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Vol 01 (01) August 2013  [ISBN 978­93­83006­16­8] 

    

 

Chief Editor  Dr Priyanka Singh    Executive Editor  Dr Yagya Brat Dwivedi 

Gyandhara International Academic Publications (GIAP), India 

 


Dedicated to  Late Prof Amrendra Kumar Singh  Professor of Economics  Central University of Allahabad  Allahabad, India 


Chief Editor 

Dr. Priyanka Singh  In‐Charge, School of Social Work  Faculty of Humanities, Social Sciences & Education  SHIATS, Naini, Allahabad, India 

  Executive Editor 

Dr. Yagya Brat Dwivedi  Guest Faculty, School of Social Work  Faculty of Humanities, Social Sciences & Education  SHIATS, Naini, Allahabad, India   

Editorial Board 

Catina Feresin, Ph.D.  Department of Medicine  University of Padua, Italy    Siham Elkafafi, Ph.D.  Senior Lecturer,  Southern Cross University, Australia    Prof. (WG CDR) Gulshan Kumar Bajwa  Director cum Professor  Institue of Business Softskills, India    Prof. (Dr. Sc.) Fulvio Suran  Department of Educational Sciences  University of Juraj Dobrila, Croatia    Prof. Rebecca Haque  Department of English  University of Dhaka, Bangladesh   

Review Board 

Dr. Nishi Tripathi,   Associate Professor & Incharge  Department of Psychology, Chitamber School of Humanities,  Social Sciences & Education, SHAITS, Allahabad    Dr. Parmeshwar Gangawat,   Associate Professor  Department of English, School of Languages, Literature & Society,  Jaipur National University, Jaipur    Dr. Aditya Chaturvedi,  Professor in Malhotra College Bhopal, MP       


Dr. Dushyant Batukdas Nimavat,   Assistant professor  Gyanyagna College of Science and Management  Atmiya Group of Institution, Rajkot, Gujrat    Dr. Ami U Upadhyay,   Assistant Professor  Marwadi Education Foundation's Group of Institutions,  Rajkot, Gujarat    Ms Moina Khan,   Assistant Professor,  AJK Mass Communication Research Centre,  Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi   


From the Desk of Chief Editor  Dear Readers,  Human beings were not such as they are today. It took millions of years to come  in  present  shape  and  shade.  To  learn  such  development  of  humanities  is  called  Social  Science.  Here,  we  start  reading  of  pre‐history  era  up  to  the  modern  changes.  We  learn  various  religions,  their  teaching,  culture,  heritage,  books,  historical  monuments,  river,  forest,  mountains,  birds,  animals,  war  peace,  social  evil  and  their  remedy,  difficulties  of  special  social  groups  and  woman,  child  labour,  our  internal  and  external  affairs, development in the field of security of the nation, international and national problems and  so on.                     It  teaches  us  that  men,  woman,  birds,  animals,  and  all  other  living  creatures  are  the  creation of almighty god. We must love them. Love is a virtue. It comes slowly. It develops itself. We  neither  put  it  inside  nor  bring  outside  through  interaction  or  operation.  Already,  two  world  wars  have taken place, claiming more than six crore lives and injuring about 100 millions. Social science  teaches us, not to indulge in the activities which might be responsible for third war. It is a science,  to known about the poor and down trodden. Comparative study of all the religion is the need of the  present  situation  of  the  world.  Economic  developments  are  helpful  to  humanities.  It  teaches  us  cleanness, forestation, environment and pollution.                Social science is mostly related with the Historical, Geographical, Cultural, Economic, Social  and constitutional and proceedings prevailing in various countries of the world. Since each country  has its run parameter, it differs from country to country and even state to state at the same country.  So, Social Science teaches us balance  and mixture of the culture and heritage like Konark Mandir,  Khajuraho, Ajanta, Elora, Taj Mahal, Redfort, Fatehpur Sikari, Sarnath, Bothgaya, Victous memorial  and Bombay VT etc equally.   Don’t  try  to  put  yourself  as  superior  and  other  one  as  inferior.  Hitler‘s  theory  threw  the  world in the oven of two world war. In our country, we live in democracy. The need of the time is to  develop a new world where peace and prosperity must be seen everywhere.   


At IJHSS we  are promoting and publishing cross cultural and  cross border thoughts  on all  possible  topics  which  ultimately  will  bring  peace  and  prosperity in human society. We are sure readers will like the  research  articles,  opinions  and  reviews  etc  in  this  journal  and  use in their studies.   Scope  of  IJHSS  is  vast  and  optimistic.    We  invite  faculties  and  research  scholars  to  send  high  quality  research  articles  related  to  topics  of  humanities  and  social  sciences  for  publication in IJHSS.  We welcome the suggestions and critics of all faculties  and research scholars, students and citizens. We will incorporate those ideas in forthcoming issues  to make IJHSS more representative and a highly useful learning platform.  Please send your suggestions and critics at editor.ijhss@giapjournals.com  Dr Priyanka Singh  Chief Editor, IJHSS 

 


From the Desk of Executive Editor          Matthew 6:22­23   “The eye is the lamp of the body. So, if your eye is healthy, your whole body will be full of light,  but if your eye is bad, your whole body will be full of darkness. If then the light in you is  darkness, how great is the darkness!  Communities of the future will be very different from the ones we live in today. These communities  will need to be different because, as we move through the end of the twentieth century and into the  twenty‐first,  we  face  a  whole  new  set  of  socioeconomic,  technological,  and  global  forces  that  are  unlike  those  that  brought  us  to  where  we  are  today.  The  renaissance  fueled  by  these  forces  will  dwarf  any  we  have  experienced  until  now.  It  will  alter  dramatically  the  way  we  live  in  our  communities, their form  and function, and, most critically, the way we plan and develop them. At  stake is the quality of life, not only for us but also for our children and grandchildren.   In the first decade of the 21st century, new media technologies for social networking such as  Face  book,  MySpace,  Twitter  and  YouTube  began  to  transform  the  social,  political  and  informational  practices of individuals and institutions across the globe, inviting a philosophical response from the  community  of  applied  ethicists  and  philosophers  of  technology.  While  this  scholarly  response  continues  to  be  challenged  by  the  rapidly  evolving  nature  of  social  networking  technologies,  the  urgent  need  for attention to this phenomenon is underscored by  the fact that it is reshaping how  human  beings  initiate  and/or  maintain  virtually  every  type  of  ethically  significant  social  bond  or  role:  friend‐to‐friend,  parent‐to‐child,  co‐worker‐to  co‐worker,  employer‐to‐employee,  teacher‐to‐ student, neighbor‐to‐neighbor, seller‐to‐buyer, and doctor‐to‐patient, to offer just a partial list.   But  surprisingly  we  are  going  very  much  far  away  from  our  self’s  while  the  technologies  are  gathering all of us very near. Market is the servant for human  being. How can this become king of  human? Will market decide the direction of societies of human being, if this will happen then think  about our common future?  Dr Yagya Brat Dwivedi  Executive Editor, IJHSS 


International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Vol. 1 (01) August 2013, [ISBN 978-93-83006-16-8] From the Desk of Chief Editor From the Desk of Executive Editor 1. MANAGING A PRIMARY SCHOOL CLASS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY Catina Feresin, Snježana Močinić, Nevenka Tatković 2. TO THE ‘QUALITY TEACHER’ AND POLICY MAKERS OF ‘QUALITY EDUCATION’ D.Tamilarasu 3. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITE: AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR SECOND GENERATION EGOVERNANCE Shrish Kumar Tiwari 4. A SCENARIO OF MEDIA AWARENESS FOR SOCIAL NETWORKING Dr. Ramchandra, Dr. Yojna Lal, Dr. S.B. Lal 5. ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN SOCIAL AWRENESS Virginia Paul, Dr. Priyanka Singh, Dr. Sunita B. John 6. GLOBALISATION AND HIGHER EDUCATION: THREAT OR OPPORTUNITY Dr Richa Mishra 7. SOCIAL MEDIA AND AWARENESS IN GLOBAL SOCIETY Dr. Priyanka singh, Dr. Yagya Brat Dwivedi 8. MEDIA AND SOCIAL AWARENESS Anand Narain Shukla 9. FROM CHOUPALS TO ONLINE CHOUPALS Prof Anju Chawla, Prof Pushp Lamba 10. ROLE OF MEDIA IN SOCIAL AWARENESS Pradeep Kumar Dwivedi, Ingita Pandey 11. ROLE OF MEDIA IN SOCIAL AWARENESS (A Review) Sashwat Yogi


International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Vol 1 (01) August 2013, [ISBN 978-93-83006-16-8] page 01-09

MANAGING A PRIMARY SCHOOL CLASS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY Catina Feresin*, Snježana Močinić**, Nevenka Tatković** *Department of Medicine, University of Padua, Italy **Department of Educational Sciences, University of Pula, Croatia catina.feresin@unipd.it, n.mocinic@net.hr, ntatkovic85@gmail.com Abstract The main purpose of our research was to investigate how to practically manage a primary school class. In the course of the empirical section, we collected teachers' opinions about the perception of students' conduct by means of a standardized questionnaire. The results obtained are interesting: Teachers give a considerable value to collaboration among students, teachers and parents as a factor which influences the behaviour of the class in a positive way. Our results indicate that preestablished rules of correct behaviour (i.e. behaviour contract) create a more mature sense of responsibility in children that young. Finally, the results show that the teachers we tested have sometimes difficulty to manage the class and, on the contrary, use old repressing discipline. We suppose it may be caused by two reasons: the former is that teachers need to go deep into competences about managing an elementary class both theorically as practically during teacher's curriculum studiorum and training. The latter is that our pupils live during an historical period in which everything seems allowed; sometimes, families are loosing their leading role and are unable to give the young generation specific rules to behave the right way. Because of this, primary schools and teachers are often asked to be the most important point of reference for pupils. In our opinion this is an impossible demand for schools and teachers; we do suggest this problem has to be solved by a tight cooperation between school and family. The two institutions must have a leading role working together to train young generation to become responsible adults in a very near future. Key words: class management, effective learning, contract behaviour. INTRODUCTION When thinking about a very old past, we recall memories of school often associated to obedience and to severe subordination to teacher's authority who made use of psychological and sometimes physical punishments. Memories like these are useful only to notice how different was our grandfathers’ experience regarding discipline compared with the present idea of discipline at school: nowadays, indeed, physical punishment is not permitted at all and a teacher who may use this kind of discipline is condemned in public. In the course of the last century, theories regarding discipline have changed; nevertheless, discipline is still a main worry both among naives teachers as expert ones. Having in front a class of respectful pupils is a dream for the majority of teachers: a dream which will probably remain a dream, because educators know precisely the objective to reach, but they do not how to obtain it. Classes,

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International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Vol 1 (01) August 2013, [ISBN 978-93-83006-16-8] page 01-09

books, scientific journals and all the written materials about this topic can help the teacher only partially, since the problem of discipline is often analysed from a theoretic point of view, whilst the teacher needs to cope every day with difficult and practical situations about discipline that have to be solved in the class.

The German author Bueb suggested the idea that in the second half of the XX century many concepts such as authority, obedience, submission and discipline were not considered important anymore, therefore loosing their relevance among teachers and parents, because of the influence of many anti-authoritarian movements (Bueb, 2006). However, teaching still preserves an authoritarian appearance, because it is based on “a will of orientating the action of another person.” This appearance may causes an asymmetry in ruling power within a class of students: so there are conflicts arising from the teacher on one side who ask for a positive collaboration and participation of the pupils in the learning process, and the students on the other side who feel the teacher's imposition to develop competences an contents. If the teacher needs to force the learning process among the class, his power diminishes. The ideal situation would be the case in which pupils follow spontaneously and without constriction what the teacher is asking them: whilst their passivity is an indicator of teacher's failure. The main consequence of this conflict is that a teacher's educational power is not a permanent situation guaranteed from his/her leading professional role and from a moral duty of the students, as it was in the past, but it is a teacher's capacity which needs to be always keeping alive. In-fact, in a postmodern society, the legitimization of power has to be based on dialogue and on emotional and affective relationship between a teacher and his/her students.

Scientific literature about this subject has started to define many types of discipline strategies such as: preventive, supportive and corrective; whilst, at the same time, teacher's behaviour may be hostile, assertive or not assertive, democrat, authoritarian or permissive. Of course, there are some differences among various currents: for example, the “Humanistic” current gives more importance to the role of the pupil himself in the formulation and choice of the rules of behaviour. On the contrary, the “Behaviourist” current points out that the main role in the solution of any problem belongs to the teacher, who changes pupil's behaviour by means of positive or negative reinforcement (Phelan, 2004). The “Constructionist” current underlines the role of the teacher himself, who organizes interesting activities, but, at the same time, promotes the differences among student' style of learning: in this way he favours a real cooperation with his/her pupils, avoiding serious problems of discipline.

The approach towards discipline in class has changed and will change again, because the way of teaching is continuously modifying: teaching does not mean maintaining the discipline in class anymore, but positively managing the group class (Trophy, 1983; Sternberg &Williams, 2002). As

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International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Vol 1 (01) August 2013, [ISBN 978-93-83006-16-8] page 01-09

recently reported by Evertson: “... In the early 1970s classroom management was seen as separate from classroom instruction. Teachers' management decisions were viewed as precursors to instruction, and were treated in the literature as if they were content-free. The image was of a teacher first attending to classroom management, and then beginning instruction without further reference to management decisions. Research in the 1980s, however, demonstrated that management and instruction are not separate, but are inextricably interwoven and complex.” (Evertson, 2013). As Bucher and collaborators suggested: “Classroom management consists of strategies for assuring physical and psychological safety in the classroom; techniques for changing student misbehaviours and for teaching self-discipline; methods of assuring an orderly progression of events during the school day; and instructional techniques that contribute to students’ positive behaviours” (Manning & Bucher, 2007). Managing a class involves students themselves to collaborate with the teacher: from care about teaching material to interest about the teaching method, from respect of the pre-established rules to avoid conflicts among peers. This different climate in the class should ameliorate the process of effective learning, enhancing the level of attention to lectures. Sometimes managing a class implies the use of behaviour contracts. To be really effective, behaviour contracts need to be started at the beginning of the school year (Emmer et al., 1980; Evertson, 1989): in fact, as Evertson recently reported: “... in both elementary and secondary classrooms, the start of the school year is crucial to effective management. A significant aspect of this beginning is the teacher's establishment of expectations for student behaviour, which are expressed through rules and procedures.” (Evertson, 2013). At the same time, contract behaviours has to be as precise as possible: the teacher must decide what he/she's expecting from students and rewarding/ not rewarding them depending on their behaviour. EXPERIMENTAL DESCRIPTION Aim of the research The main aim of this preliminary research was to analyse teachers' perception of students' conduct attending Italian primary schools in Croatia. Subjects The empirical study was carried out in a sample of 65 teachers (60 males and 5 females). Method The anonymous questionnaire was preceded by some questions about study title, age and sex of the teacher him/herself. We made use of an Italian standardized questionnaire (see Salerni, 2005) entitled: “Questionnaire about teachers' perception of students' conduct at primary school.” Teachers were asked to express their level of agreement/disagreement following a Likert staircase such as: "Total agreement", "Agreement", "I do not know", "In disagreement", "Strong disagreement".

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International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Vol 1 (01) August 2013, [ISBN 978-93-83006-16-8] page 01-09

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION After obtaining the data by means of the mentioned questionnaire, we calculated the following statistics: the media of the replies (Mean); the lower evaluation to the reply (Min); the higher evaluation to the reply (Max) and the standard error. The results were resumed in 21 tables, but for a reason of shortness, we will show and explain only a few of the total tables. Table 1: Teachers' perception of students' behaviour (Principal Rules of the Group) A student shows a good behaviour if:

N

Min

Max

Mean

Standard error

He/she does his/her home-works with regularity

65

0

5

4,14

0,12

He/she does not ask very often to go out of class

65

1

5

3,28

0,13

He/she enters school on time

65

0

5

4,43

0,09

He/she pays attention to lectures

65

2

5

4,51

0,07

He/she does a few absences

65

0

5

2,69

0,15

He/she keeps notebooks and diary in order

65

2

5

3,97

0,11

He/she brings books to school

65

2

5

4,23

0,1

He/she keeps desk in order

65

2

5

4,02

0,09

He/she does not copy during class-works

65

0

5

4,00

0,13

Table 1 shows the results about teachers' perception of students' social behaviour with respect to the rules of the group. Indeed, teachers gave great significance to students' behaviours such as: doing homework with regularity, entering school on time, paying attention to lectures, keeping notebooks and diary in order, bringing books to school, keeping desk in order, avoid copying during class-works. It is interesting to underline that our subjects gave a considerable value to the observance of the group's rules and to a good collaboration and communication between teachers-pupils and teachersparents as factors which influence students' behaviour in a positive manner, creating, a good psychological climate which facilitates effective learning. Table 2: Teachers' perception of students' behaviour (relationship between teachers and students) N A teacher is able to obtain a good behaviour of his/her class

Min

Max

Mean

Standard error

if:

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International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Vol 1 (01) August 2013, [ISBN 978-93-83006-16-8] page 01-09 65

0

5

4,17

0,1

He/she is able to involve the class in the teaching activity.

65

0

5

4,25

0,11

He/she encourages students to establish together rules of good

65

0

5

4,28

0,1

65

0

5

4,35

0,09

65

0

5

4,35

0,11

65

0

5

4,28

0,1

65

0

5

4,26

0,09

65

0

5

4,29

0,1

He/she takes care about students' psychological problems.

behaviour. He/she is able to adapt his teaching program to students' needs, trying to keep his/her lectures as interesting as possible. He/she does not mortify pupils who do not have a good scholar performance.

He/she encourages pupils to speak out.

He/she is able to take into consideration students' opinions even if they are different from the ones he has. He/she uses to have personal talks with students who have problems at school.

Table 2 shows the results about the relationship between teachers and students: it's relevant to notice that there was a good agreement among teachers on the fact that students' bad/poor behaviour may be improved making them feel more responsible of the possible consequences of their conduct without mortify the pupils, but encouraging them to talk to the teacher, to pay more attention to the school program and to respect the pre-established rules of the class. Table 3: Teachers' perception of the their role as students' educators (relationship between teachers and families) N

Min

Max

Mean

A teacher is able to obtain a good behaviour of his/her class

Standard error

if:

He/she avoids to involve parents in students' conduct problems.

65

0

5

2,15

0,12

He/she regularly informs parents about students' behaviour.

65

0

5

4,42

0,09

Table 3 shows the results about teachers' perception of the their role of educators with respect to families. Here also there is a great agreement within subjects about the ways to obtain a good class' behaviour.

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International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Vol 1 (01) August 2013, [ISBN 978-93-83006-16-8] page 01-09

Table 4: Teachers' perception of influence of TV programs on students. Influence of TV programs on students' conduct.

N

Min

Max

Mean

Standard error

TV programs usually show that life success does not depend on

65

2

5

3,97

0,09

65

0

5

3,89

0,12

study effort. TV programs usually show that respecting good rules of behaviour does not reward during a person's life.

Table 4 shows the results about teachers' perception of basic variables, such as influence of TV programs on students' behaviour. All subjects think TV programs have a great importance in carrying on negative cultural models. This result is especially important because a powerful media as television is showing to our students that negative cultural models are very attractive. TV programs show contents which are often passive and superficial, mainly telling the young generation that a person does not need to study with effort to find a job and to be a responsible adult in the future. The most interesting results are showed in the following tables: Table 5: Teachers' perception of possible solutions to ameliorate poor/bad students' conduct.

A teacher is able to ameliorate poor/bad students'

N

Min.

Max.

Mean

Standard error

conduct if:

He/she drives away students who disturb class lectures.

65

0

4

2,31

0,02

He/she write admonitory notes on the class-register to point

65

1

5

3,62

0,01

65

1

5

3,51

0,01

65

1

5

2,92

0,01

out students' poor/bad behaviour.

He/she punishes pupils who do not pay attention during lectures.

He/she suspends a student who was already punished before.

Table 5 shows the results about teachers' perception of how to solve students' poor/bad conduct. Most of the teachers we tested have sometimes difficulty to manage the class and they prefer to use old repressing discipline.

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International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Vol 1 (01) August 2013, [ISBN 978-93-83006-16-8] page 01-09

Table 6: Teachers' perception of parents' role as children' educators Teachers'

perception

of

family's

participation

to

N

Min.

Max.

Mean

Standard error

students' life school.

Parents are not respectful of their children.

65

2

5

3,69

0,01

Parents are often in conflict with teachers.

65

0

5

3,34

0,01

Families do not know about children' behaviour in class.

65

1

5

2,89

0,01

Families and schools do not collaborate very much.

65

0

5

2,65

0,01

Table 6 shows the results about family's participation to children' school life and about the relationship between school and family. Although the sample we tested is not that big, this is an interesting result which shows that actual relationship between school and family is a poor one, although teachers ask for a deeper relationship between the two institutions (in fact all teachers agree they have to inform parents about children' conduct in class.)

CONCLUSION Our results generally show that teachers gave a considerable value to the role of a good psychological climate among the class which facilitates effective learning. A productive climate is guaranteed from positive social interactions, from adherence to the educational project, from participation of the pupils to the very definition of the principal rules to follow, from collaboration with parents, from quality of teaching which should results interesting and involving for students. As a direct consequence, this productive climate positively influences the proper management of the class. The results show also that the teachers we tested have sometimes difficulty to manage the class and they prefer to use old repressing discipline. This finding is in contrast when compared to the other results. We suppose it may be caused by two main reasons: the first is that teachers need to go deep into competences about managing an elementary class both teorically as practically during their curriculum studiorum and training. To support this hypothesis we found a similar result in an article by Merret and Whedall. As they literary reported: “... Nearly three quarters of them were dissatisfied with the preparation in this area of professional skills provided by their initial training courses. Many thought that their colleagues spent too much time on matters of order and control and 38% thought

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International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Vol 1 (01) August 2013, [ISBN 978-93-83006-16-8] page 01-09

that they, themselves, did also. Generally, they showed an interest in attending training courses in classroom behaviour management. Many felt that such training could reduce stress among teachers and might help to reduce troublesome behaviour among their pupils. Nearly all of them thought that it would be of benefit to their younger colleagues who were just beginning their careers.”(Merret & Whedall, 1993). The second reason is that our pupils live during an historical period in which everything seems allowed; sometimes families are loosing their leading role and are unable to give the young generation specific rules to behave the right way. Because of this problem, primary schools and teachers in particular are often asked to be the most important point of reference for pupils. In our opinion this is an impossible demand for schools, this problems needs to be solved by a tight cooperation between schools and families not by schools themselves. Both the two institutions should have a leading role in following child's behaviour and eventually in modifying it; they also should work together helping the young generation to be responsible adults in a very near future. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: we would like to thank Ariana Moscarda for running the experiment. REFERENCES • •

Brophy, J. E., Classroom Organization and Management. The Elementary School Journal, 83 (4), 1983, 265–285. Bueb, B., Elogio della disciplina (In praise of discipline). Hamburg, Germany, Hoerbuch. 2006.

Emmer, E. T., Evertson, C. M, Anderson, L. M., Effective Classroom Management at the Beginning of the School Year. The Elementary School Journal, 80 (5), 1980, 219–231.

Evertson, C. M. <a href="http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1834/ClassroomManagement.html">Classroom Management - Creating a Learning Environment, Setting Expectations, Motivational Climate, Maintaining a Learning Environment, When Problems Occur</a> 2013.

Evertson, C. M., Improving Elementary Classroom Management: A School-Based Training Program for Beginning the Year. Journal of Educational Research, 83, 1989, 82–90.

Merret, F., Whedall, K., How Do Teachers Learn to Manage Classroom Behaviour? A study of teachers' opinions about their initial training with special reference to classroom behaviour management. Educational Studies, Vol. 19, Iss. 1., 1993.

Manning, M. L., Bucher, K. T., Classroom Management: Models, applications, and cases. Columbus, Pearson, 2007.

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International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Vol 1 (01) August 2013, [ISBN 978-93-83006-16-8] page 01-09

Phelan, T. W., 1-2-3 Magic: Effective Discipline for Children 2-12, Parent magic, Inc., 2004.

Salerni, A., La disciplina a scuola (Discipline at school), Carocci, Roma, 2005.

Sternberg, R. J., Williams, W. M., Educational Psychology, Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2002.

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TO THE ‘QUALITY TEACHER’ AND POLICY MAKERS OF ‘QUALITY EDUCATION’ D.Tamilarasu Asst. Professor cum Asst. Director, Center for Study of Social Exclusion and Inclusive Policy, Manonmaniam Sundaranar, University, Tirunelveli-627 012, Tamilnadu, India sociotamil@gmail.com Abstract ‘Quality’ is often emphasized to have effective education. But, there are differences of opinion in identifying the benchmark or traits of ‘Quality Teacher’ and ‘Quality Education’. This paper not goes into the debate but attempts to identify the challenges for the present educational system. The Paper addresses two of the several elements of the educational system i.e., ‘Quality Teacher’ and Policy makers of ‘Quality education’. Here, they are said to have ‘quality’ if they have an attitude of striving towards it. Challenges relevant to educational system are derived out of Sociological introspection of the present society. My experience as ‘Learner’ and ‘Educator’ so far in educational system, source from internet and newspaper, focused group discussion with colleagues and students (learners) of my classes also helps me to do so. Thus, challenges are identified for the present educational system. By referring the challenges, it is able to open up the ideas to address these challenges. ‘Quality’ used as prefix to the words ‘Teacher’ and policy makers of ‘Education’ is more meaningful and relevant if they are able to understand and address these challenges. INTRODUCTION Sociologist Emile Durkheim said, ‘Education is socialisation of younger generation’. So, the foundations of future society can be laid through education. Education is the magic wand to bring revolutionary changes in Society. It is capable of evolving society towards higher order. It caters to individual as well as societal needs and heals the social problems of today. In order to have such real impact,’ Quality education’ is need of the present scenario. This paper addressed to the teacher and policy makers who concerns for quality education. Though the words ‘Teaching’ ‘Education’ is understood to have the implicit

notion of quality, adding prefix,

‘quality’ with these words pave the way to identification and explanation of the traits of ‘Quality’. Whenever we are not satisfied with any service, we often use the term ‘Quality’. Being a teaching staff of the University, I am in constant struggle to reach the ideal state of ‘Quality’. I can be satisfied with my attitude of striving to reach such ‘Ideal’ State. My humble opinion is that mere infusing or having the www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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attitude of reaching ideal state of ‘Quality ‘is sufficient to move one towards the quality. Whoever fits this framework, considered to be a ‘Quality teacher’ and policy makers of ‘Quality Education’. By having focused group discussion with my students and colleagues, going through related literatures and internet sources on education, my experience of being a ‘learner’ and ‘teacher’ and with my sociological understanding and introspection, I am able to identify six challenges that ‘Quality Teacher’ or ‘Policy makers of Quality Teacher Education’ needs to understand and inculcate and needs to take up for research and discussion. I hope that these themes are acceptable and holistic to the ‘Quality teacher’ and policy makers of ‘Quality education’. Those have to understand, take up and address these challenges offered by present society. Idea of the paper is not to differentiate ‘Teacher’ and ‘Quality teacher’ but to emphasis that there are challenges exist for those striving to reach the state of ‘Quality’ in education.

CHALLENGES FOR ‘QUALITY TEACHER’ AND POLICY MAKERS OF ‘QUALITY EDUCATION’ Education of Social relevance: Here, the idea ‘Social relevance ‘implies as follows, How far the present education irrespective of various disciplines, relevant and beneficial to the Society? It should not be taken in the sense that there are some of the epistemologies to be identified and rejected. For instance, in terms of knowledge and skill, ‘car driving or cycling’ is more relevant and beneficial in present context than ‘horse riding’. So, it can be prioritised but not at the cost of destruction of knowledge and skill of ‘horse riding’. Here, policy makers have more responsibility than teachers. It also implies the idea of application of theories and readings in book for the practical use in Society. Mere grasping of the bookish knowledge without having an attitude, knowledge and expertise to apply them for practical use in the society is futile in education. Here, the ‘Quality teacher’ has more scope in implementing the idea than framed curriculum. It is more in the hands of ‘quality teacher’ to expertise the student in applying the knowledge for the practical use in Society. This is how gaps between what we learn in the education and what we practice in the society can be bridged. If it not happens, we may not be able to identify the solution for the most pressing problems faced by the contemporary Society. For instance, energy demand is a global issue that can be more effectively addressed by the education. Media’s grip on present generation: Media have stronger influence on Children and younger generation more than ‘primary group’i like family. Traditional family structure, cultural ethos is loosening its hold on the Children. Attitude, Fashion, life style, preferences etc is more likely to be shaped by Media. Visual media like Television, Cinema has swaying penetration than print media. It is highly impossible for children of satellite TV generationii to be isolated from this trend. As Baudrillard iiiidentified that post modern generation prefers simulatediv reality than reality itself. Then there is no need to explain the case of present generation children. For instance, we have come across some of the film’s name (though other www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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factors are also said to have play havoc role) in the newspaper in the case of a student assassinate the Hindi teacher of the School at Chennai. We can also experience in our day today life that how children are in the strong grip of media. ‘Role models’ and ‘Heroes’ are emerged from the simulated scenario of the media. Children grows with these reel ideas is often frustrated to experience the practicality of the Society.

‘Quality teacher’ and policy makers of ‘Quality Education’ need to be equipped to dismantle

children and younger generations’ media fetishismv. We need to have the understanding of this social reality. ‘Quality teacher’ become outdated and impractical if they reject the potential role of media absolutely. Such rejection may lead to education without social relevance. Most of us may agree that there is unreasonable aversion of the media in present educational environment.

Also, there is some kind of

allergic idea to avert aesthetic element in educational programme in the media. In both the case, education may become ritualistic rather than creative and engaging. “Quality teacher’ needs to break the ritualistic idea of media aversion and then to take up the revolutionary idea of media intrusion in the present educational scenario. ‘Quality Teacher’ need not wait for the policy makers of the education to do so. ‘Quality Teacher’ is the only one who is capable of nurturing the children in appropriate direction for the constructive use of the media. Information and Communication Technology Revolution: This theme is more closely associated with the media. As the impact of its emergence is not only confined with the media, this has to be addressed as separate theme for the “Quality Teacher’ and policy makers. ICT revolution shrinks our notion of time and space. Idea of infinite Information within and beyond the Universe, conducting people from anywhere and anytime is at the click of the button become real due to the emergence of Computer based Information and Communication Technology. It is an apt to refer that ICT has revolutionised the notion of education. It also created a necessity to evolve the new outlook of teaching and learning in education. Online learning or learning through internet and Computer software has shown new, alternate educational environment for the learners. It even leads to the state of questioning the necessity of human teacher in educating the learners. ‘Quality Teacher’ has to take up the challenges. Teaching cannot merely be the pouring of information to the learners because they can gather voluminous information from internet sources. Never than ever before, Teacher has to prove their inevitability and strength of his presence in the process of education. We can also say that the ‘Quality Teacher’ has the opportunity to distinctly reveal the importance of Teaching. It is inevitable for ‘Quality teacher’ to make use of powerful wand of Information and Communication technology for the education. In the case of Children, abundant information at the click of button becomes a problem because information beyond their decisive capacity leads them in chaotic and stressful learning experience. So, those tender learners need human educators. Inspiration, learn from the personality, www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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experience of understanding and sharing, motivate and cultivate the habit of questioning, thinking and creating among learners, lively education, emotional bend of mind in learning, social interaction etc can be possible only through human teaching. So, ‘Quality Teacher’ has to understand and evolve one’s own teaching philosophy in accordance with these ideas and thus we can move towards the ‘Quality Education’. Filo-centric family: Based on the idea of who is having influential role in decision making of the modern nuclear family, there is a category of family referred as filo-centric family. In Filo-centric family, children are having more influential role in decision making of the family. Most of the family in present scenario revolves around to fulfill the desires and expectations of the Child. This is the reason for the business firm to media, concentrates mostly children and women. Education is one of most essential, prioritized and valuable investment for the Children in those families. Dreams, expectations of not only the children but also family members are constructed upon the education of the Children. Parents mostly hail from middle and upper class sections are actively engaged in their Child education. Parents wake up throughout night for the examination of Child is no more a peculiar phenomenon in Indian Society. Rote learning lightens the chance for enlightenment of the learners. Entrusting the freedom with children accompanies with strong pressure to perform in education is an alarming trend of present educational scenario. Function of ‘Quality Teacher’ becomes a walk in the tightrope considering such educational scenario. Handling the pressure is difficult atleast for the ‘Quality Teachers’ in Private educational institutions. Therefore, this is the social context for the ‘Quality Teachers’. Sensitization on the issue of Environment, Politics and Sex: Being a member of present Society, one need to have at least basic awareness on certain pressing issues. These issues play a crucial role in welfare and development of not only at the individual level but also at the societal level. Three broader issues are identified here to link with ‘Quality Education’. Considering its importance, these issues in one form or the other get its focus from International institutions like UN’s Millennium Development Goals to local NGOs. As these issues become the source for the most of the problems in the society not only in present but also in future. In tune with this rationality, these three issues are picked up here. Environmental issues like Energy issues, Natural resources degradation and Conservation etc is one of most worrying factors for both developed and developing Societies. In micro-level, individual’s life cannot be sustained without these resources. Most of the Societies are exhausted with the development path of aggressive resource exploitation. So, individuals of the society have to be sensitised on these issues. Most of the indigenous knowledge and cultural practice of Indian Society embedded with these consciousnesses was gradually lost due to various factors, have to be recovered and used to suit the prevalent context. Quality Education has to take up the challenges and sensitise the environmental issues.

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Politics irrespective of any differences like nations, ethnic group, ideology, needs to achieve the objective of Development, Social Justice and Peace. Awareness and participation of its subject brighten the chance for the Politics to achieve those noble Objectives. Students or learners of present education system who are not able to comprehend the idea of Justice or Social Justice become a liability or obstacle or non contributors to reach noble objectives of Politics. Lack of Political awareness prevails and spread among the subject of the state, leads to cumulative destructive consequences. Our educational environment especially Teacher, Classroom, Learners etc are allergic to the political discussion though its influence is omnipresent in nature.

Political qualities like decision making, leadership, problem solving,

peacemaking, etc are not that much nurtured in educational environment. It is in these context, ‘Quality Teacher’ can do wonder in terms of sensitizing the learners on Politics. Sex is also very much sensitive issue in today’s world. Still, there is no dearth of myths and cultural prejudice on Sex. Instead of bringing clarity, present media aggravates the chaotic ideas on issues of Sex. Never than ever before, children are easily able to encounter the issues related to Sex. So, they need to be sensitised at early age. Education is the legitimate, sensible and scientific way to do so. Teachers have to cultivate the matured way of sensitizing these issues. Moral, Value based Education: This is most often discussed, have wider currency among intellectuals, and even personalities from the History. But, this deserves most urgent attention in today’s educational scenario. It is unfortunate to find that morality and value goes inversely proportional to the advancement of Science and Technology and material progress of Human Society. If education is able to cultivate the morality and value in individual, the individual become real asset of Society. Objective of education has to be expanded from the narrow confinement of pursuing material interest. Morality and Value taught and written in the text books appear completely alien to the Social reality. So, it is not necessary to uphold the rigid moral and value as prescribed by others. These can also be debated to discover the subjective understanding of those moral and value. This becomes the true nature of education. Dynamic, lively human teacher can play a larger role than static books.

CONCLUSION Thus, the paper brings out the challenges for the ‘Quality Teacher’ and Policy makers of ‘Quality Education’. ‘Quality’ is about Understanding and addressing these challenges. But, this is one of the several aspects of the ‘Quality Teacher’ and ‘Quality Education’. There are other aspects of quality such as pedagogical skill, teacher-student relationship, ways of evaluating the learners, infra-structural facilities etc. Therefore, it is apt to conclude that the paper is an attempt to identify the challenges in present educational scenario and also gives out some of the ideas to address these challenges. ‘Quality’

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must incorporate the challenges and way of addressing it but these alone cannot be taken as holistic explanation for ‘Quality Education’. End Notes                                                              i. The concept of the primary group was introduced by Charles Cooley, a sociologist from the Chicago School of sociology, in his book Social Organization: A Study of the Larger Mind. It refers the most influential and immediate, proximate group for the children like family. ii.

After 1990s, Government policy permitted private operators in Television media. Because of these, private channels facilitated by satellite technology mushroomed into large numbers. TV viewing became the major entertaining activities of the Indian Families. Channels for Children captivate them to Television viewing. These children are referred in the paper as satellite TV generation.

iii.

Jean Baudrillard is one of the Post modern Theorists. Here, his name is used to refer his idea of simulation.

iv.

Baudrillard in his work,’ Simulacra and Simulation, argues that our "postmodern" media culture is a world of signs that have made a fundamental break from referring to "reality." Baudrillard's concept of simulation is the creation of the real through conceptual or "mythological" models that have no connection or origin in reality. The model becomes the determinant of our perception of reality—the real. According to him, People prefer to be satisfied with hyper reality than reality. For example, Video games become the most interest to children than real games. Visual Media like Television plays a major role in creating hyper reality.

v.

The Concept of fetishism was popularly associated with Marx view on Religion. He observed commodity fetishism as one of the crises of Capitalist Society. It implies the notion of subjective captivity or seduction or addiction to the idea; object etc. it is used here to refer the present generations’ seduction to the media.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Hereby, I acknowledge that this is the Paper I presented in a National Seminar on ‘Challenges for Quality Teacher Education in the Present Scenario’, held at ST. Joseph College of Education, Tirunelveli District, Tamilnadu on the date of 28th and 29th Sep.2012.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                 REFERENCES 1. http://mhrd.gov.in/schooleducation 2. News titled Student stabs teacher to death in Chennai School, The Hindu, February 9, 2012.

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SOCIAL NETWORKING SITE: AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR SECOND GENERATION E-GOVERNANCE Shrish Kumar Tiwari Research-scholar in Department of Commerce and Business Administration, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India shrish.tiwari@gmail.com Abstract The emerging technological development in information and communication technology has opened a new gateway for the virtual form of communication in form of social networking sites. Now, there are a variety of online social media applications to enable communication between people, groups. The increasing popularity of these networking sites among all class of society has compelled to the government to think about use of this kind of model for providing SMART E-governance. The first phase of e-governance

was merely intend towards web presence of public institutions and

dissemination of information but with the passage of the time the expatiations of people from Government are keep changing and becoming more demanding in order to seek second phase of egovernance to get - on line-real time delivery of administration. The present paper makes an attempt to explore the relevance of social networking sites as an effective tool for e-governance in India. The paper seeks to provide a solution where by network sites could be used for solving various social and economical problems seen in Government machinery. The paper is descriptive in nature and would be helpful to the Government as well as people to insure second generation e-governance. INTRODUCTION â&#x20AC;&#x153;Informal conversation is probably the oldest mechanism by which opinions on products and brands are developed, expressed, and spread.â&#x20AC;? Social networking sites are gaining popularity as an informal mean of communication. Now people are spending their time to maintain and create relations through this virtual medium .Although this is a not very old concept but people are appreciating it. These have played a crucial role in bridging boundaries and crossing the seas and enabling them to communicate on a common platform. It has become a potential mean to relation building and staying in touch with all known. www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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A social network is “a social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations) that are tied by one or more specific types of relations.” Social network sites as web-based services that allow individuals to: (1) Construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) Articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) View and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site.With the rapid growth of people who use or have access to the Internet; social networking websites are a must for the Internet community to stay in touch with each other. Social networking web sites help people keep in touch with old friends make new friends; distribute new data or product, and many more aspects of our everyday lives. SMART E-GOVERNANCE E-Governance is a process of reform in the way Governments work, share information, engage citizens and deliver services to external and internal clients for the benefit of both government and the clients that they serve. The term SMART contains meaning - Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive, and Transparent. OBJECTIVES This paper contains following objectives1. To study the importance of social networking sites. 2. To identify the importance social networking sites as a tool for effective tool for second generation e-governance. STAGES OF E- GOVERNANCE On the basis of its concept, procedures and implications

E- governance can be classify in following

three stages Stage I – WEB PRESENCE The first phase is marked by web presence of public Institutions and dissemination of information. This has been facilitated by the Right to Information Act, 2005 (RTI) and this has been developed as a basic www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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feature of all public Services where type of service and service provider details are made available in a proactive manner. Web presence can range from basic and static information to access to databases, documents, policies etc with the aid of help features and site map. Stage II – INTERACTIVE PRESENCEThe next stage is marked by an interactive Interface with stakeholders with pro-active solutions to problem solving and electronic requests for services and financial transactions. Stage III – TRANSACTIONAL PRESENCECompletion of transactions on the internet and access to internet. This interaction in turn results in vertical and horizontal integration which changes the way a service is delivered, the effort being for completion of the transaction for the service through the internet with putting in place of back-end integration. The architectural model for this stage requires interoperability and convergence. There is electronic communication between the platform, citizen and Government. SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES IN INDIA The world is becoming a global village where the physical and geographic boundaries are disappearing faster than ever before in the virtual world. We are surrounded by the innovations and the rapid rate of change and even the field of governance is not left untouched by it. We come across many of the new innovations in our present times and the sphere of social networking is one shining example of the revolution in the field of Information technology. Although this is not very old concept and is its nascent stage but the social networking phenomenon continues to gain steam worldwide, and India represents one of the fastest growing markets at the moment. More than 33 million Internet users age 15 and older in India visited social networking sites in July, representing 84 percent of the total Internet audience. India now ranks as the seventh largest market worldwide for social networking, after the U.S., China, Germany, Russian Federation, Brazil and the U.K. The total Indian social networking audience grew 43 percent in the past year, more than tripling the rate of growth of the total Internet audience in India. Growth of Top 10 Social Networking Markets Worldwide July 2010 vs. July 2009 Total Worldwide – Age 15+, Home & Work Locations* Social Networking Unique Visitors (000) Jul-2009 www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

Jul-2010

% Change 19


International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Vol 1 (01) August 2013, [ISBN 978-93-83006-16-8] page 17-23 Worldwide

770,092

945,040

23%

United States

131,088

174,429

33%

China

N/A

97,151

N/A

Germany

25,743

37,938

47%

Russian Federation

20,245

35,306

74%

Brazil

23,966

35,221

47%

United Kingdom

30,587

35,153

15%

India

23,255

33,158

43%

France

25,121

32,744

30%

Japan

23,691

31,957

35%

South Korea

15,910

24,962

57%

Source: comScore Media Metrix Above mentioned table shows the increase in popularity of social networking sites as a means of communication especially in India. Although it may be an issue of endless debate that is these sites are good or bad for society but one think which we can see by the increasing users that is now people are spending their valuable time with these sites means they are willing to interact with people on regular basis, on-line and most of time real time basis. FORMAL MEAN OF COMMUNICATION With the rapid technological development governance has achieved various landmark .Now people are expiating much smart and advance form of administration in order to seek delivery of services from administration. Government

accepts formal form of communication in form of application, letter,

memorandum to know about demand, requirements, problems of government related to administration. Vice versa government strictly use formal type communication medium in form of order, bulletin, gazetteer, reports, brochure etcetera to establish communication with people. BHARAT SANDESH- GOVERNMENT WITH NETWORK For an effective and transparent governance it is essential for the government that government should insure facilitation of service in form of administration . The present E-governance system undoubtedly providing transparent and effective governance but one very important thing is missing that is Delivery of administration on real time basis. In present technical era this is the core of administration. Quick, simple and easiness are the prime features of web world and when people of all class of society are directly and indirectly associated with these social networking sites government should take it as opportunity for www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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implementation of e-governance .As for as present system of E-governance is concern it has been observed that by the implementation of first phase of e-governance people get enabled with the sense and knowhow of use of computer and network system in order to seek information from administration but it could be seen that in various cases that delivery of services takes same time as in case of off-line. For example â&#x20AC;&#x201C; If a person apply for any information regarding fee, or policy of government by using his/her Right â&#x20AC;&#x201C; To- Information by off line medium it will take 30 days and although in on line medium process is different and Government will receive that application much quicker than prior one, off line medium, but delivery of that information will take same days as in case of off line application. Here one thing should be notable that if delivery of service will take same day than what is the difference between traditional and e-governance. Although Government is receiving application means by such kind of egovernance system only one way communication is improved in terms of receiving application but facilitation of service in same manner ,which is an important part of overall process, is not possible which destruct basic concept of SMART Governance somewhere . BHARAT SANDESH: SARKAR AAPKE GHAR Government should develop its own networking site for the purposes of administration. Very similar to any other social networking sites this will also work. All ministries and departments of government should be member of this sites and a virtual office should host on this site. When any person having intention to seek any information from any department it would be responsibility of that particular ministry /department to insure the delivery of that kind of services to seeker on real time basis on-line. This can be understand by following exampleA Ask Information regarding procedures for the selection for the post of lecturer in University of Allahabad in that case if traditional pattern will adopt than it will take at least 15-30 days but by using BHARAT SANDESH ( Proto type website developed by author for this paper to describe this concept http://http://bharatsandesh.webs.com/) as this information will ask by people from concerning department that department will create a page in which certain query will be in following format NameAddressE-mail idPasswordwww.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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Concerning DepartmentDetails of debit/credit cardUnique identity-sign,thumb impression ,ratina etc. As information seeker will fill that form required information will upload by the concerning departments at the e-mail address mentioned by that person immediately on -real time basis. If any information is serious in nature for the security reason it is privilege of that department that department can deny to provide that information/s but department has to mention that clause on the e-mail address of applicant. Thus by this government can insure the delivery of next generation e-governance to its people. This concept can be use by various purposes by different department and can contribute in the delivery of smart administration. By this government can assure their people for followingsTransparency in data, decisions/actions, rules, procedures and performance of Govt. agencies •Automates processes to take away discretion •Entry point for simplification of rules and reengineering •Makes decisions traceable-tracks actions •Builds accountability-greater access to information through web publishing-role of civil society •Provides documentation to citizens for follow up •Introduces competition amongst delivery channels •Standardized documentation of comments/ objections leads to effective supervision-through comparative indicators •Centralizes and integrates data for better audit and analysis. •Enables unbiased sampling for audit purpose. CONCLUSION The results of first phase e-governance has shown rigidity of existing employee for this new kind of administration there may be number of reasons for this but all are deviating e-governance from its core motive. So there is need to change the mind-set of all the stakeholders involved, i.e. politicians, government officials and civil society at large. This would require a strong will to change among various stakeholders in the governance system. As the task involves redesigning of governmental processes at www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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various levels, implementing second generation e-Governance would require political support at all levels. On the other hand, government personnel would have to be incentivized to change old habits and acquire new skills. In the public, awareness needs to be created so that there is a constant demand for reforms in governance through implementation of e-Governance. But people should also feel their responsibility and have to cooperate with government to accomplish administrative objectives. REFERENCES •

www.scribd.com/doc/.../The-Effect-of-Social-Networking-Sites

http://www.scribd.com/doc/27327211/The-Influence-of-Social-Networking-Sites-toInterpersonal-Relationships-of-the-Students-of-Rogationist-College-High-School-Department-SY-2 www.thoughts.com/.../social-networking-sites-as-medium-of-e-governance009-2010

www.oregon.gov/DAS/.../social_networking.../index.shtml

mc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html

http://www.iimahd.ernet.in/egov/documents/opportunities-and-challenges-in-egovernance.pdf

http://www.availability.com/resource/pdfs/DPRO-100862.pdf

Kumar Abhay, Information Security Policy & Regulation Issues

Sharma K.K., Responsive Administration of the criminal justice system in India, special number on Towards Good Governance: initiatives in India, Prentice- hall of India, New Delhi

Sharma Vakul, E-governance & Information Technology Act ,2000(book

name is Information

Technology Law and Practice cyber law & e-commerce) Universal law publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. •

http://www.collectionscreditrisk.com/news/quarterly-merger-activity-see-saws-despite-upwardtrend-30059621.html?ET=ccrisk:e5846:58284a:&st=email&utm_source=editorial&utm_medium=email&utm_c ampaign=CCR_breakingnews_042611_042611

http://www.dnaindia.com/mumbai/report_over-half-of-indian-firms-store-digital-dataabroad_153723

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A SCENARIO OF MEDIA AWARENESS FOR SOCIAL NETWORKING Dr. Ramchandra, Dr. Yojna Lal, Dr. S.B. Lal Sam Higginbottm Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad, 211007, India dram_chandra@yahoo.co.in Abstract The term media is derived from Medium, which means carrier or mode. Media denotes an item specifically designed to reach a large audience or viewers. The term was first used with the advent of newspapers and magazines. However, with the passage of time, the term broadened by the inventions of radio, TV, cinemas and Internet. Tools for social networking and social awareness are developing rapidly and evolving continuously. They are gaining popularity in a growing number of professional as well as personal activities, including scholarly research. There are social awareness tools for science researchers that facilitate collaboration, help manage references, and offer options for presenting findings in new ways. This paper discusses those tools. Evaluating and understanding their functionalities requires effort, and scientists can be reluctant to invest the necessary time to learn to use and populate them on their own. This suggests that an important role for librarians is to evaluate the many social awareness tools available, to recommend the ones that are best suited to each researcher's needs, and to help researchers use those tools effectively. In the world of today, media has become almost as necessary as food and clothing. It is true that media is playing an outstanding role in strengthening the society. Its duty is to inform, educate and entertain the people. It helps us to know current situation around the world. The media has a strong social and cultural impact upon society. Because of its inherent ability to reach large number of public, it is widely used to convey message to build public opinion and awareness.

INTRODUCTION As social networking tools compete to touch all aspects of our lives, it is likely that science and scientific research will be increasingly affected. After all, social networks have always been a catalyst for scientific research â&#x20AC;&#x201D; from large formal conferences to weekly department get-togethers. Research must begin with an idea, and collaboration must begin with a connection. Social networks facilitate scientific progress by mixing people and ideas; social networking tools bring this mixing online. Now mini-conferences can be held in Google+, while spontaneous discussions erupt on Facebook, serendipitous meetings are enabled by Foursquare, and the insights from all these interactions are disseminated via Twitter. The rapid and www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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sustained adoption of these tools is making such scenarios more common. In just over two years of existence, Foursquare has surpassed 10 million users. (Indvik, 2011) Meanwhile, Facebook has 800 million active users, half of whom access the site on any given day. (Facebook, 2011) As these tools connect more people, they create more paths for ideas to travel, and subsequently more opportunities to seed new ideas. Once the crucial idea is sparked and the necessary collaborators are linked, the research begins, and a different set of tools becomes necessary. This paper discusses social awareness tools developed specifically for the scientific researcher â&#x20AC;&#x201D; tools to facilitate collaboration, tools to manage article references, tools to present findings in new ways. They are tools that the authors have used at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Research Library. The Library's Knowledge Systems team created ScienceSifter, SAT, and EXPAT, while the Library's Customer Service team has discussed VIVO, Mendeley and SciVee with interested researchers. Our scientists are not opposed to learning a single tool, but they have neither the time nor inclination to test all the different options themselves. We suspect this is not unique to our institution, but common across academia. One of the authors discovered similar concerns when the Penn State Hershey College of Medicine implemented the Harvard Catalyst Profiles tool. The implementation revealed how little scientists know about such tools and how little time they have to learn them. This suggests a role for librarians: to study the many social awareness tools available, to recommend the best one for each researcher's particular needs, and to help that researcher climb the tool's learning curve. PURPOSES: Mass media can be used for various purposes: Entertainment: The original idea behind the creation of various â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;media meansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; was to entertain masses. Radio, TV, cinemas and magazines spend most of their resources targeting on entertaining items and programs. Because of the growing population and developing lifestyle, the demand for more entertainment is increasing. Every year billions of dollars is traded in entertainment industry. News & Current Affairs: One of major duties of media today is to inform the people about the latest happening around them and the world. They cover all aspects of our interest like weather, politics, war, health, finance, science, fashion, music, etc. The need for more and more news has evolved into creation of dedicated TV & radio channels and magazines. People can listen, watch and read latest news whenever and wherever they want. Political Awareness: Media is the overseer of the political system. If it plays its role honestly, it will be a great force in building the nation. It plays a great role in bringing common man close to their leaders. The media

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focuses in bringing details of all major political situations, decisions and scenarios. Hence people can better understand their rights and make better decisions. Education: Because of the power of media is so extensive and huge, it can be used to educate people with very little cost. Imagine a classroom in every city with thousands of students being taught by just one teacher. But unfortunately, because of money-making approach of media and lack of interest by government, very less work is done in spreading the education. Public Announcements: Various authorities and agencies utilize the power of media to spread informative messages to public. This may include warning against a storm or epidemic, delay in arrival or departure of flights and trains, etc. In some cases, it is legally binding to publish notices in newspaper like tenders, change of property ownership, etc. Almost all business concerns use the power of media to sell their products. They advertise in media for the enhancement of business purposes. Huge amounts of money are invested in media for marketing of a product. The more attractive the advertisement, the more people will follow it. Even though there are lot of plus points for use of media but there are also many disadvantages associated with it. Media has the bad effect of inducing baseless ideas through advertisements. People are forced to buy harmful or substandard products. Sometimes, the Media develops unnecessary sensation and distortion of truth to attract attention. Because of its power to build public opinion, the influence of media can make or break the government. The media has the power of educating people, the good and the bad. Since it affect the eyes, the ears and the mind simultaneously nothing can overcome the influence of the media. The media in the advanced society should perform a noble mission of enlightening people and discourage sectarian, communal and divisive trends.

SOCIAL AWARENESS TOOLS VERSUS SOCIAL NETWORKING TOOLS Social tools can be broken down into two main types: social networking and social awareness. In this paper, we define social networking tools as those that build upon people, and social awareness tools as those that build upon data. Social networking tools allow a user to connect with others and utilize these connections to create networks. Social awareness tools, on the other hand, allow one to see or manipulate data about people, such as co-authorship networks. They allow the researcher to become aware of new social connections through the ability to view and combine data in different ways. These tools, however, are not mutually exclusive. A social tool that combines both social networking and social awareness elements provides a powerful framework for advancing research. www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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Social awareness tools and social networking tools are similar in many respects. A human element exists in social awareness tools, but data has an equally important role. Social networking tools, on the other hand, rely much more extensively on the human element, such as "friending" someone on Facebook, sending a tweet on Twitter, or adding someone to a Google+ circle. There is a required human action for these tools. As a result, an element of trust exists for the user within social networking tools, and recommendations and collaborations are built upon this trust. Social awareness tools build recommendations based on data. Some go so far as to predict successful collaborations for researchers who have never met, physically or virtually, in varying areas of research based solely on data. (Weber, 2011). Unlike social networking tools, people may not even realize they are using social awareness tools due to a lack of conceptual understanding or familiarity with such tools, especially when a social awareness tool is used within the framework of a social networking tool. The Friend Finder functionality and the targeted ads within Facebook are examples of "embedded" social awareness tools. These recommendations are based on data analysis. While many find the targeted advertisements invasive or annoying in a consumer setting, the use of such data mining techniques as components of a research tool could connect researchers and ideas that might otherwise never have the opportunity to interact. THE SCIENTIFIC APPLICATION OF SOCIAL AWARENESS TOOLS It is instructive to look to an earlier innovation in scientific communication â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the journal article. Compared to the time frame involved in the publication of a book, the journal article allowed scientists to disseminate their ideas quickly to a wide audience in a more concise format. A similar expediency also describes some of today's most popular social networking tools, like Twitter. Furthermore, the journal article shares another important similarity with social networking tools. Unlike email, chat or text, communication across the social network plays out in the public sphere, where it can be aggregated and analyzed. A scientist's journal article is intrinsically valuable to science in a way that his tweets or status updates are not. But like a component of a social network, the article has additional worth simply as one of many nodes in a network of literature. Networks form around all the ways articles connect to one another â&#x20AC;&#x201D; citations, subjects, co-authorships, affiliations, etc. Each of these networks can be mined. Citation analysis is perhaps the most familiar example. High citation counts hint at influential papers and researchers, while certain patterns of citations might reveal related sets of articles or topics that bridge disparate fields. www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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Social networking chatter itself may contain informative patterns. Just as one can read a scientist's peerreviewed, published articles, one may also follow that person's blog posts, online comments, shared videos, and so on. The latter communications may contain few novel scientific insights, but in aggregate, combined with those of his colleagues, and viewed across a network, these abbreviated communications may reveal aspects of science itself: the connections between researchers and disciplines, or the growth and emergence of ideas. The more social networking tools proliferate and flourish, the greater the potential exists for social awareness tools to harness data and enhance our understanding of the research process. VIVO and Harvard Catalyst Profiles VIVO and Harvard Catalyst Profiles, commonly referred to as Profiles, are open source research networking tools often described as "Facebook for Researchers." (Vence, 2009) Both are funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to support national networking for biomedical researchers. These systems allow researchers to create a profile describing their research areas, titles, education, grant awards, and publications. Authoritative information is harvested from external databases, such as PubMed, and a variety of internal databases. In Profiles, keywords are automatically generated from the MeSH (US National Library of Medicine, 2011) terms associated with harvested publications. Profiles software provides Active and Passive networks. The Active Networks are created by the person maintaining the researcher's profile page, in a way similar to Facebook. The person selects his collaborator. The Passive Networks are automatically generated based on data about the researcher. For example, MeSH terms associated with a researcher's publication can be used to link other researchers with similar interests (Weber, 2011). Profiles can predict potential collaborators based not only on matching keywords, but also on centrality metrics (Newman, 2001) calculated automatically through the social network analysis functionality. Both Vivo and Profiles provide powerful co-author visualizations, and allow users to glean information about funding and topics necessary for making future research decisions. The Research Networking Group of the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) consortium initiated the Direct2Experts (Distributed Interoperable Research Experts Collaboration Tool) pilot project, which includes Profiles and Vivo. The aim of this project was to design a national federated network of researchers across multiple institutions incorporating data from tools and platforms local to that institution. The initial 28 institutions successfully completed the project by creating a tool that provides the institutions as much control as possible over their data while creating a federated search. While this

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product should be considered a proof-of-concept, it is an example of just how far and fast a research network can grow. Mendeley Mendeley is an online service along the lines of Facebook or Flickr designed to help researchers manage and share their PDF files. Public collections share reading lists and associated metadata with the world at large. Smaller shared collections can include the full-text PDF articles. (Barsky, 2010) The creators attempted to mimic the music service Last.fm, which allows users to catalog their music, but at the same time anonymously aggregate data about listening preferences. Similarly, Mendeley was designed to create a way to help manage academic papers and anonymously track reading habits to show trends such as popular papers and key researchers within the various communities. By aggregating metadata, tags, and usage, Mendeley hopes to become an alternative to pay-walled databases. (Henning, 2008) Science Sifter ScienceSifter (Collins et al., 2005) was designed as a personalized RSS feed aggregator which focuses on the challenge of sifting through current scientific literature, in order to facilitate shared intellectual activity awareness among group members. Designed using open source tools, ScienceSifter provided an opportunity for the group of researchers or channel editors (trained librarians) to set up a collaborative space to share current scientific literature of interest. Setting up a collaborative space was a two-step process, in which the researchers: a) entered keywords of their interest, and b) selected different sources to aggregate current scientific literature. Once the collaborative space setup was complete, the ScienceSifter underlying architecture and algorithms were designed to use keywords of interest to automatically filter and aggregate multiple RSS feeds information. At a given time, results were displayed in one of the three different formats: list; a list with descriptions; and or hyberbolic tree visualization. Users of the group had an option to save items as part of their shared list. Thus ScienceSifter provided an opportunity for the researchers to save the amount of time they would normally spend in finding the current literature in the area of interest, and also save on time to setup user access privileges. SAT & EXPAT When you combine populations of users with social tools such as Facebook and Google+, social networks inevitably form. These networks are not just a function of technology but also human nature. Similarly, in scientific research, the end product includes several inherent mechanisms that make explicit the network

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of collaborations that resulted in the publication that describes it. The co-authorship listing, for example, delineates the network of collaborators for a paper. Broaden this network to all papers co-authored by each co-author, and soon you may end up with a fairly extensive and interesting network that is both temporally and topically diverse. It is through such networks that users may broaden their knowledge of a given topic, or serendipitously discover new material. Through semantic transformation of bibliographic data, the Knowledge Systems Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory formally represents these co-authorship networks using the Friend of a Friend (FOAF) ontology. FOAF describes people, and the relationships between them. The fact that two or more authors co-authored a paper is represented as a foaf:knows relationship between those authors. In this way, as data is mapped from a collection of bibliographic records, a social graph for these records is built. The tool built by the Knowledge Systems Team for exploring graphs like this is called the Social Awareness Tool, or SAT (Powell, et al., 2010). SAT renders a visualization of a co-authorship graph where authors are nodes and the edges connecting authors represent the know relationship. As one might imagine, with as few as a hundred records, the graph can grow to be quite large, so two techniques are employed to better enable users to explore the graphs. First, a user can search for text that occurs in a particular document's title or abstract. The resulting social network is a subset (a subgraph) of the entire co-authorship graph, where only authors and co-authors associated with papers that matched the search are returned. Secondly, network centrality measures are utilized to highlight certain special nodes. These centrality measures are calculations that can be used to determine things like the node with the most connections (degree) or the node that connects clusters of other nodes (betweenness). The SAT will generate views where the node with the highest degree centrality, or the node with the highest betweenness centrality, is highlighted. As noted above, there are some additional relationships specified in the semantic representation generated for bibliographic data. Subject-author relationships form the basis of a second tool called the expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT (Powell et al., 2010). EXPAT graphs show subject headings associated with authors. In the SAT, edges between nodes represent knows relationships, but the EXPAT is what is known as a bipartite graph, where two types of nodes occur in one graph. Author names are one of the node types, and subject headings are the other. Edges represent a relationship between authors and subjects. Although these graphs become complex very quickly, several query options are offered to limit the number of nodes displayed. The interdisciplinary nature of the work of some researchers is quickly and dramatically apparent in such graphs, as are the numerous connections among researchers in a particular field.

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These tools use semantic representations of bibliographic data combined with basic search for extracting specific subgraph that are then presented visually. A similar, but hypothetical analogy would be, for example, the ability to view a stripped-down map of the "friend" relationships in Facebook for a set of users, based solely on interests or content in status posts. This may not be an optimal method for locating friends on a social networking site but it works quite well for research purposes. Furthermore, it is difficult to imagine how one might enable users to explore these relationships in a conventional text interface. As a social awareness tool, SciVee provides the researcher with a multimedia presentation that makes scientific content more accessible, engaging and even more enjoyable, while also providing a quicker means to view the work of other scientists and to form collaborations. From a scientific standpoint, this makes it a considerably more desirable tool than the more mainstream social networking sites such as YouTube. More importantly, it provides researchers with an effective way in which to potentially increase the number of views of their publications and broaden their audience. (Fink & Bourne, 2007) The developers of SciVee predict that today's generation of graduate and post-doc student scientists will help to incite a "revolution in scientific communication", since "cyberinfrastructure" was, in actuality, part of their daily life while growing up and so it is quite natural for them to perform research solely within an electronic framework. (Fink & Bourne, 2007) Given the Pub Castâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s dynamic attributes, it seems reasonable to conclude that this particular form of scientific communication will only serve to present science in a way that is more accessible and engaging for the viewer than text alone, and with SciVee's target audience being primarily scientists, researchers are also provided with an effective medium from which to distribute their publications, increase article views, view the work of other scientists, and form collaborations. WHY USE THESE TOOLS These tools allow users to acquire an overview and a greater understanding of current research fields and emerging fields. (Howard, 2011) Trending research areas can reveal themselves in social networking chatter long before publications, or even preprints, have caught up. The aware researcher might publish early on an emerging topic and thereby enjoy the first-mover advantage of a high citation count. Similar tools have been proposed in other fields, for instance, to predict the stock market (Bollen, et al., 2011) or detect emerging geo-social events. (Lee, et al., 2011) Why not science? New collaborations can be discovered, and these tools allow researchers to easily leave their research silos. Serendipity will increase, as will interdisciplinary work. Social awareness tools, while foreign and cumbersome to many, are

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increasingly becoming the norm for early career and future scientists. Knowledge and use of these tools will provide a competitive edge, as administrators and funding agencies are increasingly using these tools during the decision-making process. Social awareness tools will have a profound effect on scientific discovery both today and tomorrow. CONCLUSION Social awareness tools can enhance the research process. Tools like VIVO and Profiles can connect researchers to collaborators; ScienceSifter can connect researchers to scientific literature; and the SAT and EXPAT tools can do both. While a paper is being developed, authors can discover and manage new references in Mendeley. When a paper is completed, a site like SciVee can move its core ideas beyond the static page. Social awareness tools can benefit researchers, and that alone makes them of interest to research librarians. Librarians may be called upon to troubleshoot issues for those who are already using these tools. They might recommend and teach these tools to other patrons. Librarians themselves can employ these tools to answer reference questions, or to facilitate their own special projects. Organizations of all kinds, including libraries, must leverage widely-used technologies if they are to develop a trusted digital presence. But more than that, libraries and librarians are a crucial nexus between the information scientists who develop these tools and the research scientists who use them. In teaching these tools, librarians are well placed to discover ways to improve them. And as shepherds of the research process, they are well placed to imagine and ask for new tools that have not yet been theorized. Thus, libraries can shape not just the preservation and discovery of scientific research, but also its creation. REFERENCES •

[1] Barsky, E. (Summer 2010). Electronic Resources Reviews and Reports. Issues in Science and Technology Libraries, 62.

[2] Bollen, J., Mao, H., & Zeng, X. (2011). Twitter mood predicts the stock market. Journal of Computational Science, 2(1), pp.1-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocs.2010.12.007

[3] Collins, L. M., Mane, K. K, Martinez, M. L. B., Hussell, J. A. T., & Luce, R.E. (2005). ScienceSifter: Facilitating activity awareness in collaborative research groups through focused information feeds. 1st IEEE International conference on e-Science and grid computing (e-Science 2005), Melbourne, Australia. pp. 40-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/E-SCIENCE.2005.72

[4] Facebook, Statistics.

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[5] Fink, J. L. & Bourne, P.E. (2007). Reinventing Scholarly Communication for the Electronic Age. CT Watch Quarterly, 3(3).

[6] Henning, V. (2008). Mendeley — A Last.fm for Research? Fourth IEEE International Conference on eScience. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/eScience.2008.128.

[7] Howard, J. (September 11, 2011). Citation by Citation, New Maps Chart Hot Research and Scholarship's Hidden Terrain. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

[8] Indvik, L. (June 20, 2011) Foursquare Surpasses 10 Million Users. Mashable.

[9] Lee, R., Wakamiya, S., & Sumiya, K. (2011). Discovery of unusual regional social activities using

geo-tagged

microblogs.

World

Wide

Web,

14,

pp.321-329.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11280-011-0120-x.

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ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN SOCIAL AWRENESS 1

Virginia Paul, 2Dr. Priyanka Singh, 3Dr. Sunita B. John

1

Associate Professor, Department of Home Science, 2In charge & Assistant Professor, 3

Head & Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education School of Social Work, SHIATS, Naini, Allahabad, UP

1

vpaul17@gmail.com, 2secretary.bsss@gmail.com, 3subijohn2002@yahoo.com

INTRODUCTION Social awareness means that you should know what is socially acceptable from you in society and you should act in that manner. Mass media has a prominent role to play in modern society. It can bring about radical changes and improve social situation as it influences our social, civil, cultural, political, economic and aesthetic outlook. Modernization has converted media into an indispensable feature of human activity. However, factors like age, education, economic condition, personal needs and availability of proper components decide the quantum and frequency of media use. This is evident from the fact that most media centres are located in urban areas. The majority of consumers of media products are also concentrated in and around cities and towns. Scientific literacy is the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision making, participation in civic and cultural affairs, and economic productivity. It involves the negotiation of socio-scientific issues and requires ability to make informed decisions regarding these issues as they have moral and ethical implications too. We confront issues with a scientific dimension on a daily basis through the media. If the idea of scientific literacy is to have relevance for situations where students encounter science, it has to include the ability to engage constructively in socio-scientific issues in examining a variety of real world issues and grounding scientific knowledge in such realities. In today's world, such issues might include the impact on society of: global warming, genetic engineering, animal testing, deforestation practices, nuclear testing and environmental legislations.

EFFECT OF MASS MEDIA The influence of media on society has been growing fast renewals in the community. Renewal of the intangible changes nothing and there are negative toward the positive direction. Media influence is related to other aspects such as the nature of a communicator, the content / information from the media itself, as well as responses from the community. Consciously or unconsciously, people are often influenced by mass media, such as persuading the media to use a particular product or indirectly persuaded to support a particular political ideology or political party. In connection with this matter, there are some contemporary theories related to the influence of mass communication which has been classified into four sections, namely:

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Individual Differences Theory: According to this theory there is a new trend in the formation of a personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s character through the learning process. The big difference in mindset and motivation based on the experience of learning. Individual differences due to environmental differences resulting in different views in the face of things. Environment will influence the attitudes, values and beliefs that underlie their personalities want to respond to incoming information. Thus the influence of media on individuals will vary from one another. Social Categorization Theory: Social classification is based on income level, sex, education, residence or religion. In this theory says that people who have certain traits that tend together will form the same attitudes in the face of certain stimuli. This equation affects their responses to receive the messages conveyed in the mass media. Theory of Social Relations: According to this theory most of the people receiving the messages conveyed in the media many obtained through relationships or contacts with others rather than accept direct from the mass media. In this case, inter-personal relationships have a strong influence on the delivery of information by the media. Theory of Cultural Norms: This theory assumes that the message / information conveyed by the mass media in certain ways can lead to different interpretations by the public in accordance with the culture. This implies that the media influence individual attitudes. There are several ways by the mass media in influencing cultural norms. First, the information conveyed to strengthen the cultural patterns prevailing and convinces people that culture is still valid and must be obeyed. Second, the mass media to create a new culture that can complement or improve the old culture that is not contradictory. Third, the mass media can change the cultural norms that already exist and are valid for a long time and the changing attitudes of society itself.

THE ORIENTATION OF THE MASS MEDIA Social change is a symptom of the changing social structure and cultural patterns within a society and is a general phenomenon that happens all the time in every society. Social change in the community includes several orientations, including (1) Changes with the orientation in an effort to leave the factors or elements of social life that must be abandoned or changed, (2) Changes with the orientation in some form or element or elements that do form new, (3) Change-oriented forms, elements, or values that have existed or exist in the past.

In establishing the orientation of a change process, there are several factors that give strength to the orientation of these changes, among others, are as follows: (1) Attitude, in this case both the scale and the scale of groups of individuals who are able to appreciate the works of others, without being seen from the large-scale or small labour productivity itself, www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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(2) The ability to tolerate some deviation from the forms or elements of routine, because in fact one of the drivers of change in the individuals who deviate from the routine things, creatures who like to deviate of the elements of routines, (3) Establish a habit or a mental attitude, which could give an award (reward) to other parties (individuals, groups) who excel in innovation, both in the field of social, economic, and science and technology, (4) Availability of facilities and education and training services that have the specifications and qualifications progressive, democratic, and open to all parties who need them. A process of social change is not always oriented to the advancement alone. A setback and the degradation (fade or loss of a degree or qualification forms or Nial-values in society), not only in one direction or orientation changes linearly, but also had the residual effect of the success of a change process. For example changes in science and technology, from science and technology that earthy to modern science and technology (forward), may lead to jiggle-jiggle on the elements or the values prevailing in society was concerned, which is often referred to as culture-shock.

ROLE AND FUNCTION OF NEWS MEDIA AS SUPPORTING CHANGE Consciously or unconsciously the mass media has become an important part of community life. Through media we can learn many things that can be made a lesson. News about the events that occurred abroad and domestic to know quickly and easily through the mass media. This is because the mass media have the ability to deliver information effectively. The roles of mass media are: Firstly, the media can expand the horizons of thought. Most people who live in traditional societies consider the media have supernatural powers when you first knew him because the media can make a person see and know the places that have never visited and know people who have never met. The media has helped people recognize the developing countries of other peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lives so that they gain a new outlook in life. The mass media can be a bridge between traditional societies transition toward a modern society. Secondly, the mass media to focus attention. Traditional society moving toward a modern little by little began to hang up his knowledge on the mass media so that the things about whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s important, which is dangerous, what is interesting and forth from the media. As a result, over time people began to leave the customs or culture and assume that culture as something ancient and modern. Therefore, the mass media should be able to decide exactly what information or rubric that will be delivered because the media can influence in public mindset and raise peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s aspirations. Thirdly, able to raise the aspirations of the mass media. Indirectly growing community aspirations through broadcasts or information delivered media. Many new things are delivered by media, for example of the style of dress or hairstyle that makes people compelled to make or use the same things www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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as their views through the media. The important thing to realize and note that sometimes excessive aspirations will take the risk and bad things will not be considered as a fault. The function of the mass media as a supporter of social changes: First, as a giver of information. In this case the function of information delivery can be done alone by the media. Without the media, it is unlikely the information can be delivered accurately and quickly. Second, as decision-making. In this case the mass media play a role as a support which requires discussion groups that will take a decision, besides that it expected a change in attitudes, beliefs and social norms. This means that mass media play a role in delivering information as a discussion, to convey the message of community leaders and clarify the issues that it conveys. Third, the media serve as educators. In this case, the media can increase the level of public knowledge

EFFECT OF MASS MEDIA ON SOCIAL CHANGE Rapid development of information and communication technologies such as mass media, causing rapid changes occur everywhere. The mass media gradually bringing in community into a new cultural patterns and begin to determine the cultural mindset and peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s behaviour. Without realizing the mass media have helped set the schedule of our lives and create a number of needs. Existence of mass media in presenting the information tends to trigger a change and an impact on determining the pattern of community life. Various information presented is considered to give a tangible influence positive and negative. Slowly but effectively, the media shape public views on how a person sees his own and how one should relate to the everyday world. The media shows the public how the standard of living worthy of a human being, thus indirectly causing the community to assess whether their environment is feasible or whether it has met these standards and this figure is heavily influenced from whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s seen, heard and read from the media. Message / information conveyed by the media can be a supportive community for the better, making people feel good about themselves, feel fairly or otherwise restore trust him or feel low than the other. The shift pattern of behaviour that resulted from the mass media can occur in a family environment, school, and in social life. Lifestyle changes in terms of mimesis or imitation excessively against themselves a figure that was idolized based on information obtained from the media. Usually someone will imitate everything connected with her idol was both in terms of dress, look, cut her hair or the way of speaking that reflects his idol . The above tends to be more influential on the younger generation. The socio-psychological, information flows that continue to hit our lives will cause various effects on mental development, especially for children and adolescents. The pattern of their behaviour, little by little influenced by what they receive that may deviate from the stage of mental development as well as the norms and regulations. This can happen when watching or information that should be consumed

by

adults

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was

watched

by

children

(Amini,

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The impact of mass media can include a wide range of behaviours that deviate from social norms or cultural values. In modern times the public generally assumes it is not something that violates the norm, but considered part of a mass trend now. In addition, the development of mass media is very fast

and

can

be

enjoyed

easily

because

people

tend

to

think

practically.

With the development of mass media especially with the advent of electronic mass media (the modern mass media) to make people more or less constantly overwhelmed felt not satisfied and life-style instant-paced lifestyle like this without any conscious will kill the creativity that is in us in the future.

CONCLUSION In general, the mass media is a means to deliver information from a source of information (communicator) to the recipient information (communicants).The entry of information by the mass media impact social change in society. Information thus has the power both to build and destroy. This means that the mass media in this double-faced. Information that until society can be taken differently by each individual depending on their interests and depend of societyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability in using information coming proportionally. The most contrasting impact is felt among the community is changing lifestyles and patterns of behaviour which society requires to be versatile instant, causing a shift of cultural values in public life. Mass media presence is felt more influence on the younger generation who are in the stage of self. The information received from the media is affecting the social and cultural life of a society both in the perception of his attitude and behaviour. Mass media has created a new culture that wants the public to adjust to the culture. Adjustment of public attitudes toward popular culture caused a social change in all dimensions of public life and public demands for change from traditional society to the society with a modern lifestyle.

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GLOBALISATION AND HIGHER EDUCATION THREAT OR OPPORTUNITY Dr Richa Mishra Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Isabella Thoburn College, Lucknow, UP, India richa.tuhina@gmail.com Abstract India has successfully created one of the leading higher

education systems in the world.

It

has

proved its worth in this arena also. Eminence of many top institutions is recognized to be analogues to the best in the world. However, Indian education system faces problems from the issues that keep originating from disparities and developmental practices adopted. As a result of which even after all the remarkable development in the areas of Information Technology, space science, nuclear technology,

oil exploration, industrial production etc., India is

still

not

able

to

eradicate

its problems of poverty, ignorance and underdevelopment completely and successfully due to various reasons. Nearly third are illiterate

one-fourth

of

and

the

population

is still below poverty line; one-

disparities amongst rich-poor, urban-rural, educated-

uneducated are high, which are posing hindrances in the developmental phenomena. Now as the country has opened its door to the foreign contributors in the fields like education, the country has to face challenges of globalization and pressures of liberalization while continuing its fight against poverty, illiteracy and disadvantages to upgrade its stature from developing to a developed economy. Keeping the above in view, present paper deliberates the impact of globalisation on higher education with the analysis of the opportunities and threats.

INTRODUCTION Education system in India has got a history which can be dated centuries back to the age of Buddha and, now, along with passed span, there has in fact been substantial improvement in the higher education state of affairs of India in both quantitative and qualitative terms post globalization. Globalization has brought in a number of changes in the world today changing in to a global market. The direct interrealtion between the industry, corporate world and higher education has brought a transformation in the skills required for various jobs. The process of globalization has brought significant transformation in the world trade, communications, educational activities and economic relations since the latter part of 20th century. www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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Student’s option for higher education is no longer constrained by national boundaries. For the first time in history in the era of globalization, world’s student population truly have access top a ‘global market place’ of higher education. The number of students who are able to pursue education in other countries has really changed, with the advent of a new Indian middle class and increased wealth of the Indian upper class, as a result of which there has been a rapid integration of countries across the globe in terms of commodities as well as finance.

GLOBALIZATION Globalisation can be most commonly defined as the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture, which promises dramatic and rewarding change to the higher education systems of the developed as well as developing countries. If we analyse the case of the developing countries like India, where the system is facing the scarcity of resource, it threatens the stability needed to build the well performing system. Developing countries gets entangled in the volatile atmosphere of the Globalisation as there is a kind of an unexpected change which requires an immediate adjustment ( willingly or unwillingly) both to that quickening pulse of international change, and accordingly it brings reform on several fronts simultaneously, which gives rise to a grim plight under the given resource status of higher education.

Taking into consideration the positive contribution of the Globalisation in India in form of the opportunities, the evolution of information technology has enhanced the relationship between economic development and higher education and resultantly, highly skilled and educated people became an important pillar in economic growth. Thinkers like Gregor (2002) believes that, policy makers realized that universities are key contributors to economic prosperity. The evolution of technology, according to him, increased the competition between universities themselves. The process goes on in the manner that, Universities realize the existence competitive programmes from national and international academic institutions. As a result, governments and universities became responsible for improvement in higher education. Council for Higher Education (2008) confirms that some western nations have the goal of becoming global leaders in higher education. This new goal requires re-evaluation of curriculum and programmes to make them adequate for the challenges of globalization. Adding to this, according to Gregor (2002), the shift toward globalization has encouraged academic institutions, especially US universities, to improve the skills of their graduates to meet the needs of national and international markets.

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While it can be true that some Indian universities are going global, it can be argued that many other nations are also going global which again gives rise to a stiff competition in the field of higher education also. Like the other sectors, there exist and a nexus between the industrial and education sector also and a strong relationship among them can be important for the sustainability of the both system. In India, quality of higher education was also an important agenda of the government reform. In the recent span, Indian reform policies gave much weight to the quality of higher education. This has been done keeping in view the undeniable fact that our nation has a need for new technology and education to improve their social and economic life. For example, in the field of information technology, its advancement is helping people around the world connect in a unified global culture. This technological development encouraged universities to interact effectively with students from different nationalities. There is no more a distance hindrance by the augmentation of the concepts like Virtual classes. Foreign universities have opened their doors for Indian students and providing their access towards the specialised courses through student Visa. Higher education systems around the world, according to Olaniran and Agnello, have encouraged the use of technology, enhanced individual’s capabilities, and responded to future demand in order to compete in a global market. Concepts like online universities, private universities, and other privately owned and managed programs are the resultant accomplishments. Higher education systems in developed countries like USA, UK became exporters of the commodity of education to developing countries like India. Indeed, both developed and developing countries are benefiting from each other. The profitability of the higher education industry can also being realised from the increasing demand for academic degrees. The development in technology has also affected cultures in many countries around the world. According to Olaniran and Agnello, technology has encouraged the creation of global culture and global education but may diminish cultures of smaller and poor countries The points to be taken in concern to this development are: •

Parity in the Benefits of globalization to the different sections of the society – which is believed to be “far uneven”.

Its role in creating greater social inequality – widening the gaps between the unaffordable and affordable

Its role in disturbing the indigenous culture, tradition and values.

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Its role in huge investment in foreign currency and still not the confirmation of the jobs from it can be earned back.

THE INDIAN SCENARIO As on today we have more than 300 universities, institutions of higher learning and deemed universities, out of which 130 deemed to be universities, 13 institutions of national importance, 41 central universities, 274 state universities, 5 institutions established under state legislation act and about 26,885 colleges in India. Education System has increased sixteen-fold in terms of the number of universities and thirty three-fold in terms of the number of colleges, in comparison to the number at the time of Independence.1 At the beginning of the academic year 2004, the total number of students enrolled in the formal system of education in universities and colleges was 99.53 lakh- 12.97 lakh (13.3 per cent) in university departments and 86.57 lakh (86.97 per cent) in affiliated colleges and 4.37 lakhs teaching Faculty employed making India’s system of higher education the second largest in the world. “To finance this expansion, the Government of India consistently increased its share in the total expenditure on higher education—from 49.1 percent in 1950–51 to more than 90 percent today. It is significant that despite these impressive statistics the system caters to hardly 6 percent of the relevant age group, as compared to more than 80 per-cents in the developed countries.” This is partly because the expansion has been offset by the growth of the population in the relevant age group. 2 CHALLENGES There is no doubt that it is a difficult task for developing countries to bridge gaps and to keep pace with the developed world. Massification of higher education can rather been responsible for this expansion. One of the main reasons is that resource constraints are severe, and the quality of education available to most Indian students is questionable in terms of its ability to face the challenges posed by further education as well as employment market. The situation is further complicated by the rigidities of the higher education system, the political pressures from regional, religious and castebased groups, and related problems. GLOBALIZATION: OPPORTUNITY OR THREAT? Globalisation has got innumerable opportunities in the field of higher Education in diverse fields. now, appears to be immense, and areas are diverse. The incredible development in information technology has promoted learners' method of learning in both the formal and distance modes. According to (Evans, 1995)- Globalization is simply putting 'the space - time compression' which brings together nations, cultures, economies and at the same time increasing Interdependency. www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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Concepts like Distance education and virtual Institutions, that is commonly regarded to be an industrialized form of education, is now taking place in India, which is proving to be more cost effective.3 INTERNATIONAL AVENUES With the opening up of foreign boundaries, the aspiring students who are left out and failed to secure their seats in India’s premiere and even leading Institutions can now go abroad to fulfill their aspirations. With the fast growing Information and communication technology (ITC) the availability and flow of academic resource materials is providing input to the academicians to compete anywhere in the world. It assists in research practices and inspires the Indian academicians for research and publications on issues that are of international importance in order to make their mark in their respective disciplines. For Example, countries Germany has soften its entry requirement conditions to make it accessible for Indian students who are aspiring to build their career in pioneering researches. The envisioned policy reform has facilitated in opening up space for establishment of private universities, easing and eliminating research restrictions, entry of graduate students, encouragement for "foreign collaboration" in the university sector and joint ventures in an academic activities as it now exists in private industries. System-wide higher education reform and incremental approach to liberalization of higher education may help India to take advantage of opportunities in the new global environment. POLICY CONCERNS Policy makers in India might have to be concerned with increasing adult participation in continuing education and training, particularly in relation to enhanced employability. Globalization, as a process no doubt has coined the concept of decentralized educational governance and control. The centre has viewed decentralization as a way to increase efficiency by giving more responsibility to local level functionaries, which in turn is expected to increase motivation and accountability. Further it is trying to involve the local community in the very planning and decisionmaking process of education and making them responsible for “the state of the art”. Internet with its potential global reach performs its role successfully as an interactive medium. It has the capacity to bring knowledge and prosperity to isolated and marginalized individuals and nations. But limited access to the Internet, the “digital divide,” or the disparity creates inequity that exacerbates other inequities. No developing country has benefited more from the digital revolution www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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than India, and in no country is the digital divide wider or deeper. On the other side of the digital divide are the 45 percent of the population who cannot read or write (57 percent of the female population), the 44 percent who survive on less than Rs. 50 per day, and those who live in the 370,000 villages where there is no telephone connections. Financial restraints in India have resulted in the emphasis over the cost-efficiency concern. This actually needs the constant performance evaluation and quality watch at all levels of education which in turn can pave way for private players in this field but this phenomenon actually is affecting the parity issue. Thus, the major apprehension of globalization has been to fulfil the national objective of equality. Education has also become a paid subject where the access is subject to the payment of appropriate prices after privatisation. Thus it has become a mode of revenue for the Government and so the government is encouraging the establishment of even larger number of private institution and universities since then. But along with this phenomenon, there is an on-going concern for the class with unaffordability issue. The process and effects of economic and cultural globalization are becoming evident in our educational Programmes and are expressed by teachers and students with particular reference to the ways in which the global media (such as television media and internet) are deployed in the construction of knowledge. - The threat is possibility of erosion of national values by imbibing the alien culture. The changes that are taking place in the country, even at the lower level of the country: a drastic change can be assessed in terms of the power relations and consciousness at various level of the civil divide. As a result of the ingress of the foreign capital huge macro level change in technology and media have also made their places and influence upon the Indian society but the mass result of such drastic and unexpected changes in culture by the Indian appetite in facing the new capitalist orders are yet to be realised. This can pose a threat to the national cultural values. In India, during this period of globalization, much of the contemporary thought has gone into the issues of programmed learning, multimedia teaching, macro-micro-teaching, distance learning and other problems related to curriculum. No subject has been so much neglected as has been done to the development of humanistic values, creativity, cultural, moral and spiritual dimensions in the teaching-learning process. - The threat is for the erosion of rich and old culture of human values.

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According to (Edward, 1994), the philosophies of the states and of multinational agencies brought the technological Revolution. The process has been further promoted by the transport system, communication network, and it has increased the Economic activity, but Globalization does not necessarily result in homogenizations; on the contrary, it is leading to the strengthening of the ethnic identities both at local & regional levels - The threat is to the Nations Integrity.4 POINTS OF CONSIDERATIONS: •

The key issues thus comprise the following:

Up gradation of the quality of the Indian universities when the quality mass of students and working group switches for Global choices;

The choice of decision that universities will make towards the poor who cannot afford the global choices;

The standards of universities and the capacity to compete with the world market. Our universities will raise standards and employ all those business tricks to attract foreign students to our universities.

The political complexities impinging on the higher education system and the possibilities under given circumstances;

The state of the art resource condition and its impact on the infrastructural, library and laboratory conditions;

The computer facilities and Internet access etc. are only a few to be mentioned.

RECOMMENDATIONS: Globalisation can no doubt be viewed as a huge opportunity for a country like India and this actually was the reason of the transformation of India from a closed economy to an open one where gradually most of the key sectors were opened keeping a welcoming approach in mind. One of those key sectors is Education also where the benfits from global revolution can be very well realised. But if this profit has to be realised in real terms then, it would require major policy reforms. These reforms involve both structural and Institutional reforms. Which will further involve reforms with regard to university structure; function, structure function relation, funds and the way universities are regulated. It would also require firm associations between industries and institutions especially in the growing technology-based sectors, and an entrepreneurial style of leadership to head the Indian universities. www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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The above mentioned remedial actions can make India a strong deserver to reap the benefits of Globalisation. It will be very well able to capture the benefits of globalization as there is no doubt that the country has inormous potential and individuals are capable, yet the subjective dilemmas appear to be the crux of the matter. The goal shall be “how to achieve the concrete gains from existing higher system, competing with Global trends without sacrificing national goals of higher education and development and without abandoning its commitment to Indian tradition and cultural values is a real challenge. With the liberalization of the country’s economy, global market forces have generated new fears and dilemmas for higher education in India. In order to take advantage of the India has always been a lucrative destination for foreign entrants due to its abundance in raw materials in the form of low cost of educated labor, natural resources, high population and unused materials etc, this has always been the reason that multinationals have taken interest in locating many of their labor-intensive operations here. REAL CONS INVOLVED: •

While institutions of higher education are moved to produce fail or mode skilled manpower to suit their requirements.

The idea is still blurred that what is its contribution to the country’s economic growth and to the society at large.

Commercialization of education may in turn is unjust in a sense and penalize the participation of brilliant students coming from poor background with their unaffordability of costlier education.

Also, in nation building an overwhelming emphasis on commercialization and competition also involves risk of undermining the inculcation of higher values of sacrifice, service and commitment to the country,

A loss that may be difficult to overcome on national ground

It may contribute for materialism and self-centeredness converting students towards selfcentred personality.

As per the belief amongst villagers that education alienates persons from their grass roots.

CONCLUSION: The context of Globalisation of higher education needs to be inculcated from the angle of different important angles like, Socio-Economic, Political and Academic which pertains to the allocation of the Education resource and degree of efficiency in the same. Internationalization of higher education www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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where in mutual sharing of knowledge, skills and research generally takes place with the objective of mutual benefit and also aimed at national and global development? In this, globalization process the issue of relevance of programmes is questioned in term of relevance to whom? Globalisation is an opportunity for those who are aware of the benefits due to their vigilance and inquisitiveness, which have proper access to the information. Every individual wants to lead a complete and successful life with most of the amenities and basic necessities though only a few actually gets the affordability of availing them due to limited supply of resources insufficient for unlimited demands. It is a threat for those who are ignorant and has no information, and no means to get this information, and not even know from where to get this information and to the extent not even known that they do not have the information, and impact of this status on them. This group, which is large enough to ignore, would remain the sufferers. To improve this plight and convert it into opportunity the following steps shall be taken: ¾ Urbanization of Rural areas i.e. provide all those facilities to rural mass; ¾ Nationalization prior to Globalization; ¾ Equalization of access and opportunities; ¾ Decentralization of powers to the stakeholders; ¾ Qualification of existing institutions to the international standards.

With these, preparation probably the impact of globalization would be positive. REFERENCES: •

UGC Annual Report, 2000-2001

Evans, T. (1995) Globalisation, post-Fordism and open and distance education.

Edwards, R (1994) From a distance: globalisation, space-time compression, and distance education.

Dr. Mithilesh Kumar Singh: Challenges of Globalization on Indian Higher Education

John Smyth, "Globalization and Higher Education: What's Happening to Academic Work?" in Ninth World Congress on Comparative Education: Tradition, Modernity, and Post modernity (Sydney) Proceedings, 1996) and John Smyth, ed., Academic Work: The Changing Labour Process in Higher Education (Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press, 1995

Bayan Y. Farhan, The Impact of Globalization on Higher Education

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SOCIAL MEDIA AND AWARENESS IN GLOBAL SOCIETY 1

1

Dr. Priyanka singh, 2Dr. Yagya Brat Dwivedi Asst. Professor, 2Guest Faculty School of Social Work SHIATS, Naini, Allahabad, UP yagya_eco@yahoo.com

Social media has been defined as “a group of internet- based applications that allow the creation and exchange the user-generated content, ‘Furthermore, social media depends on mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive platform through which individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content. It introduces substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities and individual’’. To appreciate the significance of those statement above one needs to take a quick look at a certain set of reasonably well-authenticated statistics relating to internet usage and penetration that pertain to June 2012. If one compares these numbers with a similar set of figures pertaining to the situation that prevailed twelve years earlier at the beginning of the new millennium, internet use globally has grown by over 560 per cent in this period. Still, the penetration of the internet in the total population of the world is just over 30 per cent; in other words, two out of three individuals on the planet still have not used the internet, leave alone benefit from it.

Social media includes the ability and the facility to discuss, create cooperate on, share and modify information in text, image, audio and video forms among users of social networking website such as face book, Twitter flicker, you tube linked in interest my space sound cloud and a host of other similar sites.

The role of social media in the creation of what is called 'shared awareness’ is immense. This awareness can be used for political mobilization as witnessed in 2001 in the impeachment trial of Philippines president Joseph Estrada, one million Signatures Campaign to secure women’s right in Iran, Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia or the might lead Arab Spring, movements in India and Bangladesh recently etc. But it has also that might lead to anarchism and damage to the socio-political fabric of a country. Not long go, communal tension was generated in a number of states in South India due to sharing of morphed photographs on the internet and spreading of rumour though text messages.

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The power and democratizing potential of this medium is now being widely recognized by the governments across the world. Social Media is seen to be a platform to engage people in the developmental programmes of the government, seek feedback, check corruption and empower the people. However, it may not be quit correct to say that this medium in itself can achieve the goals enumerated above since its reach is still limited to less than 10 percent of the population. In India the number of people activity using social Media is about 66 million but it is growing fast with the availability of cheaper broadband connection and internet enabled mobile handset at very low prices. This opens up immense possibilities for policy makers and public bodies to reach the grass root for the formulation and implementation of the programmers of the government. it is indeed enriching and deepening the democratic ethos of the country.

The Social Media is also transforming the contour of social interaction, changing the way we look at love, friendship, family, intimacy, language and expression, liking or disliking something etc. with of personal data like photographs, video, music, document and all kinds of information being just a click away, a number of ethical and moral questions are arising that need to be tackled. Children and young adults are often unaware of the dangers behind the reckless use of face book, You Tube, Instagram, file sharing programmers etc. Parents and teachers are slowly waking up to the reality of the Social Media as a fact of life that needs close attention.

Social media can become a very effective policy tool for Government if they learn to leverage it in the best possible manner. Governments across the world need to communicate more effectively, engage citizens, garner feedback on polices and programmers in real time, and demonstrate a commitment to a more participative governance model. In all these areas social media platforms can offer the right interfaces and tools. Further, as internet penetration increases manifold and it becomes more localized, social media will enable more and more people to get connected. A part from our office initiatives in the Government of India are committed to harnessing social media. An ever increasing number of Ministries/ organization are on social media platforms including the Ministry of External Affairs, the planning Commission and the Prime Ministerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Office. For instance, the finance Minister conducted a Google hangout to explain the budget to

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the people of the country, a first of it kind at national level. The planning commission has also taken some creative steps towards leveraging social media which was demonstrated in its efforts to communicate the 12th plan via social media. The Deputy Chairman and Members of the Commission discussed. The plan and answered questions from the public on a Google Hangout for the first time. The Planning Commission in collaboration with our office also organized. A Hackathon on the Plant to receive feedback, visualizations, animations, etc. On the subject matter of the 12th Plan. This Hackathon also highlighted the power of this medium to crowd source creativity, talent and new solutions.

In march 2013, the planning commission went live on Twitter simultaneously, the commission’s old account on facebook was reactivated and accounts were created on Google + Slide share and YouTube. The idea was to make the 12th Plan more accessible and easy to read, and available in different depths for the audience.

Let us consider what happened when ethnic clashes between the indigenous Bodo tribe and Bengali Muslim setters broke out in the district of Kokrajhar in Assam on July 25, 2012. Mainstream media, after choosing to not fully report clashes, were subjected to pertinent questions and adverse criticism on social media on their silence and/or inadequate coverage of the situation, offered various and perhaps curious reasons for this lack of reportage. While social media did step in with users reporting from the affected areas, and information about shelters, hospitals, relief facility also being made available on any websites, the flip side was the vicious and unwarranted rumors too were transmitted via social media. These rumors, which began to circulate in early August via social networking sites as well as through mobile telephone and messaging, caused panic among India’s north-eastern ethnic people who were located in southern and western India, Mainly in Bangalore but also in Chennai, Mumbai and Pune. The Indian Railway had to cope with an unprecedented rush of these people wanting to go home as soon as possible as they had ‘heard’ that Muslim fundamentalists would target them in retaliation for the clashes that had taken place in particular areas in Assam where Bodos live.

This negative aspect of the social media has to be placed has to be placed in a wider context. There is one view that argues that the concept of the right to feel offended at everything. The

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question then arises as to whether freedom should come first and ethic second. Why should Article 19 (1) (a) of the Constitution of India be restricted by Article 19 (2)?

Article 19 (2) of the Constitution of the India Lays down what considered ‘reasonable restriction’ on the exercise of the provision of Article exercise 19 (1) (a) which specifies that freedom of expression is a fundamental right of every Indian citizen. The problem essentially is one of defining who decides what is ‘reasonable’ and what is not. If it is the court of law that decide, one would not have too many reasons to complain. However, the definition of what is a ‘reasonable restriction’ to the right to freedom of expression is decided by various section of society ( from the law enforcing authorities to fundamentalist groups) under different circumstances and often in an arbitrary manner, thereby causing situation of chaos and confusion. One can provide the following examples to illustrate this contention.

Shaheen Dhada and Rinu Srinivasan, two young women from Palghar near Mumbai were arrested in January after Shaheen posted a comment on face book wondering why there should be a bandh – like situation in Mumbai following the death of Shiv Sena leader Bal Thackeray and Rinu had liked the comment. The case was later dropped and the two police personal who had arrested the woman were transferred.

Cartoonist Aseem Trivedi was arrested on sedition charge in September 2012 because his cartoons offended people in power.

One of the main drivers of social networking and the growth of social media is mobile telephony. A C Nielsen's The Social Media Report 2012 assesses that ‘More people are using smart phones and tablets to access social media. With more connectivity, consumer have more freedom to use social media wherever and whenever they want’. According to the Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) report, the number of social media user in urban India reached 62 million by December 2012. Nearly three out of four (74 per cent) of the active internet user in urban India use the social media. It is interesting to see this data with the country’s 2011 census statistics. India has more than 50 per cent of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65 per cent below the age of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29

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years. The census indicated 74 per cent literacy among the entire population with the male literacy rate at 82 per cent.

A student as committed and passionate as Ekalvya could easily find a guru on a MOOC (massive open online course), or on an open educational resource like Academic Earth. Org. finding a virtual guru would be just the first step in the student’s learning journey. Whole-hearted participation and commitment, evening a free online course has the potential to open many new doors as Amol Bhave, a 17-year-old student from Jabalpur discovered. On 14th March 2013 Amol got the news that he had been accepted to MIT after scoring 97 per cent on cent on MIT’s MOOC (www.edx.org) on circuits and electronics.

Skeptics of social media in education also include many teacher and parents, who believe that just like television and video games, social media has only added to the pile of distractions that compete for learners’ attention today. They also worry about the added problem of wrong influences, undesirable peer pressure, bullying and time wasting that sometimes happens on social media.

Social media has changed the life of Mumtaz Bibi a small entrepreneur and social activist belongs to Mandarpur village of east Midnapur district of West Bengal. This energetic and committed lady is now using social media to share her ideas with other groups and also expand her business.

The potential of social media for opening up new spaces for dialogue, debate, and issue-based deliberations, which are free from the mainstream hierarchical and bureaucratic tendencies of the institutionalized political process, has been often celebrated. There have been many experiments in Europe, in this regard, especially in the late 1990s and early 2000s- such as the series of interactive web-based discussions on environmental and planning issues pertaining to a new housing scheme, launched by a couple of independent researchers in the city of Esslingen, Germany; an interactive web-based game on city planning launched by the city planning department of Tampere, Finland; and the Hansard Society’s e-democracy programme in the UK which has been running a series of periodic online citizen consultations on specific policy

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matters for the UK parliament. However, the experience of most of these initiatives reveal that they are most likely to attract citizens who are already connected to institutionalized political processes, and have not proved to be effective as a means of attracting those citizen-group who feel alienated from mainstream political processes. Also, such initiatives have generally been most successful when they are used in conjunction with traditional, offline methods of citizen engagement. In the Global South of course, there are a host of other challenges that have to be overcome for effectively utilizing social media for electing citizen participation: particularly the low levels of literacy and the dearth of public access points to the internet. This would require the exploration of non-text based forms, as well as the designing of participatory governance processes that seamlessly bridge the online and offline worlds. However, what is clear is that social media does indeed open up a virtual public sphere, which offers the possibility of a hitherto unexplored modality of participation in public, political deliberation- one where citizens can raise their voice in the public sphere without being physically present.

However, activists resisting the coup, including Feministas en Resistencia (Feminists in Resistance), managed to successfully use the Internet as a space for challenging the official accounts of the coup. Feministas en Resestencia (Feminists in Resistance), documented the abuses conducted by the armed forces and broadcast them through a channel on YouTube. In other Latin American countries, womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s groups organizes demonstrations at the Hondurian embassies in solidarity with the Feministas en Resistencia movement. These global ties that the activists in Honduras forged, saved many lives. In instances where participants in the resistance movement were arrested, their peers tapped into the online communication networks, to initiate global protests against the arrest and co-ordinate global action such as requesting groups from across the world to send in letters ad faxes demanding release of the detainees.

These experiences teach us that strong ties between network members are essential for high risk political activism. However, social media will not inevitably lead to only the creation of weak ties. If rooted in a political culture of on-ground mobilization and dialogue, and used in conjunction with on-ground deliberative, social media can be used to strengthen strong ties among group members.

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In additional to facilitating mass mobilization and protests, social media can also serve as an effective platform for conscientisation, as demonstrated by the following example. Likhaan, a grass-roots organization based in the Philippines, which had been at the forefront of a decadelong struggle for a reproductive health law, decided to set up an online magazine in 2010, as a part o its exploration of creating a counter discourses on reproductive rights that was dominant in the Philippines national public sphere. Through this online magazine, Likhaan aimed at bringing in the accounts of women and youth from marginalized communities who were most in need of sexual and reproductive health services and rights (SRHR), through training grassroots activists in community journalism and ICT skills, and periodically interacting with them to help them channelise their experience into articles for the magazine. This process helped in enabling these grass-roots activists to build structural critique from their shared life experiences, and reaffirming their value as political actors. Along similar lines, there have been multiple experiments using Facebook, digital videos and YouTube for awareness-building and conscientisation.

However, not all possibilities opened up by this relaxing of the boundaries of the ‘public’ and the ‘private’, are not empowering. For, these new digital spaces may also open up new channels for regressive, fundamentals forces, furthering existing material and discursive oppression of women. The controversial ‘Girls Around me’ app is a case in point. This app, which was sold at the Apple App Store last year, until it was voluntarily removed, allowed people to use the location-based social networking service, ‘Foursquare;, to find full names and profile photos of those women in the users’ vicinity who had checked in (to ‘Foursquare’), without acquiring their consent Clearly, the app is rooted in the stalker ethos.

Though it does not fall within the ‘Social media’ realm, the case of the ‘Radio Mullah’ in Pakistan is also insightful in this context. Radios, with their ability to breach the public-private divided, have been used by Mullah Fazullah and his Tehreek Talibanm Pakistan (TTP) in the Swat province of Pakistan, to build a constituency of women supporters, by-passing the authority of household patriarchs. However, this by-passing of household level patriarchal controls was only intended to co-opt women into a “perverted version of Jihad (holy war): that led to suppression of female education and the bombing of girls’ schools in the region. Thus, the new

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spaces opened up by digital technologies and social media platform are only as empowering as the ideologies guiding their design and use.

But, at last There must be well-established norms in obtaining informed consent from users for data sharing and clear guidelines on ownership of data generated. Arbitrary content censorship by corporate and/or by states must not be permitted. Most importantly, it is crucial to ensure that the global Internet and other digital architectures, which are foundational to social media architectures, remain egalitarian.

REFERENCES: •

Navigating Social Media Legal Risks: Safeguarding Your Business 2012

Rheingold, Howard (2002). Smart mobs: The next social revolution (1st printing ed.). Cambridge, MA: Perseus Pub. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-7382-0608-0.

Watts, Duncan J. (2003). Six degrees: The science of a connected age. London: Vintage. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-09-944496-1.

Benkler, Yochai (2006). The Wealth of Networks. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11056-1. OCLC 61881089.

Gentle,

Anne

(2012). Conversation

and

Community:

The

Social

Web

for

Documentation (2nd ed.). Laguna Hills, CA: XML Press. ISBN 978-1-937434-106. OCLC 794490599. •

Johnson, Steven Berlin (2005). Everything Bad Is Good for You. New York: Riverhead Books. ISBN 1-57322-307-7. OCLC 57514882.

Li, Charlene; Bernoff, Josh (2008). Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social

Technologies.

Boston:

Harvard

Business

Press. ISBN 978-1-4221-2500-

7. OCLC 423555651. •

Scoble, Robert; Israel, Shel (2006). Naked Conversations: How Blogs are Changing the Way Businesses Talk with Customers. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley. ISBN 0-471-74719X. OCLC 61757953.

Shirky, Clay (2008). Here Comes Everybody. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 978-159420-153-0. OCLC 458788924.

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Surowiecki, James (2004). The Wisdom of Crowds. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 0385-72170-6. OCLC 156770258.

Tapscott,

Don; Williams,

Anthony

D. (2006). Wikinomics.

New

York:

Portfolio. ISBN 1-59184-138-0. OCLC 318389282. •

Powell, Guy R.; Groves, Steven W.; Dimos, Jerry (2011). ROI of Social Media: How to improve the return on your social marketing investment. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-82741-3.OCLC 0470827416.

Jue, Arthur L., Jackie Alcalde Marr, Mary Ellen Kassotakis (2010). Social media at work : how net

Constitution of the India

A C Nielsen's The Social Media Report 2012

Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) report

www.edx.org

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MEDIA AND SOCIAL AWARENESS Anand Narain Shukla Sr. Journalist, Editorial head, Allahabad Edition of Jansandesh Times, Allahabad ashukla623@gmail.com In general, "media" refers to various means of communication. For example, television, radio, and the newspaper are different types of media. The term can also be used as a collective noun for the press or news reporting agencies. Media is source of information or communication. Media includes sources like print media and electronics media. It denotes an item specifically designed to reach a large audience. It plays a vital role in creating and spreading awareness. Power of media can transform the whole society especially in the developing countries. I think the most important use of media is to educate the people about the basic human rights. The dilemma of the developing countries is that people are not fully aware of their basic rights and if they know, they don't know about what to do and where to go. They don't know their collective strength. Even they don't know how to protest and what is the importance of protests. In fact democratic country the media plays a vital role in creating, moulding and reflecting public opinion. Over the years the media became so powerful that it soon acquired the status of `Fourth Estate' as it was aptly described by the British politician Edmund Burke. Media plays a crucial role in shaping a healthy democracy. It is the backbone of a democracy. Media makes us aware of various social, political and economical activities happening around the world. It is like a mirror, which shows us or strives to show us the bare truth and harsh realities of life. as far as the history of social awareness is concerned, it was nothing but to obey the verdict of religious heads and the ruler of the state. In ancient India a large group of people were deprived of their human rights. In medieval religious wars broke out and the religion and heads of the state indulged in war against each other. Now the time has changed. People are educated and social awareness is being adopted by all the religions and sects. The media has undoubtedly evolved and become more active over the years. It is the media only who reminds politicians about their unfulfilled promises at the time of elections. T.V news channelsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; excessive coverage during elections helps people, especially illiterates, in electing the right person to the power. This reminder compels politicians to be up to their promises in order to remain in power. Television and radio have made a significant achievement in educating rural illiterate masses in making them aware of all the events in their language. Coverage of exploitative malpractices of village heads and moneylenders has helped in taking stringent actions against them by attracting

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governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attention. The media also exposes loopholes in the democratic system, which ultimately helps government in filling the vacuums of loopholes and making a system more accountable, responsive and citizen-friendly. A democracy without media is like a vehicle without wheels. Society is influenced by media in so many ways. It is the media for the masses that helps them to get information about a lot of things and also to form opinions and make judgments regarding various issues! It is the media which keeps the people updated and informed about what is happening around them and the world. Everyone can draw something from it. Social media play a big role in health and food. From business, agriculture to science and culture, everywhere media's role is important. It is social media that has become synonymous with today's generation. About 2/3rd of Indians online spend time on different social networking sites like Face book, Twitter, You Tube, Pinterest etc. Even the trend of sending personal emails seems to have become obsolete as compared to social media. On the other hand, customer's responses, interaction and brand awareness is why the companies are using social media in India and across the glob. There by, multiple roles played by social media beyond its core role of mere communicating information are leading to its popularity. Media has had a bad effect on a generation, mainly because youth is strongly influenced by media. Teenagers and children wish to follow the people, who get recognized and do what they do to get noticed. Sometimes, they focus on bad part of the media and strive to be a part of it. However, many are not succumbed to a life of crime! Society is influenced by media in so many ways. It is the media for the masses that helps them to get information about a lot of things and also to form opinions and make judgments regarding various issues! It is the media which keeps the people updated and informed about what is happening around them and the world. Everyone can draw something from it. The media affects people's perspective. Too much intervention of media in everything is a matter of concern. Media can be considered as "watch dog" of political democracy. Through the ages, the emphasis of media on news has camouflaged. Media these days, tries to eye the news, which could help them to sell the information that is gathered worldwide, so that they could pave a way of success and fame of their respective channels. Fm radios, newspapers, information found on net and television are the mass media that serve to reduce the communication gap between the audience, viewers and the media world. For the sake of publicity and selling, important figures, their lifestyles are usually targeted. Unimportant and

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irrelevant news, that usually have no importance are given priority and due to a reason or the other, they get onto the minds of the viewers and in this ways many a times, important political, economical and sociological news get neglected and gradually, lose their importance! No doubt, media has played significant role in making world a global village and to reduce the communication gaps amongst the people living in the far areas but unfortunately, media these days has become a COMMERCIALIZED SECTOR, eying the news which is hot and good at selling.

The

goal

is

to

gain

the

television

rating

points.

I believe, if the media identifies its responsibility and work sincerely and honestly, and then it can serve as a great force in building the nation. Media should be responsible and result oriented in cases of social awareness or public issues which needs to be focused. There are still many good people around the nation who do their bit to the social well being which hits the root of issue that never gets notices or appreciated. These are the things which get into Young civilian minds! Media should portray the facts. they should not transform the reality Education and discipline is key to progress. This is the difference between a nation and crowd. Media men have access to people and they have an audience. Their programs have an impact and people listen to them. That's why they are more response for the betterment of society. It can change opinions because they have access to people and this gives it lot strength. This strength can either be used constructively by educating the people or it can be used destructively by misleading the innocent people. The strategies which media use also is very impressive, they use Film stars and cricketers in bringing awareness, as most of the fans will follow what his ICON says. We see Amitabh bringing awareness about Polio Drops and the entire Indian cricket team trying to bring awareness on HIV etc, as it is more appealing. The media claimed to be governed by righteousness and equity; but greed and self aggrandizement

has poisoned its virtues.

Media is in charge of information, education, entertainment, advertising

and correlation of parts of society. The media

affects peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s perspective. Too much intervention of media in everything is a matter of concern. Social media refused to the means of interactions among people in which they create share and exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks. Andreas Kaplan and Michael define social media as a group of internet based applications and that allow the creation and exchange of user generated content.

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Further more, Social media depends on mobile and web based technologies to create highly interactive platforms though witch individuals communities share, create, discuss and modify user generated content. It introduces substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations communities and individuals. Social awareness and actions just discussion act office /college over tea are merely restricted to weekend shows. The most discussed about broadcast â&#x20AC;&#x153;Satyameav Jayateâ&#x20AC;? on social issues in a private channel amused with the galore of appreciation flowing to the way of the anchor and his effort towards the same. Surely itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not the mettle of message but some things that is propelling the whole thing. There clips in the star value of the actor and the marketing of commodity called Amir Khan over the concern of society on an issue. Media has played significant role in making world a global village and to reduce the communication gaps amongst the people living in the far areas but unfortunately media these days has become a commercialized sector. Media should not be totally commercialized. Media identifies its responsibility and work sincerely and honestly and serves as a great force in building the society and nation. Media enlightens our views in the field of education, religion, economy, obeying laws and live and let live. A media person is trained to unit the people and uses their energy in construction work. When media highlights the difficulties in Uttrakhand (Kedarnath-calamity), it appeals masses to help them. Media persons must be honest, devoted and laborious. Their intelligence can bring us up from the dark well.

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FROM CHOUPALS TO ONLINE CHOUPALS 1

Prof Anju Chawla, 2Prof Pushp Lamba Adjunct faculty, Symbiosis Centre for Management Studies, Noida, 2SLS Noida anju.chawla@scmsnoida.ac.in, pushp.lamba@hotmail.com

1

On May 18, 2012, Facebook, Inc. Launched its IPO. The frenzy of pre-launch had peaked and it met with an astounding investor’s response. Marketers coined it as ‘Cultural Touchdown’ implicating that a company of this nature was being received like emperors by the investors. Indeed, there was a paradigm shift witnessed on this launch. But then the stock lost over a quarter of its value in less than a month and went on to less than half its IPO value in three months. What had gone wrong?!! In India, the majority of population lives in rural areas (we have an astounding 6,28,000 villages in our country). Their cultural ‘adda’ where the society meets and interacts are the village choupals. The social networking sites are also doing the same purpose – just online. We could very well refer to them as online-choupals where the youth meet, interact, put forward their opinions and discuss issues relevant to them in particular or the country in general. But who decides what is the right way in which we can and should interact, what platforms should be on offer, which ones we should pick and which ones should be rejected? It’s actually a herculean task! One school of thought that emerges here is that the marketer is taking all the decisions for us. He takes a call which social platform should be offered, which features should be offered (remember, there’s still no ‘Dislike’ button on your Facebook page!), and which features should be taken down. The second school of thought talks about the consumer being the king and s/he deciding the flow of offerings. The market, traditionally, has been reactive to anything new and not pro-active. We can understand the finer nuances of consumer behavior by realizing that if in 1980’s someone would have suggested that instead of the giant black goliaths of the landline phones we had back then, we would have these sleek 100gm weighing phones which would have absolutely no constraint of being attached to a wire and the device could be taken across the globe and we could still be in touch with each other – would have been out rightly preposterous and laughed upon. But then mobile phones came, saw and conquered the markets. So who is deciding and taking these product development decisions – the marketer or the consumer. Well, we need to understand that the marketer, by the very nature of his understanding of the market, takes these calls; but he takes it after understanding the market – i.e. the consumer – you and me. All he does is understand the gaps between what is and what should be and fill up the gap with the right offering.

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  Going by this logic, the social media or the online choupal is something that we implicitly always wanted – a medium though which we could stay connected to friends and family, who in the era of globalisation were no longer rooted to their places of origin and traveled far and wide to earn their livelihood, settle their families and generally to live. Globalisation has been the catalyst in the prodigal war between culture and liberalisation. We now understand that in this era, we need to slightly modify the cultures that we have been living with, to suit the requirements of this day and age. After all, culture is nothing but a mirror image of our collective thoughts and behaviors. And if these thoughts and behaviors are undergoing a shift, well, the culture gully moves with it. Having said that, the marketer cannot pile up anything on us in the name of ‘shifting’ cultures and get away with it. It has to be in sync with our requirements, our aspirations – else the consumer will be quick to snub it out. A classical case would be that of Orkut – instead of being a billion dollar giant it has been reduced to the status of a case study. The scene holds value in same spirit and sense even in India, the retail landscape is characterized by a scenario like David and Goliath:: referring to the Kirana and organized outlets, well – equipped with social digital marketing. One chunk of people who have the purchasing power, lovingly called ‘Generation X’, prefers calling up their very own Bansal/ Aggarwal/Jain or any other nearby departmental store and get their stuff. No, they do not have much of options but these traditional departmental stores are the one which will deliver even Rs 50/- thing to you only to maintain their relationships. But the Echo-boomers (hailing from Generation Y) prefer to take a round of a huge Organized retail store so that a wide variety can be perused through (they don’t mind taking pain of reading the matter associated with any product- one digestive is how digestive from the other brand?). Not just this, if they find something which is not up to their satisfaction, they will log onto mouthshut.com, facebook page of the product/ store et al and bad mouth with no hesitation as their intention is to spread awareness so that others don’t get cheated. Adding to this, people can go for rating and the statement “one unhappy customer can cost the company dear” proves its weight. Be purposeful in what you do. Think about the why of every action you take, every piece of communication you share and every interaction or new relationship you forge.” — Toby Daniels, Founder, Social Media Week. Even if you never knew about brands like “Blue Stone- the jewelry brand from US, in all these years chances are you will get to know it. Or at least have the itch to know about it because the moment, you logged off from your Facebook account an advertisement popped up displaying beautiful pieces and Bingo if you were aspiring for the same. Sun Tzu, a Chinese military strategist and general wrote that war is about planning and positioning. He emphasized the importance of knowledge: “If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need

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  not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle”. But he laid supreme importance to winning without fighting: “The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.” Stretching the idea forward in today’s technological era- we visit face book, like few, not like few. Do all of us really mean our likes and not likes (since there is no dislike) or is it because of its abundance and convenience that we just do it without thinking much? Here on the question begins- are we using the convenience or are we misusing it? Any action of ours on Google is recorded as a statistics- is it a meaningful one or just one? Hey hey, when did you last send a greeting card to your best friend?? Think! Think! You are taking so much time, not your fault, but technology has given us options like birthday reminder, auto SMS service, event reminder service et al. So the warmth has reduced. Till few years back we had handful of friends but we meant the word ‘friendship’, today we have 561 odd friends but besides their name, maximum their ethnicity and organization, we don’t remember much for most of them. Not that I am a pro social networking, but just opening up the discussion to both the sides of the coin- Bright and the not so bright. When Facebook gets involved, relationships can quickly fall apart – as Hosni Mubarak and Muammar Gaddafi have discovered. But dictatorships are not the only ties being dissolved by social networking sites: now Facebook is increasingly being blamed for undermining American marriages. Even though the rate of divorce in the US has remained largely stable in recent years, American divorce lawyers and academics have joined Middle East analysts in picking out Facebook as a leading cause of relationship trouble, with American lawyers now demanding to see their clients' Facebook pages as a matter of course before the start of proceedings. "We're coming across it more and more. One spouse connects online with someone they knew from school. The person is emotionally available and they start communicating through Facebook," said Dr. Steven Kimmons, a clinical psychologist and marriage counselor at Loyola University Medical Centre near Chicago. You are feeling low, update it , feeling high , update your status, feeling nothing…still update it! And how much private time you have? Practically none!! With your smart phones buzzing every time you receive a message on What’s app, status update on Facebook, update on your software and the list is endless.. You'll have a lot of noise to filter out if you want to find something specific. 10 years ago, probably half of the population wouldn’t even know the meaning of the word ‘viral’. In 2012, thanks to YouTube, this word has become common, and describes news, videos, photos, content or people that experience overnight fame and become instant celebrities, mostly through

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  social media exposure. This proves to be fantastic for people who got this overnight fame but what about those who have put in the long and serious efforts in getting across people in a traditional way (which till date happens to be better in long term). “Are you an online network socialite? Do you Twitter about your Facebook status while listening to music on fm? Have your friends noticed that you'll only talk to them 140 characters at a time? Then you've got your finger on the pulse of online social networking -- a big part of Web 2.0. Infact if you are not bitten by this bug chances are you are not a cool dude, especially if you line in metro and belong to Gen Y. How one sided is the thought no? But you either have to take it or leave it. Without  a  doubt,  the  best  reason  to  join  any  social  networking  site  is  that  it  lets  you  make  connections with other people. You can use  social networking sites to stay up to speed with what  your friends are doing. If the social network is popular, you may be able to track down old friends  and acquaintances and renew long‐forgotten friendships.  You can also use these sites to network professionally. Even if you're happy where you are in your  career, you might be able to help someone else out. For instance, one friend might mention on his  profile that he needs a carpenter to come to his house. You might know someone who's perfect for  the job. All you have to do is send a couple of messages and you've helped two friends out at the  same time!  Many  social  networking  sites  like  MySpace  and  Facebook  make  it  easy  to  organize  an  event  and  invite  your  friends.  Some  sites  allow  you  to  group  friends  using  different  criteria,  including  geographic location. So the next time you plan a group trip to the movies, you can send out a notice  to your local friends using a social networking service.”  Source:: 

http://computer.howstuffworks.com/internet/social‐networking/information/pros‐cons‐

social‐networking1.htm  Your ward goes to learn dance, trainer had picked up the latest song and has advised your ward to  practice back home!! In your 9 to 9 job, you hardly got a chance to even hear this song forget alone  to have the song  But is it always sun shines and roses? Give it a serious thought still because as the symposium’s basic  idea was to see how good is the light when there is complete darkness in you, hence we tried to give  you a good food for thought. 

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  REFERENCES: 1) Waldow,DJ (2012) : “The Rebel’s guide to Email Marketing”, Que Publishing. 2) http://www.onlinemarketinggrowth.com/internet-marketing-tips/a-listing-of-successful-internetmarketing-tips-for-every-person (last accessed on March 15, 2013) 3) Tom Smith, “The social media revolution.,” International Journal of Market Research 51, no.4(July2009):559-561.

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ROLE OF MEDIA IN SOCIAL AWARENESS Pradeep Kumar Dwivedi, Ingita Pandey Research Scholar, Economics Department, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, UP inki2020@gmail.com, gita.pandey7@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION The media plays a very constructive role in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s society. Media play an important role in increasing of public awareness and collect the views, information and attitudes toward certain issue. Media is the most powerful tool of communication in emerging world and increased the awareness and presents the real stage of society. In this decade of Knowledge and awareness there is a huge and grand role of media, it is all around us when we watch on Television, listen to on the radio, read to the books, magazines, and newspapers, every where we want to collect some knowledge and information and a part of this media has to present a very responsible role for our society. Without the media, people in societies would be isolated, not only from the rest of the world, but also for the total formation of creditable world.

WHAT IS MEDIA Media is one of the most powerful instruments of communication. It can help to promote the right things on right time and gives a real as well as strong aspects of the world about what is right or wrong also it also express that how can we store and distributes the views. The world is moving towards progress in every step of life. But we cannot refuse the real fact that we all are bounded directly or indirectly with the loads of social problems and issues, which are affected by the people of the people and for the people. Social issues or matters include so many types such as poverty, violence, corruption, bribery, suppression of human rights, rape, discrimination, and crime, killing in the name of honor. Today News Channels, Newspapers, radio, internet etc. help us to estimate the realities of live and focused on the every social matters with the pure and free effect, it has a chance to explore the issues of society more openly. Media refers so many links such as mass media broadcast media, print media and the web media. We know that television and radio are considered broadcast media while newspapers, magazines and journals are formatted as print media and internet news are called as the web media. The media is an important source of information through its news segments, entertainment and allows for exchange of our ideas, suggestions and views for related matters. There is huge variety of media. The media is not only an important source of news and opinions but also entertainment. Most young people usually turn on the television for movies, educational programs other entertainment programs. However, although most of us get our news through the media as many of us have little time to read books or journals, the news

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presented to us can be biased and one sided because news reported on websites appears most reliable and transparent though one has to be careful about the accuracy of the facts reported. However, there is still a degree of freedom in these countries' press compared to other more conservative countries. we have access to news from all around the world and readers are invited to send their views and contributions to be published in the media. The term media is derived from Medium, which means carrier. Media denotes a links specifically designed to reach large viewers. The term was first used with the advent of newspapers and magazines. However, with the passage of time, the term broadened by the inventions of radio, TV, cinemas and Internet. In the world of today, media has become almost as necessary as food and clothing. It is true that media is playing an outstanding role in strengthening the society. Its responsibility is to inform, educate and entertain the people. It helps to know current situation around the world. The media has a strong social and cultural impact upon society. Because of its inherent ability to reach large number of public, it is widely used to convey message to build public opinion and awareness, it can be used to educate people with very little cost. Imagine a classroom in every city with thousands of students being taught by just one teacher. But unfortunately, because of money-making approach of media and lack of interest by government, very less work is done in spreading the education.

IMPORTANCE OF MEDIA IN SOCIAL AWARENESS The media has got a vital role in molding a good society to develop our lifestyle and move it on the right path, because it always try to side with the truth and relevant factor. It is the best tool to spread awareness in the modern society either it be political, social or economic and giving us latest sight about what is happening in our world, making us aware about our rights, creating awareness against evils in our society, what new happening around us, exposing corrupt politicians and hardcore criminals by sting operations. There is correlation between media and society to share them self about the past, present and future event on need base method of the society. We know that a long time ago we see all news, views events all these things through Radio, Banner and Cinema slide show. But now a day we have a power to see everything of the society and to share it among the people only the good approach of media. So Media and their function have been changed as because there is a competition among the Media also. Therefore apart from the service to the society they have to earn also. From this point of view several media are taking different steps to expand their business and sometimes they are deviated from the principles for which they are functioning. What society will decide for their existences and functioning is mainly depend upon the Govt. rules and regulations by limiting their scope of works in a particular field. In my opinion several sensitive international issues should not be published through Media for which tension among them increased. Otherwise media should come in front of the society with all truth.

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The main purpose of this studies to explain the real feature of growing techniques of information and used it to spread the social awareness. Its limitless connectivity and potential has open social order and system of interaction and communication which have been made a possible way to develop the communication technology and define the social situation of awareness. We can feel the impact of social networking in every step of life. Everyone wants information timely and to the point which can be possible through the help of social media. There is various types of social networking under the connectivity of media. Here we explore the FACEWOOK a social networking site, people can assess information easily through the help of this site and user can utilize these information to their personal and professional work and behavior. Social network is used to denote the huge number of blogs and intercommunication skills to provide online social networking service which can be focused and reflecting of social network or social relations among people who share interests and activities Most social network services are web based and provide means for users to interact over the internet. They interact, share and exchange resources by social networks. It promotes free flow of information and sharing of resources beyond boundaries. My point is not any of it said above. We had a nation with so much of events happening around, which but is escalated only on the whims and fancy of the people who rules us. Few of the examples are Ram Mandir issue, Lokpal Bill, 2G scam, CWG scam, Mining scam, Land Acquisition scam, Coal Gate, Delhi Rape Case, Godhra Riots, Mumbai Riots, 26/11 Mumbai Attack, Aarushi murder case, LPG subsidy, Fuel price hike etc. All of the above issues had its on relevance in political arena and accordingly had the coverage and importance across the media and discussed upon the nation till then until when it is to be fumed and exploited. Unfortunately none of the news had a chance to be there in limelight or discussions even until its natural closure of which many are due pending. Shattering fact is that even many of the above stated issues out of the many left out without mentioning are yet to have a judicial closure and the culprits yet to be booked and penalized. But at the brim of its flash we had all of the print and visual media, administration, intellects, social media and even stupid common man were there on the front to protest, outrage and even ready for a national cessation. Post shelf life of the issue hardly was there any movement on the same until either there is a reference by any for personal gain (other than the relative of the person involved) or on the occasion of anniversary reminder by the media who had to fill in the prime time slot. It is time for us, to do something better for our society. Any means the realism of a fact lies with the complete closure with justice delivered not only to the victim but to the society too. Until unless the limited time outrage and mongering of issue is protracted despite of what we are forced to think and react. May this sound a bit weird as we being responsible-sensible citizens, it is our bona fide birth right to react on anything and everything comes across. But will make a difference if it is made to prolong it despite of the shelf life tag come along with the issue. www.giapjournals.com/ijhss

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International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Vol 1 (01) August 2013, [ISBN 978-93-83006-16-8] page 67-70

REFERENCES •

Carafano, James. "Successful Revolution Takes More than Social Media." The Examiner: n/a. ProQuest. Feb 22 2011. Web. 22 Feb. 2012.

"Grasp of Social Media Not enough to Instigate Change in Lebanon." The Daily Star: n/a. ProQuest. Mar 16 2011. Web. 22 Feb. 2012.

“Social Media a Catalyst for Political Reforms” Khaleej Times 1 Mar. 2011. ProQuest. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.

Tancer,

B.2007.Facebook:

more

popular

than

porn.

Time

Business(Oct31).http://www.time.com/time/business/article. •

World bank Publication ,2002 “The right to tell”.

Singh,A.K., “Role of Media in Indian Democracy”,2010.

World Bank Report ,2006.

Dorothy, A.Clark, Race, “Poverty, and the Role of Media.” 1994.

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ROLE OF MEDIA IN SOCIAL AWARENESS Sashwat Yogi Research Scholar, Joseph school of Business Studies, SHIATS, Naini, Allahabad, UP sashwatyogi123@rediffmail.com

In the world of today the need of media is required as like the breath of society. It play the role of mirror in the society media like newspapers, radio and television play the role of acting as a bridge between the government and the people. As an example- The government decides that the prices of petrol and diesel will either be increased or decreased. That decision needs to be conveyed to the people. This is done by the media. The media not only aware the people about it but also explain the effect of that decision taken by the government on the people. media, gives it impact to people’s attitudes and habits, For example- various diseases like HIV/AIDS Many of us think that by touching people suffering from these diseases would be infected. In fact many of people heard on radio or watched it in television programmes or Read messages which tell us that by touching an HIV/AIDS patient we do not get infected. In the late 20th Century, mass media could be classified into seven mass media Industries: books, newspapers, magazines, radio, movies, television and the internet. With the explosion of digital communication technology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, a classification called the "seven mass media" became popular. In order of introduction, they are: Print - From the late 15th century Recordings – from the late 19th century Cinema - From about 1900 Radio - From about 1910 Television - From about 1950 Internet - From about 1990 Mobile phones - From about 2000

Five characteristics of mass communication have been identified by Cambridge University John Thompson •

Comprises both technical and institutional methods of production and distribution" This is evident throughout the history of the media, from print to the Internet, each suitable for commercial utility.

Involves the "co modification of symbolic forms", as the production of materials relies on its ability to manufacture and sell large quantities of the work. Just as radio stations rely on its time sold to advertisements, newspapers rely for the same reasons on its space.

Separate contexts between the production and reception of information to the people.

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International Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences Vol 1 (01) August 2013, [ISBN 978-93-83006-16-8] page 71-73

Its "reach to those 'far removed' in time and space, in comparison to the producers".

"Information distribution" – it is a "one to many" form of communication, whereby products are mass-produced and disseminated to a great quantity of audiences.

The areas where role of media is important isNews & Current Affairs: The media cover all aspects of our interest like weather, politics, war, health, finance, science, fashion, music, etc. One of major duties of media today is to inform the people about the latest happening around them and the world. As when the terrorist attacks takes place the role of media become very important, because it pass the message to rest of world. Political Awareness: The media informs all details of all major political situations, decisions and scenarios. Hence people can better understand their rights and make better decisions. Media is the base of the political system. If it plays its role honestly, it will be a great force in building the nation. It plays a great role in bringing common man close to their leaders. Education: The power of media is so extensive and huge, it can be used to educate people with very little cost. Imagine a classroom in every city with thousands of students being taught by just one teacher. But unfortunately, because of money - making approach of media and lack of interest by government, very less work is done in spreading the education. Public Announcements: Arrival or departure of flights and trains, etc. In some cases, it is legally binding to publish notices in newspaper like tenders, change of property ownership, etc. Various authorities and agencies utilize the power of media to spread informative messages to public. Advertisement: Almost all business concerns use the power of media to sell their products. They advertise in media for the enhancement of business purposes. Huge amounts of money are invested in media for marketing of a product. The more attractive the advertisement, the more people will follow it. Entertainment: The original idea behind the creation of various ‘media means’ was to entertain masses. Radio, TV, cinemas and magazines spend most of their resources targeting on entertaining items and programs. Because of the growing population and developing lifestyle, the demand for more entertainment is increasing.

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CORRUPTION AND ROLE OF MEDIA It helps to build public opinion against corruption. It is as a platform for common people to pass there grievances. Media helps to fight against corruption with the tool as like•

R.T.I

Public opinion

Sting operation

Holding public debates

CORRUPTION IN MEDIA In media it is increased influence of media and money in india electoral politics. A lot of information is manipulated by media. Now commercialization of media affecting itself. There are lot of plus points for use of media but there are also many disadvantages associated with it. Media has the bad effect of inducing baseless ideas through advertisements. People are forced to buy harmful or substandard products. Sometimes, the Media develops unnecessary sensation and distortion of truth to attract attention. Because of its power to build public opinion, the influence of media can make or break the government. Lack of local or specific topical focus is a common criticism of mass media. A mass news media outlet is often forced to cover national and international news due to it having to perfect for and be relevant for a wide demographic. As such, it has to skip over many interesting or important local stories because they simply do not interest the large majority of their viewers. An example given by the website Wise Geek is that "the residents of a community might view their fight against development as critical, but the story would only attract the attention of the mass media if the fight became controversial. “Press council of India” is a regulatory body of media which investigate and suggest its recommendations. For peaceful co-existence of all three pillars in democracy, only media is not responsible to respond them which are:•

Beaurocracy

Judiciary

Government

Role of public is also very relevant for successful performance of media, it needs a strong society participation in awareness of media and themselves. REFERENCES •

Wilkes, Jurgen (2011). Media Genres. Institute of European History

www.presidentofindia.nic.in

www.5thpiller.org

www.google.com

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Ijhss vol 1 (01) august 2013 isbn 9789383006168