Categorizing stationary energy sector emissions by scope
Scope 1: Emissions from fuel combustion and fugitive emissions in the city Scope 1 includes emissions from the combustion of fuels23 in buildings, industries, and from the conversion of primary energy sources in refineries and power plants located within the city boundary. Fossil resource exploration and refinement, including any offshore exploration that occurs within the city boundary, is also included in scope 1. The inventory boundary of certain cities may contain nonurban areas that include agricultural, forestry, and fishing activities. Emissions from stationary fuel combustion from these activities, such as portable generators, shall be reported as scope 1 emissions. Scope 2: Emissions from the consumption of grid-supplied electricity, steam, heating and cooling in the city Electricity consumption is typically the largest source of scope 2 emissions. It occurs when buildings and facilities in the city consume electricity from local, regional or national electric grids. Grid-distributed steam, heat and cooling rely on smaller-scale distribution infrastructure, but may still cross city boundaries. For scope 2 reporting, cities shall report emissions from all grid-supplied energy consumption within the boundary, regardless of where the energy is produced. Cities that set GHG targets related to energy consumption “net” of energy produced within the city should report these emissions separately as an information item. Scope 3: Distribution losses from grid-supplied electricity, steam, heating and cooling in the city Scope 3 emissions include transmission and distribution losses from the use of grid-supplied electricity, steam, heating and cooling in a city. Other upstream emissions from electricity supply may be reported in Other Scope 3.
23. Non-energy uses of fossil fuel are reported under the IPPU sector. To differentiate energy and non-energy use of fossil fuel, please see Chapter 9.
There may also be out-of-boundary energy use associated with activities occurring in the city (e.g., electricity used by a neighboring city to treat wastewater produced by the reporting city), but these are not required for reporting under BASIC or BASIC+, but may be reported in Other Scope 3. These emission sources and their scope categorization are summarized in Table 6.1.
Defining energy source sub-sectors
The Stationary Energy sector can be divided into nine sub-sectors. Seven of these nine produce emissions from both energy production and consumption, while the remaining two relate to fugitive emissions from fuelrelated activities. Table 6.2 below provides detailed descriptions of Stationary Energy source sub-sectors. Cities may adopt additional city- or country-specific categories where data allows, but should clearly describe the differences and assumptions in inventories. Cities may further subdivide these sub-sectors into sub-categories that are more useful for mitigation action planning.
56 Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories