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ISSUE NO. 1 // VOLUME NO. 1 // APRIL 2018

THE OTHER REPRESENTATIONS OF THE MIDDLE-EAST

DUBAI, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

The Middle-East isn't all deserts and camels.


SETON S'ROTIDE

ANALYZE. REFLECT. CHANGE. Mission  THE OTHER is a magazine centered around providing an analytic perspective on representations of various groups of people in mainstream American culture. This specific edition focuses on the hegemonic representations, along with absences, of the Middle-East that have penetrated American society; THE OTHER works to provide alternative viewpoints that counter these dominant stereotypes.

We hope you enjoy learning a little more about the Middle-East.

MARYA GHAZZI, LAYLA HAK, AND MUNEEB SHAIKH AUTHORS AND EDITORS


Editor's Notes

15

Sports

05

Politics

17

Mohamed Salah

07

Abdul Al-Sayed

20

Women

10

Hollywood

20

Dr. Hayat Sindi

12

LOST

STNETNOC FO ELBAT

02


"IDEAS, CULTURES, AND HISTORIES CANNOT SERIOUSLY BE UNDERSTOOD OR STUDIED WITHOUT THEIR FORCE, OR MORE PRECISELY THEIR CONFIGURATIONS OF POWER, ALSO STUDIED."         EDWARD SAID, ORIENTALISM


REPRESENTATIONS INÂ POLITICS


IT IS THAT HOUR MUNEEB SHAIKH

But there are contrasting representations and ideas of this

stereotypes of Muslims and Arabs here in the US. Born in the

unique candidate. For some, being Arab or Muslim is not

US to immigrant parents and raised in the state of Michigan,

only a unique opportunity in the US, but something that is

he still hasn’t really earned the respect and acclaim he

very much needed for our society to move forward. Hour

deserves through all of his accomplishments. He played

magazine highlights the legitimacy and passion in El-

varsity lacrosse player in high school? Probably did it for the

Sayed’s run for governor. In their article, they manage to

application, right? Club lacrosse in college? Probably did it

cover some of the important qualifications of his candidacy,

for his medical school application. Club lacrosse captain for

rather than attack his lack of political experience. Through

his medical school? Probably just a normal guy, pursuing his

some of their comparisons, like one which they relate El-

passion for a sport. But we didn’t jump to that conclusion

Sayed to Obama, they manage to challenge the more

right away, did we?

aggressive and stereotyped representation that Fox News takes.

El-Sayed is not only a great athlete, but currently running for governor in the state of Michigan. With his own Wikipedia

There is a great amount of power that comes with how

page, you know this guy means business. Born in the city of

language is used when describing an individual, particularly

Detroit, El-Sayed has long ties to this state. But that’s not

a minority. When people like El-Sayed are placed in

how many people feel about him. Being an Arab and Muslim

binary opposition to other governors, meaning he is shown through

has awarded him very unique coverage. Fox News titled an

categories that make him opposite, it manages to

article about him “Michigan Doctor Believes US ready for

dehumanize them and look at them through a blurry lens. A

first Muslim Governor.” Well, that’s condescending, at the

lens through which we can generalize and make

least. Not only is the article emphasizing the doubts of his

assumptions about the individual, while ignoring their details

candidacy, but they also label his run for governor as an

and intricacies.

covert racism at work. Working through their complementary

El-Sayed’s run as the first Muslim governor takes the

nature of Al-Sayed, the writer of this piece manages to

multicultural movement from the 1990’s and puts it to shame.

‘Otherize’ this candidate.

For our country to be truly multicultural, we can’t just settle

‘Islamic candidacy’. Throughout the piece, we see

at a race and ethnicity requirement for college courses. We In addition to the way the article portrays El-Sayed, the

need people like El-Sayed constantly challenging the

comments further some of the commonly held viewpoints.

monolithic representations of Muslims in this country. His run

One of the comments reads, “1 step closer to Sharia law…

for governor sets precedent for future Muslim governor

wake up!” These kinds of comments are reflective of how El-

candidacies, and if he wins the primary in August 2018, will

Sayed, an American born doctor, can be crafted into

Other, so drastically different from the normative.

the

change the tide of politics in the United States.,

YROTS ERUTAEF

Abdul El-Sayed represents everything wrong with the


REZA GLASS FOR EQUALITY MUNEEB SHAIKH

Fleeing the Iranian Revolution with his family, 7-year-

Even when given a platform to share their view and

old Reza Aslan found himself in the San Francisco Bay

ideas, Muslims are under constant supervision and

area. Little did he know that this move would forever

ridicule for how they act and respond to things. This

change his world. As a refugee in the United States,

past June, Reza Aslan’s shown “Believer” was

he would embark on the American Dream, not only

cancelled by CNN because Aslan tweeted profane

changing his own life, but influencing and working for

anti-Trump tweets. Really? Cancelling a show

Muslims and Arabs for years to follow.

because a political commentary on our president on social media that didn’t meet your standard of what is

Being an Iranian American Muslim, he was well aware

allowed of a Muslim show host? He apologized,

of the stigmas that existed about both his heritage

stating that his tweets were not appropriate and they

and his religion. He would wrestle with religion in his

were an impulsive response to Trump after the London

early years and eventually become a ‘professor of

attacks. CNN responded saying, “That kind of

religion’. In one of his most renown interviews with Fox

discourse is never appropriate.” Yeah, neither is the

News, he discussed his book on the life of Jesus and

double standard that Muslims have to deal with in our

received great critique from the news anchor. She

media

was focused on his ‘lack of credentials’ and background. Interestingly, Aslan studied religion in his undergraduate and graduate work, which was complete at the Harvard Divinity School, the crème de la crème of Universities and pinnacle of academic prestige in the United States. Yet, he can be labeled as ‘lacking credentials’ to talk about Jesus? What does a comment like this do? It says that even though you accomplished what only a select few individuals have accomplished, your religion and race supersedes your education. It is

interpolated, or an internalized

ideology, that Muslims cannot and will not ever have a platform from which they can discuss any religion except for their own. Even when discussing their own

Through his business venture, Aslan Media, Aslan

religion, they are told what is right and what is wrong.

hoped to counteract popular ideologies and

They are told what certain things actually mean, and

representation, but even when given the platform, it is

Islam is naturalized as a religion of hate and harm

quickly taken away for minor things. We look at CNN

rather than peace and love.

as a liberal news outlet, but even then, we have things like this occurring. This was definitely a setback for Aslan, but his effort toward giving an equal voice to Muslim and Arabs in media continues.


KEITH UP WITH POLITICS. BE IN POLITICS. MUNEEB SHAIKH

Muslims in politics is something that hasn’t been seen

Ellison often finds himself being a representative for

as much as many other major religious groups. Having

not only Muslims, but for African Americans in the U.S.

proper presence is very instrumental to having a voice,

as well. At a recent panel, Ellison was continually

and at the DNC this past election, Muslim

questioned about his links to the Nation of Islam and

representative Keith Ellison had enough. He

their leader, Louis Farrakhan. Although he has stated

exclaimed, “It’s time for Muslim Americans to do

that he does not share their viewpoints, many times

politics like other minorities.”

there is an

absence of representation of Black

Muslims outside of the Nation of Islam. He’s right. Currently, aside from a few anomaly cases, there are barely any Muslims running for positions in

Contrasting representations of Ellison are also present

politics. Sure, people like El-Sayed and Aslan are in

in media. His Facebook page is filled with loving,

the picture, telling Ellison he is wrong, but Ellison is

supportive comments from people who may or may

addressing the greater Muslim community here. “We’re

not share his viewpoints alike. Social media serves as

good a building mosques,” he says, but religious

a great informative outlet of public opinion. When

institutions are just the tip of the iceberg when it

politicians such as Ellison use these resources, they

comes to gaining representation and a voice here in

further the voice of Muslims and encourage future

the United States.

Muslim leaders to embark on a career in politics. To protect the Muslim voice and move their agenda

Ellison’s rise to political acclaim wasn’t met without

forward, future leaders should not only ‘Keith up with

critique. Being the first Muslim to be elected to the

politics’, but ‘Be in politics’.

U.S. congress isn’t the best bio for making friends.


REPRESENTATIONS INÂ TELEVISION


LOST IN TRANSLATION MARYA GHAZZI

So how do we counter this discourse? Hollywood has

became more compound. Sympathetic depictions of Arabs

attempted to do so by adding some “good Arabs” here and

and Muslims as patriotic American citizens increased as

there, but that’s not enough. Professor Evelyn Alsultany calls

people realized that they were new targets of

these

discrimination. However, the Arab terrorist stereotype

used by television writers and producers that balances a

remained prevalent in American culture. ABC’s hit television

negative representation with a positive one in order to

series LOST is a prime example of the latter. In the show, a

circumvent stereotyping. However, as we see in LOST, the

plane crashes on an island and the survivors are left to fend

issue is that Arabs are still portrayed in the context of

for themselves in a mysterious place. They struggle with

violence.

simplified complex representations, an approach

finding food, medical treatment, and of course trust. Very early in the show, we meet the one and only Arab character,

Hollywood needs to shift the discourse around Arabs by

Sayid Hassan Jarrah.

altering the context that they consistently show up in. Make Sayid a photographer rather than a former Iraqi guard who

Before the crash, Sayid (played by actor Naveen Andrews)

specialized in torture. Diversify Arabs instead of playing into

was an officer of the Iraqi Special Republican Guard. He

the monolithic stereotype. These false portrayals of the

served as an interrogator for the guard, and claimed to

Middle-East were etched into American culture over

have tortured many individuals in the process. Not too many

decades; let’s just hope it doesn’t take that long to uproot

episodes in, we see Sayid torture someone in order to find

them.

out where to get essential medicine for another passenger

of the flight. What a great first impression.

Granted, as the show progresses, we do see Sayid’s character become more complex. Other characters learn to trust him, and he even falls in love. So we are presented with an Arab character who is humanized; he has his good qualities and his flaws like any other person would. However, there is still an underlying problem here that Hollywood never seems to fix: Sayid is still an Arab represented in the context of violence.

There are so many other backstories that the writers and producers could have created for Sayid. Why did he have to be an Iraqi guard? Why couldn’t he have been an architect or a farmer? Why did he have to be the one with previous torture experience? Because we expect a violent Arab. When I watched the show, I didn’t even notice the way in which it played into the classic violent Arab stereotype; it was nothing new to me. He was just another typical Arab in Hollywood.

The

hegemonic discourse, or the dominant form of reality

that is represented through language, surrounding Arabs and Muslims is that they have an innate hatred of Americans and a need to harm them. This stems from the repeated embodiment of the Middle-East in the context of violence and terrorism over a number of decades. If people haven’t seen anything other than these representations, how could they believe otherwise?

YROTS ERUTAEF

IAfter the events of 9/11, portrayals of Arabs and Muslims


HOMELAND IS RACIST LAYLA HAK

corrupt leaders in other parts of the world, showing that

mishap in the background of certain scenes in one of their

American values and systems of governance are superior

episodes. While shooting that season of Homeland in Berlin,

to those in the East.

they had Arabic street artists come onto their set to create a more authentic Middle Eastern setting, as that season was

After several seasons of the show, Homeland began

centered around American CIA agents hunting down terrorist

receiving criticism about the racist messages it was

groups and saving the helpless Middle Eastern people. The

sending to its audiences. One of the ways it does this is

street artists, being well aware of the stereotypes that this

through

show perpetuates not only about Arabs and Muslims, but

concept describes the attempt at creating balance in

about the whole Middle Eastern region, decided to use this

portrayals of Arab and Muslim characters that instead

opportunity to their advantage. They spray painted phrases

glosses over the true complexities that exist within each

on the background such as “Homeland is racist” and “there is

other their situations. For example, there have been

no homeland.” The producers did not have knowledge on

examples of “Good Arabs” in the show, but their purpose

what had been done to their set and the show ended up

is simply to balance out the various examples of “Bad

airing many of the spray painted phrases, which some

Arabs” in the roles of religious fanatics and political

audience members caught onto and brought to the attention

extremists. Despite the probable intention that the show

of the media.

had of showing that there is diversity within Arabs and

simplified complex representations. This

Muslims, simplified complex representations actually Homeland is a show based on American CIA agents

present the “Good Arab” as the exception instead of the

gathering intel and executing missions while undercover. A

standard, therefore further perpetuating negative

large portion of the show takes place in Middle Eastern

stereotypes.

countries and is concerned with intervening in foreign politics in order to save Arabs from their own people. This show

American benevolent supremacy. Benevolent supremacy is defined as the attitude embodies the concept of

There have been differing reactions from the media regarding the spray painting of phrases that criticized the show, but this makes me wonder: will this trigger the

America has towards itself as a benevolent power that must

show to reconsider how they are portraying their

bring democracy to the rest of the world. The

characters? Will it cause people to view the show with a

intervention efforts of American agents are aimed towards

more critical eye? Or will people continue watching due

bringing down

to the pure fact that it is entertaining?

YROTS ERUTAEF

In 2015, the hit show Homeland experienced an embarrassing


REPRESENTATIONS IN SPORTS


TURNING TABLES MARYA GHAZZI

Al Jazeera News also included various reactions to this

reputation in American culture. The stereotypes

chant from social media, including one from satirist

surrounding them have been so

naturalized, meaning

Karl Sharro: “Salah is doing more to end the clash of

clash

they’ve become common sense to the point where they

civilisations than anyone else in the world.” The

go unnoticed. However, not all representations of the

of civilizations is a point of view that emerged after

Middle-East are negative. Take a look at the rising

the events of 9/11, and dictates that there are deep

legend, and one of my personal favorite footballers,

cultural differences between Islam and the West that

Mohamed Salah. The 25-year-old Egyptian has been

will inevitably lead to conflict. While Mo Salah isn’t

receiving a lot of attention due to the sheer perfection

necessarily doing more than anyone else in the world

that he has exhibited on the pitch for Liverpool FC. He

to change this perspective, he sure has pushed

has scored 30 goals in this season alone, and some are

Western culture in the right direction.

starting to compare him to the GOAT (greatest of all time) Lionel Messi.

We can’t discredit, however, the extensive efforts that various activist groups have played in pushing back

Besides his skills on the soccer field, there is one other

against discrimination towards Arabs and Muslims. But

element that has caught the attention of many around

because of his platform as a professional athlete,

the world: his Muslim faith. According to Al Jazeera

Salah has had a vast effect on people in such a short

News, his Liverpool fans have done more than just

amount of time. It seems as though if we had more

accepted his faith:

individuals like “The King of Egypt**,” as Salah’s fans call him, people would start to see past the dominant

"'I'll be Muslim too': Fans Embrace Liverpool's Mo Salah"

stereotypes that have infiltrated Western culture.

Fans have come up with an entire chant about converting to Islam if Salah keeps his scoring streak up:

“Mo Sa-la-la-la-lah, Mo Sa-la-la-la-lah, If he’s good enough for you, he’s good enough for me, If he scores another few, then I’ll be Muslim too, He’s sitting in a mosque, that’s where I want to be.”

As a professional athlete, Salah has had a great impact on changing the

discourse around Islam in Western

Here’s the thing, there are and have been many

culture. And by discourse, I mean the linguistic

individuals like Mo Salah in the athletic world. There

manifestation of an ideology; in this case how we

are Arabs and Muslims who embrace their identities

represent the religion of Islam through the language we

and use the platform they are given as athletes to

use. Salah embodies Islam in an entirely new context;

push back against the common misconceptions that

not in the face of terrorism or conflict, but through his

surround the Middle-East. Nevertheless, they are

love for soccer.

always seen as the exceptions to the rule. What will it take for people to realize that these individuals are the rule? That’s up to you to figure out.

**Some of Mo Salah’s fans even call him the Pharaoh. Theorist Stuart Hall would call this

covert or inferential racism, as it simplifies Egyptian culture

down to ancient times and further emphasizes the misconception that Arab civilization has not progressed as the West has. Covert or inferential racism is usually unintentional and comes with an inscribed set of racist and unquestioned assumptions.

YROTS ERUTAEF

Arabs and Muslims have acquired a pretty bad


BREAKING BARRIERS MARYA GHAZZI

which is why we see the repeated images of oppressed

surrounding Muslims. For starters, she was the first Muslim-

Muslim women who play no role in society. And since this

American to wear a hijab while competing as a part of

information is coming from reputable sources, there is a

Team USA in the 2016 Olympics. And in the midst of the

sense of truth that comes with it. Theorist Michael

2016 presidential elections, she embraced the attention that

Foucault coins this concept

surrounded her religious background.

Truth/Knowledge and Power; he uses it to describe how power impacts the production of truth, and in turn how knowledge is

According to Dan Wolken’s article, “Ibtihaj Muhammad

created within power structures. Let’s take a look at an

makes U.S. history, wears hijab in olympics” in USA TODAY

example.

Sports, Muhammad’s presence in fencing was significant in itself. But she took this presence to a higher level, and made

Poet, novelist, and professor Mohja Kahf talked about the

a couple points clear:

keys to publishing a successful novel as an Arab or Muslim in America in her piece “The Pity Committee and

“A lot of people don’t believe that Muslim women have

the Careful Reader.” Kahf explains that Muslim women’s

voices or that we participate in sport,” Muhammad

writing in the U.S. gets packaged, marketed, and sold as

explained. She continued, “It’s not just any team, it’s the

either a victim story (where the Muslim woman is a victim

United States. It’s in light of what’s going on in our country,

of oppression and abuse) or an escapee story (where the

the political fuss we hear about, all these things I feel like

Muslim woman escaped from her abusive society and

kind of circle back to my presence on Team USA and just

fled to the West to find freedom). Otherwise, it doesn’t

challenging those misconceptions about who the Muslim

get published or doesn’t sell. As a result, we see the

woman is.”

same image of Muslim women reinscribed as “true stories.”

There is a

repertory of images, or a collection of images

available that produces the same meanings about the

The truths that are produced from these stories, as

subjects in each image, that is used in American culture to

Foucault explains, play into certain power structures in

define all Muslims. The most common mistaken beliefs are

American culture. The so called “truths” of Muslim women

that all Muslim women wear a hijab, are silent, and are

as oppressed and silent play into the justification of the

oppressed by their country, religion, or husband; Muslim men

Western savior complex. This further emphasizes the

are all violent terrorists. Ibtihaj Muhammad states the reality

superiority of the West over the East, creating a cycle of

in the USA TODAY interview:

powerful apparatuses that create truths only to heighten the power of the apparatuses themselves.

“We’re conservatives and liberals. There are women who cover and women who don’t. There are white Muslims, Arab

So how do we break this constant feedback loop? For

Muslims, African American Muslims. There are so many

starters, we need a new repertory of images that

Muslim countries that have Muslim women as their heads of

represent the diversity of Muslims. We need to see

state, and there are those things I want people to be aware

women in sports and in the workplace, Muslim bakers,

of and see not just those women but Muslim women who

artists, and poets; the list shouldn’t have to be limited.

participate in sport like the Saudi Arabian team, the Kuwaiti

We need to identify the reality, and Ibtihaj Muhammad is

team, and the American team now. Those are the images I

taking a step towards doing so.

want people to see.” Ibtihaj Muhammad is creating a new repertory of images Muhammad wants us to understand that Arabs and Muslims are diverse. Not all Arabs are Muslim, and not all Muslims are Arab. There are Muslim women who play sports, and Muslim women who are artists. But that's not what we see in the media. The media gives the audience what they expect,

for Muslims all over the world.

YROTS ERUTAEF

Ibtihaj Muhammad has dismantled all sorts of stereotypes


REPRESENTATIONSÂ OF WOMEN


WOMEN IN SCIENCE LAYLA HAK Finally, she co-founded a non-profit organization rooted at

is something that we have not seen enough of. Luckily,

Harvard University with the aim of providing inexpensive

women like Dr. Hayat Sindi are working to change this by

point-of-care diagnostic devices for populations in need.

empowering other women to access their full potential and leave their mark on the world by helping others through

Her role as a Muslim woman in these positions serves as a

science.

counter-hegemonic example about what it means to be a Muslim woman. One of the narratives often prescribed to

Growing up in the Muslim country of Saudi Arabia, Dr. Hayat

Muslim women by the West is that they are oppressed by

Sindi sought out higher education in order to have a voice

their male counterparts. Prominent Syrian author, Mohja

that would be heard in her country. Sindi was born in the holy

Kahf, puts this concept into words in her piece, “The Pity

city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia-- a place where the voices of

Committee.” Kahf would describe Western portrayal of

women have not been given much of an opportunity to be

Sindi’s success as an

heard in government and national organizations.

woman escapes the oppression of Middle Eastern societies

escapee story in which a Muslim

to find a better life in the West. In reality, this story is In order to acquire the voice she now has in the Saudi

oversimplified and does not address Sindi’s true motivations

Arabian government, Sindi knew she needed to receive the

in seeking a higher education. She is empowering other

best education she could. In order to do this, she convinced

Arab and Muslims women to shatter stereotypes surrounding

her parents to send her to the United Kingdom to attend

their role in society.

school there. There, she attended King’s College and Cambridge University to get her PhD in biotechnology. She

After learning about all the amazing work that Sindi does,

was the first Saudi Arabian woman to be accepted into

the question arises: Why haven’t we seen more of her in the

Cambridge University’s doctoral PhD program in

media? A possible reason for this is because her story

biotechnology.

conflicts with the hierarchy of truth that has been created

Sindi’s success in the fields of science and business caused

truth and power. Foucault describes the relationship between

her to become an advocate for girls entering the science

truth and power by saying that the entities that are the most

field and seeking out higher education. Her ability to

powerful in society are able to determine what is true. The

advocate for this was heightened when she was appointed

truths that have been created about Arab and Muslim

as the head of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and

women do not align with the story of Hayat Sindi. This makes

Cultural Organisation. In addition to this, she has gained a

mainstream media less inclined to publicize her story

position on the Consultative Assembly of Saudi Arabia, where

because it goes against the messages they have been

she works on creating legislation that will give Saudi Arabian

perpetuating over time.

women more rights.

and perpetuated through the relationship between

YROTS ERUTAEF

Prominent examples of Muslim women in the field of science


ARAB ACTIVISM LAYLA HAK

Najimy instead of included as a significant part of her

Najimy. Aside from being in over 25 films and TV shows,

identity. This is because it is more convenient for the

Najimy has also taken on the role of an activist. Born to

media to ignore the fact that she is Arab. One reason for

Lebanese-American immigrant parents, Najimy’s role as an

this is the

Arab American woman in entertainment has lead to the

media were to address Najimy’s Arab heritage, they

activism she takes part in today.

would also have to distinguish the fact that she is in fact

conflation of Arabs and Muslims. If the

not Muslim because over time these two identities have The presence of Arabs, let alone Arab women, in

become seen by the West as interchangeable when in

entertainment has created a sticky situation for Arabs in the

reality they are two separate traits. Also, based on the

West. Arab actors pursuing jobs are often not able to find

relationship between

any due to their Arab identity and when they do find jobs,

end up portraying her as an exception to the stereotype

many of them cause stereotypes about Arabs to be

that Arab women are usually active and well-spoken.

recreated and perpetuated. Male Arab actors are portrayed

Hopefully, with more balanced media representation,

in roles as violent or backwards while Arab women actors

these “truths” about Arab women will soon become more

are made to seem helpless and oppressed. Because of this,

representative of the lived realities of most Arab women

it is rare to see Arab characters or Arab actors playing

today.

characters that are not portrayed in the context of extremism or simply being foreign. Najimy is one of the few Arab actors that has been successful in playing roles that do not have to do with being Arab, hopefully paving the way for Arab actors to come.

Najimy has also used her platform for a good cause, as she has become an activist for the LGBTQ+ community, AIDS awareness, Animals’ rights, and Women’s rights. One of her biggest claims to fame in her activist career included being a surrogate speaker for Hillary Clinton during her presidential campaign in 2016. Her role as an activist and an Arab serves as a departure from the

hegemonic discourse

surrounding Arab women. In the media, Arab women have been portrayed as submissive instead of assertive. Najimy has been an advocate for the LGBTQ+ community since the 1970’s, showing that she wasn’t afraid of the stigma associated with supporting this community before it was even socially acceptable to talk about it. Time and time again, Najimy has stood up for social justice issues that she believes in no matter how controversial or hard to talk about they are. This is

counter-hegemonic because it goes

against the stereotypes that the West has about Arab women. She shows that Arab women are outspoken, passionate, and diverse.

Despite Najimy’s large presence in the media as an activist and an actor, her identity as an Arab American is something that has not received the attention of the media. Her Lebanese heritage is usually glossed over in biographies of

truth and power, the media would

YROTS ERUTAEF

A prime example of Arab women in entertainment is Kathy


ALL WOMEN SPEAK TWO LANGUAGES:Â THE LANGUAGE OF MEN AND THE LANGUAGE OF SILENT SUFFERING. SOME WOMEN SPEAK A THIRD, THE LANGUAGE OF QUEENS. ~MOHJA KAHF~


WORKS CITED “Activism.” Kathy Najimy, kathynajimy.com/activism/.

Al Jazeera. “'I'll Be Muslim Too': Fans Embrace Liverpool's Mo Salah.” News | Al Jazeera, Al Jazeera, 16 Feb. 2018.

Amin, Heba Y. "Arabian Street Artists" Bomb Homeland: Why We Hacked an Award-Winning Series | Heba Amin.

Beaumont, Peter. “Homeland Is Brilliant Drama. But Does It Present a Crude Image of Muslims?” The Observer, Guardian News and Media, 13 Oct. 2012

Bilton, Nick. “Reza Aslan Describes His Gory, Trump-Fueled Divorce from CNN.” The Hive, Vanity Fair, 1 Dec. 2017.

Blouin, Lou. “Why Abdul El-Sayed's Run for Governor Is for Real.” Hour Detroit, Hour Detroit, 2 Jan. 2018.

Eggert, David. “Michigan Doctor Believes US Ready for First Muslim Governor.” Fox News, FOX News Network, 15 Sept. 2017

“Entertaining Americanism.” Sayid Jarrah: Representing the Arab Identity in LOST, 7 Dec. 2009.

Harn, Jessica. “11 Inspirational Arab Women You Really Need to Know About.” Culture Trip, 10 Nov. 2017.

“Hayat Sindi.” World Economic Forum, www.weforum.org/people/hayat-sindi.

“Mohja Kahf Quotes (Author of The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf).” Goodreads, Goodreads

Salem, Alia. “Perspective | It's Time for Muslim Americans to Do Politics like Other Minorities.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 1 May 2017.

Weaver, Al. “Keith Ellison Pans Louis Farrakhan's Nation of Islam: 'Nobody Listens to Them'.” Washington Examiner, 6 Apr. 2018.

Wolken, Dan. “Ibtihaj Muhammad Makes U.S. History, Wears Hijab in Olympics.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 9 Aug. 2016.

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