URBAN DESIGN STUDIO
LANDSCAPE AGRICULTURE FOOD Dogari Victoria, Ghannoum Maja, Gruszczyński Bartosz, Polat U.Ulas, Tomczyk Ewa, Žugčić Anja
Image 01: A man in Mozambique Sources : connect4climate.org
CHAPTER 1. Historical background (Early settlements - Maputo as a city - Portuguese arrival - Colonial Mozambique Plano Aguir proposal - Post colonial Mozambique) CHAPTER 2. Demographic data (Mozambique population growth - Demographic trends and Settelment patterns Labour) CHAPTER 3. Landscape, Agriculture, Food I. Landscape (Coastal landscape structure and urbanization process - Coastline and new urban developments - Urban topographical changes - Urban development plans Landscape resources) II. Agriculture (Agricultural production in maputo-local context - Political framework of urban agriculture in Maputo - Main agricultural issues in Maputo - Irrigation and crop diversification in irrigation sheme) III. Food (Urban food system - Sources of food - Food purchasing patterns - Breastfeeding - Food security) CHAPTER 4. Guidelines for the project Main Issues of Maputo BIBLIOGRAPHY
Metropolitan of Maputo
Image 02: Maputo city Location Source : Intersecting the Maputo Fishery Harbour : architecture as threshold between fixed and fluid by Devenish, Paul Gregory, 2012
Image 03: Women Walking Along Road Sand Road To Mapai Sources : pixabay.com
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND FROM EARLY SETTLEMENTS TILL TODAY Early settlements In the early times of the Mozambican civilization, the original people settled close to the water sources and agricultural lands, working on cattle raising, agriculture, mining, crafts, and trade. The experience of iron technology was added after the Bantu speakers migrated to Mozambique. As for the social and labour situation, women usually were working in the fields in the cultivation and gathering of crops next to householding. Meanwhile, men were working on hunting and cattle raising and making the necessary tools (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 2019). Maputo as a city In 1887 Maputo was considered as a city with an urban layout of an orthogonal grid in the coastal area. In this grid, they had a chain of the plantation, natural landscape
Image 04: Maputo in 1900 showing the 2 km radius layout and separate township on the Polana headland. Source: Lourenço Marques, Maputo – structure and agency in urban form: past, present and future by Paul Jenkins - 2009
and gardens. The eucalyptus trees that they planted, had a function for draining the Marshy area, to obtain more fertile land near the sea. The green areas made a line between the natural lands and the urban grid with the plantation. (Orshoven, 2014) Portuguese Arrival In the early 16th century, the Portuguese took control of the island of Mozambique. “Mozambicans were sold as slaves. During the first three decades of the 19th century, several military groups invaded Mozambican territory, seizing cattle, hostages, and food as they went. The waves of armed groups disrupted both trade and day-to-day production throughout the area” (Encyclopaedia Britannica. Inc, 2019). The matrix of the urban plan expanded making another ring road separating native groups. The original vegetation was a different kind of bushes next to a combination of tree species which were used as fuelwood (Orshoven, 2014). As for agriculture and food fields, they were developed by Portuguese along with the trade of some kinds of plantations as sugar, copra, and sisal. Those trades were depending mainly on forced labour and railways, as if this period was famous for forced labour, forced crop cultivation, high taxes, low wages, confiscation of the most promising lands (Encyclopaedia Britannica. Inc, 2019).
Image 05: Maputo 1940 Source: Lourenço Marques, Maputo – structure and agency in urban form: past, present and future by Paul Jenkins - 2009
Colonial Mozambique - Plano Aguir Proposal
In 1952 the city expanded furthermore. The valley Rio Infuele with its fertile soils was an attractive land for a lot of settlements to do their agriculture activities. On the other hand, a lot of informal settlements moved to the top of the sand ridge for a good geographical position. Meanwhile the new proposal urban plan – Plano Aguir, studied an expansion of the city with a second ring road, airport and a park. This plan was not really logical, because it was placed on top of settlements and inhabitants that were already settled, and it was hard to find another place for them (Orshoven, 2014). After 1975 the expanding of the city continued reaching other cities. People settled near the city centre and the sand ridge and to the north reaching other cities. Another crucial issue for the future of urban agriculture identified by the interviewed stakeholders is access to land. When it comes to owning land, it is important to note that at independence in 1975, all land was nationalized. Due to Article 109 of the Constitution and Art.
Image 06: Urban Plan 1952 - 1955 Source: African Perspectives 4: The African city centre by Paul Jenkins - 2009
3 of the Land Law, all land belongs to the state and shall not be sold, mortgaged or alienated (Barghusen et al., 2016, p. 84). As for food in this period, starchy roots were the main food source, next to cereal and fruit and vegetables (FAOSTAT, 2005).
Image 07: Views in Lourenço Marques (i.e. Maputo) - 1895-1908 Source: African Perspectives 4: The African city centre by Paul Jenkins, 2009
Image 08: Maputo city expantion between 1969 - 1989 Source: African Perspectives 4: The African city centre by Paul Jenkins - 2009
Post colonial Mozambique After Frelimo was in control of the country, they ended forced cultivation, forced labour, and ethnic discrimination. Farmers who were hoping to see their lands returned to them, were not satisfied with all the partyâ€™s commitment to communal, cooperative, and state-run agriculture. Frelimo admitted the lack of success of its agricultural policy in 1985. Shortly after independence Renamo began economic sabotage and terror against the rural population. The civil war ended after a peace agreement that was accepted in October 1992. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 2019) Maputo has been characterized by unregulated expansion and informal urban planning for a long time and the director of the DMPUA (Direccao Municipal de Planeamento Urbano e Ambiente), Euclides Rangel, confirmed that the major part of the land in Maputo is informally planned. This is due to rapid urban growth in the past decades, coupled with high levels of poverty (Jenkins & Andersen, 2011, p. 3). At the same time, there has been little consideration for urban agriculture in urban
planning because agriculture has only been related to the rural areas of Mozambique for a long time (Masquete & Matias, 2016). Nowadays, there is a lot of production in the Costa do Sol area but also pressure from the Maputo bourgeoisie who want the land to build luxurious homes. And most recently a new structure plan has been produced for the Maputo city council by the Faculty of Architecture and Physical Planning, Eduardo Mondlane University( Jenkins, 2009, p. 102 ). As for the food supply for human consumption, the main food group in daily consumption for people these days is starchy roots and cereals. People nowadays are consuming fewer animal fats and milk products and even less seafood. That also includes the fruits and vegetables the consumption of those have fallen to the half (FAOSTAT, 2005). These Major changes in the food supply and consumption could be caused mainly because of the several natural disasters, that Mozambique suffered from in the 21st Century including drought, an earthquake, and devastating floods.
Image 09: Mozambique after the Natural disaster. Hundred of distroied houses image description Source: Article by Joaquim Nhamirre With Michelle GuOta In dereper cienemo lessimuPudaerci pidunt as qui mede Johannesburg volupta tquias ea porehent exerumq uodipsusam fuga. Sources......
Image 10: Homless women in the street Source: Billwalsh.photography/mozambique-maputo
DEMOGRAPHIC DATA MOZAMBIQUE POPULATION GROWTH Analyzing the population growth of Mozambique or Maputo in particular, we can see that the increase in population is not a new trend. The population growth started earlier even before the civil war. The steep growth rate of Mozambique is above 2% (World Population Review, 2019). Meanwhile, The Italian growth rate is currently -0.1% (World Bank, 2017).
2019). Comparing Italy with Mozambique, we can see that the population of Italy is declining throughout the 21st century, with a current population of 60.484 million. And Mozambique population is predicted to stay increasing for at least the next 50 years (World Bank, 2018).
Mozambique Population Growth Mozambique 2019 population is estimated at 30,366,036 people at midyear according to UN data. 37.8 % of the population is urban. The median age in Mozambique is 17.2 years (Worldometers, 2019). The largest city is Maputo (previously Lourenco Marques) with a population of 1.2 million. It had a dramatic population increase going from 671,556 to 1,616,267 between 2007 and 2017 (World Population Review,
Image 11: Mshongolo Dance- 1899-1908 (The date is approximate.) Source: University of Cambridge - Virtual Library
Chart 01: Comparing the population growth between Italy and Mozambique Source: World population review, EUROSTAT Own autorship, 2019
Image 12: Review at Komatie Poort, Sept. 28 1900 Image 13: Customs Enclosure, Lourenรงo Marques Source: University of Cambrigde - Virtual Library
DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS & SETTELMENT PATTERNS “Mozambique’s rate of population growth, though high by world standards, is lower than that of most other African countries. The country’s infant mortality rate is among the highest in the world. Moreover, average life expectancy is among the lowest in the world, but comparable to that of other southern African countries. As in most African countries, Mozambique’s population is young - more than two-fifths of Mozambicans are under the age of 15 and almost three-fourths under 30”. (World Population Review, 2019) In 2019 the percentage of males in Mozambique is showing slightly less than the female percentage, with 48.56% for males and 51.44% for females. The population pyramid of 2019 is almost symmetrical with small differences. (World Population Review, 2019)
Settlement Patterns In Mozambique, the settlements usually are concentrated in the areas with the best soils anxd climate. In drier areas, the settlements are smaller and they usually plant crops to create a safer environment, and to reduce the danger of floods, drought or other natural disasters. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 2019) As for the historical changes of the settlement patterns, they were changing according to the circumstances. In the colonial period, the Portuguese tended to build denser communal settlements. Meanwhile, the farmers preferred to spread and scatter their settlements. However, the scattered settlements were harder to control, and to provide services to. In 1940 the African population surpassed the Portuguese population, and the African people were displaced to the outskirts of the city centre where there were no services and facilities. While the high-income population started to occupy the Northern areas beyond the informal settlements established around the city centre, which was the point of confluence of new commercial and business activities (Gaviria, 2016, p. 8). After independence, more people moved towards urban areas. The government tried to reduce the population of an urban area by forcing people to go back to rural areas without any jobs. However, this attempt to reduce the population of urban areas was a failure, people went back to the city which they were removed from (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 2019).
Chart 02: Mozambique Population Pyramid Source: World population review
Image 14: People of Mozambique Source: Gettyimage
Image 18: Kids of Mozambique Source: Unsplash photo by Martin Bekerman
Image 15: Street in Maputo Source: Gettyimage
Image 19: People in Mozambique Source: Billwalsh.photography/mozambique-maputo
Image 16: Women of Mozambique Source: Billwalsh.photography/mozambique-maputo
Image 20: Maputo Women in the field Source: Refugees international
Image 17: Women and kids of Maputo Source: Gettyimage
LABOUR Mozambique is an agricultural country, with more than four-fifths of the labour force working in farming fields. The settlement patterns demonstrate the agrarian focus. People settled in urban areas are only about one-third of the population. (Encyclopaedia Britannica. Inc, 2019). Back in history men usually worked in neighbouring countries leaving women to take care of corps and the house. After independence, many women moved to the cities to take advantage of new economic opportunities. Mozambican workers, including women, were guaranteed the right to form trade unions and the right to strike in the 1990 constitution. Numerous trade unions developed, many of which participated in the Organization of Mozambican Workers, a group that has openly criticized the free-market policies of the government (Encyclopaedia Britannica. Inc, 2019). Nowadays, the Mozambican labour law protects any one engaged in productive activity, even without having a formal or written contract (Mozabiqian Labour Law, 2019). Although belonging to the least developed countries group, Mozambique is one of the fastest-growing economies in Africa - annual growth has averaged
7% over the past two decades (ILO, 2016). Mainly driven by natural resource exploitation, particularly, coal production. Poverty, food and nutrition insecurity are still important issues with considerable spatial and social variations and significant incidence in rural areas. It is estimated that 54% of the population still live below the poverty level and that about 35% of households are considered highly vulnerable to food insecurity (IFAD, 2011, p04). Current statistic (dated 2017) shows that the labour force is now 12.98 million in Mozambique. Meanwhile, agriculture field is still the main occupation with 74.4% of the population working in it, for industry 3.9%, and other services 21.7%. The unemployment rate was changing during the last 8 years, reaching its highest value in 2014 with 25.29% of the population, and the lowest value in 2012 with 22.54% (ILO, 2017). The current rate of unemployment taken in 2017 is 25.04%. And with a comparison with the Italian current unemployment rate that is 9.5% in 2019. That is the lowest rate since 2011 (National Institute of Statistics, ISTAT, 2019). We can see the difference and how high is the rate of unemployment in Mozambique.
Chart 03: Mozambique unemployment rate between 2010-2017 Source: Tradingeconomic.com, own autorship 2019
Image 21: Steet Bar Source: Billwalsh.photography/mozambique-maputo
Image 22: submerged huts near Nhamatanda Source: Tsvangirayi Mukwazhi - AP
I. L ANDSCAPE COASTAL LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE AND URBANIZATION PROCESS In case of Maputo, the whole process of urbanization begun with first, informal settlements on peri-urban, coast areas. Later, following construction of the Marginal Avenue along the coastline, large-scale urban developments are started. Expanding to North and West, reached Marracuene and Matola districts creating a whole new metropolitan area known today as the Greater Maputo. However, construction of the Marginal Avenue had an immense impact on coastal landscape - dunes flattening and mangrove deforestation hit the area of Costa do Sol, spreading wider with time. Local communities and large-scale investments take over most of the natural, coastal environment. The existing metropolitan organism and new, rash development speed up the process of erosion of the coastal ecosystem. Bay and foodplain pollution reaches its peakes (Bandeira and Paula, 2014). As a result, sea level rise and flooding become serious danger for inhabitants. Ongoing changes are easily-noticeable on Bairro dos Pescadores and Catembe districts. First of mentioned- being the Northern end of Maputo - is a typically estuarine ecosystem, lowly - urbanized with fishingbased economy. Construction of the Marginal Avenue through the district affected landscape and changed water dynamics. In contrary, Catembe - the Southern side of the city - is an area of defined, future
urban expansion. As a large-scale territory, Catembe mix several social groups of different income and lifestyle. On the way to urbanization, the newly-constructed (2018) Catembe Bridge plays its main role, providing easy and quick access from-and-to Maputoâ€™s city centre, making it considerable to move southwards. However, the main issue of Maputoâ€™s coastal urban development is definitely the serious conflict between advanced, rapid expansion and survival of local communities/habitat. The key question is - how could urban development proceed with respect to the natural environmental dynamics? Moreover, how could the local comunities fit, evolve and survive progressive urbanizaton?
Image 23: Current land use of Maputo Own authorship, 2019
COASTLINE AND NEW URBAN DEVELOPMENTS As explained, current urban development started along the Marginal Avenue, proceeding towards Costa do Sol. Predominant typology were relatively luxurious housing units, hotels, clubs and touristic facilities, built thanks to foreign mostly Chinese - investors. The furtherest parts reached Costa do Solâ€™s mangroves starting wide-spreaded deforestation. In Bairro dos Pescadores construction works filled up large foodplain area, affecting water dynamics and causing floodings. The worse, polder areas are thought as a part of future urban development. Because of previous North-directed expansion, landscape changes on the Southern part are not yet visible. New urban plans try to force a change, but lack of precision and completeness still keep them far from reality. In the meantime, informal development of Catembe proceeds rapidly and freely. Except locals, some near-based industries have already started construction works on lowlands. If the situation does not change, environmental changes in Catembe will be same as on Costa do Sol.
Image 24: Coastline and new developments Own authorship, 2019
URBAN TOPOGRAPHICAL CHANGES
Image 25: Urban topographical changes Own authorship, 2019
After the topographic improvements in infrastructure, the next step is the subsequent process of urbanization. The change in the coastline is also visible on the beach in Costa do Sol, where touristic developments create more beach areas filled with sand and build breakwater walls against erosion. Nevertheless, due to the new developments at the different scales being developed at the moment, the topographical changes caused by infrastructures will be accentuated. The new large scale projects in the low land around the Costa do Sol, have to fill the land to reach the level of Marginal Avenue which is accentuating the dyke created by the infrastructure and this can protect them against flooding and high tides. The community, however, is also modifying the topography in a small scale, which is not enough to protect low income houses from flooding events and high tides. The process of urbanization is modifying the topography and changing how
the fresh water flows in the floodplain, how the high tide penetrates the land through subsequent deforestation of mangroves, occupation of dunes and changing the dynamics of coastal landscape. Hence, analysis of topographical changes and their effects seem to be fundamental for the design process. Shown on the next pages, it is divided into five parts: large-scale urban development in Costa do Sol; large-scale residential development in Costa do Sol - Casa Jovem; mediumscale residential development in Bairro dos Pescadores and Catembe; low-scale residential development far and wide; local industry development in Catembe.
LARGE SCALE DEVELOPMENTS IN MARGINAL AVENUE, COSTA DO SOL
Image 26: Marginal Avenue, Costa do Sol 2000 Source: Google Earth / Maxar Technologies
Image 27: Large scale developnents in Marginal Avenue Costa do Sol 2019 Source: Google Earth / Maxar Technologies
Large-scale development in Costa do Sol. Starting point for vast urban expansion was completion of the Marginal Avenue, followed by building development.
Luckily, construction works have not damaged nearby anti-flood water channel and mangroves. Yet, the main negative is definitely seizure of lowland areas.
LARGE SCALE HOUSING DEVELOPMENT; CASA JOVEM COSTA DO SOL
Image 28: Costa do Sol 2009 Source: Google Earth / Maxar Technologies
Image 29: Large scale housing development: Casa Jovem Costa do Sol 2019 Source: Google Earth / Maxar Technologies
Large-scale residential development in Costa do Sol - Casa Jovem. After the works of the Marginal Avenue begun, need of relocation of locals became an urgent problem. As an answer, the project of Casa Jovem - a low-cost housing alternative for evicted settlers - was set. Built on ex-
floodplains, new residences took most of the lowland area, leaving just a basic channel drainage system in case of rain, flood etc. Unfortunately, such advances changes of topography cause water retension, so significant risk of flooding.
MEDIUM-SCALE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN BAIRRO DOS PESCADORES, COSTA DO SOL
Image 30: Bairro dos Pescadores, Costa do Sol 2000 Source: Google Earth / Maxar Technologies
Image 31: Medium scale residential developments in Bairro dos Pescadores Costa do Sol 2019 Source: Google Earth / Maxar Technologies
Medium-scale residential development in Bairro dos Pescadores and Catembe. Thanks to a good accessibility provided by the Marginal Avenue, Bairro dos Pescadores is being developed as a residential area. Majority of the investors are medium-
income newcomers, building settlements on low-cost lands. As in previously shown cases, dunes flattening and mangrove deforestation. In order to protect the district from tides and flooding, breakwater walls have been built.
MEDIUM-SCALE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN CATEMBE
Image 32: Catembe 2005 Source: Google Earth / Maxar Technologies
Image 33: Medium scale residential developments in Catembe 2019 Source: Google Earth / CNES - Airbus
In Catembe, most of the highincome houses are built on top of the dunes. Thanks to gradual development, houses do not seem to cause significant changes of the landscape. Low density helps to protect
the mangroves too. Interestingly, landscape erosion is mostly caused by people walking on dunes - their protection should be a priority for the future development plans.
LOCAL INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS IN CATEMBE
Image 34: Catembe 2013 Source: Google Earth / CNES - Airbus
Image 35: Medium scale industries in Catembe 2019 Source: Google Earth / CNES - Airbus
Local industry development in Catembe. Suprisingly, the industrial revolution does have cosiderable impact on the landscape erosion. Some of the factories whether flatten the highlands or fill the lowlands, yet not interfering the
natural water dynamics. Although the area close to the Catembe bridge was deforested, the mangroves are kept intact. Such way of building development could be an interesting case study for the future urban expansion.
LOW-SCALE RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN BAIRRO DOS PESCADORES, COSTA DO SOL
Image 36: Bairro dos Pescadores, Costa do Sol 2000 Source: Google Earth / Maxar Technologies
Image 37: Small scale housing filling the lowland with garbage, Bairro dos Pescadores, Costa do Sol 2019 Source: Google Earth / Maxar Technologies
Low-scale residential development far and wide. Numerous especially in Bairro dos Pescadores, disorganised and scattered residential units- self-build by the poorest locals- are one of the hallmarks of Maputo. In Bairro dos Pescadores, the people cut the mangroves and fill lowlands with waste, later create platforms as foundation of the
houses. This provisional solution seems to be an anti-flood protection- accurate during the dry, insufficient during the rainy season. In some cases, the poorest can not afford any platform-like constructions, being forced to build their wooden sheds on the lowland level. These are the most vulnerable to water events.
URBAN DEVELOPMENT PL ANS
Image 38: Future extension map Source: PEUMM - Urban development plan for Maputo, own authorship, 2019
In order to officialise and control future expansion, the government of Maputo released several spatial development plans. Them - together with specific environmental protection regulations - should be a proper and comprehensive guideline. Urban Structure for Maputo Municipality (PEUMM- Plano de Estruttura Urbana de Municipio de Maputo) is a new tool regulating occupation and further extension of the city, restoration of the ecological balance and quality of the environment (Conselho Municipal de Maputo, 2008). Its main areas of concern are Bairro dos Pescadores and Catembe. The first one - described as developable planned areas - is envisioned as far-reaching settlement of various typology. Existing informal settlements are to become a low-density housing neighbourhood,
the coastline a multifunctional area. Unfortunately, the plan does not specify how the development is to proceed nor what kind of other functions could the area host. In contrast, developable unplanned area of Catembe is to become a zone of agricultural activities. Here, the plan does not foresee large-scale urbanization nor seize of wetlands and floodable areas. Completing PEUMM regulations, PPU- Plan for Urbanization of Costa do Soltreats landuse, mobility, accessibility, density, also infrastructure and facilities of the ring roadâ€™s and Marginal Avenueâ€™s surroundings. (Conselho Municipal de Maputo, 2014). Currently residential, the area is to become medium-dense and multifunctional.
Image 39: Land use map for extentions Source: PEUMM - Urban development plan for Maputo, own authorship, 2019
Unfortunately, the PPU does not contribute to the Plan for Mangrove and Swamp Protection. Costa do Sol seems to be a key area for environmental balance of the region, where such far advanced development could disturb water dynamics causing floodings and rapid landscape erosion. In addition to PEUMM and PPU, the PGU - General Plan for Catembe- was published. As an experiment, the PGU treats Catembe as an entire new and independent city, expanding southwards the bay. For such idea, jumping-off point was completion of the Catembe Bridge (2018), that- together with the new road network- is to improve connection and accessibility between Maputo and designed settlement. The master plan describes residential, commercial, industrial, service and touristic areas included in a
30-year-long urban development process. Existing low-income settlements are to become green urban structural areas for agriculture and production, whatever that means. The coastline - currently occupied by high-income housing - is to be developed into a touristic hub. Interestingly, the new Plan for Catembe does not include local population as a part of the process. Brave development plans could also cause dlattening of the dunes, necessary to protect the inner area from tides and sea level rise. Yet, the PGU seems to be an answer for rapid demographic growth of the Greater Maputo - estimated to double in three decades - and an indicator for the future expansion.
LANDSCAPE RESOURCES Despite large scale urbanization, there are still areas that use natural landscape as a vital resource of e.g. food, fuel and building material. Broad variety of the habitat helps citizens battle for their growth and economy, providing tools necessary to survive everyday life. Such activities are mostly popular in Bairro dos Pescadores and Catembe. The biggest subsector- fishing, generates food and labour for the coastal communities. Except the open-sea fishery, it also includes shells, clams and mud crab collection. In Mozambique, over 500 000 people (of which 100 000 directly involved) depend on artisanal fishing, thus it is greatly responsible for socioeconomic stability (IDPPE, 1999).
Another subsector is the collection and use of mangroves. Mostly, the wood is used as building material and a source of fuel, thus it is a highly necessary asset. The forests are used as a place of cultural activities too- ceremonies, rituals and prayers are held there every Tuesday. Thus, highly important for the environmental balance and cultural heritage, mangrove forests deserve new protection policies and their proper execution.
Image 40: Commercial activities in Maputo - Functions Own authorship, 2019
Highly important are also commercial activities, mostly street vending. The informal sector (80% of total) provides workplaces for over 225 000 people (women, men and children) 50% of which are directly involved. Such large-scale activities represent the most impressive survival mechanism the urban poor have developed, though limited in capacity and not providing adequate profits. (Jenkins, 2000). The activities take part during daytime, all stands are closed by night. In the market, the most popular items are seafood, fruits, vegetables, furniture, house utensils, clothes, beauty articles or even animals. The majority of goods, especially edibles, comes from the local resources. However, in Zimpeto, the main commerce hub, it is also
possible to find items imported from South Africa. Street trade is struggling with several problems, where the most vivid are a lack of proper infrastructure and poor accessibility. Because of lack of storages, the sellers take unsold goods home for own use. On the other hand, buyers are forced to travel up to three hours to get to the market. Unfortunately, all mentioned activities operate without any strict control. Overall fishing and collecting tend to cause excessive exploitation of natural resources. On the other hand, informal street vending does not provide e.g. tax income, thus enhancing poverty. Difficult and timeconsuming work activities are still highly unprofitable.
Image 41: Commercial activities in Maputo - Accessibility Own authorship, 2019
Image 42: Agriculture as woman activity in Maputo, Mozambique Source: foodandmigration.com
II. AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN MAPUTO-LOCAL CONTEXT
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Image 43: Map of Maputo with zonas verdes and districts Source: Own Authorship, 2019.
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Currently, over 14,500 farmers work on small parcels of land, producing both for self-consumption and for income generation. The agricultural sector employs about 66,200 people directly (including farmers and service providers) and is responsible for eight percent of the city’s gross income (CMM, 2016). According to estimates, the income of a farmer in Maputo is on average four times that of the national poverty line (FAO, 2012). Moreover, urban agriculture in Maputo provides food for 22% of households (White & Hamm, 2017). Many families devote themselves to the practice of urban agriculture to survive. Urban agriculture is mostly practiced in the middle of the city, in the backyards, but also on a larger scale.
However, agriculture in Mozambique is seen as a women’s activity. About 70% of the farmers in the capital city are women. This can be attributed to the history of civil war and limited access to job opportunities, which has resulted in women relying on agriculture to provide food for their families and to generate some income. (Barghusen et al, 2016; DASACM, 2017). In areas where the land is very fertile, families take advantage of the spaces in their yards to reduce their dependence on markets. In this way, they do not spend money, except a little for the purchase of seedlings. Some low-income families go and buy vegetables and sell them on stools in front of their homes. Their main customers are their neighbors, thus reducing the distance to markets. The beds of beets, kale, carrots, spinach, and many other fresh vegetables, mostly seasonal, serve as a basis for feeding the Maputo population. (Club of Mozambique, 2019)
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Urban agriculture plays an important role in the city of Maputo. One particularity of Maputo are the zonas verdes: extensive long green belts in the urban and peri-urban area, which provide a livelihood for thousands of people. The Infulene Valley is the Mozambican capital’s main green belt. The production of vegetables there is intense, with farmers taking advantage of the Milauze river, which separates the cities of Maputo and Matola and the Costa do Sol. Agricultural production is concentrated in four out of seven municipal districts, namely KaTembe, KaNyaka, KaMubukwana, and KaMavota. (Perspectives of Urban Agriculture in Maputo and Cape Town, 2018, p. 45)
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CHART URBAN POLITICALORGANIZATION FRAMEWORK OF OF URBAN AGRICULTURE IN MAPUTO AGRICULTURE IN MAPUTO
MITADER Ministry of Land, Environment and Rural Developement
DINEA Directorate of National and International Agriculture
DASACM Directorate of Agriculture and Food Security in Maputo
MIC Ministry of Industry and Commerce
DDA/DDE Department of Agriculture/ Department of Extension
MASA Ministry of Agriculture and Food security
CMM Municipal Council of Maputo
DMPUA Municipal Directorate of planning and urbanization
DMAE Municipal Directorate of economic activities
DCU Department of Economic activities
22 Extensionists Farmers
DMI Municipal Directorate of infrastructure
DMMF Municipal Directorate of markets and fairs
DCU Conctruction and Urbanisation Department
Casas Agraruas (each district has one; KV,KMB,KT)
Chart 04: Organizational chart of Urban Agriculture - Political Framework in Maputo Source: Perspectives of Urban Agriculture in Maputo and Cape Town; 2018, p. 47 Own Autorship, 2019.
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2 MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION
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1 NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
Going from the national to the city level, there are no specific policies or institutions in Mozambique aimed at urban agriculture as a phenomenon with specific characteristics. The debate about urban agriculture is still recent in Maputo, however, we could identify relevant institutions and programs that indirectly touch on the topic, like the main political actors an current political tendencies like decentralization and land use. On the national level, the current strategic plan for Agricultural Development (PEDSA, 2010) harmonizes different strategic directives and has four pillars: 1) increase agricultural productivity, 2) improve infrastructure for market access and investment, 3) improve the sustainable use of natural resources, 4) institutional empowerment. Looking at the city level, there is no specific urban agriculture policy. However, Maputo has some special characteristics that relate to political decisions in the country. Since the FRELIMO (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique) party decided to have national government structures
within the cities, the state department DASACM (Direcção da Agricultura e da Segurança Alimentar da Cidade de Maputo) works together with the Municipality of Maputo CMM (Conselho Municipal de Maputo) on urban agriculture issues. Also, there are programs targeting agriculture in the city. The Extensionist Programme is the most relevant program tackling urban agriculture in Maputo. It was created in 1987 and started in the year 2000 in Maputo. Currently, the city has 22 extensionists belonging to either DASACM or CMM. The different Casas Agrarias are the main extension offices supporting smallholder farmers and extensionists. However, the 22 extensionists are not enough for the 14,500 urban farmers in Maputo. Under the supervision of the CMM, they are the key actors between administration and farmers because they work in the field, teach farmers new production techniques, have knowledge about the land and in some cases, establish market contacts. (Perspectives of Urban Agriculture in Maputo and Cape Town, 2018, p. 46-48)
Image 44: Women working in agriculture Source: guardian.ng
MAIN AGRICULTURAL ISSUES IN MAPUTO
Image 45: Women walking in the field after harvesting vegetables. Source : thepurpleplanet.org
Poverty in Mozambique is concentrated in rural areas, where the agricultural sector employs more than 80% of the labor force. Family farms dominate agriculture and mainly practice subsistence agriculture and dryland farming. Labor is a constraint only in some households, which affects crop choice or requires cash payments to hire non-family labor. In the scheme, farmers use tractors for land preparation, and the critical labor issues are seeding managing water, and notably weeding. Labor availability depends on family size, the age of the household head and the number of young people available. (Cumbe, Lucas, & Matsinhe, 2009) Financial services issues Small agricultural producers face many hurdles, including limited access to financing. Only 1% of bank lending goes to the agricultural sector (IFC, 2014, p.7). Without access to credit, poor families must rely mostly on family and friends, as well as community-based savings groups. Access to financial services is critical to provide
funds for farm investments in increasing productivity, post-harvest practices, household cash flow, enable better access to markets and promote better management of risks. Moreover, it can also play an important role in climate adaptation and can increase the resilience of agriculture to climate change, thus contributing to longerterm food security (World Bank, 2014, p.7). Additionally, financial literacy and the formality of small-scale farmers are low: on average only 40% of farms possess a DUAT (land use title). The percentage of registered farms is even lower at 28 % (Ilal et al., 2016, p. 100). The formal banking sector perceives lending to small farmers to be risky, which might explain why bank loans in the financial market are concentrated in medium and large companies, most of which produce products for export. (Perspectives of Urban Agriculture in Maputo and Cape Town, 2018, p.61) Soil management Erosion-induced loss in soil productivity is a major threat to food security. Heavy rainfalls during the
season, soil without drainage system which would prevent further erosion of arable land. Because of the heavy rainfalls in summer in Maputo, the surface in the city is usually sealed by buildings and streets. Contaminated soils lead to higher pesticide residuals in the produced food and due to tests, these products are not accepted in many supermarkets, which apply their health standards (e.g. Shoprite). (Perspectives of Urban Agriculture in Maputo and Cape Town, 2018, p. 80) Water management Access to a permanent water supply is also a key problem for farmers in the districts of KaMubukwana and KaMavotas, because they depend mostly on the river and the rainy season. Also, watering the fields is done manually with the help of cans, which results in the misuse of resources, especially in times of drought. On one hand, smallholder farmers in eastern and southern Africa are very dependent on rainfall distribution. Over 95 % of the land used for food production is based on rain-fed agriculture (Rockstrom, 2000). In the future, urban dwellers living in flood-prone areas are likely to experience more intense and longer floods and resulting landslides. Since the mid-1990s, access to potable water has increased in the urban areas of Mozambique. In 2010, an estimated 78% had access, up from 56% ten years earlier (UNHABITAT, 2010). At the same time, the city of Maputo suffered from severe droughts in recent years. Aside from the availability of water, the quality of water was also raised as an issue critical for the future of agriculture. (Perspectives of Urban Agriculture in Maputo and Cape Town, 2018, p.79) Climate change resilience
Mozambique, with its long coastline,
weak infrastructure and severe droughts in the last years, is one of the countries in Africa most vulnerable to extreme weather patterns (INGC, 2009). Future scenarios indicate sealevel rise, more intense cyclones, land right conflicts due to permanent inundation, water shortages, degrading land due to saltwater intrusion, escalating food shortages, more epidemics and an exponential increase in the spread of wildfires and damage. However, Mozambique has an adaptive capacity with well-kept natural resources. The beginning and the end of the wet season vary significantly from year to year, and the ability to predict this variability is still poor. This variability means that rain-fed agriculture is associated with high risk. (Perspectives of Urban Agriculture in Maputo and Cape Town, 2018, p. 76-77) Protection of agricultural land In Maputo, the land is a crucial asset for urban agriculture. Its availability, accessibility, and security are of particular concern to urban farmers who need to be able to rely on long-term planning (RUAF Foundation, n.d.). But the the biggest threat is land-grabbing. Under Mozambican law at independence in 1975, all land was nationalized, all land belongs to the state and cannot be sold or mortgaged. (Barghusen et al., 2016, p. 84). A DUAT is a long-term user right that covers a period of up to 50 years after the fulfillment of the intended land-use. Farmers can apply to the government for a Duat for up to 50 years. But the certificate does not guarantee a thing, local farmers told. Nowadays, there is a lot of production in the Costa do Sol area but also pressure from the Maputo bourgeoisie who want the land to build luxurious homes. (Perspectives of Urban Agriculture in Maputo and Cape Town, 2018, p.45)
IRRIGATION AND CROP DIVERSIFICATION IN IRRIGATION SHEME
Image 46: Man preparing maize harvest. Source: resilience.org
In Mozambique, crop production is characterized by low productivity and limited intensification (Sitóe, 2010; Mosca, 2014). With the population increasing by 600,000 per year (UN,2011; INE, 2010b) it is imperative to improve the productivity of the agricultural sector. One key to improving productivity is irrigation, which is currently underdeveloped. Of the 90,000 hectares of irrigated land in the country, 20,086 hectares are in southern Mozambique, and of this, close to 19% is located in Maputo Province. Irrigation enables farmers to farm year-round and diversify their crops. This can increase food security and profitability by enabling farmers to grow a greater range and variety of commodities and benefit from seasonal price variations in the market. Most schemes in southern Mozambique are small-scale, but also two types of large-scale schemes also exist. The selected scheme is in Boane District, 30 km south of Maputo City. Constructed in 1975, it consists of 1433 m of concrete
canals and 2797 m of earthen canals supplying 38 hectares. Water is extracted from the Umbelúzi River using a diesel pump, distributed by gravity through a canal system, and applied to the fields using the furrow system. But because of the schedule irrigators can receive water every 15 days. (Irrigation and crop diversification in the 25 de Setembro irrigation scheme, 2017, p. 2-4) Crop and income diversification Household income in the scheme relies on a diverse income stream: 32% of irrigators work off-farm, and 68% grow more than one crop. In total, 18 different crops are grown. Two types of diversification are evident among the irrigators: production of traditional crops – maize, cabbage and green beans – and production of non-traditional crops – tomatoes, chilies, cucumbers, onions, lettuce, potatoes and beetroot. (Irrigation and crop diversification in the 25 de Setembro irrigation scheme, Mozambique, 2017, p. 5-6)
Chart 05: Graph showing the Crop diversification Source: Irrigation and crop diversification in the 25 Septembro irrigation scheme Mozambique, 2017, p.6, Own Authorship, 2019.
Chart 06: Graph showing the Frequency of Crop production Source: Irrigation and crop diversification in the 25 Septembro irrigation scheme Mozambique, 2017, p.6, Own Authorship, 2019.
Seasonal variability of yield The risk of diseases and pest attacks increases in the wet season. Hence, the dry season presents an opportunity to minimize input costs and yield losses. This is particularly the case for tomatoes, which are only produced during the dry season. Comparing the yield of major crops produced during
the wet and dry seasons, the highest yields for maize and chili are achieved during the dry season when irrigation and soil moisture can be better managed to meet water requirements. The highest yields of cabbage, green beans, and sweet potato are obtained in the wet season when these crops receive the highest prices due to lower supply. (Irrigation and crop diversification in the 25 de Setembro irrigation scheme, 2017, p. 10)
Yield per season
Chart 07: Graph showing the Seasonal variability of yield Source: Irrigation and crop diversification in the 25 Septembro irrigation scheme Mozambique, 2017, Own Authorship, 2019. Wet season
Chart 08: Graph showing the Wet-Dry Season prices at Farm gate and Maputo city Market Source: Irrigation and crop diversification in the 25 Septembro irrigation scheme Mozambique, 2017, p. 11, Own Authorship, 2019.
Farmer typologies Originally, there appear to have been two types of farmers: resident farmers, only engaging in farming, and non-resident farmers, engaging in off-farm work and residing outside the scheme. The resident farmers evolved into five different types, first widowed farmers who own the smallest irrigated area, the lowest asset value and use of financial products. Their livelihood depends on subsistence agriculture and includes rain-fed crops like the combination of maize with one or two traditional or non-traditional crops. Second first-generation farmers which the largest irrigated command area, moderate value of assets and limited use of financial resources. The older first-generation farmers mainly diversify by growing a mix of traditional crops, which are easier to manage, have less market risk and are grown on dry land. Third ones are the second generation farmers with the relatively small irrigated area, high assets of value and good financial resources. The younger, second-generation farmers diversify by growing traditional and non-traditional crops. The fourth ones are the new generation farmers who are the youngest, with the small irrigated areas, similar to second-generation farmers, the low value of assets and limited use of financial resources. The final fifth, innovative market gardener is a middle-aged woman with a very small farm, high-value assets and very good access to financial products. The innovative market gardener is attempting to
maximize profit from a small area by only producing non-traditional crops. This cropping pattern is similar to that used by peri-urban horticultural producers in Maputoâ€™s greenbelt. The preference for traditional crops can stem from experience with the cropping techniques; a desire to produce a crop that contributes to both home consumption and cash income; or the need to have access to a more secure market, even if profits are limited. Nontraditional crops have a higher risk in terms of productivity and the market, but can be more profitable. On the other side, non-resident farmers evolved into two types, weekend farmers and non-resident household heads. Weekend farmers are relatively young farmers who spend most of their time in the city for their off-farm work and own small irrigated farm, they have the highest value of assets and second-highest use of financial products. They grow only maize and are the only group with no diversification. Maize is an easy-to-manage but water-intensive crop that is suited to distant management with minimum family labor. While non-resident household head lives in the city, but the family works on the farm. They have the second-largest irrigated area and high assets of value. The non-resident household head type has the highest level of diversification: an average of 5.33 crops in addition to maize, and an average of 2.67 non-traditional crops (Irrigation and crop diversification in the 25 de Setembro irrigation scheme, 2017, p. 14-16).
Image 47: Woman as market gardener. Source: globalfundforwomen.org
Image 48: Women selling Food in the Street market Source: Billwalsh.photography/mozambique-maputo
III. FOOD THE URBAN FOOD SYSTEM In the Mozambiquan diet, the main staple foods are cassava, maize, millet, sorghum, and rice. On the north of the country the most popular is cassava, while in the central and southern provinces, maize and rice constitute the most common food ingredient. The base for the most traditional dishes is xima made from cassava flour normally eaten with different stews, for example, matapa - from green leafy vegetables mixed with groundnut, coconut milk, beans, fish or when available other seafood or chicken. The stews are prepared with the addition of oil, onion, and tomato or boiled with water. Another dish is mucapata - the combination
of rice, green split peas, and coconut milk. Dairy products like milk, yogurt, butter, and cheese are consumed mostly in the cities. In rural areas, their presence in the diet is very low.
Image 49: Matapa Source: Golosos del Mundo, 2019
Image 50: Mucatapa Source: visit Zambezia, 2019
Green leafy vegetables, onion, and tomatoes are the only ones with high consumptions during the whole year. Others like banana, mango, orange, pawpaw, pineapple, and other wild fruits are eaten only during the season of growth. Meat and fish are the types of food available only when household income increase, both in urban and rural areas. Usually eaten only for feasting occasions. The impact of animal origin of energy can be observed in the Chart 10. In the cities, a visible change in nutrition
Percentage of energy provided by major food groups in 2005-2007 Fruit and vegetables 1%
Sweeteners 5% Pulses, nuts, oilcrops 5%
Vegetable oils 8% Cereals 46% Starchy roots 34%
Chart 09: Percentage of energy provided by major food groups in 2005-2007
Daily energy intake and Source: FAOSTAT 2011Daily energy intake and percentage contribution of each individual percentage contribution of each nutrient to it individual nutrient to it 100%
80% 60% 40%
47% Poland Carbohydrates
Chart 10: Origin of energy, protein and lipid supplies 2005-2007 in Mozambique Source: FAOSTAT 2011
Chart 11: Daily energy intake and percentage contribution of each individual nutrient to it Daily energy intake and percentage in comparisonof witheach some individual European countries contribution nutrient Source: LASKOWSKI, 2015; KARAMANOS, 2002; to it FAOSTAT 2011,
3000 sources Frequency of accessing food from different
100% 90% occurs. 80% Fast food like hamburgers, hot dogs, 70% snacks, etc. appeared in Maputo and other 60% Mozambiquan cities. Also on the streets 50% 40% appeared fried cookies, sweets made from 30% 20% peanut/cashew nut or coconut with sugar 10% (like nougat), biscuits and sweets which may 0% Market Small lead to the overweight andshops obesity Supermarket problems.
9% 15% 8%
29% 14% afford three 39% meals a day: breakfast, made 1500 of 1000tea and bread, lunch and dinner based 79% 46%food. (FAO, on staple 2011) 47% 500 the regional The comparison with two different 0 Italy (north) Mozambique EuropeanPoland countries with two different Lipids Proteins Others food Carbohydrates cultures shows that there is a Street sellers gap Restaurants huge in the ofMozambican diet. Percentage energy provided by major food groups in 2005-2007 As mentioned inAtthe Food SecurityAt least andonce a Starting from the total amount of daily least five days a week week Fruit and vegetables At leastsituation once a monthreportAtfrom least once inenergy six monthsintake it Sweeteners Nutrition Monitoring is5%not fully sufficient for 1% Meat 1% August 2010 (SETSAN, 2010), in average the daily Pulses, requirements for the average nuts, oilcrops 5% of the whole country and the most rural person in Mozambique (2128kcal). areas, households normally have only two Moreover,Vegetable the amount of carbohydrates oils 8% main meals (lunch and dinner), whereas is almost double of the European diet. Cereals inhabitants or urban districts usually can 46% Starchy roots 34%
Image 51: Woman on the market Source: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019
SOURCES OF FOOD
Chart main X: Frequency In Maputo City, four typesof food tooitem far.purchases Other reasons are connected with the of selling points are existing. As the lack of money. On the other hand, those who Rice Chart 14 the most research shows on the shop there point out a greater variety of food, White bread popular way of Cooking purchasing the goods is better quality, and opportunity of buying in oil Sugar a market place where the majority of the big amounts (Chikanda, Raimundo, 2018). Frozen/cooked vegetables clients come at least Trading basic goods is the second most Frozen five fish days a week. The Tea/Coffee other important source according to the reported economic activity both in the Pasta Eggs the food is a small frequency of accessing formal and informal way. As it is said in Frozen meat shop, usually targeted in a particular type the article Home space Maputo, “nearly 60% Fresh fruit Fresh fish and of goods. During themeatlast years, there is a of all plots surveyed had some form of Fresh milk growing trend in the usage of supermarkets economic activity on their plot”. Those 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (Chikanda, Raimundo, 2016). However, activities need special kinds of structures At least five days a week LipidsAt least once a week At least once a month At least once in six months shopping there happens just once a month to display the goods for sale. The most for most of the respondents. One more common, especially among the poorer significant group makes the informal sector households, is “banca” – a form of the table Percentage ever breastfed - street sellers which are alsoofconsidered on achildren that is hidden for the night. Families with 120 daily basis. Restaurants and take away places higher economic status build a small kiosk 100 just by less than 5% of clients. are visited called “barraca” which serves as a small 80 “Supermarketization” in Africa, so far shop, a bar or even a hairdressing salon. occurs the The research showed that even 65% 60 most in South African cities. In Maputo, 40this process is not that advanced of the plots closest to the city had any yet which20 leads to the fact that just over economic activity, while the furthest 30% of the society visit this place frequently. terrain was filled with the business 0 Italy not use Ireland People asked theMozambique reason why they do activity by 40% (Andersen, Sollien, 2012). supermarkets, mostly answer that they are Chart X: Perceptions of supermarkets among non-patrons
Supermarkets do not sell the food that we need Supermarkets are only for the wealthy Supermarkets do not provide credit Supermarkets are too expensive Supermarkets are too far away 0% Agree
10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Neither agree nor disagree
Chart 12: Perceptions of supermarkets among non-patrons Source: Hungry Cities Report no. 10, 2018 Chart X: Perceptions of supermarkets among patrons We can buy bulk at supermarkets Supermarkets have a greater variety of foods Food is better quality at supermarkets Food is cheaper at supermarkets 0% Agree
Neither agree nor disagree
Chart 13: Perceptions of supermarkets among patrons Source: Hungry Cities Report no. 10, 2018 Food items Rice White bread Sugar Vegetables Fish (frozen) Pasta Chicken (frozen)
Small shop (%)
Butchery/ bakery (%)
Formal market (%)
Informal market (%)
15.5 8.0 19.5 4.4 11.1 24.0 24.7
66.0 8.4 69.7 7.5 68.1 68.2 61.3
0.4 60.1 0.2 0.2 5.8 0.1 8.1
0.3 0.9 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.7 1.1
21.0 11.9 25.9 47.2 26.9 24.2 24.2
17.4 19.1 21.0 53.0 14.2 16.7 16.2
Street vendors (%) 2.8 16.4 5.5 16.2 1.9 2.4 2.2
Image 52: Maputo Shopping Centre source: Tripadvisor, 2019
Image 53: Mafalala Market Source: Flickr, 2019
Image 55: Mercado Central de Maputo Source: Flickr, 2019
Image 56: Street vendors in Maputo Source: TrekEarth, 2019 Daily energy intake and percentage contribution of each individual nutrient to it
80% 60% 40% 20% 0%
Image 54: Selling from barraca Source: Flickr, 2019 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Image 57: Selling from banca Source: Home Space. Built Environment Study. Maputo, 2012sources Frequency of accessing food from different
At least five days a week
At least once a week
At least once a month
At least once in six months
Chart 14: Frequency of accessing food from different sources Source: FAOSTAT, 2007
FOOD PURCHASING PATTERNS
Considering the nutrition situation, it is worth understanding what types of food are available for Mozambiquans, how often and where they can purchase the goods. Such a survey was made by Crush and McCordic in 2017 and gathered in The Hungry Cities Food Purchasing Matrix (HCFPM) and it indicates what type of food was obtained in the month prior to the survey. The staple products existing in the diet of Maputo inhabitants are rice and bread. The difference between these two products is the expiry date so bread belongs to the products bought at least five times a week while rice might be purchased once a month in a big amount. On a monthly basis, there are also products like cooking oil, sugar, tea and coffee, pasta. With a smaller frequency, the Chart 15 indicates also vegetables, meat and fish which are rather preferred frozen than fresh because their prize is cheaper.
The research also gathered information about the location of purchasing each item. Definitely the most popular are small shops, where most of the respondents buy rice, pasta, sugar, frozen fish and chicken. Fresh fish and chicken are also available in the small shops but also are often purchased on formal and informal markets. These places are also popular for getting fresh fruits and vegetables. The common place is also a bakery where white and brown bread is easy to find. According to the table, supermarkets are patronized just by a relatively small amount of people. Considering another poll, it is evident that the location of the shop makes a huge difference. For all of the goods, the respondents chose the place which is within the walking distance from their neighborhood and very few shops in another district or outside the city (Crush, McCordic, 2017).
Image 58: Brewing Up Cassava Source: AGRA.org
Supermarkets have a greater variety of foods Food is cheaper at supermarkets Food is better quality at supermarkets Food is cheaper at supermarkets Agree
Neither agree nor disagree Disagree 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%
Neither agree nor disagree
Small shop (%)
Butchery/ bakery (%)
Formal market (%)
Informal market (%)
Rice Food items White bread Sugar Rice Vegetables White bread Fish (frozen) Sugar Pasta Vegetables Chicken (frozen) Fish (frozen) Fruit Pasta Chicken(frozen) (fresh) Chicken Fish (fresh) Fruit Brown bread Chicken (fresh)
15.5 Supermarket 8.0 (%) 19.5 15.5 4.4 8.0 11.1 19.5 24.0 4.4 24.7 11.1 26.4 24.0 8.8 24.7 8.1 26.4 34.5 8.8
66.0 Small shop (%) 8.4 69.7 66.0 7.5 8.4 68.1 69.7 68.2 7.5 61.3 68.1 14,.7 68.2 32.3 61.3 40.6 14,.7 22.8 32.3
0.4 Butchery/ bakery 60.1(%) 0.2 0.4 0.2 60.1 5.8 0.2 0.1 0.2 8.1 5.8 0.4 0.1 2.6 8.1 3.8 0.4 46.2 2.6
0.3 Takeaway/ restaurant 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.9 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.5 1.1 0.3 1.4 0.7 1.6 1.1 1.9 1.4 3.4 1.6
21.0 Formal market 11.9 (%) 25.9 21.0 47.2 11.9 26.9 25.9 24.2 47.2 24.2 26.9 47.9 24.2 40.5 24.2 36.8 47.9 24.1 40.5
17.4 Informal market 19.1 (%) 21.0 17.4 53.0 19.1 14.2 21.0 16.7 53.0 16.2 14.2 41.5 16.7 38.4 16.2 35.5 41.5 14.5 38.4
Fish (fresh) Brown bread
Food items Rice Food items White bread Sugar Rice Vegetables White bread Fish (frozen) Sugar Pasta Vegetables Chicken Fish (frozen) (frozen) Fruit Pasta Chicken (fresh) Chicken (frozen) Fish (fresh) Fruit Brown(fresh) bread Chicken
Fish (fresh) Brown bread
3.8 purchuases by 1.9place of purchase 36.8 Table40.6 01: Household food 22.8 46.2 3.410, 2018 24.1 Source: Hungry Cities Report no.
8.1 34.5 Within walking distance (%) Within 90.6 walking 96.2 (%) distance 91.4 90.6 93.2 96.2 91.9 91.4 89.2 93.2 86.5 91.9 84.4 89.2 90.5 86.5 84.4 84.4 73.8 90.5
On road to and from work (%) On road to 3.2 and from 3.6(%) work 6.2 3.2 2.3 3.6 3.9 6.2 6.9 2.3 6.5 3.9 13.5 6.9 5.3 6.5 7.5 13.5 18.6 5.3
Central business district (%) Central 4.4 business 1.3 (%) district 4.0 4.4 2.1 1.3 4.3 4.0 5.1 2.1 5.9 4.3 6.6 5.1 5.6 5.9 5.4 6.6 9.7 5.6
Other shopping areas (%) Other 13.1 shopping 7.9(%) areas 17.2 13.1 12.2 7.9 12.4 17.2 18.0 12.2 17.4 12.4 22.0 18.0 14.0 17.4 17.7 22.0 25.5 14.0
Street vendors (%) Street 2.8 vendors 16.4 (%) 5.5 2.8 16.2 16.4 1.9 5.5 2.4 16.2 2.2 1.9 24.6 2.4 11.4 2.2 11.0 24.6 9.0 11.4
Outside the city (%)
1.3 Outside the city 0.3 (%) 1.3 1.3 1.4 0.3 1.4 1.3 2.1 1.4 3.5 1.4 3.0 2.1 3.0 3.5 5.9 3.0 4.1 3.0
2.2 Other (%) 0.2 1.2 2.2 1.3 0.2 0.4 1.2 0.8 1.3 1.0 0.4 2.3 0.8 1.2 1.0 2.4 2.3 2.8 1.2
Table 02: Household food purchuases by location of purchase Source: Hungry Cities Report no. 10, 2018
Chart X: Frequency of food item purchases Rice White bread Cooking oil Sugar Frozen/cooked vegetables Frozen fish Tea/Coffee Pasta Eggs Frozen meat Fresh fruit Fresh fish and meat Fresh milk 0 At least five days a week
LipidsAt least once a week
At least once a month
Chart 15: Frequency of food item purchases Source: Hungry Cities Report n. 10, 2018
Percentage of ever breastfed children 120 100 80
At least once in six months
Among the mothers giving birth, than any replacement. According to the it is a common fact that nearly all of them statement UNICEF on the Forum PMTCT feed their newly-born children with their in 2007 â€œwhere access to safe drinking Chart X: Frequency food item purchases natural source. 97,3% of children have been water isof limited, environmental hygiene breastfed and about two-thirds of them unfavorable and poverty widespread, Ricehour of were put to the breast within one replacement feeding is generally neither safe White bread birth. (UNICEF, 2018) The research nor affordable and exclusive breastfeeding is Cooking oil of IDS Sugar 2003 indicates that women in rural areas likely to be the only feasible option for most Frozen/cooked vegetables and also women with lower Frozen education level womenâ€? (FAO, 2007). fish were more likely to try thisTea/Coffee source, while The comparison with some Pasta women with secondary educationEggs and those European countries shows a surprising meat slightly living in Maputo were doingFrozen it with result. It turns out that nowadays in the Fresh fruit less frequency. The Fresh average length of fish and meat developed countries breastfeeding becomes Fresh milk breastfeeding varies from about 20 months less and less popular. In Ireland only 55% of 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 in Maputo until more than 23 months in newly-born childen received breastmilk. The At least five days a week LipidsAt least once a week At least once a month At least once in six months Nampula and Tete (north Mozambique). reason for it might be a lack of information Even though the risk of spreading HIV or not enough support and encourage from and AIDS in Mozambique is high, usually the public services and society in public breastfeeding is still the safer option spaces. Percentage of ever breastfed children 120 100 80 60 40 20 0
Chart 16: Percentage of ever breastfed children in Mozambique X: with Perceptions of supermarkets among non-patrons in Chart comparison some European countries Source: UNICEF, 2018
Supermarkets do not sell the food that we need Supermarkets are only for the wealthy Supermarkets do not provide credit Supermarkets are too expensive Supermarkets are too far away
10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Neither agree nor disagree
Image 59: Woman breastfeeding a baby Source: unetoubabadakar.wordpress.com
Image 60: Current Acute Food Insecurity in Mozambique (April-September 2019) Source: Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC)
FOOD SECURIT Y
According to the IPC (Integrated Food Security Phase Classification) after the research released in July 2019, it is estimated that 1.6 million people in Mozambique are currently facing difficulties in accessing food to meet acceptable food needs (April – September 2019). Of the 39 districts analyzed using IPC, it is estimated that from October 2019, at least 12 districts require a combination of urgent interventions such as food assistance, agricultural inputs, infrastructure reconstruction, and livelihood support. It is projected that the food insecurity and acute malnutrition situation will prevail until the end of February 2020, when the next harvest is expected to start. Humanitarian assistance already provided in the most affected areas has prevented the deterioration of the food security situation. Also, approximately 67,500 children under five years of age need treatment for acute malnutrition (WFP 2019).
that more than a third can be categorized as severely food insecure. Dietary diversity in the city is extremely low and almost half of households had gone without food due to price increases in the six months before the survey (Raimundo 2018). The following data about levels of food insecurity was assessed using the four international cross-cultural scales developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project (FANTA).
Food security is defined as a state in which “all people at all times have both physical and economic access to sufficient food to meet their dietary needs for a productive and healthy life”. (USAID 1992, p. 2) In 2008, the African Food Security Urban Network (AFSUN) surveyed the city of Maputo, collecting a total of 397 questionnaires that proved an extremely high rate of food insecurity throughout the households. Later in 2014, the Hungry Cities Partnership (HCP) tried to asses whether there were improvements and the current state analyses findings from 2.071 households. The data shows that most Maputo households are food insecure and
Image 61: Location of the Sampled Households Source: Raimundo 2018, p. 4
The indicator measures the degree of food insecurity in the four weeks prior to the survey. The score is calculated based on answers to nine frequency-of-occurrence questions, with three response options (1-rarely; 2-sometimes; 3-often). The minimum score is 0 and the maximum is 27. The higher the score, the more food insecurity the household experienced. The individual questions also provide insights into the nature of food insecurity experienced (Coates, 2007, p. 10-18).
% of Households
1. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS)
Household Food Insecurity Access Scale
Image 18: HFIAS Scores Source : Raimundo 2018, p. 16
2. Household Food Insecurity Access Prevalence (HFIAP)
The indicator uses the responses to the HFIAS questions to divide households into four food security categories: food secure, mildly food secure, moderately food insecure and severely food insecure (Coates, 2007, p.19). Maputo has one of the lowest proportions of severely food insecure households in the region (54%, when in most other cities the proportion is 60-80%). However, this positive finding should not detract from the fact that just over half of the households in Maputo experience constant food insecurity. These figures all suggest that Maputo has two basic kinds of household: half with severe food insecurity and the other half in a state of chronic food insecurity (Raimundo, 2014).
Chart 17: HFIAP Results of Maputo Source : Raimundo 2014, p.21
Table 03: Maputo HFIAS Scores compared to other Southern African cities Source : Raimundo 2014, p.20
Table 04: Responses to Food Insecurity Source: AFSUN Report N.20, p.22
Table 05: Maputo HFIAP Scores compared to other Southern African cities Source : Raimundo 2014, p.21
The indicator captures changes in the householdâ€™s ability to ensure yearround food availability above a minimum level. It indicates possible fluctuations in levels of food insecurity throughout the year. Households are asked to identify in which months (during the past 12) they did not have access to sufficient food to meet their household needs. The mean household MAHFP was 8.32, which indicates nearly 4 months of inadequate food provisioning during the year (Bilinsky, 2010, p. 1-2).
4. Months of Adequate Household Food Provisioning (MAHFP)
Chart 18: Households Dietry Diversity Scores Source: Raimundo 2018, p. 16
Chart 19: Regional HDDS Scores Source : Raimundo 2014, p.22
% of Households
Dietary diversity refers to the number of food groups consumed within the household in the previous 24 hours. The maximum number, based on the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) classification of food groups for Africa, is 12: cereals; root and tubers, vegetables, fruits, meat, poultry; offal; eggs, fish and seafood, pulses, legumes, nuts, milk and milk products, oil/fats; sugar/ honey, miscellaneous. An increase in the average number of different food groups consumed provides a quantifiable measure of improved household food access (Swindale, 2006, p. 1-2).
% of Households
3. Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS)
% of Households
Chart 20: Proportion of Households with Inadequate Food Provisioning by Month Source : Raimundo 2014, p.23
Chart 21: Distribution of MAHFP Scores in Maputo Source : Raimundo 2018, p. 36
Street food environment in Maputo The informal food economy is easily to be considered the most important source of food in Maputo. Almost all households obtain food from informal sellers, over 90% of them at least once a week and many on a daily basis. However, the informal food economy is not confined to the markets and is particularly visible and extensive on the streets of Maputo. There are many thousands of street vendors selling a range of fresh and processed food, often from the same stall. Looking at the picture from a distance, food insecurity is highly prevalent throughout Mozambique.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the term “street food” refers to a wide range of “ready-to-eat foods and beverages sold and sometimes prepared in public places, notably streets”. The JMIR research group (Jurnal of Medical Internet Research) worked on a protocol approved by the National Committee for Bioethics for Health in Mozambique, which consists in a survey for identification and mapping of street food vendors, sampling of street foods and assessment of the billboard food advertising, in Maputo. The study was limited to the district of KaMpfumu, which is the wealthiest and most urbanized, and it is the area with the highest concentration and variety of street food vendors. The expected results may reveal important information to assess the nutritional environment and the characteristics of the foods to which a great majority of the urban population living or working in Maputo are exposed. Data collection, including the identification of street food vending sites and billboard advertising, started on October 20, 2014, and lasted for 1 month (Sousa, 2018).
Image 62: Study Areas Source: Sousa 2018, p.39
Results This research presents relevant original data on the availability, energy content, and nutritional value of the readyto-eat food products available in street food vending sites in Maputo. Overall, there is a coexistence of highly processed industrialized food products with natural foods and homemade dishes. This is a strong reflection of the nutrition transition phenomenon that Mozambique is currently undergoing. According to the nutrition transition model proposed by Popkin (Global Nutrition Dynamics, 2006), which comprises five stages (Collecting food; Famine; Receding famine; Degenerative disease; and Behavioural change), Mozambique, at least the urban centres, is believed to be quickly moving from stage 3 (Receding famine) to stage 4 (Degenerative disease). Stage 3 is characterised by a decrease in the consumption of starchy staples and an increase in sources of animal protein, fruit and vegetables, along with an increase in urbanization, income and life expectancy; whereas stage 4 is characterized by a rise in consumption of processed food rich in sugar and fat, along with the evolution of food-transforming technologies (Sousa, 2018, p. 39-40).
Regarding homemade food, there was a predominance of cooked food in both mobile and stationary SF vending sites. Almost all the samples evaluated by bromatological analysis showed high amounts of sodium. The upper limit of 2000 mg recommended by the WHO (WHO, 2012b) is easily exceeded by consuming any SF option analysed. Data revealed also low availability of nutritionally dense foods rich in fibre and sources of potassium, such as fruits and vegetables, as well as high availability of industrialised the food products, namely soft drinks, fried snacks and pastries, known to have high added sugar and/or fat content. In conclusion, these findings reinforce the need for public health policies targeted towards the improvement of food products sold on the street, especially concerning the promotion of nutrient-dense foods and with reduced added salt, in order to curb the upward trend of diet-related NCD (non-communicable disease) that is arising in this country (Sousa, 2018).
Current state On the 16th of October, 2019, during the international World Food Day, the Minister of Agriculture and Food Security Higino de Marrule announced that Mozambique has made significant strides in reducing levels of food insecurity from 50 to 24 per cent over the past ten years. World projections indicate that the population would continue to grow exponentially and eventually the demand for food at a global level would also increase, giving Mozambicans and opportunity to make a difference, given the country-s favourable agroecological conditions. Therefore, the government policies are oriented to rural areas, counting on the support of the cooperation and development partners for new programmes and projects. The Minister emphasised the importance of nutrition education at all levels, helping people to become more knowledgeable about maintaining a balanced diet and knowing optimal amounts and quality of food for humans at each stage of growth. This year’s anniversary is celebrated under the motto “Our actions are our future. A ‘Zero Hunger World’ by 2030 is possible” (Frey, 2019).
Image 63: Geographical distribution of street food vending sites in KaMpfumu Source: Sousa 2018, p.40
Image 64: Eonam in fiels. Source: http://www.fao.org/3/a-av039e.pdf
Image 65: Every day journey for the water Source: Unsplash website
GUIDELINES FOR THE PROJECT MAIN ISSUES OF MAPUTO Regarding all three topics covered in this book - landscape, agriculture and food, it is easy to point out several problems of Maputo. Interestingly, it seems as most of them are directly interconnected. Relatively large-scale investments and new infrastructure had strong impact on Maputo’s ecosystem, mostly in the coastal part. As needed, construction of the Marginal Avenue and the large-scale residential developments in Costa do Sol (e.g. Casa Jovem) seized lowlands, causing a risk of flooding. Respectively, in Bairro dos Pescadores and Catembe dunes flattening and excessive deforestation cause further changes in water dynamics and decreasing richness of fauna and flora. Although new policies, environmental protection and urban development plans have been established, they are not precise nor complementary. Yet, the brave, new plans seem to be a good answer for the rapid demographic growth of the greater Maputo, estimated to double in the next three decades. The process of industrialization has a minor impact on the environment, what could be a great case study for the future development too. In agriculture, the issues are even more numerous. It seems as those of firstneed are water and soil management and land protection, but also poverty and income diversification. In the recent years, the city of Maputo suffered from severe droughts. As Mozambique is one of the African countries most vulnerable to extreme
weather patterns, agricultural production depends on the wet season, varying each year. Thus, the rain-fed agriculture is at high risk. Aside from the availability, the quality of water was also treated as a critical issue. Governal protection over food science, with sufficient promotion of healthy nutrition, could be a solution. Village and urban dwellers living in flood-prone areas are likely to experience more intense floods and landslides. Future scenarios predict sea-level rise, cyclones, land degradation, saltwater intrusion, food shortages, epidemics and an exponential increase in the spread of wildfires. The last of featured is the issue of food. Typical diet of Mozambique’s includes two to three meals per day, that consist in 80 % of carbohydrates. The main staples, rice and cassava, are usually served with green, leafy vegetables, tomatoes and onion. Yet, fish and meat-based dishes are not popular, mostly because of their high prices and a short date of consumption. The goods are available in the far marketplaces (e.g. Zimpeto), also in small shops or from street vendors, walking distance from home. Regarding new-borns, breastfeeding is the most healthy and affordable way of feeding, being a common practise in 98 % of cases. At first, it seems crucial to hold off the excessive erosion of the environment as quickly as possible. How? Strict policies and their proper execution could be the means. Surveying and monitoring the state of households’ food security, together
with food grants for the poorest and most insecure, could be a solid base for future strategy programmes and a stable, adequate pricing policy. Governal support for both, production and consumption sectors seem indispensable. In terms of the city design, the need of strengthening the urban tissue is obvious. Foreseen by the PEUMM regulations, idea of decentralization and South-directed expansion seems really well-founded. By division, several centres had finer impact on the environment than a single one, hence being easier to establish, develop and control in the future. Such scattered centres could serve as transition points for a new public transportation - another crucial aspect of the proposed development.
Southern-directed urban expansion could potentially relieve the overwhelmed, northern part of the coast. What is important, the government of Mozambique has already taken the first huge step towards such change by investing in the Catembe bridge. Such an opportunity cannot be missed. Then, formalization of the local settlements and enhanced support for the food industry gave Maputo a chance for prosperity. Decent, safe and healthy living conditions, new workplaces and low-impact building development are strongly attainable. Maputo - the city of unused potential could have faced a bright future ahead.
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Dogari Victoria, Ghannoum Maja, Gruszczyński Bartosz, Polat U.Ulas, Tomczyk Ewa, Žugčić Anja
Analysis study for Urban design Studio - Politecnico di Milano Master Architecture and Urban Design