Appendix B Inventories for local government operations Introduction Local government operations (LGO) and their key functions vary worldwide, but there are several essential community services that typically fall under the responsibility of local governments, including: water supply, residential waste collection, sanitation, mass transit systems, roads, primary education and healthcare. These local government operations represent activities over which the city has either direct control or strong influence, presenting an opportunity to measure and manage emissions, and demonstrate to tax payers a responsible and efficient use of resources by city leadership. To guide local governments on calculating and reporting GHG emissions from their operations, ICLEI created the International Local Government GHG Emissions Analysis Protocol (IEAP) in 2009. It focuses on the specificities of LGOs, tailoring general guidance on corporate GHG accounting to the needs of cities. This appendix summarizes the guidance given in IEAP for local government operations, with slight changes to ensure consistency with the GPC and promote comparability of local government operations’ GHG emissions inventories with national and subnational GHG inventories. For additional guidance please refer to the IEAP chapters which address local government operations.92 Other standards and guidelines have also provided similar guidance on a local or national level, including the U.S.focused GHG Protocol U.S. Public Sector Protocol and the Local Government Operations Protocol written by the California Air Resources Board, The Climate Registry and ICLEI—Local Governments for Sustainability USA.
Purpose of an LGO inventory An LGO inventory accounts for GHGs from operations, activities and facilities that governments own or operate, including those from municipal fleets or buildings, or from waste management services provided by the municipality to
the community. Emissions from local government operations are typically a subset of city-wide emissions, though rare exceptions can occur. One such exception is if the local government is the operator or owner of facilities that are simultaneously located outside of its geopolitical boundary and serve other communities. The majority of emissions from local government operations are a subset of community emissions, typically ranging from 3–7% of total city-wide emissions. Although this is a relatively small fraction of the city’s emissions, it clearly shows that local governments must use their influence over operations that are not under their direct control (e.g., improving the energy performance of private buildings through the municipal building code). GHG reduction targets can be set for both LGO performance and city-wide emissions. An LGO inventory can be used to:
•• Develop a baseline (and base year) against which GHG •• ••
developments can be compared Regularly reflect and report a true account of emissions generated by LGO Identify problem areas in local government operations through facility and activity benchmarking, e.g. identify opportunities to improve energy efficiency in municipal buildings or water supply Demonstrate leadership in climate change mitigation by setting a GHG reduction target for LGO Increase consistency and transparency in GHG accounting and reporting among institutions
Conducting an LGO inventory Overall, an LGO inventory follows the five steps described in Figure B.1. This appendix only illustrates the special requirements for LGO emissions inventory in steps 1, 2 and 3.
92. Available online at: http://www.iclei.org/details/article/ international-local-government-greenhouse-gas-emissionsanalysis-protocol-ieap.html