] • Privatizing the Welfare State- Nicole Marwell [24]



Fiscal Equity [25] Myron Orfield To Read: Entire section on Fiscal Equity in American Metropolitics (Pages 85-112)

“The amount of revenue a local government can generate depends largely on the value and types of land uses within its jurisdiction, and this is a vicious cycle… rich jurisdictions grow richer, while poor ones are locked into a cycle of decline.” Myron Orfield provides an excellent examination of local government finance, highlighting its socioeconomically discriminatory impacts on land use, zoning jurisdictions and citizen participation. He describes the inherently fragmented nature of most local governments and the inefficiencies they lead to. Orfield explains how the land-tied finance system leads to fiscal zoning; a practice which precipitates ever-increasing disparity and ultimately results in zero sum game, pitting adjacent towns and regions against one another in a competition to attract high tax payers. Orfield explains how finance systems lead directly to disparities in infrastructure, basic public services, and social welfare. By unpacking the inner workings of government finance, the article provides and important perspective on sustainable community development and regional planning. Further Related Reading: • Twentieth Century Land Use Planning- E. Kaiser & D. Godschalk [26] • The Need for a New Vision for the Development of Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas- A. Davis [27] • The NeoLiberal City- Jason Hackworth [28] The Urban Process Under Capitalism: A Framework for Analysis [29] David Harvey To Read: Whole Article (Pages 101-131)

“The problem is then, to discover how capital flows into the construction of the built environment and to understand the contradictions inherent in this process.” In this article acclaimed Marxian analyst and distinguished professor David Harvey expertly presents Marx’s Capital (all three volumes) as a framework to explain how capitalism inherently controls urban processes. Drawing on theories from seminal economists such as Adam Smith and John Maynard Keynes, he analyzes the inner workings of a capitalist economy, from the local to the global. He highlights the inherent contradictions of capitalism in urban places, its relationship with the built environment, and the resulting societal impacts. Harvey illustrates the underlying operational structures of urban capitalism from the perspective of labor, production, and class struggle. His perspective on economics and its role in the structuring of urban space is a crucial economic framework for any designer attempting to create a social impact in an urban region. Further Related Reading: • The City as a growth Machine- Harvey Molotch and John Logan [30] • Gentrification, the Frontier, and the Restructuring of Urban Space- Neil Smith [31] • The Competitive Advantage of the Inner City- Michael Porter [32] 14



CDCs and the Changing Context for Urban Community Development [33] Michael Frisch and Lisa J. Servon To Read: The Whole Article

“The purpose of this paper is to lay out the changes in community development since 1992 and how they have effected the environment in which CDCs work.” Michael Frisch and Lisa Servon provide a detailed account of the evolution of community development corporations over the past 15 years (circa 2006). They describe the ‘maturation’ of the field, highlighting the bifurcation between organizations adopting a systems approach and those without the means to transition towards professionalization. An extensive literature review along with a review of major policy changes relevant to the field provides crucial context for understanding recent changes in CDCs. Finally the article points to key gaps in current research and emphasizes the critical importance of merging place-, community-, and policy-based strategies. This piece provides a comprehensive view of current transformations within the field of community development and raises key questions about where and how the field with evolve in the near future. Further Related Reading: • Road to Renewal- Richard Geddes [34] • Community Empowerment Strategies- Peter Dreier [35] • Where do we go from here?- Michael Rios [36]

Making Equity Planning Work [37] Norman Krumholz and John Forester To Read: The Whole Book

“From 1969 to 1979, the city of Cleveland was the site of a quiet but important experiment… a group of professional planners, working for the city, devoted themselves to serving the needs of the poor.” During Norman Krumholz’s decade-long tenure as the head of Cleveland’s city planning staff he brought to practice an experiment in equity planning; working and advocating for the urban neighborhoods that were most neglected and under-served by the traditional planning process. Krumholz presents multiple case studies, providing in depth accounts of how he and his staff were able to sustain their equity-based practice through three different mayoral administrations, and ultimately, have a lasting impact on urban policy in Cleveland. John Forester explores the implications of this work in the second half of the book, pointing out key lessons for planners, urban designers, policy makers, and city management officials. The book offers a rare look into the work of a pioneer planner who worked tirelessly for social justice and public equity and persevered through adversity. Further Related Reading: • Policy Analysis as Critical Listening- John Forester [38] • Chapter 2: The Negotiator’s Dilemma- David Lax and James Sebenius [39] • Four Potential Disconnects in the Community Planning Process- Carolyn Loh [40] PART TWO




Civil Rights, Social Activism and Value-Based Practices




Part Three aims to present some of the seminal work in the theory, ethics and history of community design. This section serves to chronicle of the emergence of Community Design Centers, as well as the ideological shifts that led to their rapid growth. This shift opened the door for the birth of “value-based practices” in design, which have come to define the work of Community Design Centers nationwide.

Pedagogy of the Oppressed [41] Paulo Freire To Read: Chapter 1 (Pages 43-69)

“Making real oppression more oppressive through the realization of oppression is essential because it acts as the motivation to engage in the innate struggle for humanization.” In this seminal text, Paulo Freire addresses humankind’s central problem, the struggle for humanization, described as “the yearning of the oppressed for freedom, justice and humanity.” In response he proposes a ‘pedagogy of the oppressed’; a process by which the oppressed build critical awareness from within, and through education are able to empower themselves to take action towards liberation. Through this process, communities build stakeholder support from within, thus ensuring a sustained bottom-up commitment to the long-term success of a project. Such self-led initiatives exemplify Freire’s conviction that all individuals and communities have within themselves the capacity to create positive social change in the world around them. This practice of facilitating internal leadership and ownership has become the hallmark of contemporary community development and participatory planning. Further Related Reading: • Moral Man & Immoral Society: Chapters 1-3 - Reinhold Niebuhr [42] • Man’s Search For Meaning- Victor Frankl [43] • Theory of Moral Sentiments- Adam Smith [44] PART THREE


1968 Keynote Address at the AIA National Convention [45] Whitney M. Young Jr. – Executive Director of The National Urban League To Read: The Whole Speech

“You [architects] are not a profession that has distinguished itself by your social and civic contributions to the cause of civil rights. You are most distinguished by your thunderous silence and your complete irrelevance.” In 1968, Whitney M. Young Jr. delivered a monumental speech at the AIA National Convention, which many would argue was the spark for Community Design Centers and the first ever call to action for Public Interest Design. Young’s speech touched upon the moral fiber of Americans and the history of the country’s racism and ambivalence towards those in need. Focusing his argument on the built environment, Young illustrates how architects, as a profession, have done nothing to fight for justice or equality, despite their immense influence and capacity. Although this speech was given nearly 45 years ago, it is still (shockingly) relevant and strikes a chord with anyone claiming to use design or architecture to work in the public’s best interest. Further Related Reading: • Design’s Invisible Century- Thomas Fisher [46] • Broken Windows- James Q. Wilson [47] • Community Design- Mark Francis [48] Community Design: Idealism and Entrepreneurship [49] Mary C. Comerio To Read: Whole Article (p.227-243)

“Community design is something that exists in the tension between professionalism and social idealism… it is client-, process-, and value-specific, and guided by principles of empowerment.” With the goal of creating a framework for evaluating community design, this article tackles three key aspects of the practice; ideas and movements that led to its birth, history and evolution of the practice, and a survey of its current state. Mary Comerio provides a well-documented chronicle tracing community design from its roots in the social and political activism of the 1960’s to its emergence as a recognized approach in urban planning and finally to its ‘entrepreneurial phase’ of the 1980’s categorized by a shift from reactive advocacy-based work to proactive developmentfocused work. Following a brief commentary on the current state of community design (circa 1984), Comerio offers critical and pragmatic suggestions for its maturation as a new area of professional practice. Further Related Reading: • Recent Trends in Community Design- Zeynep Toker [50] • Progressive Community Design- Ann Forsyth and Tom Angotti [51] • Dilemas in a General Theory of Planning- H. Rittel and M. Webber [52] 18



Tuning Established Models [53] Various Authors; From: Good Deeds, Good Design - Edited by Bryan Bell To Read: Chapter 2: Tuning Established Models + Afterward (Pages 58-98 + 230-236)

“Our mission is to get these architecture students out to deal with the social and physical issues of a community… the fact that we end up building houses, that is the homework.” [Sam Mockbee] Good Deeds Good Design, which is one of the first publications of the Public Interest Design Movement, brings together numerous essays and case studies, highlighting a variety of methods, practices and approaches that seek to actively address the task of “designing for the 98% without architects.” Although the entire book is worth reading, Chapter 2 contains four key essays; a history of Community Design Centers, the evolution of Habitat for Humanity (HFH), a case study of HFH within a student design/build, and a detailed account of Community-Based Building Centers in India. Taken together, these four touch upon many of the critical aspects of design activism and the resulting practice of ‘citizen architecture,’ as Samuel Mockbee put it (see Mockbee’s piece in chapter 4 of this volume). The Afterward, by Jason Pearson, concludes the book with a bold essay suggesting a new way to define these socially oriented practices. Further Related Reading: • Archepreneurs- Chris Krager [54] • Design and Empowerment: 20 years of Community Architecture- Mary Commerio [55] • Designing for Social Change- Andrew Shea [56] A Useful Practice [57] David Perkes To Read: Whole Article (Page 64-71)

“Values form a boundary around the activities of a practice, and that boundary defines the degree of separation between a practice and its social context.” In this essay, Perkes explains how the boundaries of the traditional architecture profession tend to separate the architect from the community and foster a practice guided by profits. He explains the importance of incorporating values into practice and illustrates their impact in guiding the work of a studio towards ‘a useful practice’. Perkes describes his work leading the Gulf Coast Community Design Studio (GCCDS) and their alternative value-based approach to practice, one aimed at addressing the needs of a community. This essay highlights GCCDS’s guiding values of service, proximity and experience, and their ability to translate these values into a financially sustainable long-term community-based practice. Perkes emphasizes three critical aspects of GCCDS’s process; direct engagement with the community, continued involvement of the community, and an approach of working with, not for the community. Further Related Reading: • Design As If Community Matters- Mark Torrey [58] • ‘Making Policy Public’ + ‘Communication as a Tool for Empowerment’- MAS Context [59] • Can Architecture Save Humanity?- Kriston Capps [60] PART THREE




Design/Builds, Community Design Studios, and Participatory Action Research




Part Four aims to explore theories of community engaged design education by surveying some of the pedagogies of Public Interest Design. These include design/builds, community design studios and participatory action research. Through related readings, this section also explores what the future of design education might be as public interest practices become increasingly relevant in the professional world.

Experience and Education [61] John Dewey To Read: Chapters 1-6 (Pages 17-72)

“The trouble with traditional education is that educators do not consider the powers and purposes of those taught. Democratic arrangements promote a better quality of educational experience.” In this book, preeminent educational theorist John Dewey clearly and succinctly lays out his philosophy of education. He supports a shift from ‘traditional’ to ‘progressive’ education, the later being uniquely attuned to the role of experience in education. He particularly advocates for recognizing and responding to the larger physical, psycho-social and historic frameworks in which education is inextricably embedded. Dewey provides the foundation upon which many sociallyoriented pedagogies were built, including participatory planning, community design, and public interest architecture. Although much of this volume reads as intended for educators and other theorists, it is a crucial piece for students as well as a means to arm themselves in advocating for experiential education, and is particularly relevant in the context of architecture, design and planning education. Further Related Reading: • Pragmatism (The original Eight Lectures)- William James [62] • Chapter 2: Pedagogy of the Oppressed- Paulo Freire [63] • Calling For A Global Service Design Corp- John Cary [64] PART FOUR


Teaching Design For Change [65] TED Talk by Emily Pilloton- July 2010 To Watch: The Whole Video (16 min)

“If designers became teachers we could actually teach design within public schools, and not designbased learning like building a rocket in physics class, but actual design thinking coupled with real construction skills and all put towards a local community purpose.” Emily Pilloton, founder of the Nonprofit Design Firm Project H, speaks about her efforts in a rural school and her wish for designers to become educators. The public school is typical of small-town schools, hurt by rapid economic and social downturns in rural America. Her firm, Project H, was invited to revitalize the education system through design. They utilize three principles; design for education, redesign education itself, and design as education. Their flagship program, Studio H, is a direct effort to use design as a bridge between education and community revitalization. She proposes a model for a new generation of designers who are not consultants, but teachers “charged with growing creative capital within the next generation.” Her inspiring speech provides a radical new model for how design can be practiced in the public interest and truly have a social impact. Further Related Reading: • What are you going to do with that?- William Deresiewicz [66] • Design Agency- Jane Androski and Emily Sara Wilson [67] • Commencement Speech at Minnesota College of Design- John Cary [68] Principles of Engagement: (Mis)Understanding the Community Design Studio [69] Kathleen A. Dorgan To Read: Whole Article “Documented university-community collaborations have found that service learning can lead students to develop lifelong habits of taking action in the public interest.” This article provides an overview of the benefits and challenges to universities, faculty, students and communities taking part in university-based community-design projects. Kathleen Dorgan presents key factors and suggests an ethical and practical framework for the planning, management, and evaluation of community design studios. Through numerous precedents she highlights critical prerequisites and approaches, which provide a brief but efficient overview of community design pedagogy. Dorgan emphasizes the impacts of successful studios on both the communities and students involved, leading both towards transformational change. Further Related Reading: • Studio at Large: Building Communities at Home and Abroad- Sergio Palleroni and Christina Merkelback [70] • The Yale building Project: The First 40 Years- Richard Hayes [71] • Making a Difference in Response to Hurricane Katrina- John Foreseter et. all [72] 22



GIS Use in Community Planning: A multidimensional Analysis of Empowerment [73] Sarah A. Elwood To Read: Whole Article (Pages 905-922)

“GIS tends to foster changes that are simultaneously empowering and disempowering at different scales of interaction, and for different social groups.” Geographer Sarah Elwood’s research examines the social and political implications of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in communities, specifically the often-veiled tendency of the technology to lead to disempowerment and marginalization among certain socio-economic groups. By analyzing the ways in which this can occur and the populations that are most often disproportionately affected, Elwood develops a conceptual framework to guides the use of GIS in urban planning and neighborhood revitalization. This framework is especially relevant as GIS becomes an increasingly prevalent and accessible tool for non-professionals. The article provides an important perspective, critically examining the implicit biases of GIS in community design work and its larger implications on social politics and city-level planning decisions. Further Related Reading: • Claiming Public Space- Peter Aeschbacher and Michael Rios [74] • Bostonography- Andy Woodruff and Tim Wallace [75] • The Image of the City- Kevin Lynch [76] Participatory Action Research from the Inside [77] Ken Reardon, John Welsh, Brian Kreiswirth, and John Forester To Read: Pages 71-88

“We’re arguing that this way of doing research produces more reliable, useful, and powerful insights into the nature of social life, and has the possibility to positively impact important social problems.” In an interview, Reardon seamlessly explains the processes, factors and actions required of successful community development. Through an in-depth case study of his work in East St. Louis, Reardon describes the P.A.R. process, from conception/initiation to integration/establishment, then to formation/facilitation, and finally to continued support/long term stability. He discusses the theories that students of community design should be familiar with, and he highlights how and why engaging in this type of work can be a more valuable educational experience than classroom-based learning. He presents a well developed and nuanced model showing how students can successfully engage in community development processes, integrating both experience and education. Reardon interweaves anecdotes and real-world examples, showing us why such work can result in a deeply meaningful and unparalleled sense of personal and professional accomplishment. Further Related Reading: • Designing with an Asset-Based Approach- Amanda and Seth Hendler-Voss [78] • Enhancing Family and Community through Interdisciplinary Design- S. Quraeshi [79] • Community Participation Methods in Design and Planning- Henry Sanoff [80] PART FOUR




Pro-Bono Design, Humanitarian Design, Public Interest Design and more




Part Five aims to explore the many emerging areas of practice in the professional design fields. This section presents writings and case studies from a variety of methodological perspectives including; Pro-Bono Design, Humanitarian Design, Public Interest Design and most importantly, examples of for-profit firms that have successful built financially stable practices rooted in responding to social issues and civic challenges.

Can This Profession Be Saved? [81] Thomas Fisher To Read: Whole article (pages 44-49 + 84)

“[Quoting Peter Rowe, “The very idea of what constitutes architecture practice requires substantial expansion.”] How should the profession respond to this statement? One way is to look to the professions of medicine, law, and engineering.” Prominent Public Interest Design advocate Thomas Fisher (Dean of Minnesota’s College of Design and former President of ACSA) wrote this pioneering piece in 1994, well before Public Interest Design had congealed into the movement it is now becoming. In it he clearly identifies six barriers to the profession, all of which are still highly relevant; the recession, technology, clients, ‘professional turf’, professionalism, and education. Drawing upon precedents set by medicine, law and engineering, he proposes three new ‘models of action’ that the architectural profession as a whole might adopt as a means to ‘save itself.’ This article signifies the first formal piece directly addressing what has since been dubbed “architecture’s identity crisis.” Further Related Readings: • Ethics for Architects: 50 Dilemmas of Professional Practice- Thomas Fisher [82] • Architecture’s Internship Requirement Needs a Redesign- John Cary [83] • Architectural Alchemy- Eric Naslund and John Sheehan [84]



Design Like You Give a Damn (1 & 2) [85] Cameron Sinclair and Kate Stohr To Read: Volume 1: Introduction + 100 Years of Humanitarian Design (Pages 11-55) [85-A] + Volume 2: Financing Sustainable Community Development (Pages 48-73) [85-B]

“The physical design of our homes, neighborhoods, and communities shapes every aspect of our lives. Yet too often architects are desperately needed in the places where they can least be afforded.” In volume one, Cameron Sinclair provides a history of Architecture For Humanity (AFH); initial intentions and unexpected growth, hard lessons learned, and insights into the practice of humanitarian design. Kate Stohr provides a detailed account of the responses to natural disasters worldwide over the past 100 years, citing key figures and developments in humanitarian design. In the second volume Stohr provides a brief history of funding models accompanied by a meticulously detailed 27page table of all private, public-private, and public/municipal funding sources for community-based design. Together, these three readings provide a history of humanitarian design, a contemporary view of the field, and a framework to continue these efforts. In addition, the two volumes present over 150 case studies documenting the work of AFH. Further Related Reading: • Altruism, Architecture, and Disaster- Christopher Hawthorne [86] • Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity- Marie J. Aquilino [87] • Humanitarian Design vs. Design Imperialism: Debate Summary- Design Observer [88] You Shall Know Our Velocity [89] Dave Eggers To Read: The Whole Book (Trust me, it’s worth it, he’s a great author)

“There is a chance that everything we did was incorrect, but stasis is itself criminal for those with the means to move and the means to weave communion between people.” Dave Eggers’ thought provoking novel provides a unique window into the pragmatic issues of humanitarianism in the modern world. You Shall Know Our Velocity tells the story of two friends’ adventure around the world in less than a week to give away $32,000 in cash. Uncomfortable with owning money they feel they do not deserve, the two decide to travel the globe and distribute the cash to those who are most deserving. The duo soon realize this task presents numerous moral, ethical and logistical challenges and is not at all what they thought it would be. Eggers touches on various powerful themes of poverty, social justice and equity in a novel that in many ways exemplifies the Millennial Generation’s struggles with the world and their desire to save it. This critically acclaimed book reflects many of the common moral and ethical dilemmas of humanitarian design. Further Related Reading: • Once Upon a School: TED Talk- Dave Eggers [90] • To Hell With Good intentions- Ivan Illich [91] • Three cups of Deceit: How Greg Mortenson, humanitarian hero, lost his way- John Krakauer [92] 26



The Power of Pro Bono: 40 Stories about Design for the Public Good [93] John Cary, Majora Carter and Public Architecture TO READ: VI-33 + 260-281

“The dozens of projects we have collected are tangible examples of how spaces can enrich lives, and together demonstrate the impact and value of pro bono design.” John Peterson, Founder of Public Architecture, offers a succinct and powerful preface, which touches upon some of the most important questions surrounding pro bono design such as; the need for selfish interests, the value of pro bono work, pro bono’s place in the profession, and why we must invest in. John Cary’s introduction “Architecture as Social Art” provides a cross section of Pro Bono Design, shedding light on its various myths, providing examples and explanations of its impact, which are further explored in the 40 stories. Cary’s outro “How To Pro Bono” describes the pro bono process for nonprofits, designers and funders, and serves as a practical guide for all three groups in understanding why and how to enter the process. Further Related Readings: • ”Architect, Meet Your Non-Profit” Booklet- Public Architecture [94] • Design Act: Socially and Politically Engaged Design Today- Magnus Ericson and Ramia Maze [95] • Design with the other 90%: Cities- Cynthia E. Smith [96]

Empowering Architecture: The Butaro Hospital, Rwanda [97] MASS Design Group To Read: The Whole Book (its mostly pictures)

“If Architecture ignores socio-political factors, architects fail to rethink the role of architecture in serving society and empowering people.” MASS Design Group’s first project, the Butaro Hospital in Rwanda, has set a new standard for Humanitarian Design and Public Interest Architecture. This book describes in detail, how the Butaro Hospital addresses a critical need for healthcare, strategic community development, and socioeconomic improvement, all within the cultural context of Rwanda. The architects explain their methods, strategies and approaches, and thus provide a model of their process. MASS is proving to be a pioneer in a new type of architectural practice focused on social justice, public health, and human equity. MASS (which stands for Model of Architecture Serving Society) was founded to demonstrate the ability of architecture and design to improve people’s lives, and to be an example for how designers can rethink their role in the world. Further Related Reading: • MASS Design Group Case Study: How Can Architects Help?- J. Wickersham & B. Camacho [98] • MASS Design Group: Our Approach- MASS Design Group website [99] • Building for Social Change- March 2012 issue of Architectural Record [100] PART FIVE




Crowd-Sourced Solutions, Guerilla Interventions, and the Legal Rights of Public Space




Part Six aims to offer contemporary pieces on the changing nature of urban design and the growing prevalence of crowd-sourced mechanisms for planning and governance. This final section provides a view of current tactics and conceptual frameworks being employed by planners (both professional and renegade), and attempts to highlighting emerging trends in civic activism and participatory urban design.

Massive Change [101] Bruce Mau, Jennifer Leonard, and the Institute Without Boundaries To Read: Introduction + Chapter 1- Urban Economies (Pages 1-45)

“Massive Change is not about the world of design; it’s about the design of the world.” In this new cult-classic among young designers, Bruce Mau’s studio examines how our ever evolving global information-based economy is allowing for new ways in which designers can play key roles in shaping the future of the world and act as civic leaders. The book’s tone embodies Buckminster Fuller in his experiment “to contribute to changing the world and benefiting all humanity.” Its content is structured in terms of “design economies,” exploring how all aspects of the built environment are part of systems of exchange, rather than mere processes of design. The introduction and first chapter are particularly relevant for Public Interest Design, highlighting both the unprecedented opportunities and challenges that cities present to designers in our modern world. Further Related Reading: • Chapter 2: Cities People and Language- James C. Scott [102] • WorldChanging: A User’s Guide for the 21st Century- Alex Steffen [103] • Chapter 2: How to Study Urban Political Power- John H. Mollenkopf [104]



Taking Place: Rebar’s Absurd Tactics in Generous Urbanism [105] Blaine Merker To Read: Chapter 4 (Pages 45-58)

“On a sunny October day in 2005 Rebar paid a curbside parking meter in downtown San Francisco for two hours and built a park within the white lines of the parking space…” In this chapter of ‘Insurgent Public Space’ Rebar co-founder Blaine Merker begins by telling the story of the first Park(ing) experiment, the viral spread of the guerilla concept, and the evolution into Park(ing) Day. The second half of the chapter explains how Park(ing) epitomizes Rebar’s approach to design, which they term ‘tactical urbanism’ or “the use of modest or temporary revisions to urban space to seed structural environmental change.” Rebar believes that there is a deep underlying relationship between the physical environment and its organizational structures. They employ tactical urbanism as a means to challenge the organizational structures that determine what is socially and legally acceptable within the public realm, and thus use design as a tool for shifting the collective cultural mindset. Although tactical urbanism is not a new idea, its exponential growth and impact in recent decades makes it a critical piece of theory for public interest design. Further Related Reading: • Invisible Zagreb- Damir Blazevic [106] • The New French Hacker-Artist Underground- Jon Lackman [107] • Parklets: Experiments in Urban Public Space- Gilad Meron and Katie Mays [108] Spontaneous Interventions: Design Actions for the Common Good [109] Documenting the U.S. Pavilion of the Architecture Exhibition at the 2012 Venice Biennale August 2012 Issue of Architect Magazine

“Spontaneous Interventions celebrates a movement for democratic change in cities… these small but powerful works multiply and coalesce a just and sustainable city; a city of all its communities.” Spontaneous Interventions compiles all 124 projects exhibited at the U.S. Pavilion at the 2012 Venice Architecture Biennale, titled ‘design actions for the common good.’ Collectively, this diverse assemblage of projects provides something of a sourcebook of tactics, techniques and methods for informal citizen-led urban interventions. Littered with forward-thinking essays from leading designers, theorists and educations, this volume excites critical reflection on both the interventions profiled and the implicit conceptual approaches to each urban transformation employed. Much like the 2011 Latrobe Prize, ‘Spontaneous Interventions’ represents another major milestone for the recognition, professional legitimization and proliferation of Public Interest Design. Further Related Reading: • Tactical Urbanism Vol.2- Mike Lydon [110] • What a Bunch of Legos Can teach Us About Civic Participation- Alex Gilliam [111] • Beyond Zuccotti Park- Robert Shiffman (et. all) [112]




Rethinking Protest: A Designer’s Role in the Next Generation of Collective Action [113] Robynn Waxman To Read: Pages 30-53 (Available at:

“I asked for a mob and they delivered a group. I wanted them to be irritated about the social issues, and instead they were fostering community, too busy to feel rage.” Robynn Waxman’s “Rethinking Protest” documents her graduate thesis project, from inspiration to implementation. The first half presents the author’s highly subjective view of the Millennial generation, and details the intent and inception process of the project. The second half explores resonant project themes such as; tactical urbanism, guerilla activism, designing “with” rather than “for,” reclamation of public space and the designer’s role in rapidly evolving urban landscapes. Waxman’s project reframes the concept of protest, shifting its focus from intent to impact in something she refers to as “slow protest.” Initially intended to instigate action, Waxman ultimately recognizes that, “[through the project] the Millennials changed me, even though I had set out to change them.” Further Related Readings: • In Protest, the Power of Place- Michael Kimmelman [114] • Occupy: What Architecture Can Do- Reinhold Martin [115] • Architecture and Social Change- Alex Salazar [116]

When We’re All Urban Planners [117] David Lepeska To Read: Whole Article

“If all we’re doing with these technologies is finding a quicker way to fix potholes and ignoring the hard issues, we’re not really affecting anything,” David Lepeska addresses many of the key questions, challenges, and opportunities arising out of modern citizen-led government movements. He points to over three dozen current apps, programs and websites that are demonstrating the efficiency of smartphone-driven participation techniques in urban areas. He highlights how various city governments are utilizing advanced technologies to encourage citizen participation as a means to increase efficiency and reduce costs. Lepeska offers a bipartisan view of current practices in civic activism and provides insightful questions of its longterm effectiveness and impact. This article is one of the first to explore the cumulative effects of emerging internet-based methods in participatory planning. Further Related Reading: • Coding a Better Government- Jennifer Pahlka [118] • Local Data: An App that Helps Communities Do their Own Urban Planning- Kelsey Campbell-Dollaghan [119] • Exploring Change: Evidence of Civic Engagement Evaluation Report [120] PART SIX






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[89] Eggers, D. (2002). You shall know our velocity. San Francisco, CA: McSweeny’s Publishing. [90] Eggers, D. (2008, February). Dave Egger’s wish: Once upon a school- TED talk by Dave Eggers. (available online at: _school.html) [91] Illich, I. (1968, April 20). To hell with good intentions. Speech given at the Conference on InterAmerican Student Projects (CIASP) in Cuernavaca, Mexico. (available online at: [92] Krakauer, J. (2011). Three cups of deceit: How Greg Mortenson, humanitarian hero, lost his way. New York, NY: Anchor Books. [93] Cary, J., Carter, M. & Public Architecture. (2010). The power of probono: 40 stories about design for the public good. New York, NY: Metropolis Books. [94] Public Architecture. (2006). The 1% user manual. San Francisco, CA: Public Architecture. [95] Ericson, M. & Maze R. (2012). Design act: Socially and politically engaged design today. Stockholm, Sweden: Sternberg Press / Iaspis ( [96] Smith, C.E. (2011) Design with the other 90%: Cities. New York, NY: Cooper Hewitt, National Design Museum. [97] Murphy, M. & Ricks, A. (2012). Empowering architecture: The Butaro hospital, Rwanda. Boston, MA: MASS Design Group. [98] Wickersham, J. & Camacho, B. (2011). MASS design group: How can architects help? Case Study for GSD 7212 Introduction to Architectural Practice and Ethics. (available online at: 1%20MASS%20Design%20Group%20case%20study.pdf) [99] MASS Design Group. (2012). MASS design group website: Approach. (available online at: [100] Architectural Record. (2012, March). Building for social change: In the U.S., Latin America, Africa, Haiti, and Japan. Architectural Record March 2012. [101] Mau, B. & Leonard, J. (2004). Massive Change. New York, NY: Phaidon. [102] Scott, J.C. (1998). Seeing like a state: How certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. [103] Steffen, A. (2006). WorldChanging: A user’s guide for the 21st century. New York, NY: Abrams. [104] Mollenkopf, J.H. (1992). A phoenix in the ashes: The rise and fall of the Koch coalition in New York City politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. [105] Merker, B. (2010). Taking place: Rebar’s absurd tactics in generous urbanism. In J. Hou (Ed.), Insurgent public space: Guerilla urbanism and the remaking of contemporary cities. New York, NY: Routledge. [106] Blazevic, D. (2008). Invisible Zagreb. In B. Bell & K. Wakeford (Eds.), Expanding Architecture: Design as Activism (p. 110-114). New York, NY: D.A.P. & Metropolis Books.




[107] Lackman, Jon. (2012, January 20). The new French hacker-artist underground. Wired Magazine Online (online at: [108] Meron, G. & Mays, K. (2012). Parklets: Experiments in Urban Public Space. Public Interest Design Program Final Report. Austin, TX: University of Texas, Center for Sustainable Development. [109] Ho, C.L., Leer, D.V.D. & Cramer, N. (2012, August). Spontaneous interventions. Architect: The magazine of the American institute of architects, August 2012. [110] Lydon, M. (2012). Tactical urbanism 2: Short-term action, long-term change. The Streets Plan Collaborative (available online at: [111] Gilliam, A. (2012). What a bunch of legos can teach us about civic participation and innovation. Posted to [112] Shiffman, R., Elizabeth, L., Brown, L.J. & Bell, R. (2012). Beyond Zuccotti park: Freedom of assembly and occupation of public space. New York, NY: New Village Press. [113] Waxman, R. (2009). Rethinking protest: A designers role in the next generation of collective action (Masters Thesis) California College of the Arts (online at: [114] Kimmelman, M. (2011, October 15). In protest, the power of place. The New York times: Sunday review. [115] Martin, R. (2012). Occupy: What architecture can do. Design Observer- Places Magazine: The Forum of Design for the Public Realm, (available online at: do/31128/). [116] Slazar, A. (2008). Architecture and social change: The struggle for affordable housing in Oakland’s Uptown Project. In B. Bell & K. Wakeford (Eds.), Expanding Architecture: Design as Activism (p.176-183). New York, NY: D.A.P. & Metropolis Books. [117] Lepeska, D. (2012). When we’re all urban planners: Making a virtual village to create a better city. Next American City: Forefront 23, 1-17. [118] Pahlka, J. (2012, February). Coding a better government: TED talk by Jennifer Pahlka. (available online at: [119] Campbell-Dollaghan, K. (2012, October 9). Local data: An app that helps communities do their own urban planning. Fastco.Design (available online at: communities-do-their-own-urban-planning#1). [120] Building Movement Project (2010). Evidence of change: Exploring civic engagement evaluation. (available online at:







The following is a list of books and texts that are related to the themes covered in this bibliography. Although this list is far from comprehensive, my hope is that it provides more than enough additional texts for those who are interested in reading further about the issues to continue exploring Public Interest Design. All publication titles in bold, links to publications below each entry in blue.

• Alexander, Christopher et el, 1977, A Pattern Language. Oxford University Press, USA. • Alexander, Max, 2012, Bright Lights, No City. Hyperion. 1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1356827251&sr=1-1&keywords=bright+lights+no+city • Alinsky, Saul, 1989, Rules for Radicals. Vintage. • Angotti, Tom et el, 2012, Service-Learning in Design and Planning. • Aquilino, Marie Jeannine, 2011, Beyond Shelter. Metropolis Books. d • Architects, Shop, 2011, SHoP. Monacelli Press. • Arendt, Randall et el, 1994, Rural by design. Planners Press American Planning Association. • Armstrong, Helen and Stojmirovic, Zvezdana, 2011, Participate. Princeton Arch Press. • Atlas, John, 2010, Seeds of Change.



• Awan, Nishat et el, 2011, Spatial Agency. Routledge. • Bahamón, Alejandro and Sanjinés, Maria Camila, 2010, Rematerial. W W Norton & Co Inc. • Beatley, Timothy, 2010, Biophilic Cities. Island Press. • Bell, Bryan and Wakeford, Katie, 2008, Expanding Architecture. Metropolis Books. • Bell, Bryan, 2003, Good Deeds, Good Design. Princeton Architectural Press. • Bellah, Robert Neelly, 2008, Habits of the Heart. Univ of California Press. • Bergdoll, Barry, 2011, Rising Currents. The Museum of Modern Art. • Bergdoll, Barry, 2012, Foreclosed. The Museum of Modern Art. • Berman, David B., 2009, Do Good. New Riders. • Birch, Eugénie Ladner, 2009, The Urban And Regional Planning Reader. Psychology Press. • Bittner, Regina, 2011, Moderators of Change Architektur, Die Hilft. Hatje Cantz Pub. • Block, Peter, 2009, Community. Berrett-Koehler Pub. • Blomley, Nicholas K., 2004, Unsettling the City. Psychology Press. • Bobo, Kim Et Al., 2003, Organizing For Social Change. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD.. • Bollnow, Otto Friedrich, 2011, Human Space. Hyphen Press. • Bouman, Ole, 2009, Architecture of Consequence. Nai Uitgevers Pub. • Boyer, Ernest L. and Mitgang, Lee D., 1996, Building community. Jossey-Bass Inc Pub. • Brenner, Neil, 2011, Cities for People, Not for Profit. Routledge. • Brown, Michael Jacoby, 2007, Building powerful community organizations. Long Haul Pr. • Byvanck, Vlantijn, 2005, Superstudio. • Carpenter, William J., 1997, Learning by Building. Wiley. • Carpenter, William J., 2010, Design Build Studio.




• Castells, Manuel, 1983, The City and the Grassroots. University of California Press. • Chavan, Abhijeet et el, 2007, Contemporary Debates in Urban Planning. Island Press. • Chermayeff, Serge and Alexander, Christopher, 1963, Community and privacy. Anchor Books. • Chipperfield, David, 2012, Common Ground. Marsilio Editori Spa. • Conrads, Ulrich, 1970, Programs & Manifestoes on 20th Century. The MIT Press. • Cuny, Frederick C. and America, Oxfam, 1983, Disasters and development. Oxford Press, USA. • Czerniak, Julia, 2013, Formerly Urban. Princeton Architectural Press. • Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer and Hursley, Timothy, 2002, Rural Studio. Princeton Arch Press. • Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer and Hursley, Timothy, 2005, Proceed and Be Bold. Princeton Architectural Press. • DeFilippis, James and Saegert, Susan, 2008, The community development reader. • Doorley, Scott et el, 2012, Make Space. Wiley. • Dreier, Peter et el, 2004, Place matters. Univ Pr of Kansas. dp/0700613641 • Driskell, David C., 2002, Creating Better Cities With Children and Youth. Unesco. • Ehrenhalt, Alan, 2012, The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City. Random House Digital, Inc. • Eichler, Mike, 2007, Consensus Organizing. SAGE Publications, Incorporated. • Ericson, Magnus and Mazé, Ramia, 2012, Design ACT. • Faga, Barbara, 2006, Designing public consensus. Wiley. • Fainstein, Professor Susan S, 2011, The Just City. • Farson, Richard, 2008, The Power of Design. Ostberg. • Feireiss, Kristin and Feireiss, Lukas, 2008, Architecture Of Change. Die Gestalten Verlag.



• Feireiss, Kristin and Feireiss, Lukas, 2009, Architecture of Change 2. Die Gestalten Verlag. • Feireiss, Kristin and Pitt, Brad, 2009, Architecture in Times of Need. • Feireiss, Lukas and Bouman, Ole, 2011, Testify!. Nai Uitgevers Pub. • Ferguson, Ronald F. and Dickens, William T., 1999, Urban Problems and Community Development. Brookings Inst Press. • Ferré, Albert et el, 2010, Total Housing. Actarbirkhauser. • Findley, Lisa, 2005, Building Change. Psychology Press. • Fisher, Thomas R., 2000, In the Scheme of Things. U of Minnesota Press. • Fisher, Thomas, 2012, Designing to Avoid Disaster. Routledge. • Forester, John, 1989, Planning in the Face of Power. Univ of California Press. • Forester, John, 1999, The Deliberative Practitioner. The MIT Press. • Forester, John, 2009, Dealing With Differences. Oxford University Press, USA. • Frank, Lawrence et el, 2003, Health and Community Design. Island Press. • Freeman, Lance, 2006, There Goes the Hood. Temple University Press. f=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1356828971&sr=1-1&keywords=there+goes+the+hood • Gehl, Jan, 2010, Cities for People. Island Press. • Gehl, Jan, 2011, Life Between Buildings. Island Press. • Gittell, Ross and Vidal, Avis, 1998, Community Organizing. SAGE Publications, Incorporated. • Glaser, Milton et el, 2006, The Design of Dissent. Rockport Pub. • Hamdi, Nabeel, 1995, Housing Without Houses. Practical Action. • Hardin, Mary C., 2006, From the Studio to the Streets. Stylus Publishing (VA). • Harvey, David, 2009, Social Justice and the City.




• Hauck, Thomas et el, 2011, Infrastructural Urbanism. Dom Pub. • Hawken, Paul et el, 2000, Natural capitalism. Back Bay Books. • Hayden, Dolores, 2004, Building Suburbia. Vintage. • Hayes, Richard W., 2007, The Yale Building Project. Yale School of Architecture. • Heller, Steven and Vienne, Véronique, 2003, Citizen designer. Allworth Pr. • Hinson, David W. and Miller, Justin, 2012, Designed for Habitat. Routledge. • Hosey, Lance, 2012, The Shape of Green. Island Press. • Hou, Jeffrey et el, 2005, Reconstructing Communities. Center for Design Research University of California. • Hung, Ying-Yu and Aquino, Gerdo, 2011, Landscape Infrastructure. Birkhauser Architecture. • IDEO, 2011, Human Centered Design Toolkit. IDEO. • Iveson, Kurt, 2007, Publics and the City. Wiley-Blackwell. • Jacobs, Allan B., 1995, Great Streets. MIT Press. • Jacobs, Jane, 1970, The Economy of Cities. Vintage. • Jacobs, Jane, 1985, Cities and the Wealth of Nations. Vintage. • Jodidio, Philip, 2010, Public Architecture Now!. Taschen America Llc. • Jones, Bernie, 1990, Neighborhood planning. Amer Planning Assn. • Jr., Randolph T. Hester,, 1990, Community Design Primer. • Kedan, Elite, 2009, Provisional. Princeton Architectural Press. • Kemmis, Daniel, 1995, The good city and the good life. Houghton Mifflin. • Kolko, Jon, 2012, Wicked Problems. • Krakauer, Jon, 2011, Three Cups of Deceit. Random House Digital, Inc.



• Kretzmann, John P. et el, 1993, Building communities from the inside out. Acta Pubns. • Krumholz, Norman, 1990, Making Equity Planning Work. Temple University Press. • Latour, Bruno and Weibel, Peter, 2005, Making Things Public. MIT Press. • Lefebvre, Henri et el, 2009, State, Space, World. • LeGates, Richard T. and Stout, Frederic, 2011, The City Reader. Routledge. • Lepik, Andres, 2010, Small Scale, Big Change. The Museum of Modern Art. • Lewis, Paul et el, 2007, Lewis.Tsurumaki.Lewis: Opportunistic Architecture. Princeton Architectural Press. • Lofland, Lyn H., 1985, A world of strangers. Waveland Pr Inc. • Low, Setha M., 2000, On the Plaza: The Politics of Public Space and Culture. University of Texas Press. • Marris, Emma, 2011, Rambunctious Garden. Bloomsbury USA. • Mayne, Thom and Allen, Stan, 2011, Combinatory Urbanism. • McDonough, William and Braungart, Michael, 2002, Cradle to Cradle. North Point Press. • McHarg, Ian L., 1995, Design with Nature. Wiley. • McKibben, Bill, 2008, Deep Economy. St. Martin’s Griffin. • Miller, Beth Kurti, 2012, Leverage. Community Design Collaborative. • Morrish, William R. et el, 2009, Growing Urban Habitats. • Mostafavi, Mohsen, 2010. Ecological Urbanism. Lars Muller Publishers. • Ockman, Joan and Williamson, Rebecca, 2012, Architecture School. MIT Press (MA). • Palleroni, Sergio and Merkelbach, Christina Eichbaum, 2004, Studio At Large. • Papanek, Victor and Papanek, Victor J., 1984, Design for the real world. Academy Chicago Publishers.




• Pilloton, Emily, 2009, Design Revolution. Metropolis Books. • Rachel, Somerstein, 2013, New Public Works. Princeton Architectural Press. • Roberts, Lucienne, 2006, GOOD: an Introduction to Ethics in Graphic Design. AVA Publishing. • Rubin, Herbert J. and Rubin, Irene, 2008, Community organizing and development. Allyn & Bacon. • Sanoff, Henry, 1990, Participatory design. Henry Sanoff. • Sanoff, Henry, 1991, Visual research methods in design. John Wiley & Sons Inc. • Sanoff, Henry, 1992, Integrating programming, evaluation, and participation in design. • Sanoff, Henry, 1999, Community Participation Methods in Design and Planning. Wiley. • Sanoff, Henry, 2010, Democratic Design. • Scalin, Noah and Taute, Michelle, 2012, The Design Activist’s Handbook. HOW Books. • Scott, James C., 1998, Seeing Like State. Yale University Press. • Scully, Vincent Joseph, 1988, American Architecture and Urbanism. Owl Books. • Sejima, Kazuyo, 2010, People Meet in Architecture. Marsilio. • Shaughnessy, Adrian, 2010, How to Be a Graphic Designer Without Losing Your Soul. Princeton Architectural Press. • Shea, Andrew, 2012, Designing For Social Change. Princeton Architectural Press. • Siddiqi, Anooradha Iyer, 2010, Library Book, The: Design Collaborations in the Public Schools. Princeton Architectural Press. • Simmons, Christopher, 2011, Just Design. HOW Books. • Smith, Cynthia E. and Museum, Cooper-Hewitt, 2007, Design for the other 90%. Assouline Publishing. • Smith, Cynthia E., 2011, Design with the Other 90%. Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum. • Soja, Edward W., 2011, Postmodern Geographies. Verso Books.



• Spataro, Salvatore, 2011, Needs Architecture. • Staeheli, Lynn A. and Mitchell, Don, 2008, The people’s property? • Stickdorn, Mark and Schneider, Jacob, 2012, This Is Service Design Thinking. Bis Publishers. r_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1356830951&sr=1-1&keywords=this+is+service+desig n+thinking • Strom, Elizabeth A., 2007, The Urban Politics Reader. Psychology Press. • Thorbeck, Dewey, 2012, Rural Design. Routledge. • Towers, Graham, 1995, Building Democracy. Taylor & Francis. • Turan, Neyran and Ramos, Stephen, 2009, New Geographies 1. Harvard Graduate School. • Turner, John F. C., 1976, Housing by people. Marion Boyars Publishers Ltd. • Wates, Nick, 2012, The Community Planning Handbook. Routledge. • White, Mason and Sheppard, Lola, 2011, Pamphlet Architecture 30: Coupling. Princeton Architectural Press. • Whyte, William H., 2001, The Social Life Of Small Urban Spaces. Ingram. • Wujec, Tom et el, 2011, Imagine Design Create. • Zardini, Mirko et el, 2012, Imperfect Health. Lars Muller Publishers.

Other similar or related bibliographies include:

• “Design and the Social Sector: An Annotated Bibliography” by Courtney Drake & William Drenttel from Change Observer at • “Literature Review of Community Development Systems” by Michael Frisch and Lisa J. Servon, which can be found in entry 33 of this bibliography. • “Community-Higher Education Partnerships: Community Perspectives Annotated Bibliography” available online at • “University-Community Partnership Bibliography” by Tracy Soska




Thank you to all those who helped contribute to this bibliography.

Questions, comments and additions are all greatly appreciated: Editor: Gilad Meron Project Director: Barbara Brown Wilson Director: Center for Sustainable Development



“Those who have the privilege to know, have the duty to act.�

-Albert Einstein

UTSOA - Center for Sustainable Development 1 University Station B7500 Austin, Texas 78712

Public Interest Design: An Annotated Bibliography  

A bibliography intended for the student of Public Interest Design, meant to function as an introductory reader, providing key articles and t...

Public Interest Design: An Annotated Bibliography  

A bibliography intended for the student of Public Interest Design, meant to function as an introductory reader, providing key articles and t...