ISSUE NO. 1 // VOLUME NO. 1 // APRIL 2018
THE OTHER REPRESENTATIONS OF THE MIDDLE-EAST
DUBAI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
The Middle-East isn't all deserts and camels.
ANALYZE. REFLECT. CHANGE. Mission THE OTHER is a magazine centered around providing an analytic perspective on representations of various groups of people in mainstream American culture. This specific edition focuses on the hegemonic representations, along with absences, of the Middle-East that have penetrated American society; THE OTHER works to provide alternative viewpoints that counter these dominant stereotypes.
We hope you enjoy learning a little more about the Middle-East.
MARYA GHAZZI, LAYLA HAK, AND MUNEEB SHAIKH AUTHORS AND EDITORS
Dr. Hayat Sindi
STNETNOC FO ELBAT
"IDEAS, CULTURES, AND HISTORIES CANNOT SERIOUSLY BE UNDERSTOOD OR STUDIED WITHOUT THEIR FORCE, OR MORE PRECISELY THEIR CONFIGURATIONS OF POWER, ALSO STUDIED." EDWARD SAID, ORIENTALISM
REPRESENTATIONS INÂ POLITICS
IT IS THAT HOUR MUNEEB SHAIKH
But there are contrasting representations and ideas of this
stereotypes of Muslims and Arabs here in the US. Born in the
unique candidate. For some, being Arab or Muslim is not
US to immigrant parents and raised in the state of Michigan,
only a unique opportunity in the US, but something that is
he still hasn’t really earned the respect and acclaim he
very much needed for our society to move forward. Hour
deserves through all of his accomplishments. He played
magazine highlights the legitimacy and passion in El-
varsity lacrosse player in high school? Probably did it for the
Sayed’s run for governor. In their article, they manage to
application, right? Club lacrosse in college? Probably did it
cover some of the important qualifications of his candidacy,
for his medical school application. Club lacrosse captain for
rather than attack his lack of political experience. Through
his medical school? Probably just a normal guy, pursuing his
some of their comparisons, like one which they relate El-
passion for a sport. But we didn’t jump to that conclusion
Sayed to Obama, they manage to challenge the more
right away, did we?
aggressive and stereotyped representation that Fox News takes.
El-Sayed is not only a great athlete, but currently running for governor in the state of Michigan. With his own Wikipedia
There is a great amount of power that comes with how
page, you know this guy means business. Born in the city of
language is used when describing an individual, particularly
Detroit, El-Sayed has long ties to this state. But that’s not
a minority. When people like El-Sayed are placed in
how many people feel about him. Being an Arab and Muslim
binary opposition to other governors, meaning he is shown through
has awarded him very unique coverage. Fox News titled an
categories that make him opposite, it manages to
article about him “Michigan Doctor Believes US ready for
dehumanize them and look at them through a blurry lens. A
first Muslim Governor.” Well, that’s condescending, at the
lens through which we can generalize and make
least. Not only is the article emphasizing the doubts of his
assumptions about the individual, while ignoring their details
candidacy, but they also label his run for governor as an
covert racism at work. Working through their complementary
El-Sayed’s run as the first Muslim governor takes the
nature of Al-Sayed, the writer of this piece manages to
multicultural movement from the 1990’s and puts it to shame.
‘Otherize’ this candidate.
For our country to be truly multicultural, we can’t just settle
‘Islamic candidacy’. Throughout the piece, we see
at a race and ethnicity requirement for college courses. We In addition to the way the article portrays El-Sayed, the
need people like El-Sayed constantly challenging the
comments further some of the commonly held viewpoints.
monolithic representations of Muslims in this country. His run
One of the comments reads, “1 step closer to Sharia law…
for governor sets precedent for future Muslim governor
wake up!” These kinds of comments are reflective of how El-
candidacies, and if he wins the primary in August 2018, will
Sayed, an American born doctor, can be crafted into
Other, so drastically different from the normative.
change the tide of politics in the United States.,
Abdul El-Sayed represents everything wrong with the
REZA GLASS FOR EQUALITY MUNEEB SHAIKH
Fleeing the Iranian Revolution with his family, 7-year-
Even when given a platform to share their view and
old Reza Aslan found himself in the San Francisco Bay
ideas, Muslims are under constant supervision and
area. Little did he know that this move would forever
ridicule for how they act and respond to things. This
change his world. As a refugee in the United States,
past June, Reza Aslan’s shown “Believer” was
he would embark on the American Dream, not only
cancelled by CNN because Aslan tweeted profane
changing his own life, but influencing and working for
anti-Trump tweets. Really? Cancelling a show
Muslims and Arabs for years to follow.
because a political commentary on our president on social media that didn’t meet your standard of what is
Being an Iranian American Muslim, he was well aware
allowed of a Muslim show host? He apologized,
of the stigmas that existed about both his heritage
stating that his tweets were not appropriate and they
and his religion. He would wrestle with religion in his
were an impulsive response to Trump after the London
early years and eventually become a ‘professor of
attacks. CNN responded saying, “That kind of
religion’. In one of his most renown interviews with Fox
discourse is never appropriate.” Yeah, neither is the
News, he discussed his book on the life of Jesus and
double standard that Muslims have to deal with in our
received great critique from the news anchor. She
was focused on his ‘lack of credentials’ and background. Interestingly, Aslan studied religion in his undergraduate and graduate work, which was complete at the Harvard Divinity School, the crème de la crème of Universities and pinnacle of academic prestige in the United States. Yet, he can be labeled as ‘lacking credentials’ to talk about Jesus? What does a comment like this do? It says that even though you accomplished what only a select few individuals have accomplished, your religion and race supersedes your education. It is
interpolated, or an internalized
ideology, that Muslims cannot and will not ever have a platform from which they can discuss any religion except for their own. Even when discussing their own
Through his business venture, Aslan Media, Aslan
religion, they are told what is right and what is wrong.
hoped to counteract popular ideologies and
They are told what certain things actually mean, and
representation, but even when given the platform, it is
Islam is naturalized as a religion of hate and harm
quickly taken away for minor things. We look at CNN
rather than peace and love.
as a liberal news outlet, but even then, we have things like this occurring. This was definitely a setback for Aslan, but his effort toward giving an equal voice to Muslim and Arabs in media continues.
KEITH UP WITH POLITICS. BE IN POLITICS. MUNEEB SHAIKH
Muslims in politics is something that hasn’t been seen
Ellison often finds himself being a representative for
as much as many other major religious groups. Having
not only Muslims, but for African Americans in the U.S.
proper presence is very instrumental to having a voice,
as well. At a recent panel, Ellison was continually
and at the DNC this past election, Muslim
questioned about his links to the Nation of Islam and
representative Keith Ellison had enough. He
their leader, Louis Farrakhan. Although he has stated
exclaimed, “It’s time for Muslim Americans to do
that he does not share their viewpoints, many times
politics like other minorities.”
there is an
absence of representation of Black
Muslims outside of the Nation of Islam. He’s right. Currently, aside from a few anomaly cases, there are barely any Muslims running for positions in
Contrasting representations of Ellison are also present
politics. Sure, people like El-Sayed and Aslan are in
in media. His Facebook page is filled with loving,
the picture, telling Ellison he is wrong, but Ellison is
supportive comments from people who may or may
addressing the greater Muslim community here. “We’re
not share his viewpoints alike. Social media serves as
good a building mosques,” he says, but religious
a great informative outlet of public opinion. When
institutions are just the tip of the iceberg when it
politicians such as Ellison use these resources, they
comes to gaining representation and a voice here in
further the voice of Muslims and encourage future
the United States.
Muslim leaders to embark on a career in politics. To protect the Muslim voice and move their agenda
Ellison’s rise to political acclaim wasn’t met without
forward, future leaders should not only ‘Keith up with
critique. Being the first Muslim to be elected to the
politics’, but ‘Be in politics’.
U.S. congress isn’t the best bio for making friends.
REPRESENTATIONS INÂ TELEVISION
LOST IN TRANSLATION MARYA GHAZZI
So how do we counter this discourse? Hollywood has
became more compound. Sympathetic depictions of Arabs
attempted to do so by adding some “good Arabs” here and
and Muslims as patriotic American citizens increased as
there, but that’s not enough. Professor Evelyn Alsultany calls
people realized that they were new targets of
discrimination. However, the Arab terrorist stereotype
used by television writers and producers that balances a
remained prevalent in American culture. ABC’s hit television
negative representation with a positive one in order to
series LOST is a prime example of the latter. In the show, a
circumvent stereotyping. However, as we see in LOST, the
plane crashes on an island and the survivors are left to fend
issue is that Arabs are still portrayed in the context of
for themselves in a mysterious place. They struggle with
simplified complex representations, an approach
finding food, medical treatment, and of course trust. Very early in the show, we meet the one and only Arab character,
Hollywood needs to shift the discourse around Arabs by
Sayid Hassan Jarrah.
altering the context that they consistently show up in. Make Sayid a photographer rather than a former Iraqi guard who
Before the crash, Sayid (played by actor Naveen Andrews)
specialized in torture. Diversify Arabs instead of playing into
was an officer of the Iraqi Special Republican Guard. He
the monolithic stereotype. These false portrayals of the
served as an interrogator for the guard, and claimed to
Middle-East were etched into American culture over
have tortured many individuals in the process. Not too many
decades; let’s just hope it doesn’t take that long to uproot
episodes in, we see Sayid torture someone in order to find
out where to get essential medicine for another passenger
of the flight. What a great first impression.
Granted, as the show progresses, we do see Sayid’s character become more complex. Other characters learn to trust him, and he even falls in love. So we are presented with an Arab character who is humanized; he has his good qualities and his flaws like any other person would. However, there is still an underlying problem here that Hollywood never seems to fix: Sayid is still an Arab represented in the context of violence.
There are so many other backstories that the writers and producers could have created for Sayid. Why did he have to be an Iraqi guard? Why couldn’t he have been an architect or a farmer? Why did he have to be the one with previous torture experience? Because we expect a violent Arab. When I watched the show, I didn’t even notice the way in which it played into the classic violent Arab stereotype; it was nothing new to me. He was just another typical Arab in Hollywood.
hegemonic discourse, or the dominant form of reality
that is represented through language, surrounding Arabs and Muslims is that they have an innate hatred of Americans and a need to harm them. This stems from the repeated embodiment of the Middle-East in the context of violence and terrorism over a number of decades. If people haven’t seen anything other than these representations, how could they believe otherwise?
IAfter the events of 9/11, portrayals of Arabs and Muslims
HOMELAND IS RACIST LAYLA HAK
corrupt leaders in other parts of the world, showing that
mishap in the background of certain scenes in one of their
American values and systems of governance are superior
episodes. While shooting that season of Homeland in Berlin,
to those in the East.
they had Arabic street artists come onto their set to create a more authentic Middle Eastern setting, as that season was
After several seasons of the show, Homeland began
centered around American CIA agents hunting down terrorist
receiving criticism about the racist messages it was
groups and saving the helpless Middle Eastern people. The
sending to its audiences. One of the ways it does this is
street artists, being well aware of the stereotypes that this
show perpetuates not only about Arabs and Muslims, but
concept describes the attempt at creating balance in
about the whole Middle Eastern region, decided to use this
portrayals of Arab and Muslim characters that instead
opportunity to their advantage. They spray painted phrases
glosses over the true complexities that exist within each
on the background such as “Homeland is racist” and “there is
other their situations. For example, there have been
no homeland.” The producers did not have knowledge on
examples of “Good Arabs” in the show, but their purpose
what had been done to their set and the show ended up
is simply to balance out the various examples of “Bad
airing many of the spray painted phrases, which some
Arabs” in the roles of religious fanatics and political
audience members caught onto and brought to the attention
extremists. Despite the probable intention that the show
of the media.
had of showing that there is diversity within Arabs and
simplified complex representations. This
Muslims, simplified complex representations actually Homeland is a show based on American CIA agents
present the “Good Arab” as the exception instead of the
gathering intel and executing missions while undercover. A
standard, therefore further perpetuating negative
large portion of the show takes place in Middle Eastern
countries and is concerned with intervening in foreign politics in order to save Arabs from their own people. This show
American benevolent supremacy. Benevolent supremacy is defined as the attitude embodies the concept of
There have been differing reactions from the media regarding the spray painting of phrases that criticized the show, but this makes me wonder: will this trigger the
America has towards itself as a benevolent power that must
show to reconsider how they are portraying their
bring democracy to the rest of the world. The
characters? Will it cause people to view the show with a
intervention efforts of American agents are aimed towards
more critical eye? Or will people continue watching due
to the pure fact that it is entertaining?
In 2015, the hit show Homeland experienced an embarrassing
REPRESENTATIONS IN SPORTS
TURNING TABLES MARYA GHAZZI
Al Jazeera News also included various reactions to this
reputation in American culture. The stereotypes
chant from social media, including one from satirist
surrounding them have been so
Karl Sharro: “Salah is doing more to end the clash of
they’ve become common sense to the point where they
civilisations than anyone else in the world.” The
go unnoticed. However, not all representations of the
of civilizations is a point of view that emerged after
Middle-East are negative. Take a look at the rising
the events of 9/11, and dictates that there are deep
legend, and one of my personal favorite footballers,
cultural differences between Islam and the West that
Mohamed Salah. The 25-year-old Egyptian has been
will inevitably lead to conflict. While Mo Salah isn’t
receiving a lot of attention due to the sheer perfection
necessarily doing more than anyone else in the world
that he has exhibited on the pitch for Liverpool FC. He
to change this perspective, he sure has pushed
has scored 30 goals in this season alone, and some are
Western culture in the right direction.
starting to compare him to the GOAT (greatest of all time) Lionel Messi.
We can’t discredit, however, the extensive efforts that various activist groups have played in pushing back
Besides his skills on the soccer field, there is one other
against discrimination towards Arabs and Muslims. But
element that has caught the attention of many around
because of his platform as a professional athlete,
the world: his Muslim faith. According to Al Jazeera
Salah has had a vast effect on people in such a short
News, his Liverpool fans have done more than just
amount of time. It seems as though if we had more
accepted his faith:
individuals like “The King of Egypt**,” as Salah’s fans call him, people would start to see past the dominant
"'I'll be Muslim too': Fans Embrace Liverpool's Mo Salah"
stereotypes that have infiltrated Western culture.
Fans have come up with an entire chant about converting to Islam if Salah keeps his scoring streak up:
“Mo Sa-la-la-la-lah, Mo Sa-la-la-la-lah, If he’s good enough for you, he’s good enough for me, If he scores another few, then I’ll be Muslim too, He’s sitting in a mosque, that’s where I want to be.”
As a professional athlete, Salah has had a great impact on changing the
discourse around Islam in Western
Here’s the thing, there are and have been many
culture. And by discourse, I mean the linguistic
individuals like Mo Salah in the athletic world. There
manifestation of an ideology; in this case how we
are Arabs and Muslims who embrace their identities
represent the religion of Islam through the language we
and use the platform they are given as athletes to
use. Salah embodies Islam in an entirely new context;
push back against the common misconceptions that
not in the face of terrorism or conflict, but through his
surround the Middle-East. Nevertheless, they are
love for soccer.
always seen as the exceptions to the rule. What will it take for people to realize that these individuals are the rule? That’s up to you to figure out.
**Some of Mo Salah’s fans even call him the Pharaoh. Theorist Stuart Hall would call this
covert or inferential racism, as it simplifies Egyptian culture
down to ancient times and further emphasizes the misconception that Arab civilization has not progressed as the West has. Covert or inferential racism is usually unintentional and comes with an inscribed set of racist and unquestioned assumptions.
Arabs and Muslims have acquired a pretty bad
BREAKING BARRIERS MARYA GHAZZI
which is why we see the repeated images of oppressed
surrounding Muslims. For starters, she was the first Muslim-
Muslim women who play no role in society. And since this
American to wear a hijab while competing as a part of
information is coming from reputable sources, there is a
Team USA in the 2016 Olympics. And in the midst of the
sense of truth that comes with it. Theorist Michael
2016 presidential elections, she embraced the attention that
Foucault coins this concept
surrounded her religious background.
Truth/Knowledge and Power; he uses it to describe how power impacts the production of truth, and in turn how knowledge is
According to Dan Wolken’s article, “Ibtihaj Muhammad
created within power structures. Let’s take a look at an
makes U.S. history, wears hijab in olympics” in USA TODAY
Sports, Muhammad’s presence in fencing was significant in itself. But she took this presence to a higher level, and made
Poet, novelist, and professor Mohja Kahf talked about the
a couple points clear:
keys to publishing a successful novel as an Arab or Muslim in America in her piece “The Pity Committee and
“A lot of people don’t believe that Muslim women have
the Careful Reader.” Kahf explains that Muslim women’s
voices or that we participate in sport,” Muhammad
writing in the U.S. gets packaged, marketed, and sold as
explained. She continued, “It’s not just any team, it’s the
either a victim story (where the Muslim woman is a victim
United States. It’s in light of what’s going on in our country,
of oppression and abuse) or an escapee story (where the
the political fuss we hear about, all these things I feel like
Muslim woman escaped from her abusive society and
kind of circle back to my presence on Team USA and just
fled to the West to find freedom). Otherwise, it doesn’t
challenging those misconceptions about who the Muslim
get published or doesn’t sell. As a result, we see the
same image of Muslim women reinscribed as “true stories.”
There is a
repertory of images, or a collection of images
available that produces the same meanings about the
The truths that are produced from these stories, as
subjects in each image, that is used in American culture to
Foucault explains, play into certain power structures in
define all Muslims. The most common mistaken beliefs are
American culture. The so called “truths” of Muslim women
that all Muslim women wear a hijab, are silent, and are
as oppressed and silent play into the justification of the
oppressed by their country, religion, or husband; Muslim men
Western savior complex. This further emphasizes the
are all violent terrorists. Ibtihaj Muhammad states the reality
superiority of the West over the East, creating a cycle of
in the USA TODAY interview:
powerful apparatuses that create truths only to heighten the power of the apparatuses themselves.
“We’re conservatives and liberals. There are women who cover and women who don’t. There are white Muslims, Arab
So how do we break this constant feedback loop? For
Muslims, African American Muslims. There are so many
starters, we need a new repertory of images that
Muslim countries that have Muslim women as their heads of
represent the diversity of Muslims. We need to see
state, and there are those things I want people to be aware
women in sports and in the workplace, Muslim bakers,
of and see not just those women but Muslim women who
artists, and poets; the list shouldn’t have to be limited.
participate in sport like the Saudi Arabian team, the Kuwaiti
We need to identify the reality, and Ibtihaj Muhammad is
team, and the American team now. Those are the images I
taking a step towards doing so.
want people to see.” Ibtihaj Muhammad is creating a new repertory of images Muhammad wants us to understand that Arabs and Muslims are diverse. Not all Arabs are Muslim, and not all Muslims are Arab. There are Muslim women who play sports, and Muslim women who are artists. But that's not what we see in the media. The media gives the audience what they expect,
for Muslims all over the world.
Ibtihaj Muhammad has dismantled all sorts of stereotypes
REPRESENTATIONSÂ OF WOMEN
WOMEN IN SCIENCE LAYLA HAK Finally, she co-founded a non-profit organization rooted at
is something that we have not seen enough of. Luckily,
Harvard University with the aim of providing inexpensive
women like Dr. Hayat Sindi are working to change this by
point-of-care diagnostic devices for populations in need.
empowering other women to access their full potential and leave their mark on the world by helping others through
Her role as a Muslim woman in these positions serves as a
counter-hegemonic example about what it means to be a Muslim woman. One of the narratives often prescribed to
Growing up in the Muslim country of Saudi Arabia, Dr. Hayat
Muslim women by the West is that they are oppressed by
Sindi sought out higher education in order to have a voice
their male counterparts. Prominent Syrian author, Mohja
that would be heard in her country. Sindi was born in the holy
Kahf, puts this concept into words in her piece, “The Pity
city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia-- a place where the voices of
Committee.” Kahf would describe Western portrayal of
women have not been given much of an opportunity to be
Sindi’s success as an
heard in government and national organizations.
woman escapes the oppression of Middle Eastern societies
escapee story in which a Muslim
to find a better life in the West. In reality, this story is In order to acquire the voice she now has in the Saudi
oversimplified and does not address Sindi’s true motivations
Arabian government, Sindi knew she needed to receive the
in seeking a higher education. She is empowering other
best education she could. In order to do this, she convinced
Arab and Muslims women to shatter stereotypes surrounding
her parents to send her to the United Kingdom to attend
their role in society.
school there. There, she attended King’s College and Cambridge University to get her PhD in biotechnology. She
After learning about all the amazing work that Sindi does,
was the first Saudi Arabian woman to be accepted into
the question arises: Why haven’t we seen more of her in the
Cambridge University’s doctoral PhD program in
media? A possible reason for this is because her story
conflicts with the hierarchy of truth that has been created
Sindi’s success in the fields of science and business caused
truth and power. Foucault describes the relationship between
her to become an advocate for girls entering the science
truth and power by saying that the entities that are the most
field and seeking out higher education. Her ability to
powerful in society are able to determine what is true. The
advocate for this was heightened when she was appointed
truths that have been created about Arab and Muslim
as the head of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and
women do not align with the story of Hayat Sindi. This makes
Cultural Organisation. In addition to this, she has gained a
mainstream media less inclined to publicize her story
position on the Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia, where
because it goes against the messages they have been
she works on creating legislation that will give Saudi Arabian
perpetuating over time.
women more rights.
and perpetuated through the relationship between
Prominent examples of Muslim women in the field of science
ARAB ACTIVISM LAYLA HAK
Najimy instead of included as a significant part of her
Najimy. Aside from being in over 25 films and TV shows,
identity. This is because it is more convenient for the
Najimy has also taken on the role of an activist. Born to
media to ignore the fact that she is Arab. One reason for
Lebanese-American immigrant parents, Najimy’s role as an
this is the
Arab American woman in entertainment has lead to the
media were to address Najimy’s Arab heritage, they
activism she takes part in today.
would also have to distinguish the fact that she is in fact
conflation of Arabs and Muslims. If the
not Muslim because over time these two identities have The presence of Arabs, let alone Arab women, in
become seen by the West as interchangeable when in
entertainment has created a sticky situation for Arabs in the
reality they are two separate traits. Also, based on the
West. Arab actors pursuing jobs are often not able to find
any due to their Arab identity and when they do find jobs,
end up portraying her as an exception to the stereotype
many of them cause stereotypes about Arabs to be
that Arab women are usually active and well-spoken.
recreated and perpetuated. Male Arab actors are portrayed
Hopefully, with more balanced media representation,
in roles as violent or backwards while Arab women actors
these “truths” about Arab women will soon become more
are made to seem helpless and oppressed. Because of this,
representative of the lived realities of most Arab women
it is rare to see Arab characters or Arab actors playing
characters that are not portrayed in the context of extremism or simply being foreign. Najimy is one of the few Arab actors that has been successful in playing roles that do not have to do with being Arab, hopefully paving the way for Arab actors to come.
Najimy has also used her platform for a good cause, as she has become an activist for the LGBTQ+ community, AIDS awareness, Animals’ rights, and Women’s rights. One of her biggest claims to fame in her activist career included being a surrogate speaker for Hillary Clinton during her presidential campaign in 2016. Her role as an activist and an Arab serves as a departure from the
surrounding Arab women. In the media, Arab women have been portrayed as submissive instead of assertive. Najimy has been an advocate for the LGBTQ+ community since the 1970’s, showing that she wasn’t afraid of the stigma associated with supporting this community before it was even socially acceptable to talk about it. Time and time again, Najimy has stood up for social justice issues that she believes in no matter how controversial or hard to talk about they are. This is
counter-hegemonic because it goes
against the stereotypes that the West has about Arab women. She shows that Arab women are outspoken, passionate, and diverse.
Despite Najimy’s large presence in the media as an activist and an actor, her identity as an Arab American is something that has not received the attention of the media. Her Lebanese heritage is usually glossed over in biographies of
truth and power, the media would
A prime example of Arab women in entertainment is Kathy
ALL WOMEN SPEAK TWO LANGUAGES:Â THE LANGUAGE OF MEN AND THE LANGUAGE OF SILENT SUFFERING. SOME WOMEN SPEAK A THIRD, THE LANGUAGE OF QUEENS. ~MOHJA KAHF~
WORKS CITED “Activism.” Kathy Najimy, kathynajimy.com/activism/.
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Amin, Heba Y. "Arabian Street Artists" Bomb Homeland: Why We Hacked an Award-Winning Series | Heba Amin.
Beaumont, Peter. “Homeland Is Brilliant Drama. But Does It Present a Crude Image of Muslims?” The Observer, Guardian News and Media, 13 Oct. 2012
Bilton, Nick. “Reza Aslan Describes His Gory, Trump-Fueled Divorce from CNN.” The Hive, Vanity Fair, 1 Dec. 2017.
Blouin, Lou. “Why Abdul El-Sayed's Run for Governor Is for Real.” Hour Detroit, Hour Detroit, 2 Jan. 2018.
Eggert, David. “Michigan Doctor Believes US Ready for First Muslim Governor.” Fox News, FOX News Network, 15 Sept. 2017
“Entertaining Americanism.” Sayid Jarrah: Representing the Arab Identity in LOST, 7 Dec. 2009.
Harn, Jessica. “11 Inspirational Arab Women You Really Need to Know About.” Culture Trip, 10 Nov. 2017.
“Hayat Sindi.” World Economic Forum, www.weforum.org/people/hayat-sindi.
“Mohja Kahf Quotes (Author of The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf).” Goodreads, Goodreads
Salem, Alia. “Perspective | It's Time for Muslim Americans to Do Politics like Other Minorities.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 1 May 2017.
Weaver, Al. “Keith Ellison Pans Louis Farrakhan's Nation of Islam: 'Nobody Listens to Them'.” Washington Examiner, 6 Apr. 2018.
Wolken, Dan. “Ibtihaj Muhammad Makes U.S. History, Wears Hijab in Olympics.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 9 Aug. 2016.