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GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

Constitution of the Golden Gate Speech Association ARTICLE I NAME SECTION A. The name of the organization shall be the GOLDEN STATE SPEECH ASSOCIATION (refer to as GGSA), a member of the California High School Speech Association (CHSSA).

ARTICLE II

PURPOSES

SECTION A. To foster a speech program for the high schools of the Northern Bay Area and Northwest California through the active association of speech coaches dedicated to student development through competitive forensic events. SECTION B. To promote the best interest of high schools within the area, of the teaching profession, and of the students who participate in interscholastic speech activities including 9th grade students from junior high schools.

ARTICLE III

MEMBERSHIP

SECTION A. Membership shall be open to any high school within the boundaries of the GGSA as defined by the \ CHSSA. SECTION B. In order to remain eligible for membership, a school must designate one or more bona fide members of the teaching profession or otherwise qualified person as verified by the school principal as coach(es).

ARTICLE IV

LEGISLATURE

SECTION A. The legislature shall consist of the coach and/or assistant coach(es) from each member school meeting as a body. (See ARTICLE III, SECTION B). SECTION B. The legislature shall have the power to regulate all interscholastic speech events sponsored as part of the GGSA. SECTION C. The legislature shall act on matters of tournament procedure in these areas: 1. Eligibility of materials and contestants. 2. Fees and awards. 3.Tournament management and personnel. 4. Contest rules and conduct of events. 5. Tournament time schedules and limits of events. 6. Qualification of judges. 7. Number of events offered. 8. Types and uses of ballots and critiques. 9. Tournament entry limitations.

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SECTION D. The legislature shall have the power to act on all matters that involve the best interests of the GGSA. SECTION E. A quorum shall consist of the coaches of member schools present at any meeting if the number includes an officer and coaches of not less than five member schools. SECTION F. Voting by written proxy at legislature meetings is permitted. No member may cast more than one proxy vote. SECTION G. The legislature shall have the power to vote appropriate stipends for officers.

ARTICLE V

EXECUTIVES

SECTION A. The Executive Council shall consist of the officers of the GGSA. SECTION B. The officers shall be president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and tournament directors for congress, debate events, and CHSSA representatives whose duties shall be the execution of the wishes of the legislature. All officers shall come from the membership of the legislature. SECTION C. All officers shall be elected for two years. Elections shall be scheduled in such a manner that approximately half of the officers are elected each year. All new officers begin their duties on June 1. SECTION D. Expenses of the officers may be paid upon the presentation of a voucher and the approval of the executive council. SECTION E. If an office becomes vacant before the conclusion of its term, that office shall be filled for the remainder of its term by an election at the next meeting of the legislature If the office of the president becomes vacant, the vice-president will assume office for the remainder of the term. SECTION F. The president may call extraordinary meetings by giving one week’s notice. SECTION G. The president shall represent the GGSA at all CHSSA meetings (CSSC); and appoint GGSA’s CHSSA representative(s).

ARTICLE VI

BUSINESS MEETINGS

SECTION A. There shall be three general business meetings required yearly: September, January, and May. 1. September to introduce new members, and establish mailing lists. 2. January meeting to set up state qualifying tournaments, to provide for the nomination of officers, and establish a tentative schedule. 3. May meeting to select the next year’s officers, to choose the congress topic areas and the debate topic for the first tournament of the fall, and adopt a schedule for the next year.

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SECTION B. Special meetings of the legislature may be called at the request of 5 member schools. SECTION C. Meetings of the GGSA shall use a condensed version of Robert’s RULES OF ORDER.

ARTICLE VII

AMENDMENTS

SECTION A. Amendments to the constitution shall be submitted in writing to the president prior to a scheduled business meeting and shall be placed on the agenda for the meeting SECTION B. Amendments must be ratified by a majority of the member schools at the following regular business meeting or by mail. If mail ratification is used, amendments shall be ratified by a majority of the member schools whose votes are postmarked by the agreed upon deadline. In no case may ratification be less than a quorum.

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GGSA BY-LAWS INDEX ARTICLE I

General

p. 5

ARTICLE II

Dues and Fees

p. 6

ARTICLE III

Events

p. 7

ARTICLE IV

Tournaments

p. 13

ARTICLE V

Management Responsibilities

p. 37

ATTACHMENT I

Operation and Scoring Individual Events

p. 42

ATTACHMENT II

Operating and Scoring Debate

p. 44

ATTACHMENT III

Operating and Scoring Student Congress

p. 46

ATTACHMENT IV

Judging Criteria for All Events

p. 47

ATTACHMENT V

Student Congress: Judging Instructions (Preliminary)

p. 48

ATTACHMENT VI

Student Congress: Judging Instructions (State Quals)

p. 49

ATTACHMENT VII

Student Congress: P.O. Instructions (Preliminary)

p. 50

ATTACHMENT VIII

Student Congress: P.O. Instructions (State Quals)

p. 51

ATTACHMENT IX

Lincoln Douglas Debate: Judging Instructions

ATTACHMENT X

Team Debate: Judging Instructions

p. 52

ATTACHMENT XI

Individual Events: Judging Instructions

p. 54

ATTACHMENT XII

Qualifying to State Quals Through Invitation

p. 57

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STATUTES OF THE GOLDEN SPECH ASSOCIATION ARTICLE I GENERAL SECTION A. No rule shall be binding unless it is in the official statutes. Minutes shall not constitute law. Any provision of the statues may be amended by a simple majority of a quorum at a regular business meeting. SECTION B. The secretary shall mail all new statutes and/or revised pages of this document to coaches within one week of passage. SECTION C. Final interpretation of the statues shall rest with the legislature. SECTION D. Specific rules for tournaments are found in the “procedures” section of these statues. Specific rules for each event shall appear on the corresponding judges’ ballots. SECTION E. Specific rules for state qualifying tournaments shall follow those appearing in the Bylaws of the California High School Speech Association Constitution as closely as possible. SECTION F All members of the legislature agree to abide by the rules of the GGSA constitution and the procedures laid out in this document and to ethical conduct expectations which are the norm for the profession of speech and debate coaches. Any violation of these rules may be brought to the league President by a coach. The Executive Board of the league shall meet with the coach who has raised an issue and the coach whose behavior is of concern. The coach whose behavior is questioned may bring another coach of the league or a representative from their school as support. This proceeding shall occur at least 10 days after the issue in question is officially raised to the league President so as to allow for a cooling off period and for all relevant facts and information to be discovered. The Executive Board, or their appointed representatives, shall then by majority rule, decide if there has in fact been a violation of league rules or ethics expectations. If there is not a majority in agreement that an ethical violation has occurred, the matter shall be closed. If there is a majority agreement that an ethical violation has occurred, the Executive Board shall decide the level of redress within the following guidelines: redress may include a statement of concern to the coach, official censure by the league directed to the coach alone, or to the coach and the school, or other similar appropriate action short of suspending or expelling the program or the coach from the league. For a second offense within three years, a coach may be suspended from the league for up to three years. The follow up meeting to explain the action by the league to the coach shall be conducted by coaches appointed by the President, with a priority being placed on selecting coaches who can be both firm and compassionate with the coach in question.

ARTICLE II

DUES AND FEES

SECTION A. The dues shall be one hundred dollars ($100.00) per school per year. The league dues are waived for first year members. Member schools must join the California High School Speech Association and meet all financial obligations thereto.

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SECTION B. Entry fees for tournaments shall be as follows: 1. Preliminary tournaments: a. Team Debate: Twenty-five dollars ($25.00) per team. b. Individual Debate: Fifteen dollars ($15.00) per entry. c. Individual Events: Fifteen dollars ($15.00) per entry. d. Student Congress: Fifteen dollars ($15.00) per entry. e. Duo Interp: Twenty-five dollars ($25.00) per entry. 2. State Qualifying Tournaments a. Team Debate: Twenty - five dollars ($25.00) per team. b. L.D. Debate: Fifteen dollars ($15.00) per entry. c. Individual Events: Fifteen dollars ($15.00) per entry. d. Student Congress: Ten dollars ($10.00) per entry. e. Duo Interp: Twenty-five dollars ($25.00) per entry.

(changed 5/06/07 minutes)

SECTION C. GGSA dues become delinquent on November 15th. CHSSA dues become delinquent December 1st. SECTION D. To participate in any GGSA tournament after November 15th, a school must have paid all dues and fees. SECTION E. The GGSA dues check must be mailed to the GGSA treasurer and CHSSA dues check must be mailed to the Area 1 chairperson. SECTION F. Entry fees must be paid on or before tournament check-in. Checks shall be made payable to GGSA with the name of the school appearing on the face of the check. PLEASE NO CASH. SECTION G. Schools that are delinquent on or after November 15th in dues or prior tournament fees shall be prohibited from competition in any GGSA sponsored event. The Treasurer shall provide the host school with a list of delinquent schools and a sufficient number of forms to be enclosed with the host bulletin to inform those schools that registration for the current tournament shall not be accepted until that delinquency is cleared with the GGSA treasurer. SECTION H. After the GGSA dues deadline, schools which are delinquent shall be prohibited from participating in GGSA events. SECTION I. The tournament director for a tournament must have available for the treasurer and the president on a form provided by the treasurer a list dated the Wednesday prior to the tournament on which are enumerated the names of the participating schools and the number of total entries for each school with the amount due.

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ARTICLE III

EVENTS

SECTION A. TEAM DEBATE 1. The debate question shall be the national high school debate topic. 2. Each team shall be prepared to uphold both sides of the question. A team may be made up of two, three, or four members. Three or four member teams may debate in preliminary tournaments only. Substitution from on team to another shall not be made during a tournament. Debaters must debate only one side in three and four member teams, 3. The following cross-examination method shall be used: a. Length and order of speeches: 1. First Affirmative Constructive – 8 min. 2. Cross-examination of the First Affirmative by one of the negative speakers – 3 min. 3. First Negative Constructive – 8 min. 4. Cross-examination of the First Negative by one of the affirmative speakers – 3 min. 5. Second Affirmative Constructive – 8 min. 6. Cross-examination of the Second Affirmative by the other negative speaker – 3 min. 7. Second Negative Constructive – 8 min. 8. Cross-examination of the Second Negative by the other affirmative speaker – 3 min. 9. First Negative Rebuttal – 5 min. 10. First Affirmative Rebuttal – 5 min. 11. Second Negative Rebuttal – 5 min. 12. Second Affirmative Rebuttal – 5 min. 13.Time starts when a speaker starts talking – no allowance for road mapping b. Preparation time: No more than eight minutes total of preparation time shall be allowed each team during the debate. Each team may allocate this time as it chooses during the round. Contestants may not use preparation time to prepare a speech. Time starts when speaking begins. c. Special cross-examination rules: 1. Questions must be directed to the speaker who has just completed his constructive speech and must be answered by him alone. 2. Questions must pertain only to materials and arguments offered by the opposition. 3. The questioner controls the time and may interrupt a lengthy reply. Any form of time wasting is unethical. 4. The respondent may decline to answer only if he gives a valid reason for doing so. 5. Cross-examination time may not be yielded for the purpose of gaining additional preparation time. 4.Validity of evidence: All evidence used in the debate must contain the name of the authority, the name of the source, the date and page number, even if all of the above are not read in the debate. The burden of proof rests with the team challenging the validity of the evidence. 5.

Judges shall not be allowed to request any evidence from the debaters except when the evidence challenged as illegal by the opposing team during the round.

SECTION B. LINCOLN DOUGLAS DEBATE 1. The topic(s) shall be the NFL topics. 2.Each debater shall be prepared to uphold both sides of the question. LD debate is “one on one” argumentation in which the debaters attempt to convince the judge of the acceptability of their side of a proposition of value. p.7

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3.Format: a. Each speaker in the debate has an equal amount of time to persuade the judge: 1. Affirmative Constructive – 6 min. 2. Cross-examination by the Negative – 3 min. 3. Negative Constructive – 7 min. 4. Cross Examination by the Affirmative – 3 min. 5. Affirmative Rebuttal – 4 min. 6. Negative Rebuttal – 6 min. 7. Affirmative Rebuttal – 3 min. b. Each speaker is allowed three minutes of preparation during the debate.

SECTION C. INDIVIDUAL EVENTS 1. EXTEMPORANEOUS SPEAKING a.Subjects shall be drawn from topics discussed in US News and World Report, Time, Newsweek, The Economist, and The Christian Science Monitor for the eight weeks preceding the tournament. b. Drawing: Each contestant shall draw three topics for each round. There shall be an envelop for each room with 24 topics, one topic per slip of paper. Each student shall be called to draw by speaking order and panel. The student will immediately return the two copies not selected. 1. In the International category, topics will concern international issues, and domestic issues with foreign countries. Suggested breakdown: a. Round I – European b. Round II – Asian/African c. Round III – Latin America d. Round IV – European 2. In the National category, topics will be mostly domestic issues in the United States. There will also be questions concerning US actions in foreign affairs. Each contestant shall draw 30 minutes prior to the scheduled speaking time and shall promptly choose one topic for his speech. c. Preparation must be made without consultation with coaches or other persons. Permission to use books, magazines, and library aids is given. Previously written speeches, outlines, annotations, or abstracts are not permitted. Underlining or highlighting in materials will be allowed if done in only one color on each article or copy. Violation of this rule shall result in disqualification. The preparation shall be proctored at all times to enforce these rules. d. No notes are allowed during the presentation of the speech except in “B” division. e. Time: Contestants shall not speak more than seven minutes. There is no minimum time limit. The lowering of not more than one rank shall penalize exceeding this time by more than 15 seconds. If no time signals are given-student MAY NOT be penalized for exceeding time limit in line with CHSSA rules f. One person designated by the tournament director shall write the topics. g. The ballot should be consulted for rules governing the event. 2. IMPROMPTU SPEAKING a. Subjects: Three types of topics will be used. 1. Round I – brief, thought provoking quotations 2. Round II – One word abstract topics, e.g. THRIFT 3. Round III – General topics of current interest and importance in the form of a question 4. Round IV – Concrete Nouns. e.g. UMBRELLA b,Drawing: each contestant shall draw three topics from the judge in the contest room when it is his turn to draw. He shall immediately select one. All contestants shall enter the room at the beginning of the round. p.8

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c. Preparation: No more than two minutes shall be allowed the speaker. Timing begins the moment the topic is drawn. d. No notes are allowed in the presentation. e. After the speech the contestant must remain in the room until all the speakers in the panel have spoken. f. Time: Contestants shall not speak more than five minutes. There is no minimum time. A lowering of not more than one rank shall penalize exceeding this time by more than 15 seconds. If no time signals are given-student MAY NOT be penalized for exceeding time limit – in line with CHSSA rules g. A person designated by the tournament director shall write the topics 3. ORIGINAL PREPARED SPEAKING (ORATORY, ADVOCACY, EXPOSITORY, PROSE/POETRY) a. General Rules: 1. All original prepared speeches must be the work of the contestant and prepared during the current school year. (Current means the end of the State Tournament of one year to June 30th of the following year.) 2. There shall be no limitations on the choices of subject; however, subjects who have been used by that student in a tournament or community contest in a previous year are barred. Violation of this rule shall be penalized by disqualification. 3.Time: Speeches shall be no longer than ten minutes. There is no minimum time limit. A lowering of no more than one rank shall penalize exceeding this time limit. 4.Quotations: Not more than 150 words of the speech may be direct quotations from another speech or writing. 5. No notes or manuscript shall be allowed except in the “B” division. 6. The ballot should be consulted for rules governing this event. b. Specific Rules 1. Original Oratory a. The orator must be truthful. Any non-factual references, especially a personal one, must be so identified. b. The subject matter and style should be persuasive. c. No visual aids shall be permitted. Violation of this rule shall result in contestant being ranked no higher than fifth place. 2. Original Advocacy a.Topics shall be limited to advocacy of a subject concerning public policy issues of a tangible nature, and the contestant must advocate a specific governmental legislation and/or regulatory governmental action or remedy. b. No visual aids shall be permitted. c. Violation of these rules shall result In the contestant being ranked no higher than fifth place. 3. Expository Speaking a.The expository speech is a talk to be delivered by the student who composes it. Any appropriate subject may be used, but the primary purpose of the speech must be to describe, clarify, explain and/or define an object, idea, concept or process. This is a speech to inform, not a performance, and the emphasis should be placed on the student’s own oral presentation. b. Visual or audio aids may be used insofar as they support the overall goal of the speech. No live animals may be used. No costumes shall, be worn by the contestant. Items of dress necessary to the presentation may be added during the speech. These must be considered props. c. This is an individual event; therefore, the contestant may not use any other person in the setting and/or presentation of the speech. d. The time limit of tem (10) minutes includes setting up and taking down time. p. 9

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e. Violations of these rules shall result in the contestant being ranked no higher that fifth place. 4. Original prose/Poetry This event is a presentation to be delivered by the student who composes the selection(s). Any appropriate subject(s) may be used. The primary purpose of this event is to demonstrate the literary creativity of the contestant. The presentation may consist of prose or poetry or a combination of both. If more than one written work is presented, the entire presentation may or may not be based on a thematic concept. The subject matter may be serious or humorous. a.No costumes shall be, worn by the contestant. No props are permitted. No singing or dancing is permitted. The contestant must remain standing. 4. INTERPRETATION a. General Rules 1. No contestant may use exactly the same literary work, which he has used before in previous years: e.g., if he uses a cutting from OUR TOWN, PLEASE DON’T EAT THE DAISIES, etc. She/He may not use the same play, diary, book, poem, etc. Again. 2. No student may enter the same selection in two states qualifying events. A shall be a quotation in excess of 160 words. 3. Time:Interpretations shall be no more than ten (10) minutes including introductions and transitional materials. There is no minimum limit. Exceeding the time shall result in lowering the contestants rank, not more that one. 4. The title, name of the author or original speaker, and source of publications, is to be used by the contestant when introducing his selection. Failure of a contestant to introduce his selection as prescribed above shall result in his being penalized by a lowering of not more than one rank. 5. No interpretative selection shall be the student’s own work. Dancing is not permitted. 6. “Published” as used in these rules means materials published, printed, readily available, and distributed nationally. It does not mean a local publication or a printing of a limited number of copies. Selections available only in nationally distributed phonograph records shall be permitted if the material is printed in a record jacket or in a printed enclosure. Only the publication itself or a photo-static copy of the original source is to be considered adequate proof of publication. The original publication of any interpretation must be other than a declamation bureau, e.g. Whetmore, Edna Means, etc. 7. Photocopies of the selections, title pages, and copyright pages must be submitted with the typewritten manuscript of the introductory, explanatory, and connective materials, to the League president prior to the League state-qualifying- contest. The author’s words being used must be clearly highlighted on the photocopied materials. 8. The ballot should be consulted for rules governing specific events. b. Specific Rules 1. Thematic Interpretation. The contestant is to present a program of interpretation based on a theme of his choice. Themes which have been used by the contestant in tournaments in previous years shall be disqualified. a. Each program is to contain three or more separate selections or cuttings from different works. Anthologies may be considered multiple sources. Selections must be chose from published literature. b.The program selections must be interpreted from a manuscript in the hands of the contestant. c. Introductory, explanatory, and connective material shall include the author and title of each selection. Introductory, explanatory, and connective material must in the contestant’s own words and delivered extemporaneously. Introductory, explanatory, and connective material must not exceed one-third of total presentation. p.10

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d.Contestants must remain standing at all times during the presentation. Violations of these rules shall result in the contestant being ranked no higher than fifth place. 2. Dramatic Interpretation: Selections must be chosen from published stories, plays, essays, or poems. Contestants may not combine two or more pieces of literature. A one-character selection may be used. a.In oral interpretation the individual suggests the thoughts, emotions, ideas, and purposes of the author. This is a contest in oral interpretation not solo acting. Although gestures and pantomime are not barred, they should be used with restraint. b.Selections must be memorized; no notes or manuscripts are permitted except in “B” DIVISION. Violations of this rule shall result in contestant being ranked no higher than fifth place. c. A maximum of 150 words total may be added to the selection to provide introductory and transitional materials only insofar as those materials do not change the author’s intent. 3.Humorous Interpretation: Selections must be chosen from published stories, plays, essays, or poems. Slapstick humor is not allowed; this is not a vaudeville act. Other specific rules are exactly the same as for Dramatic Interpretation. (See above.) 4. Oratorical Interpretation: The speech must be chosen from a published speech originally delivered by a real person. The selection may be cuttings or excerpts from a speech. Speeches originally written or delivered by high school or college students for competition are not permitted. 5. Duo Interpretation: Two students give an interpretive performance of all or part of a humorous or dramatic piece of published writing. The performance must begin and end center stage. Students must remain center stage throughout the performance. During dialogue, they must not look at each other. During presentation of narration, introductory and/or transitional material, eye contact should be with the audience. The contestants may react to each other’s verbal and or non-verbal expressions, but they may not touch each other. Each of the two performers may play one or more characters so long as performance responsibility in the cutting remains as balanced as possible. Narration, introductory and/or transitional material may be presented by either or both of the speakers. Other specific rules are the same as Dramatic.

5. CERTIFICATION OF MATERIALS FOR STATE QUALS a.

All material (Dramatic, Duo, Humorous, oratorical, Thematic Interpretation, Expository, Original Advocacy, Original Oratory, Original Prose/Poetry) submitted for GGSA tournaments must have the official CHSSA cover sheet attached to the original or script that is certified by the coach that all the specifications for the event have been complied with.

b. The cover sheet must include the name of the student, the event, the title of the selection(s), the number of quoted or added words, the high school name, and the coach’s name, and the principal’s signature. (see attachments for copies of cover sheets.) c. For the league’s State Qualifying Tournaments or as designated by the Individual Events Tournament Director, the cover sheet must be signed by the principal or his designee certifying that the material is acceptable to the school represented.

SECTION D. STUDENT CONGRESS 1. A congress is modeled after the procedure for the floor debate in a legislature. It is designed to test a student’s ability to speak to an issue in both extemporaneous and in an impromptu manner and to reveal p.11

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the individual’s knowledge of parliamentary procedure. 2. Bills or resolutions to be debated are determined in advance of a tournament giving sufficient time for contestants to prepare. The resolutions/bills will be selected by a committee of coaches from those submitted by the students at the previous congress. These issues are divided into four categories` international, national, state and local, and public welfare/economic. 3. A group of contestants, no fewer than 15 and no more than 22, is assigned to a “house”, where they conduct business for the duration of the tournament. 4. The presiding officers are assigned to the various “houses” by the Tournament Director or designee. Students from the same school are assigned to different chambers. Their job is to expedite the order of business. If only two students are assigned to a chamber then there is no election. If there are more than two students assigned to a chamber, the two students with the most votes preside over the chamber. Each presiding officer presides half a session. The PO’s decide who presides first in the first session and they alternate positions in the second session and return to the first round order in the third session. 5. Time: Each speech is limited o three minutes. In addition each speaker is open for a maximum of oneminute cross-examination. 6. Members of a house are assigned seats for use throughout the tournament. 7. To be recognized for speaking, or questioning of a speaker, the contestant must stand. All speeches must be delivered in front of the room. 8. Speeches will alternate affirmative and negative. Debate on a given issue is concluded by the determination of the house. 9. Notes and prepared material are allowed. Visual aids and props are NOT forbidden.

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ARTICLE IV SECTION A

TOURNAMENTS

GENERAL RULES

1. The GGSA should sponsor at least eleven (11) official tournaments a year: Three (3) preliminary student congress tournaments (one with debate); Four (4) preliminary debate tournaments (one with congress); Four (4) preliminary individual events tournaments; a State Qualifying Student Congress/State Qualifying Debate Tournament; a State Qualifying Individual Events Tournament. Other official tournaments may be held by vote of the legislature. 2. GGSA tournaments are defined as those in which the GGSA official mailing list is used. 3. Every GGSA school should offer to sponsor an approved tournament. This offer should be made at least once every three years. 4. Student Congress, Debate, and Individual Events GGSA tournaments shall be held as follows: CONGRESS- all single sites (two as a separate contest, one combined with debate; DEBATE – all single sites (one combined with congress); INDIVIDUAL EVENTS - all single sites. This recommendation can be modified depending on the availability of sites and dates. 5. Extemp topics will be prepared by a person designated by the tournament director at the rate of $37.50 per event. Impromptu topics will be prepared by a person designated by the tournament director at the rate of $25.00 . 6. Tournament time schedules: a. Check-in for all tournaments except State Qualifying Tournaments shall be no earlier than 8:00 a.m. Final check-in shall close thirty (30) minutes thereafter or thirty minutes after the opening check-in. Problems with registration shall be taken care by 8:20. b. Round I or Session I shall start no later than 9:00 a.m. c. Tardiness penalties: students from schools which have not fully checked-in by 8:30 a.m. shall: 1. Miss round I in debate, which shall count as a loss. 2. Be allowed to be a final speaker in Round I in individual events, when feasible; they must then be first speakers in Rounds II and III. 3. Be excluded from Session I in student congress. d. No round or session shall start after 3:30 p.m. except at State Qualifying Tournaments. 7. Schools, which are delinquent in dues or prior fees as of Wednesday prior to a tournament, shall be prohibited from competition in a GGSA tournament until that delinquency is cleared with the treasurer. 8. Bulletins regarding GGSA tournaments should omit rules for specific events, sweepstakes, and all materials dealing with tournament operation covered by the GGSA statues. They should state: “for the rules of this tournament consult your GGSA Statues which govern the operation of this tournament.” 9. Tournament bulletins must be in the hands of the coaches two weeks before the tournament. 10. No written or oral criteria relevant to the judging of an event shall be distributed to judges other than that which appears in the attachments to the GGSA Statutes. p.13

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11. Registration: Guidelines for tournament registration will be decided by tournament directors. Suggested time frame: close of registration no later than the Wednesday before the Saturday tournament. Mailed registration, faxed entries, email or phone registration at the discretion of the tournament director. All registration guidelines will be provided to each school in writing prior to the tournament. 12. Substitution/Drops: Substitutions in any event for preliminary tournaments may be made without notification as long as the total number in an event does not change e.g., “b” division debate, “A” division Expository Speaking. Entry fees shall not be charged for entries properly dropped. Drops may be made at check-in on the morning of the tournament, but regular fees shall be assessed for these dropped entries. Adds and drops and final deadlines shall be at the discretion of the tournament director. Guidelines will be provided in writing to each school before each tournament. SECTION B.

TOURNAMENT PROCEDURES

1. PRELIMINARY DEBATE TOURNAMENTS a.There will be three divisions: A, B, and C. Students will be assigned to divisions at the discretion of the coach. 1. “A” division is intended for varsity competitors. 2. “B” division is for experienced competitors. 3. “C” division is for novice. A novice division, “C” will be held at the discretion of the tournament director. Any new team/individual, which has not previously participated in a GGSA or other, recognized tournament or which has not been promoted to “B” shall be entered in “C.” b. Two, three, and four person teams shall be allowed. c. The parameters shall be published no later than September 1. The parameters apply to “B” and “C” divisions. They will be the same for B and C all year except that more limiting parameters will be used for “C” division in the first tournament. d. Only participating debaters and judges may take notes during a debate. Observers may be allowed subject to the permission of both teams and the judge(s). e. All teams shall be provided with four rounds of debate. Byes will be avoided wherever possible. No team shall have more than one bye per preliminary tournament, including all divisions, unless unavoidable. f. Pairings for each division. 1. Round I a. Blind draw for a bye if necessary, make sure that the same school does not have a bye in any other division. All divisions must keep a record of byes. b.Divide the cards evenly into affirmative and negative, insuring that a particular school’s cards are evenly divided between the two sides. c. Place the affirmative cards on the left. Shuffle the negative cards. One at a time place in sequence opposite the affirmative cards. Observe the following priorities: Avoid: 1’ Teams/individuals from the same school meeting each other 2’ The same schools meeting in more than one debate unless unavoidable. p.14

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d. If a shift must be made, move to the next possible opponent and complete a match before beginning to match the next card. If the last attempt to match is not possible, try to shift with the first pairing on the table then try in sequence until matches are complete. e. For purposes of debate experiences, byed teams/individuals in different divisions may be paired, but the debate counts as a bye. f. For subsequent pairings a bye counts as a win. g. A bye counts as a win for establishing a record for promotion. h. Record opponent and side in the card for each team/individual and the bye as a bye. 2. Round II a. Blind draw for a bye if necessary, observing rule f.1.a. above. b. Place all Round I negative cards on the left as affirmative. Hold back Round I affirmative cards. The Round I byed team/individual may be sued to keep the sides even. c. Leave the affirmative cards on your left on the table. Shuffle the negative cards. One at a time places them in sequence opposite the affirmative cards. Observe the following priorities: Avoid 1’

Teams/Individuals from the same school meeting each other.

2’

Opponents from the previous round meeting each other.

3’

A team/individual meeting a team/individual from the same school it met in the previous round, unless unavoidable.

d. If a shift must be made, follow the procedure indicated above in Round I. e. See procedure in Round I for byes. f. Record opponent and side and bye on the card for each team/individual. g. Record results accurately (including multiple judging, e.g. W L W/W from the previous round. 3. Round III a. Divide cards into winners and losers from Round I. b. Blind draw for a bye if necessary from the loser’s pile from the schools not having yet had a bye. (See 1, f, 1, a) c. Including the byed team/individual from the previous round, divide winners and losers into those who should go affirmative and negative in normal rotation. Place the winning affirmative cards face down on the left and the negative cards face down on the right. If these piles are uneven, draw from the losers on the side needed to fill the shorter side.

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d. Turn the affirmative cards up and place on the left. Shuffle the negative cards and place them in sequence opposite the affirmative cards; observe the priorities listed in Round II (c) and the procedure for necessary shifts. e. If unavoidable that two teams/individuals who met before be matched, reverse the sides. f. Repeat the process for pairing losers. g. See procedure above for byes. h. Record opponent and side on each card. I. Record results from round 1 accurately. 4. Round IV a. Divide cards into three piles according to results from Round I and Round II: W-W; W-L; L-L. b. Blind draw bye if necessary from the L-L pile from schools that have not yet received a bye in any division. c. Including the team byed in the previous round divide the W-W pile into those who should go affirmative and place face down on the left; place those who should go negative face down on the right; even the piles by blind drawing from the W-L pile to fill the shorter side from those debaters that won on that side previously. d. Turn up the affirmative cards on the left; shuffle the negative cards and place in sequence opposite the affirmative cards; observe the priorities listed for Round II and the procedure for shifts to complete the pairings. e. If unavoidable that two teams/individuals who met before be matched, reverse the sides. f. Repeat the process for pairing teams/individuals with W-L records; if a draw is necessary from the L-L pile, bind draw one card from those due to be on that side. Repeat the process for those with an L-L record. g. See procedure above for byes. h. Record opponent and side on each card. i. Record results from round II accurately 5. Errors a. Any error shall be immediately reported by the coach of the team/individual concerned to the tournament director. Such notification shall be done prior to the start of the subsequent round of debate in order that any errors may be rectified.

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b. Inadvertent clerical errors in tabulations shall not void the contest. If errors occur and can be corrected before the next round begins, correction shall be made. However, if correction of the inadvertent clerical error would force a re-running of any round, or rounds, the correction shall not be made. In cases of unforeseen, uncorrectable errors the president shall be authorized to make appropriate apologies. 6. Final Tabulation a. Record results from Round IV accurately and check for any errors in previous rounds. A bye counts for a win for establishing promotion, but not for sweepstakes. b. Have coaches fill in the name on “A” division cards, and cards of all teams/individuals eligible for awards. c. Sort cards according to awards due: 3-1; 2-1; trophies and 4-0; 3-0 trophies in certificates and 4-0’ 3-0 trophies in “C” division. g. Suggested debate schedule. 1. Registration must be completed by 8:30 A.M.. Teams/individuals not having completed registration by 8:30 shall be given a loss for Round I. 2. Time: a. Round I

9:00 a.m.

b. Round II

11:00 a.m.

c. Lunch

12:30 p.m.

d. Round III

1:30 p.m.

e. Round IV

3:30 p.m.

f. In no case shall any round be scheduled after 3:30 p.m. g. Awards should begin no later than 5:00 p.m. h. B & C Division Policy. We will use only policy debate experienced judges and allow/ encourage oral critiques. B & C will be tabulated separately from the main tournament. Judge assignments will also be separate. If the B & C Division runs late, a round will be cancelled in order to keep up with the tournament schedule. Passed 9/07 i. Judges shall receive instructions in time to be ready to serve by 9:00 am or as needed for subsequent rounds. 1. Three judges shall be preferred in “A” division, but only one judge is necessary in “B” and “C” divisions. 2. Judges for “A” division shall be adults or no less than college seniors. Judges for “B” and “C” divisions may be high school graduates as long as a direct conflict does not exist. Juniors and seniors qualified for “A” division can judge at Novice tournaments. They have to have competed or be qualified to compete. Only in dire necessity shall a judge be used who is not

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qualified as above and only for “C” if he is knowledgeable in debate. No more than one half of a school’s judging commitment may consist of current high school students designated to judge lower division competitors. Current competitors may not judge those students against whom they have competed.

3. Schools are required to bring one judge for every four debaters or fraction thereof. This will be verified by check-in time. Units will be dropped accordingly. Schools located more than 150 miles from the tournament are exempt from the judging requirement. Judges must remain the entire day or the school will be fined $50.00 for each judge short. If the host school has extra judges or can cover the missing judges, then the delinquent school may continue to enter all its students. The fine must still be paid. If the host school cannot cover the delinquent school’s needs, said school will drop the appropriate number of debaters. Judge cards will be used to keep track of judges’ affiliation and rounds judged. j. Awards 1.

Any undefeated debater in preliminary “A” debate tournament shall receive an appropriate trophy.

2. Any debater who finishes a preliminary “A” debate tournament with only one loss shall receive an appropriate trophy. 3. Any debater who finishes a preliminary “B” debate tournament undefeated shall receive an appropriate award designating his promotion to “A” status. An individual may earn this award only once. An appropriate trophy shall be awarded to other debaters advancing to “A” with a record of only one loss. 4. Any debater who finishes a preliminary “C” debate tournament undefeated shall receive a trophy. “C” debaters with only one loss shall receive a certificate designating his promotion to “B” status. Any individual may earn this award only once. k. Fees 1. Entry fees shall be $25.00 per team. 2. Entry fees shall be $15.00 per Lincoln-Douglas entry. (change made as per 5/06/07 minutes)

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2. PRELIMINARY INDIVIDUAL EVENTS TOURNAMENTS a. There shall be two divisions: “A” and “B” 1. “A” division shall be open to any contestant. Notes or manuscripts shall not be used in preliminary tournaments. Violation of this rule will result in a rank of 5. There are three categories of events: interpretation (humorous, dramatic, thematic, duo, and oratorical); Original (oratory, advocacy, expository, and prose/poetry); and unprepared (impromptu, international extemporaneous, and national extemporaneous). A qualifier in “A” division must stay in “A” division in that category. Any speaker having advanced to finals in “A” must stay in “A”. 2.“B” division shall be open only to those contestants who have never reached finals at a “B” division GGSA individual events tournament. Notes are allowed. If a contestant has reached the finals in “B”, he must compete in “A”; OR he may compete in “B” again but in a different category. There are three different categories: interpretation, original, and unprepared. Notes or manuscripts may be used in any event except Extemp or Impromptu speaking. Speakers in “B” division who compete in a combined “A” or “B” event shall be moved to “A” if they have a cumed score of 10 or lower 3. Divisions will be combined into one division when there are fewer than 12 entries in a division. Some acknowledgement should be given to “B” eventers who compete in a combined “A” and “B”. The tournament director will be responsible for some appropriate acknowledgement to “B’s” who have a cume score of 10 or lower. b. All events currently in the CHSSA State Speech Finals Tournament should be available at a GGSA preliminary events tournament. All events are unlimited, i.e., open to either men or women. It is GGSA’s intent to fully comply with Title IX requirements and furthermore experiment on a trail basis with new events. c. Each entrant shall be limited to one event per tournament. d. Every speaker should have at least three rounds of competition. The fourth round shall be a final round. Critique sheets from the judges will be available from the preliminary rounds after posting of the final round. e. Selections/subjects in DI, HI, TI, DUO, OI, EXPOS, OO, OA, OPP should be listed on cume cards of finalists. Coaches may write down the results for their own use, if desired. f. All contestants shall remain the room throughout the round. Extemporaneous speakers shall remain in the room after they have spoken (space constraints permitting). g.

Panels should have six speakers in each and not more than eight. No contestants shall receive a ranking lower than 5 regardless of the number in the panel. (see attachment on suggestions for sectioning panels.)

h. Results of each preliminary round shall be recorded as a single decision. If more than one judge is used, ties shall be broken in judges’ preference. If two-way ties can’t be broken, award both contestants the tied position. In three-way ties, award the middle position to all three contestants. In four or more way ties, award the better middle rank: e.g. if 2, 3, 4, and 5 are tied, all four will be ranked three. In every case of ties, the next lower position will not be awarded.

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i. Any contestant who achieves a cumulative score of six or less for his three preliminary rounds, or who achieves two firsts, i.e. 1-1-5, shall be considered a finalist. Unless there are more than seven (7) qualifiers (competitors with a cume of six or less), there will be one single final panel. If there are fewer than seven (7) qualifiers, the low six will be in the final panel, and if there is a tie for sixth, the seventh competitor will be in the final panel. If there are additional ties for sixth, then the following will be used to choose the seven finalists: 1. Most number of 1’s in preliminary rounds. 2. Most number of 2’s 3. Most number of 3’s, etc. 4. Two panels may be used if there is an unbreakable tie at 8 or more or if the policy outlined above in “i” causes more than 7 to be advanced. j. Establish final panels as follows: 1. Break schools with more than one finalist in an event into the number of panels available. 2.Next, using the fronts of the cards, divide the cards so that the panels are weighted equally according to the total cumes; i.e. split triple 1’s, etc. 3. Speaking positions in each panel shall be determined by previous speaking positions cumed; low cumes shall be last, high cumes first; in the event of ties, blink draw for that position. 4. If the tab room establishes a panel of 4, then no score lower than 4 may be given for any panel in that event. 5. A no show will be given a rank of five. It will not affect the score of the other panels. k. The final round shall have exactly three judges for each panel. “B” division may have one judge. l. Final ranking of speakers shall be determined by the cumulative score of the six judges: the three preliminary results added to the decisions of the three final judges. Ties for the final shall be broken by the most first place rankings, then by the most second place rankings, and lastly by the best results in the final round. Best results means judges’ preference if the contestants were in the same panel; otherwise low cume score in the final round. Duplicate awards will be given for unbreakable ties. m. Suggested time schedule: 1. Check-in time must be completed by 8:30 am. Contestants not having been completely checked-in by 8:30 am shall be placed last in the panel, if feasible, and shall be first speakers in Rounds II and III. 2. Time i. Round I

9:00 am

ii. Round II

10:30 am

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iii. Round III

12:00 pm

iv. Judges’ lunch v. Finals

2:00 pm

vi. In no case shall any round commence after 3:30 pm. vii. Awards shall begin no later than 5:00 pm. n. Judges shall receive instructions in time to be ready to serve by 9:00 am or as needed in subsequent rounds. 1. Schools required to bring one judge for every six entries or fraction thereof. This will be verified at check-in time. Units will be dropped accordingly. Schools located more than 150 miles from the tournament are exempt from the judging requirement. 2. No current high school student may judge. o. Awards: 1. “A” division and “B” division: first place, a suitable trophy; second and third place, designated GGSA awards; all other finalists, appropriate awards 2. “B” division: Certificates of excellence for those advancing to “A” division but not receiving an award. 3. Novice Tournament: First, Second, and Third place shall receive appropriate awards. p. Fees 1. $15.00 per entry. 2. $25.00 per entry for Duo.

(as per motion in 5/06/07 minutes)

q. Fines: 1. Late registration, according to the guidelines set forth by tournament directors, may be accepted. However, there will be a $50.00 fine for the offending school. 2. A school that does not provide a qualified person to work in the tab room will be fined $50.00. 3. Each school must provide the required number of judges who stay the entire day, or the school will be fined $50.00 for each judge the school is short. If the host school has extra judges and can cover the missing judges, then the delinquent school may continue to enter all its students (still paying the fine); BUT if the host school cannot cover the delinquent school’s needs, said school will have to drop the appropriate number of students.

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3. PRELIMINARY STUDENT CONGRESS a. The Student Congress shall be composed of Senate and House, with as many sections of each as needed to insure that no section contains more than 22 speakers. b. Registration: On seating charts prepared in advance for the Senates and Houses to accommodate the total advanced registration, coaches shall record the names of students being assigned to each chamber in the slots allocated to each school in each chamber. Po nominees are assigned chambers during the PO training session. 1. Slots shall be allocated so that representatives from each school have seats in every chamber and seating arrangement is distributed in a different way in each chamber. 2. Each house shall have a minimum of 15 and a maximum of 22 representatives. 3. If at a final check-in sufficient drops occur, the total number of Senates and Houses shall be reduced accordingly and the seats allocated to each school re-distributed. 4. All students who have not qualified to Senate in previous years will be placed in the House. Only those students who have previously qualified shall be placed in the Senate and will qualify automatically for State Quals. 5. All students nominated the top three in each House and the winning PO will qualify to the Senate and to State Quals. c. Each chamber (Senate and House) shall have three separate sessions for debate according to the following suggested time schedule: 1. Training session for all Pos 8:30 – 9:00 (Mandatory) Session I 9:00 – 10:30 Session II 11:00 – 12:30 Lunch 12:30 – 1:15 Session III 1:15 -- 2:45 Awards in chamber 2:45 – 3:00 If a session gets started a few minutes late, the session should still run the entire 90 minutes. d. The bills/resolutions 1. All topic areas adopted by the coaches’ committee for debate at the next congress shall be distributed to all participating schools before the end of the tournament. 2. In preliminary congresses, each school must submit one bill for each five students or fraction thereof. A maximum of five bills should be required (although you may submit more if you wish). These must be typed in proper form. The name of the school and the student should appear on the paper. 3. The Congress Director will be responsible for preparing the bills/resolutions for the first preliminary congress. The Congress Director will send the bills/resolutions to the schools so that they arrive before the last week in August. The bill selection committee is to select no more than one bill/resolution per school, if possible.

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e. Order of business in each chamber: 1. Seating of representatives according to the seating chart. 2. The judge or judges opening the first session shall conduct the selection of the two presiding officers, if needed. a. Assignments shall be made at the 8:30 a.m. meeting for presiding officer candidates. b. The Congress Director, or person designated by the Congress Director, will assign POs to each chamber. Students from the same school will be sent to different chambers. c. Hearing of the candidacy speeches. d. Each PO will preside for one half of each session. 3. ORDER OF DEBATE OF THE BILLS. In the House, bills will be debated in the order they appear. In the Senate – schools will vote on the 3 bills to be debated at the tournament. The tournament director will make known which bills and what order they will be debated when the final postings are e-mailed 4. Debate the bills: a. Reading of the bill. b. The author has the privilege of the first speech on the bill. c. Representatives must stand to be recognized. d. Speeches shall not exceed three minutes. In addition, students may be questioned for a maximum of one minute. e. At the conclusion of a speech, another representative may request that the speaker yield to a question that must be brief and pointed. The speaker may or may not yield according to his choice. (This includes two-part questions.) f. Speeches shall alternate affirmative and negative. g. A speaker shall be recognized in inverse ration to the number of times he has spoken. It is the obligation of the chair to keep track of the number of speeches each representative makes. (Questions are not considered speeches.) 5. After two negative and two affirmative speeches, amendments may be submitted in writing to the chair, who decides whether or not to bring it to the floor. a. The author of the amendment reads and speaks first on the proposal. b. Debate procedure is the same as for bills. c. Amendments must be voted upon before further consideration of the original bill. p.23

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d. If the amendment passes, thereafter the bill is debated as amended; if not, as originally presented. f. Judging: The judge(s), preferably three, will rotate from one chamber to another for each session of the preliminary student congress. Panels should be kept intact, if possible. 1. The judge(s) shall score each session on a scale of 3 to 5 (low to high). Questions are not scored. 2. At the conclusion of each session, each judge shall nominate nine outstanding speakers on the basis of speaking performance, questioning, and observance of the parliamentary procedure as a total contribution to the day’s proceedings. These names shall be recorded on the nomination form. Rank the speakers one to ten. One is best. No ties except for ten. 3. At the end of each session, the judge will rank the best PO. 4. A presiding officer serves as a representative when he/she is not presiding; therefore, he is eligible as an outstanding speaker candidate. The judge(s) should score his performance with up to five points per hour of presiding and speeches during his time as a representative similarly as to other speakers. 5. The best PO will qualify for the Senate and as a PO for State Quals. 6. Each school is required to bring one judge per school, unless otherwise stated in the invitation. Schools bringing very large entries are required to bring at least one judge for every twenty entries or traction thereof. 7. Each school shall bring presiding officers in the following ratios: 1-10 speakers = one PO candidate 11-20 speakers = two PO candidates g. Awards will be given in each chamber before it adjourns. 1. Presiding Officers winning at least two of the three sessions receive a gavel. A certificate goes to the second place PO. 2. Outstanding and Superior speakers receive first and second place plaques respectively. 3. Other nominees for best speaker (3rd, 4th, 5th) receive finalist trophies. 4. The top three will move up to Senate. h. Fees: $15.00 per entry. (as per motion in 5/06-07 minutes)

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4. STATE QUALIFYING DEBATE TOURNAMENT A. Entries shall be limited to qualified “A” debaters. In addition a school may enter four entities (entity means one debate team or L.D. debater) per school. 1. Qualified “A” debater means a debater who has finished a GGSA “A” tournament undefeated or with only one loss during the current school year OR Competed in an invitational in “A” division. (see ATTACHMENT XI) 2. Debaters (in team both members but not necessarily together) must compete in at least one GGSA tournament before competing at State Quals. Members of a policy team qualifying at an invitational must attend a GGSA tournament in “A”, but not necessarily as a team together. 3. Debaters enter State Quals intending to participate in the State Tournament. 4. Any LDer or Team who wins 11 or more debates in its three best league tournaments goes directly to the State Tournament without going to the State Qualifying Tournament. B. The entry is to be mailed by certified mail to the tournament director. C. The number of debate teams/LD debaters apportioned to the GGSA by CHSSA shall qualify at this tournament for the State Speech Tournament. Alternates shall be chose and ranked as follows: 1. Win/loss percentage (byes not included) in the tournament; 2. Total percentage of ballots won in the tournament. 3. Records of all opponents in the tournament. D. The place for the State Qualifying Tournament in debate should be one which offers an ample supply of contest rooms, a good supply of qualified judges, and friendly cooperation. Judges who are former forensics participants shall not judge contestants against whom they could have competed when in high school E. Teams/individuals shall be identified only by side and code number on all posting sheets and judges’ ballots for all rounds of this tournament. Students are not to reveal their school name to the judges. F. General procedures: 1. The debate tournament director in consultation with the GGSA president shall appoint a tournament committee of three(3) to conduct the tournament, adjudicate disputes, interpret the application of rules, and exercise all the powers vested by the statutes in the GGSA president. 2. Appeals shall be made to the committee of three mentioned above in (1) and explained in m. 3. Three judges shall be used in all rounds. p.25

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4. The tournament director shall exercise general supervision and not saddle him/herself with one of the detailed jobs. She/He should be available for consultation at any time and give assistance wherever needed. 5. Assigning the judges: two coaches shall be previously assigned by the tournament director to assign judges. The person who assigns judge should not set up the rounds, tabulate, nor post; they shall have absolute final say in regard to the composition of judging panels. As judges register, coaches shall indicate on the judges’ assignment cards the codes of schools a given judge should not judge. 6. Criteria for paneling judges: a. avoid assigning a judge to judge its own school. b.avoid assigning a judge to judge the same debater a second time, especially on the Affirmative. c. honor the wish of the judge i.e. prefer to judge policy or LD. d. move the judge into a different pool if: a judge volunteers it is necessary to fulfill a school’s judging commitment no other judges are available the judge will be required to see the same debater on the same side. G. Preparing for the contests: 1. The first and second round shall be blind draw and should be set up before the tournament starts, preferably the night before. A schema shall be established for this blind draw to cover the eventuality of changes in registration as soon as registration closes (9:00 p.m. the Wednesday before the tournament.) 2. Setting up Round I: a. Blind draw for a bye if necessary, making sure that the same school does not have a bye in the second round. b. Place the affirmative cards on the left. Shuffle the negative cards. One at a time place them in sequence opposite the affirmative cards. Observe the following order of priorities to avoid: 1’ Teams from the same school meeting each other. 2’ The same school meeting in more than one debate unless unavoidable. c. If a shift must be made, move to the next possible opponent and complete a match before beginning to match the next card. If the last attempt to match is not possible, try to shift with the first pairing on the table; then in sequence, try until all matches are complete. d. Record opponent and side on the card for each team/individual. p.26

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3. On the morning of the tournament the schools participating shall be assigned a letter code and a block of numbers appropriate to the size of the school entry. Coaches will receive their ode numbers at the beginning of the tournament and will assign them to their debaters. a. Drops shall be indicated immediately. b. From the time round is scheduled to start or the judges arrives (whichever is later) any team/individual not present will begin to lose preparation time. If the absent team/individual is still not present, that team/individual forfeits the round automatically. c.As schools arrive coaches are to draw their debaters’ numbers. Numbers are not to be assigned in the order of school arrival. Team members shall not be revealed to the members of the committee nor shall they be publicized in any way. d. A pre-set schedule by numbers should be prepared so that schools may determine their numbers by blind draw. e. Each school shall bring one(1) judge for each debater; 2 BODIES = 2 judges; 3 BODIES = 3 judges; 4 entries = 3 judges. Schools which fail to fulfill this obligation shall drop competitors from the tournament to the number for which they have judges. f. To minimize schools scouting their opponents, the schedules should be released ten minutes before each round is to begin. 4. Debate pairing after Round II: So that all concerned will understand what is being done and why, coaches may be present when pairings are being made beginning with Round II. The coaches shall not dictate pairings unless the committee is about to make a grave mistake. The committee is in charge and it does the pairing. a. Drawing of byes: 1. There shall be no more than one bye in the first round. 2. The bye in Round I shall be drawn by lot by the two members of the committee doing the pairing. 3. Starting with Round II, if a bye is necessary, it shall be drawn first from the teams/individuals that have lost to an undefeated team/individual, then from all once defeated teams/individuals. 4. No team/individual shall have more than one bye, however, if all surviving teams/individuals have had a bye, then by blind draw one team/individual shall have a second bye. 5. No school shall draw a bye twice unless unavoidable. 6. When the number of undefeated teams/individuals plus one-half the number of once defeated teams/individuals is equal to or less than the state Qualifying teams/individuals, the method of drawing needed byes changes. If a bye is necessary at this point, it will be drawn from the undefeated teams/individuals, keeping in mind the other requirements of this section. 7. No coach or team may refuse a bye. p.27

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8. No team/individual shall receive a bye in the round, which qualifies that team/individual for the State Tournament except for undefeated teams/individuals, which may draw byes in accordance with rule f above. b. When team/individual has received two losses, it is dropped from competition, except as noted in 9d below. c. Divide the cards into two piles, undefeated teams/individuals and once-defeated teams/individuals. d. Place the undefeated teams/individuals who have had more negative debates and should go affirmative on the left; place those with more affirmative debates on the right; any which have had an equal number of both are to be held back to be used to even up the shorter list; if the lists are still uneven, cards from the longer to the shorter must be moved by lot. Avoid having within the blind draw a team from the same school or teams that have just debated. e. If a situation arises where the above occurs, move a once defeated team to an undefeated bracket. f. Leave the affirmative cards on the left. Shuffle the negative cards and place them in sequence opposite the affirmative cards. That will be the pairing unless it is necessary to shift a team/individual to avoid, in order of prioirities: 1. The meeting of teams/individuals from the same school. 2. The meeting of teams/individuals, which have met previously in the tournament. 3. The meeting of schools, which have met previously in the tournament. Each priority shall stand until all possibilities for it have been exhausted and the next priority is applied. A master-pairing sheet shall be maintained including school code/team/individual numbers in order to crosscheck for conflicts. g. Undefeated teams/individuals must be matched against each other; once-defeated teams/individuals must be matched against each other. 1. If there is an odd number of undefeated teams/individuals, one team/individual shall be drawn from the once-defeated teams/individuals who should uphold the side opposite the undefeated teams/individuals. In the event that it makes no difference, a blind draw from all the once defeated teams/individuals shall be made. 2. Before this is done, pairing of the undefeated teams/individuals against the undefeated teams/individuals must be completed. 3. In no case shall the undefeated team/individual be given a bye, except as noted above in i1f. h. If two teams/individuals must meet for the second time, the sides must be reversed from the first encounter. If two teams/individuals must meet for a third time, sides will be determined by a coin flip: i. Elimination: 1. As soon as the number of undefeated teams/individuals plus one-half of the number once-defeated teams/individuals is equal to or less than the number of State Qualifying teams/individuals, you are in the final bracket of the tournament; all State Qualifying teams/individuals and alternates are chosen from this group. p.28

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2. Once-defeated teams/individuals will be matched against each other in the method previously described; undefeated teams/individuals will be granted a bye. If an odd number of once-defeated teams/individuals exists, a sudden death round robin will be established. 3. If avoidable at this point, byes would not be given to teams/individuals which previously had a bye, or to more than one team/individual per school. These limitations might dictate which undefeated teams/individuals are eligible to debate in the final bracket. 4. At the end of this round, all teams/individuals, which have fewer than two losses, will be qualified for the State Tournament. If the number of qualified teams/individuals is less than the GGSA apportionment for the State Tournament, then an Alternate Qualifying competition will be created from among the losers of the final bracket to determine the additional State Qualifying teams/individuals 5. Teams/individuals in the Alternate Qualifying competition shall be matched against each other in sudden death competition for the remaining State Qualifying positions. A team/individual must win the debate in which the State Qualifying position is attained; a bye does not count as a win. Bye eligibility will be determined by using normal bye rules with the addition of a third criterion: a bye will be drawn form the debaters with the highest number of individual winning ballots. No team/individual may be eliminated from the Alternate Qualifying competition except through a defeat; a bye does not count as a defeat. 6. Positions in the Alternate Qualifying brackets will be chosen by a blind draw, following the procedures used generally for the tournament. Previous meetings of schools, teams, etc. are still considered. 7. Alternates to the State Tournament will be chosen from the losers in the final bracket or Alternative Qualifying bracket as described in 9d above. 8. Quals when # of competitors has reached double number of slots; cards be printed for all debate events and rest of tourney run parallel. Passed unanimously H. The State Qualifying Tournament shall be scheduled for Saturday and Sunday. 1. No round shall start after 8:00 pm. All competition, including Alternate Qualifying competition, must be concluded on the Sunday following the State Qualifying Debate Tournament. I. Validity of evidence: 1.

All evidence used in a debate must contain the name of the authority, the name of the source, the date ad page number, even if all of the above are not read in the debate. The burden of proof rests with the team/individual challenging the validity of any evidence.

2. Judges shall not be allowed to request any evidence form debaters except when the evidence is challenged as invalid by the opposing team/individual during the round. 3. Personal letters or telegrams shall not be admissible as evidence in any debate. J. Protests 1. A protest must be lodged within 15 minutes of the close of a round.

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2. The coach of one of the debaters involved must lodge the protest. 3. If it is a question of prompting, all three judges must agree that it occurred. 4. A grievance committee must make the decisions. K. Awards 1. Equal awards, trophies, shall go the qualifying teams/individuals 2.

Any team/individual with more wins than losses hall receive an appropriate award as superior debaters.

3. Alternates shall receive appropriate awards L. Fees 1. $25.00 per debate team 2. $20.00 per LD individual M. Sweepstakes 1. Debate sweepstakes will be determined by the competitor’s performance in “A” division. 2. Schools will be divided into large and small school divisions based on their average “A” division entry size at preliminary tournaments. 3. LD and Team sweepstakes will be tabulated separately. 4. The large school division will include the top 50% of schools based on average entry size. All others will be considered small. 5. Points are to be awarded as follows: i. Undefeated – 2 points ii. Once defeated – 1 point 6. The school with the highest point total in its division at the end of the year places first. In case of a tie, the school with the greatest number of undefeated shall be first. Awards will be given to the top five schools in each division. Student awards will be presented at the State Qualifying Tournament. Sweepstakes awards will be given at the May coaches’ meeting.

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5. STATE QUALIFYING INDIVIDUAL EVENTS TOURNAMENT a. Entries shall not be limited. Coaches should enter all students who are competitive in “A” division. 1. The total number of entries shall be decided by the executive committee in accordance with the available facilities. 2. All manuscripts for interpretation and original prepared speaking events shall be submitted along with the mailed registration. The mailing must be postmarked two weeks prior to the tournament date. CERTIFIED MAIL is required. a. Each manuscript must have a CHSSA cover page attached, signed by the coach, and the principal attesting to the conformity with the rules and acceptability of the material to be used. (see attachment – cover page) b. These manuscripts shall be reviewed by persons assigned by the tournament director and coaches notified of the deviations from the rules prior to the registration closing of the tournament. 3. Any competitor in IE may automatically qualify to the State Tournament, provided: a. The competitor must place first in A division, (or combined A/B) in at least three out of four GGSA events tournaments in the same event. b. There must be A division competitors from at least 5 other schools competing in the event for any win to count toward automatic qualification. c. A student who has earned an automatic qualification must declare by the State Quals entry deadline whether he or she will use this qualification spot. He/She may only attend the State Qualifying Tournament if he/she drops the automatic qualification. b. Registration: 1. On the morning of the tournament check-in time for all entries shall be 7:30 am. Judge’s instructions will begin at 8:15 and end no later than 8:30 am. A coach other than the host or tournament director will instruct the judges. If any speaker arrives after his/her scheduled speaking time and speaks out of order, the judge will note this on the ballot and lower the rank of the speaker by 1. No one else will be affected. 2. All entry cards for double entries shall carry a (*) above the space for the name and the other event with the code number in which the contestant is entered. Double entries are the only ones allowed to enter or leave while the round is in progress. 3. Each school shall bring 1 judge for every 2 entries in the State Qualifying Individual Events Tournament. Schools, which fail to fulfill their obligation of supplying judges, shall drop contestants from the competition to the number of entries for which the school has judges. No current high school students may judge. Judges must stay all day. c. Tournament Procedures: 1. Check –in closes at 8:00 am. Each entry shall have a different code number corresponding to the event in which the contestant is entered. (see attachment on “Duties of the Tournament Director” on how to code entries.)

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2. Procedures in paneling for preliminary tournaments shall be followed except that care should be taken to avoid paneling on a power basis. (see attachment on “Operating and scoring individual Events). 3. Double entries shall be given an odd number in one event and an even number in the other. Odd numbers shall speak high (1,2,3) in odd numbered rounds (1 and 3) and even numbers shall speak high in even numbered rounds (2 and 4). Odd numbers shall speak low (5,6,7) in even numbered rounds (2 and 4); and even numbers shall speak low in odd numbered rounds (1 and 3). 4. No names shall appear on the cards until the finals have been posted. The coaches tabulating the event shall put shall put the name of the school and student on all semi-finalists and finalists cards. The Tournament Director shall make this information available. 5. No student shall receive a rank lower than 5th regardless of the number of students in the panel. 6. There shall be three judges in each panel each round. If more judges are used, a designation shall be placed on the excess ballots before distribution to the judges and the tabulators shall discard these ballots before recording ranks on the cards. A sincere effort will be made to avoid three judges from the same school. a) Upon appeal to the tournament director, When a panel cannot be made without unconstrained judges (judges not from any school in the panel), then the panel should be equally constrained from schools within that panel. 7. 50% of judges should be college students 8. There shall be a semi-final round in every event. The three judges’ ranking in each of the three preliminary rounds shall be recorded as one rank. (see 2h under preliminary individual events tournaments.) 9. STATE QUALIFYING ROUND selection: On a low cumulative basis, considering the rank in the preliminary rounds and not the individual judges’ ballots, the semi-final round (4th and last round) shall be composed of the top twelve contestants (fourteen in the events League has seven or eight positions in the State Finals) with the lowest cumulative score. They will be divided into two panels of six (seven) each. If ties in cume scores bring the number to over twelve (fourteen) the following shall be considered in the order listed to arrive at twelve (fourteen). a. b. c. d.

Greatest number of firsts, seconds, etc. in round ranks All individual judges’ decisions on a low cumulative basis. Greatest number of judges’ firsts, seconds, etc. in all preliminary rounds. If speakers are still tied and have met in a preliminary panel, resolve the tie based on the better ranking in that pane. e. If ties cannot be resolved by the above method, include those tied in the semi-final. f. In the event of a tie, seek to avoid the same speaker position while making an effort to keep double entries at the top/bottom of the panel. Speaker position is determined on the basis of cumes of speaker position from the preliminary rounds. This same priority will be followed to determine the STATE QUALIFIERS. 10. ALTERNATES. The alternates shall be those in the semi-final round who do not qualify to State. The alternates shall be composed of the top seven (eight) contestants selected on a low cumulative score basis adding the rankings from the preliminary rounds to the total of all individual judges’ decisions in the semi-final round.

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11. If ties bring the number over six (seven), the following shall be considered in the orde listed to break ties. a. Rank in the semi-final round only, speakers need not have been in the same panel. b. Judges’ preference in the semi-final round if both speakers were in the same panel. c. Greatest number of firsts, seconds, etc. in the semi-final round only. d. Greatest number of firsts, seconds, etc. in round rankings in ALL rounds. e. All individual judges decision from all rounds on a low cumulative basis. f. Greatest number of firsts, seconds etc. of all judges in all rounds. g. If the speakers who are ties met in a previous preliminary panel, resolve the tie by the higher ranking in the panel. 12. In case of an unbreakable tie for a state qualifying position, the tied speakers should compete with three judges deciding. d. Awards: the five (or whatever number is allocated by CHSSA to GGSA) state qualifying contestants for each event shall receive an appropriate award. 1. Alternates shall be ranked for each event from the semi-final panel according to best performance determined by the method describes above (9) alternate ranking. 2. Any team qualifying in Duo Interp must go in that event unless both members of the team qualify in another event and choose to go in that event. e. Fees: 1. $20.00 per entry (as per motion passed in the 5/06/07 minutes) 2. $30.00 per Duo entry f. Sweepstakes awards: 1. Sweepstakes will be determined by the competitor’s performance in “A” division competition. All finalists in mixed division events who qualify for State Quals will earn sweepstakes points. 2. Schools will be divided into large and small school divisions based on their preliminary tournament competition. All others will be considered small schools. 3. Points will be awarded as follows: a. First place – 4 points b. Second place – 3 points c. Third place – 2 points d. Finalists – 1 point 4. The school with the highest point total in its division at the end of the year places first. Awards will be given to the top 5 school in each division in the order of finish. Awards will be presented at the May coaches’ meeting. g. Schedule: Check in End check in Judges’ Instructions Round I Round II Round III Lunch Semi-final Awards

7:30 a.m. 8:00 a.m. 8:00 a.m. 8:30 a.m. 10:15 a.m. 12:00 a.m. 1:20 p.m. 2:00 p.m. 4:00 p.m.

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6. STATE QUALIFYING STUDENT CONGRESS a. Entries shall be limited to those speakers who have been elected the top three as outstanding speaker candidates or best presiding officer at a preliminary house during the school year. 1.

Entrants who have qualified for the State Speech Finals in any other event may enter the tournament but must attend the State Tournament in congress if they qualify.

2. In addition, a school may enter three other entries that have not met the requirement in 6. a. 3. A student breaking into a final round of congress at an invitational will qualify for State Quals. Provided the student has competed at a league congress tournament. This is limited to varsity and/or open division congress with a minimum of five schools present. b. Format: there shall be as many houses as necessary to accommodate qualified participants with a maximum of 14 per house. 1. Three one hour and thirty minute preliminary sessions shall be provided. Each speaker will be guaranteed the opportunity to give two speeches in the preliminary sessions. No extensions will be allowed for questioning period in any session. 2. Parliamentary and administrative procedures shall be conducted in conformity with CHSSA procedures. (see Preliminary Student Congress procedures and attachment on “Preparing for Student Congress”) 3. Bills and resolutions to be debated shall be from the six topic areas used by the State Congress Committee for debate at the State Congress. These bills are to be received by the contestants no later than one month before the League’s State Qualifying Congress. Students debate only one bill per session. 4. There shall be two semi-finals of one and one half hour each. c. Final check-in shall be at 7:45 a.m. 1. Seating charts shall have been prepared in advance by the Congress Tournament Director showing the names of each congress candidate who has been verified as eligible or as a wild card. 2. A fair distribution of candidates from each school shall be made in the assignment to the different chambers and the seating arrangements in each chamber. 3. Only name change, verified by the Tournament Director, or drops shall be permitted on the day of the tournament. d. Presiding Officer contest: 1. Candidates for presiding officer shall be in addition to eligible congress candidates from each school and must be so designated on the registration form. The P.O. must bring his/her own gavel. Each school should supply a P.O. for State Quals. 2. Qualification for entry into this contest, which is separate from the congressperson’s contest, shall be by having been elected best presiding officer at a preliminary congress.

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3. Each presiding officer candidate shall serve an equal amount of time in each chamber. 4. At the close of the third session, each congressperson shall vote by secret ballot for the best presiding officer he/she has seen. 5. The top four candidates shall serve an equal amount of time in each of the semi-final chambers. Each PO will preside for ½ of each session. 6. Before the semi-final sessions begin, the Tournament Director shall randomly draw the name of one judge to be the tie-breaking PO judge. The Director shall then choose the 10 judges that shall vote for both speakers and competitors. A panel of 6 judges (including the PO judge) shall judge one house and a panel of 5 judges will judge the other semi-final house. At the conclusion of the semi-final session, the judging panels will then switch houses. The PO judge will not be told that he or she is only judging the PO’s. 7. At the conclusion of both semi-final sessions, the judges will vote for the best Presiding Officer from the two semi-final sessions. The votes of the ten judges will be counted first with the vote of the 11th counting in case of a tie. 8. The PO with the greatest amount of votes shall be the GGSA representative to the State Congress Tournament. e. Judging and ranking 1. The same three judges are encouraged to stay together as a panel for each of the three preliminary sessions if possible and rotate from chamber to chamber. 2. Scoring of speeches by each participant shall follow the procedures used in preliminary congresses with the scores recorded on each judge’s seating chart. 3. At the conclusion of each session each judge shall rank the nine best participants on the basis of total participation as a congressperson. 4. In preliminary rounds, a participant not mentioned on a ballot shall automatically receive a 10th place from that judge. 5. The total cum of the ranks from the three judges shall be recorded. 6. In the case of a tie, both students receive the middle position (.5) and the next position is skipped. For example, if the tie is for 2nd both students receive a 2.5 and the next lowest cum receives a 4. In the case of a 3-way tie, all three take the middle position and you skip the next position. For example, in a 3-way tie for 4th place, all three students receive a 5th place ranking and the next lowest cum receives a 7th place. f. Two bi-cameral semi-final sessions of one and one-half hour each shall be held. 1. The number of semi-finalists shall be determined by selecting double the number of congress entries that is allotted to GGSA to State Finals. At no time will we go below 24 semi-finalists. 2. Each speaker will be guaranteed the opportunity to give one speech per session. 3. Ties shall be broken by the greatest number of firsts, seconds, etc. or if the tied candidates were in the same chamber, or by judge’s preference. In case of ties

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between participants not in the same chamber, all tied participants shall be semi-finalists. g.\ At the conclusion of each semi-final session, each judge shall rank all twelve participants. The State Congress entries shall be determined by the cum of the five or six judges in the two semi-final sessions; and the cumes of the preliminary sessions. 1. Ties shall be broken by the number of firsts seconds, etc. in the semi-final sessions.. 2. Unbreakable ties by the above method shall be broken by: a. Rank in the semi-final session. b. Judges preference in the semi-final session c. Most number of first seconds, etc. in all sessions h. Awards 1. Trophies comparable to individual event trophies shall be given to the state qualifying congresspersons. The trophies shall read “Congress State Qualifier.” 2. An appropriate gavel shall be given to the state qualifying presiding officer. 3. Small trophies shall be given to all other finalist congresspersons and presiding officer candidates. i. Fees 1. $20.00 per entry (as per motion passed in 5/06/’07 minutes) j. Sweepstakes awards 1. Sweepstakes awards shall be given to the top three schools in two categories. a. Schools with an average of less than 10 entries at League Congress tournaments for that year will be in the small category. b. Schools with an average of 10 or more entries at League Congress tournaments for that year will be in the large school category. 2. Sweepstakes points are awarded as follows. a. Each school is given one point for each qualifier who attends the Statequalifying tournament. B Points for sweepstakes will be calculated as per Individual Events. In preliminary tournaments, points given for top 5 in senate. If small schools don’t have enough in senate, then drop down to top 5 in house. k. Schedule Check in/Judges’ instructions Session I Session II Lunch Session III Semi-Final I Semi-Final II

7:45 a.m. 8:30 – 9:45 10:15 – 11:30 11:30 – 12:30 12:30 – 1:45 2:30 – 4:00 4:15 – 5:45

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ARTICLE V

MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES

SECTION A. THE PRESIDENT 1.

Shall preside at all official meetings of the legislature and the executive council.

2.

Shall serve as the GGSA representative to the official meetings of the California State Speech Council (CSSC) and as liaison for all CHSSA communications.

3.

Shall serve as general overseer at all GGSA tournaments, appoint and serve on an appeals committee when necessary, be available at all times for consultation or interpretation of the application of rules appearing in the GGSA constitution and Statutes.

4.

Shall not be saddled with assigned specific duties during the operation of any GGSA tournament.

5.

Shall be a consultant and encourager to new or prospective member schools of GGSA.

6.

Shall maintain a list of each school’s dues paid to CHSSA.

7.

Shall organize the tournament calendar.

8.

Shall be sure that all CHSSA rules are observed at the GGSA State Quals tournaments.

9.

Shall send complete results of the State Quals Tournament to the Area Chairperson (includes all tabulation work).

SECTION B. THE VICE-PRESIDENT 1.

Shall preside at official GGSA meetings to serve as representative of the GGSA in the absence of the president.

2.

Serve on any AD HOC committee as the representative of the Executive Council.

3.

Shall maintain, publish, and notify schools of tournament responsibilities on a three year list which shall be renewed each year.

4.

Shall be consultant to all new member schools.

SECTION C.

THE SECRETARY

1. Shall compile, duplicate, and mail all minutes of official meetings of the GGSA legislature within ten school days after such meeting. 2. Shall maintain an accurate and up-to-date mailing list of GGSA member schools, mail a copy to the coach of each member school after the September meeting, and have additional copies available for host coaches and new member schools. 3. Shall keep accurate records of member schools’ attendance at official GGSA legislature meetings. 4. Shall duplicate and mail revised pages of the constitution and/or Statutes, ballots showing revised rules for an event, and revised or additional Attachments to all schools on the mailing list.

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5. Shall ascertain invitational tournament dates with which GGSA might prefer not to conflict in the schedule of its tournaments; ascertain SAT, ACT, PSAT test dates for the area prior to the completion of the GGSA schedule, duplicate and mail the GGSA schedule to all member schools and invitational tournament directions SECTION D.

THE TRESAURER

1. Shall maintain records of each school’s financial obligations; dues paid to GGSA, entry fees due for each tournament, and amount paid. 2. Purchase and arrange delivery with the tournament director of all necessary trophies and certificates for each tournament. 3. Shall collect fees due at each tournament and give receipts for same. 4. Shall issue delinquency notices prior to tournament bulletin mailings so that they can be included by the tournament director in the invitation mailings. 5. Shall prepare and issue forms for use by Tournament Directors to record the number of entries from each school and fees due for each tournament. 6. Shall pay all tournament expenses as billed by the host coaches for lunches and snacks (preferably not to exceed $6.50 per person)(coaches and judges) and any other expenses which cannot be absorbed by the host school. 7. Shall pay necessary expenses of GGSA representatives to CCSC. SECTION E.

THE TOURNAMENT DIRECTORS

1. General responsibilities for each type of tournament. a. Work with the president to firm up dates and schools for tournament within the jurisdiction of each director and make any adjustments/changes necessary including conflicts for dates of SAT, ACT, etc. prior to the coaches’ meeting in January. b. Send out bulletins for the tournament to all schools on the current GGSA mailing list (check with the secretary) three to four weeks before the tournament; include coaches’ duty assignments, map to the school; and specify any particular or district regulation which must be adhered to; make whatever arrangements are necessary for duplication of ballots, entry cards, critique sheets, etc. c. Assist the Secretary to determine invitational tournament dates so that the GGSA schedule and mailing lists can be sent to invitational host schools. d. Maintain complete records of each tournament and publish results. e. Assign paneling supervision, judging instructions, etc. to coaches of all member schools. f. Supervise the paneling, determination of finalists, accumulation of sweepstakes points, and adjudication of disputes according to the rules in the statutes. Have copies of the rules for pairing/paneling available at every table. g. Prepare appropriate written instructions to the judges.

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h. Assign students or coaches to posting before each round and sorting and stuffing ballots/critiques into individual school packets. i. Work with the treasurer to make certain that appropriate trophies and certificates will be available. j. Prepare for the treasurer a record of all the entries for each school, prepayment, if any, and fees due. k. Assign a letter code for each school when the entry is received. Do not use I, Q, Y. Use L or V but not both. Prepare a card for each student. l. The morning of the tournament: 1. Have registration place in an appropriate area with all school packets ready and a box for dropped entry cards. 2. Have a 4 x 6 card for each judge expected. 3. Have someone to make certain that each school has meet its judging quota. 4. Assist the coaches assigned to paneling the students and the judges. Correct errors. 5. Get from the host a list of rooms to be used. Determine what events use what rooms. 2. Duties of the Debate Tournament Director. a. Assign two coaches to pair each division of debate. (see SECTION E 1e above) b. Assign two coaches to instruct and assign judges in cooperation with the host coach. c. Supervise assignment of byes so that no school receives more than one bye per tournament (if possible); pair bye between divisions when possible. d. Supervise pairing so that rules are followed meticulously. e. Retain any entry cards for future checking if needed. f.

Maintain a record of all debaters’ performances in “A” and publish this list by debater(s) and school name after each tournament and make this list available to all schools prior to preregistration at the State Qualifying Tournament.

g. Assign a committee at least two months in advance of three persons who are knowledgeable about the tournament operation to run the State Qualifying Debate Tournament, pre-set school codes and code numbers, and the first two rounds as required. Supervise their operation at the tournament. h. Bring the following supplies: ballots, coded entry cards, judges’ instructions, posting sheets, and certificates. i. Assign a letter code for each school when the entry is received. Do not use I, Q, Y. Use L or V but not both. If necessary, use double letters, AA, BB, etc. j. Prepare a master list of all entries in each division of debate.

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k. The following number codes shall be used: 1. Team debate: “A” 1-99; “B” 100-199; “C” 200-299 2. L.D. debate: “A” 300-399; “B” 400-499; “C” 500-599 3. Duties of the individual Events Tournament Director. a. One coach per event. Two where possible. b. Two persons to prepare topics and work Extemp prep: c. Two coaches to instruct the judges and assign them to panels. d. Two coaches to review or critique entries in terms of adherence to rules of an event and to review al manuscripts when required with the mailed registration. e. Be responsible for the master coded list of entries in each event from each school so that changes in registration or errors of registration can be corrected. f. Assign a letter code for each school when the entry is received. Do not use I, Q, Y. use L or V but not both. If necessary, use double letters, AA, BB, etc. g. Prepare a coded list of entries for each school with space for results to be recorded. h.

Each competitor will be assigned a code using their last name and an unrecognizable school code

i. Bring the following supplies: ballots, posting sheets, entry cards, I.E. critique sheets, judges’ instructions. j. Supervise paneling so that proper distribution of speaking positions, meeting the same opponents, and determination of finalists are done accurately. k. Retain all entry cards for future reference until after the State Tournament of that year. 4. Duties of the congress director a. Assign at least one coach in sufficient time for the assignments to be included with the tournament director’s bulletin to supervise each chamber for proper tournament procedure, accurate recording of results, and distribution of awards. b. Assign one coach in time as above to instruct the judges. Instruct the competitors at the beginning of the State Qualifying Tournament on league rules. c. Collect bills/resolutions submitted for consideration from each school and oversee committee considerations. d. Publish the bills/resolutions selected for debate at the next congress. e. Submit appropriate bills/resolutions to the league president at the time specified for debate at the State Congress. d. Write bills/resolutions for the first congress in the fall and are to be included in the bulletin for that tournament. p.40

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e. Seating charts for student congress shall be made with sufficient copies for each judge and the presiding officer. f. Bring the following supplies: seating charts, critique sheets, judges’ instructions, instructions on starting a house, scoring sheets, and any other necessary forms or supplies. g. Supervise seating charts for entries to ensure proper distribution of each school’s entries. h. Maintain and publish records of nominations and balloting for outstanding/superior speakers, presiding officers, and make this list available to the membership prior to the state Qualifying tournament. SECTION F.

THE HOST COACH

1. Confirm with appropriate director two months in advance. a. Permission to use the school plant. b. Custodial arrangements. c. List of available rooms including rooms suitable for judges, student assembly, tabulation, Extemp prep, awards, etc. d. A separate table for each event in the tab room with sufficient room to operate. 2. Check with the tournament director at least two weeks in advance in case a shortage of judges looms. Be prepared to have a few extra judges, just in case. 3. Make all the arrangements for judges’/coaches’/lunches, snacks, student snack bar (if possible). Keep an accurate record of bills for payment from the treasurer. Keep costs to a minimum. The league will reimburse the host school up to $8.00 per person or costs for lunch. 4. Have all supplies and student help on hand. a. Pencils, pens, staplers, masking tape, large envelops for ballots/critiques. b. Duplicating equipment available for emergencies. c. Keys to all rooms to be used or an individual with keys. 5. Preparations the week of the tournament a. Prepare school maps, assembly room, tab room, Extemp prep room, etc. b. Make certain that you have enough judges for your own entry and a few extra. c. WORK CLOSELY WITH THE TOURNAMENT DIRECTOR.

6. The morning of the tournament. a. Have the school open, heat on, rooms to be used open, coffee service for judges and coaches ready, signs posted directing students, coaches and judges to assigned areas, all ready at least one hour before final registration is to begin. b. Have all necessary persons available to post paneling, collect returned ballots, stuff envelops with results, and timers ready. c. Have a list of rooms to be used. p.41

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SECTION G. THE COACH OF EACH MEMBER SCHOOL 1. Shall attend every official meeting of the GGSA legislature. A qualified certificated teacher must accompany students in the absence of the coach. 2. Shall be present or arrange for a qualified person acceptable to the tournament director of each tournament the school is entering to carry out tournament duties assigned to that school. Violation of this makes the school liable for a $50.00 fine. 3. Shall assume the responsibility for each contestant observing accurately all the rules of an event in which s/he is to be entered. 4. Shall volunteer to host tournaments as required, at least once every three years. 5. Shall mail accurate registrations in time and handle drops as prescribed. 6. Shall have contestants registered accurately (including drops) and on time on the morning of a tournament and deposit entry cards as required. 7. Shall be present on campus for the duration of a tournament and make sure that his/her students observe all regulations regarding conduct. 8. Shall coach students in the tradition of the highest ethical and performance standards. 9. The Congress Director and coaches may observe a congress chamber in action, but must remain in the back of the chamber in as unobtrusive a manner as possible. Taking a seat in front or standing at the side of the room will be cause for that coach’s student(s) to be ranked last in that session. 10. As a last resort, coach may serve as a timer and only with the permission of the GGSA president, who will have conferred with the Congress director.

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GGSA Statutes Article V, Management Responsibilities 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

OPERATING AND SCORING INDIVIDUAL EVENTS Setting up Round 1: 1. Check your cards to make certain there are no other events in your stack and that there is no duplication of numbers. 2. Count the number entered in “B” division; if there are not at least 12 entries (two panels), they shall be combined with “A”. 3. Count the total number of entries to determine the number of panels and rooms needed; each panel (room) should have six but not more than eight; if the tournament director determines that there are enough judges and rooms, panels may be reduced to five. 4. Get room assignments from the tournament director. 5. Count the number of entries from each school to determine whether more than one student form a school must be in any panel. 6. Place your large entry schools first; then fill in with small entry schools. 7. Students form the same school may speak next to each other. 8. Entries from the same school shall not be in the same speaking position in the different panels. 9. Check and double check for all of the above. 10. Record speaking order and panel letter on each entry card. 11. Make posting sheets using only code numbers NOT SCHOOL LETTERS. 12. Make ballots and critique sheets to correspond. BE SURE ROOM NUMBERS ARE ON THE BALLOTS. 13. For Extemp and impromptu attach a proper set of topics to one ballot per room. CHECK DESCRIPTION OF THESE EVENTS. Setting up Round II and III: 1. A student should not compete against another whom he has met before; if unavoidable in Round III, rematch first round opponents rather than second round. 2. If it is necessary to have more than one student from the same school in a panel, no student shall meet the same schoolmate more than once. 3. Vary speaking positions in each entry: low (1,2); middle (3,4); high (5,6). In finals, cume speaking position; in case of ties, blind draw. 4. CHECK, CHECK, CHECK with another pair of eyes, it gets stickier as the day progresses. 5. Complete paneling round II and III before recording any results from returned ballots.

p. 42

GGSA Attachment I, operating/scoring I.E. 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

Choose Finalists: 1. Any student with a 3 round total cume score of 6 or less. 2. Any student with two firsts, i.e. 1,1,5. 3. See Article IV; Section B, 2, I (Tournament Procedures) for more details. Establish Final panel: 1.Ideally, each panel shall have six but not more than seven speakers. 2 panels are to be used in case of more than 7 speakers. 2. Cume previous speaking position; high cume is placed first, low cume last, etc. in case of ties, blind draw. 3. Students from the same school may speak next to each other. 4. If there is more than one panel, balance the power (put those with 1-1-1- in separate panels, etc.). 5. Prepare three ballots and critique sheets for three final judges. Choose Winners: 1. Results of each preliminary round shall be recorded as a single decision. If more than one judge is used, two-way ties shall be broken by judges’ preference; three-way ties shall result in the middle position being given to all three contestants; four-or-more way ties shall be awarded the better middle rank. 2. The final round shall have three judges for each panel. 3. Final rankings (no ranking shall be given below a 5th) shall be determined by the cumulative score of the six judges: the three preliminary results added to the rankings of the three final’s judges. 4. Ties in the final position shall be broken by the most first places overall, then by the most second places, etc. lastly by the best results in the final round: 5. Best results means judges’ preference if the contestants are in the same panel. 6. If they are in different panels, the lowest cume in the final round. 7. If this procedure fails to break the tie, duplicate awards shall be given.

p. 43 GGSA Attachment I, operating/scoring I.E. 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

OPERATING AND SCORING DEBATE Setting up round 1: 1. Blind draw for a bye if necessary. Make sure that the same school does not have a bye in any other division. 2. Divide the cards evenly into affirmative and negative, insuring that a particular school’s cards are evenly divided between affirmative and negative. 3. Place the affirmative cards on the left. Shuffle the negative card. One at a time place in sequence opposite the affirmative cards. Observe the following priorities to avoid: a. Debaters from the same school meeting each other. b. The same schools meeting in more than one debate unless unavoidable. 4. If a shift must be made, move to the next possible opponent and complete a match before beginning to match the next card. If the last attempt to match is not possible, try to shift with the first pairing on the table; then try in sequence until all matches are complete. 5. For purposes of debate experience byed debaters in different divisions may be paired but the debate counts as a bye. 6. For subsequent pairings a bye counts as a win. 7. A bye counts as a win for establishing a record for promotion but not for sweepstakes. 8. Record opponent and side on the card for each debater and then bye as a bye. Setting up Round II: 1. Blind draw for a bye if necessary, observing rule 1 as above. 2. Place all round 1 negative cards on the left as affirmative. Hold back round 1 affirmative cards. The round 1 byed team/individual may be used to keep the sides even. 3. Leave the affirmative cards on your left on the table. Shuffle the negative cards. One at a time place them in sequence opposite the affirmative cards. Observe the following priorities to avoid: a. Teams/individuals from the same school meeting each other. b. Opponents form the previous round meeting each other. c. A team/individual meeting a team/individual form the same school it met in the previous round unless unavoidable. 4. If a shift must be made, follow the procedure unless indicated above in round 1. 5. See procedure in round 1 for byes. 6. Record opponent and side and bye on the card for each team/individual. 7. Record results accurately (including multiple judging, e.g. W, L, W (W) from the previous round.

p. 44

GGSA Attachment II, operating/scoring debate 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

Setting up round III: 1. Divide cards into winners and losers from round 1. 2. Blind draw for a bye in necessary from the loser’s pile from school snot having yet had a bye (see setting up round 1, 1). 3. Including the byed team/individual from the previous round divide winners and losers into those who should go affirmative and negative in normal rotation. Place the winning affirmative cards face down on the left and the negative cards face down on the right. If these piles are uneven, draw from one pile to fill the other by blind draw. If there is still an uneven number, blind draw from the lowers on the side needed to fill the shorter pile. 4. Turn the affirmative cards up and place on the left. Shuffle the negative cards and place them in sequence opposite the affirmative cards; observe the priorities listed in round II, 3 and the procedure for shifts. 5. Repeat the process for pairing losers. 6. See procedure above for byes. 7. Record opponent and side on each card. 8. Record results from round 1 accurately. Setting up round IV: 1. Divide cards into three piles according to results from round I and II: W-W; W-L; L-L 2. Blind draw a bye if necessary from the L-L pile from schools that have not yet received a bye in any division. 3. Including the team/individual byed in the previous round, divide the W-W pile into those who should go affirmative and place face down on the left; place those who should go negative face down on the right; even the piles by blind draw from the one to fill the other. If there is still an uneven number, blind draw one card from the W-L pile to fill the shorter side from those teams/individuals that won on that side previously. 4. Turn up the affirmative cards on the left; shuffle the negative cards and place in sequence opposite the affirmative cards; observe the priorities listed for round II and the procedure for shifts to complete the matching. 5. If unavoidable that two teams/individuals who met before be matched, reverse the sides. 6. Repeat the process for pairing teams with W-L record; if a draw is necessary form the L-L pile blind draw one card from those due to be on that side. Repeat the process for those with a L-L record. 7. See procedure above for byes. 8. Record opponent and side on each card. 9. Record results from all rounds accurately. Final tabulation: 1. Record results from round IV accurately and check for any errors in previous rounds. A bye counts for a win for establishing promotion.

p.45

GGSA Attachment II, operating/scoring debate 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

OPERATING AND SCORING STUDENT CONGRESS Getting started: 1. All coaches with teams participating in Student Congress should have received an envelope containing these instructions, a tally sheet for recording students’ names, chambers, and scores, and a set of stickers for entering competitors on the seating charts. Please double check you list of students to make sure you have accounted for any drops, and then print the last name (possibly with first initial to avoid confusion) of your students, one to a sticker. For any registered students who have dropped, make up a sticker that says “Drop”. 2. The seating charts for each chamber will have the names of schools printed in the seating positions. Place a name sticker (including “drops) over each spot containing the name of your school. Doublecheck to make sure there are no uncovered spots. 3. Students who wish to run for Presiding Officer must attend the mandatory P.O’s meeting at 8:30 a.m. They will be assigned to a chamber at the meeting. 4. If you will be opening a chamber at this congress, the number of that House or Senate will be written at the top of this form. Once all schools have placed their name sticklers on the main seating chart, you need to make up the judges’ copies for the chamber you will open. Take one of the three-part plan seating chars and print the names from the main seating chart onto it; press hard to make clear copies. These copies are from the judges perspective (the back of the room) – while the main chart is from the presiding officer’s view (the front of the room) thus, your copy will be a “mirror-image” of the original. Use the numbers on the charts to guide you- each name should go in the square with the same number as on the original. If you have any questions on making up the judges’ copy, please ask us for assistance. Leave the copies on the table, and take the main seating chart with you when you go the your room. 5. By 8:55 you should pick up a gavel and some blank ballot sheets. Take these to your assigned room, and seat the students according to the main seating chart. Ask each student who wishes to be a candidate for Presiding Officer to give you his/her card from the P.O.’s meeting: students without this card will not be allowed to preside. Write the names of all accepted candidates on the board; and ask each student running to briefly say why they would like to preside. Take a secret vote using the ballot papers. The candidate receiving the most votes gets the choice of presiding either session I or II; the second place finisher presides the other session. Give the seating chart to the P.O. for session I, reminding the chamber not to begin debate until the judge arrives. Come back to the tabulation room. 6. At the end of session I, you will be given the judge’s ballot, seating chard and comment sheets. Begin filling out the record sheet for your chamber by listing the nine nominated students in order and putting their rankings by their names in the column for session I. Any students not mentioned in one round receive a score of “10” for that round. 7. At about 2:40 p.m., you should pick up a first and second place plaque, third through fifth place trophies, and one certificate for the second place P.O. Take these, along with the record sheet and judges’ comments from the first two rounds, to your room. Debate should end in your chamber at 2:45. At that point, collect the main seating chart from the P.O. This is very important. Don’t forget to bring the P.O.’s seating chart back to the tab room. When the judge is finished ranking the students, collect the judge’s seating chart, comment sheets and score sheets. 8. Have the two P.O.s hand out the comment from all three rounds to the students. While they are doing this, add the rankings from the third round to the record sheet again writing the names of the students not previously nominated, and giving students a score of “10” for any round in which they were not mentioned. Total the scores in the last column. Record the names of the top five students in the place p.46

GGSA Attachment II, operating/scoring debate 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

provided on the record sheet. Also record the name of the winning P.O. (the P.O. who won at least two of the three rounds). 9. Announce the results of the scoring to the students. The second place P.O. receives a certificate. Third, fourth, and fifth place finisher receives a trophy, First and second place finishers receive the appropriate plaque. If you are closing a House, remind the top three finishers that they have now moved up into the Senate, and the winning P.O. has qualified for the state qualifying tournament as a P.O. Dismiss the chamber and return to the tab room with the seating charts and record sheet. 10. On the judge’s seating chart, tally the total speaking points for each student in that student’s square by copying the points from the other two sessions, adding three points for participation, and writing and circling the total. Remember no more that 24 points can be given to a student for one day’s competition. Staple the three judges’ copies together with the totaled scores on top and leave it on the original table with the record sheet. Give the P.O.’s seating chart (wit the stickers) to the Congress Director, and you’re done.

JUDGING CRITERIA FOR ALL EVENTS No written or oral criteria relevant to the judging of an event shall be distributed to judges other than that which appears in the attachments to the GGSA by-laws. GGSA by-laws September 2000

p.47

GGSA Attachment III, operating/scoring congress 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

STUDENT CONGRESS: JUDGING INSTRUCTIONS (PRELIMINARY) 1. Thank you for volunteering your time to judge today’s tournament. It is much appreciated by all the competitors here today. These instructions are meant to complement the oral instructions you will be given at the beginning of the competition. If you have questions about judging at any time, please ask one of the congress officials. 2. Student Congress consists of three sessions, each about ninety minutes long. You will be assigned to a different room for each session. When you are assigned to a room, you will be given a seating chart with the names of all students in that room and an official ballot. You will be given a packet of critique forms for writing comments about speeches. You should go directly to your room and take a seat in the back of the room. The students have been instructed not to begin debate on the issues until you arrive. 3. One student will act as presiding officer for the first half of the session. Then the other Presiding Officer will preside for the remainder of the session. He or she will run the congress, leaving you free to observe and score the speakers. When not presiding, the P.O. may participate as a speaker and be ranked by the judge(s). In general, students will give speeches on one piece of legislation at a time, alternating between affirmative and negative positions. There is a time limit of three minutes; there is no minimum time limit. After each speech, there is one-minute period of cross-examination. Look for questions that clash with the speaker’s ideas and also demonstrate through research on the topic. “Friendly” questions that do not contribute to the debate are not as effective and do not further the debate. During the sessions, students will make parliamentary motions, call for votes on the legislation, and otherwise follow the rules of order of a legislative session. Look for students who are actively involved in the parliamentary process and who use that process to make Congress run efficiently and effectively. 4. As each student is called upon to speak, you should write his or her name on a comment sheet, and indicate on the sheet areas of strength and weakness in the speech. Please use constructive criticism. These comments will be given to the students at the end of the day to help them improve as Congress competitors. 5. Please note the boxes above each speaker on your seating chart. After each speech, you must record a score for that speech in the box above that speaker’s name. You can give 3, 4, or 5 points for a speech, three (3) being an average speech and five (5) being superior. If a speaker has a chance to give a second speech, simply give him or her another score in the second box above the student’s name. Do not give points for questions, only for speeches. 6. At the end of the session, you must rank the top nine students in the room on the ballot provided. This ranking is based on your overall impression of students as participants in the round, including the persuasiveness of the speeches, ability to answer cross-examination questions, eagerness to ask questions of other speakers on the opposite side of the debate, and knowledge and use of parliamentary procedure. Rank all the students in order of preference, one being the best ranking. You only need to rank the top nine. You also need to choose the best Presiding Officer. Write the name of the best Presiding Officer at the bottom of the ballot and circle it. 7. At the end of the rounds I and II, please bring the score sheet, seating chart, and comment sheets back to the tabulation room. Make sure you have also written the name of the winning Presiding Officer on the ballot. 8.

At the end of the round III, a coach will come in to close the chamber, and you can give all these materials to that person when you are done scoring. You are welcome to stay in the chamber to watch the awards, if you wish.

p.48

GGSA Attachment IV Judging criteria for all events 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

STUDENT CONGRESS: JUDGING INSTRUCTIONS (STATE QUALS) 1. Thank you for volunteering your time to judge today’s tournament. It is much appreciated by all the competitors here today. These instructions are meant to complement the oral instructions you will be given at the beginning of the competition. If you have questions about judging at any time, please ask one of the Congress officials. 2. Student Congress consists of three preliminary sessions. Each about seventy-five minutes long. The top twenty-four students will compete in two semi-final rounds. You will be assigned to a different room for each session. When you are assigned to a room, you will be given a seating chart with the names of all students in that room and an official ballot. You should go directly to you room and take a seat in the back of the room. The students have been instructed not to begin debate on the issues until you arrive. 3. One student will act as Presiding Officer for the session. He or she will run the Congress, leaving you free to observe and score the speakers. One piece of legislation, announced many weeks prior to the competition, will be debated for the entire session. The debate will alternate between affirmative and negative speakers. There is a time limit of three minutes; top speakers will use all of the time. After each speech, there is a one-minute period of cross-examination. Look for questions that clash with the speaker’s ideas and also demonstrate thorough research on the topic. “Friendly” questions that do not contribute to the debate should be discouraged. During the session, students will make parliamentary motions, call for votes on the legislation, and otherwise follow the rules of order of a legislative session. Look for students who are actively involved in the parliamentary process and who use the process to make Congress run efficiently and effectively 4. Please note the boxes above each speaker on your seating chart. After each speech, you must record a score for that speech in the box above that speaker’s name. You can give 3, 4, or 5 points for a speech – 3 being an average speech and 5 being superior. In the rare occasion that a speaker has a chance to give a second speech, simply give him or her another score in the second box above the student’s name. Questions the student asks during the session should not be counted in this score. 5. At the end of the session, you must rank the top 9 students in the room on the score sheet provided. (If it is a semi-final round, rank the top twelve competitors). This ranking is based on your overall impression of students as participants in the round, including persuasiveness of the speeches, ability to answer cross-examination questions, eagerness to ask questions of other speakers on the opposite side of the debate, and knowledge and use of parliamentary procedure. Rank all of the students in order of preference, one being the best ranking. In the three preliminary rounds, do not rank the Presiding Officer. Instead, put a single score between three and five in the box above his/her name on the seating chart as a measure of your overall ranking of that individual as a Presiding Officer. NOTE: If you are judging the two semi-final rounds, you will rank the best Presiding Officer after the second semi-final round. Write the name of this person on the ‘best Presiding Officer’ ballot 6. At the end of each round, please bring the ranking sheet and seating chart back to the tabulation room. Please remind students that they are not allowed to leave at the end of the third session until they have voted for the best presiding officer that they have seen today. The top two Presiding Officers will advance to the two semifinal rounds. All students vote for one. Judges will vote for the best Presiding Officer after the final semifinal round. 7.Throughout all of the houses, the top 24 students will advance to semifinals. Those 24 students will be divided into two houses. Power and schools are divided between the two chambers. Students will debate the final two pieces of legislation later in the day. The students with the best cumulative scores throughout the entire day will represent the Golden Gate Speech Association at the State Championships in May.

p. 49 GGSA Attachment VI SC Judging Instructions (State Quals) 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

STUDENT CONGRESS: P.O. INSTRUCTIONS (PRELIMINARY) 1. If more than two candidates, you will make a brief speech to your chamber explaining your qualifications and priority system. The two P.O.’s will each preside over one half a session and alternate each session, thereafter. If you preside first in the first session, you will preside second in the second session, and so on. The two P.O.’s will decide who presides first in the first session . 2. Keep to the time schedule. Time begins when the first speaker begins a speech. Put the starting time on the board. The session should end 1 ½ hours after the starting time on the board. Do not adjourn any session early unless informed to do so by your judge. When Congress begins late for session I, it is unlikely the judge will inform you that the session will end at 10:30. If in the third session, all legislation has been debated, rules may be suspended and an earlier bill or resolution can be debated again because a different judge is hearing the debate. DO NOT DEBATE ANYTHING BUT THOSE PIECES OF LEGISLATION. 3. You must use and explain the following system of priority in your house: 1st priority – representative with fewest speeches (Remember: one cannot be called on to deliver a second speech if someone standing has not given a first speech.) Record the number of speeches on the seating chart. 2nd priority – representative standing the most consecutive times to speak (record standing time on a separate sheet of paper NOT ON THE SEATING CHART) 3rd priority – representative with the most questions asked (because s/he has contributed more to the debate.) Record the number of questions on the seating chart. 4. Adhere to the time limits with regard to speeches. Speeches: 3 min. CX: 1 min. Debate on any bill begins with an affirmative speech followed by a negative and so on unless the rules are suspended. Have someone in the chamber act as a timer and give time signals. Make sure a digital watch is used. The first speaker may give a negative speech if no one stands to speak on the affirmative. 5. Be familiar with the required vote on the Parliamentary motions. To suspend any rule requires a 2/3 vote while tabling and untabling a bill requires a simple majority. 6. AMENDMENTS: Amendments must be submitted in writing to the P.O. The P.O. decides whether or not to read it before the House. Please wait until two affirmative and two negative speeches have taken place before introducing an amendment. It requires 1/3 vote to debate an amendment. The author speaks for the amendment (this speech counts toward priority). Speakers debate this issue and then vote on the amendment. The amendment requires a majority vote to pass. 7.AUTHORSHIP: (Only at congress #2 and #3) If debating legislation that was authored by a speaker in your House, the author has the right to an authorship speech as the first affirmative speaker regardless of priority. Mark the speech on the seating chart. This right to speak will only apply to the author and not a member of the author’s school. The names of the authors are written on the bills and resolutions. 8. DO NOT LEAVE THE SESSION WITH THE SEATING CHART. AFTER THE THRID SESSION, GIVE THE SEATING CHART TO THE COACH WHO CLOSES THE HOUSE.

p. 50 GGSA Attachment VII SC P.O. Instructions (Preliminary) 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

STUDENT CONGRESS: P.O. INSTRUCTIONS (STATE QUALS) 1. PRIORITY SYSTEM: You are required to follow this system. 1st priority – Senator with the fewest speeches. Remember that one cannot be called on to give a second speech if someone standing has not given a first speech, etc. (record on seating chart) 2nd priority – Senator standing the most consecutive times to speak. This priority is for number of times standing and not for quickest to stand or any other system. (record on a separate sheet of paper) 3rd priority – Senator with the most questions asked. Questions help one’s priority because they reward students who have contributed the most to the debate. (record on seating chart) 2. Above all, your #1 priority: Your goal as a P.O. is to make sure that every student has the opportunity to speak. Make fair and efficient judgment and run the session according to time. Be as fair as possible, and don’t forget to look at everyone standing on both sides of the room before making your decisions. When you announce who has priority, always try to mention why you chose that person. 3. Presiding Officer assignments All presiding officers will be pre-assigned to P.O. in a different chamber each session. You will be rotated as opposed to staying in one room the entire time. 4. Adjourning early: Please note that you may NOT adjourn the Senate early unless every student has given a speech and no one else wants to speak. If this is the case, then the senate can vote to adjourn. Attempting to adjourn under any other circumstances should be ruled out of order. Calling the previous question requires a two-thirds vote of the chamber. 5. Basic procedure: Speeches are three minutes in length. The cross-examination period lasts one minute and may not be extended. The student with the least number of questions has priority to ask a question. Have someone act as a timer and give time signals. Debate alternates between affirmative and negative speakers, unless the house moves to change that order and the motion passes with a 2/3 vote. Amendments are not allowed. 6. Recording priority: The number of speeches carries over from round to round. In other words, the first priority is the total number of speeches throughout the entire day. You should start over counting questions for each round using a different color pen, but include every question when choosing students to speak. Only speeches and questions should be recorded on the seating chart.

p. 51 GGSA Attachment VIII SC P.O. Instructions (State Quals) 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

TEAM DEBATE: JUDGING INSTRUCTIONS PHILOSOPHY: The California High School Speech Association believes the following goals from the CHSSA Mission Statement should be displayed during policy debate rounds. A. Every student will develop the critical and analytical thinking skills necessary for academic success. B. Every student will develop the oral communication skills necessary for effective public presentations. C. Every student will demonstrate ethical responsibility in the acquisition and practice of communication skills. 1. Team Identity: Teams are assigned code numbers in order to ensure impartiality. Judges are not to ask contestants about their school affiliation. If you are assigned to a debate and know the contestants, please request another ballot. 2. Sides: Teams have been assigned to debate wither affirmative or negative. Please judge only the quality of the debate by both sides; and set aside any personal feelings you may have regarding the topic. A. The Affirmative must uphold the resolution. B. The Negative must argue against the affirmative proposal for adoption of the resolution by showing the affirmative proposal is faulty, by defending the present policy, or by offering a counter policy option that is not topical. 3. Speech Time: Speaking time is limited and must occur in the following order. Any arguments presented beyond the time limit should be disregarded. A. First Affirmative Constructive: B. Cross examination by a negative speaker C. First Negative Constructive D. Cross-examination by a negative speaker E. Second Affirmative Constructive F. Cross-examination by negative speaker G. Second Negative Constructive H. Cross-examination by an affirmative speaker I. First Negative Rebuttal J. First Affirmative Rebuttal K. Second Negative Rebuttal L. Second Affirmative Rebuttal

8 minutes 3 minutes 8 minutes 3 minutes 8 minutes 3 minutes 8 minutes 3 minutes 5 minutes 5 minutes 5 minutes 5 minutes

4. Preparation Time: Each team has eight minutes of preparation time which they may use incrementally as they please before their speeches. No preparation time is allowed between the end of the constructive speech and the beginning of cross-examination. Cross-examination time may not be waived to gain added preparation time. If there are no timers, please call off prep time in one minute intervals if debaters request you to do so. 5. Cross-examination / Oral Prompting: Both members of a debate team must participate as a questioner and respondent during cross-examination, but only one member of each team may do so within a given cross-examination period. Oral prompting by a participant of either the questioner or the respondent should be discouraged and may be considered by the judge a factor in deciding the debate. Oral prompting by the speaker’s colleague while the speaker has the floor in the debate should be discouraged and may be considered by the judge a factor in deciding the debate. 6. Constructive / Rebuttals: All arguments a team intends to present during the debate must be presentedin constructive speeches. Rebuttals are a team’s response to opponent arguments from constructives or an extension of their own arguments. No new arguments may be introduced in rebuttals. New arguments

p. 52 GGSA Attachment X Team Debate Judging Instructions 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

issued in rebuttals should be disregarded. New evidence and analysis supporting arguments from constructives are allowed in rebuttals. 7. Evidence: Should a serious challenge to the legality of evidence used in the round be issued during the debate, the judge should allow the round to finish and then return to the judge’s room for further direction. Judges may only request evidence from debaters when its legality has been questioned. Judges may not call in evidence at the end of a debate to reread it. During cross-examination, the questioner may request to see evidence read by their opponents. All evidence must be returned at the end of cross-examination. Full Citations: The first time evidence is read in a debate round, the debater must read full citations on that piece of evidence. Full citations include author, full source title, date, and page number. Full citations are not necessary if the same source is cited a second time. Failure to read full citations shall void the impact of that evidence in the debate. 8. Note Taking: Judges are encouraged to take notes during the round. Only contestants and judges are allowed to take notes during the round. Observers may not “flow” the debate. 9. Making a Decision: There are many models for judging debate. Two of the most prevalent are “Stock Issues” and “Policy Maker.” A. Stock Issues Judging Criterion: This criterion claims there are five voting issues in debate. 1. Topicality: Does the affirmative plan reasonably adhere to the limitations of the resolution? 2. Significance: Is there justification to change from the present system because the present policy generates harmful problems? 3. Inherency: Is there a clear barrier that prevents the present system from solving the problems indicated by the affirmative. 4. Solvency: Can the proposed plan solve the problem better than the present system? 5. Disadvantages: Do the advantages claimed by the affirmative outweigh the disadvantages claimed by the negative? At the conclusion of the round if the judge feels the answer is “yes” to all of the above questions, the affirmative is awarded the win. If the judge feels there is a clear “no” answer to any one or more of the questions, the win is awarded to the negative. B. Policy Maker Judging Criterion: This criterion claims that the winning team is the one that presents the superior policy option. 1. The affirmative should win the round if their policy option meets the resolution (is topical) and gains advantages that outweigh the disadvantages presented by the negative. 2. The negative team should win the round if they prove that the affirmative team’s plan is not topical policy option it offers is superior to the affirmative’s policy. Please consider these areas on your ballot as a partial guideline for your decision. A. Analysis: logical extension of critical issues; which team on balance did the better job of clearly explaining their arguments and of exposing the weakness of the opponent arguments? B. Proof: sufficient quantity and appropriate interpretation of evidence: which team offered the clearest understandable evidence and better applied that evidence to support their arguments? C. Organization: logical and orderly presentation: which team more clearly indicated what issue what being argued at each moment, presenting a clear and easy listening path to follow? D. Refutation: direct responses to issues raised by the opponents; which team displayed the better ability to critically analyze opponent arguments and develop appropriate, clear understandable, persuasive vocal argument, use of effective stage presence, gestures, and eye contact? 10. Please make an independent decision. Please do not discuss your decision with other judges until after the ballots have been turned in. There must be a winning side; there are no ties in debate. 11. No oral critiques/disclosures: Judges are not to give oral critiques or reveal their decisions to the debaters. Please fill out and sign your ballot. Indicate why each team won or lost as clearly and constructively as possible. Debaters appreciate your comments regarding the deciding arguments and considerations leading to your decision.

p. 53 GGSA Attachment X Team Debate Judging Instructions 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

INDIVIDUAL EVENTS: JUDGING INSTRUCTIONS GENERAL PROCEDURE: In the judges’ room, pick up the blank ballots and ballot cover sheet (with the student speakers listed by code numbers) for the speech event you wish to judge. (the type of events are described later.) Take the ballots to the room noted on the cover sheet. Listen to the speeches in the order listed. (If a student is not present when it is time for you to hear that speech, you may hear the other speeches out of order. If a student is late there is no penalty; hear the student in the appropriate order, or as close to it as you can.) Do not interrupt a student’s presentation. Make your final decision about the ranks to assign the students after all the speeches have been given. (Specific instructions below.) Fill in each of the ballots and cover sheet completely. (instructions below) Then return with your completed ballots and cover sheet to the judges’ room. (Do not give out ballots or comments to students; do not reveal your rankings to the students.) If a problem involving the application of any tournament rules arises while you are hearing speeches, hear out all the speeches if possible and ask a tournament official about the problem when you return to the judges’ room. JUDGING: The Ballot: You will have one ballot for each student. Fill in the ballot completely: the students’ code number and topic at the top, the student’s rank at the bottom, and comments in the spaces provided (and on the back of the ballot if you need room.) Also fill in the cover sheet completely; your name (printed, please), your school affiliation (if any), the titles of the presentations heard, and the rankings assigned the speakers. Check the ballots and cover sheet for accuracy before turning them in; especially check to make sure you have given the correct rankings and that you have correctly matched the code numbers (and rankings) to the specific students you heard (particularly if you heard speeches out of order.) Making a Decision: After hearing all the students, rank them according to your judgment of the relative quality of their presentations. The student you thought was the best of the group gets a “1,” the second best gets a “2,” etc. Do not give any ties, except for fifth place. Indicate your ranking by circling the appropriate number at the bottom of the ballot and by writing the appropriate ranking beside the student’s code number on the cover sheet. Usually each group of students has one judge. Even if more that one judge is present, each judge must evaluate the students independently; do not confer. In making your evaluations, consider both the content and the delivery of the speech. Students may support issues or viewpoints why are contrary to you. Use the evaluation areas listed on the ballot as guides in making your judgment. You should take notes during the speeches; and you may find it useful to assign preliminary rankings as you hear each presentation. Comments: Comments are extremely important in helping the students to understand how their presentations affected the listener, why they received the ranking given, and how to do better. Almost all comments are useful. The evaluation guidelines on the ballot suggest areas for comment, but you should not feel restricted to these areas. Please write both positive and constructively critical comments. Put all comments on the ballot; do not give oral critiques. You may write comments during the speeches, but try to balance writing with listening to and watching the speaker. Timekeeping: All speech events have a maximum time limit; specific limits are listed in the rules of each event. No event h as a minimum time required. Students in Extemporaneous speaking and Impromptu need to have their speeches timed and need to get some time signals from the judge. Give those students some signals for each minute that they have spoken. If students go substantially over the time limit, they are penalized by lowering their rankings by one (a “1” becomes a “2,” etc.) Do not stop a speech if it goes over the time limit; let the student finish. Conflict: It is very difficult to judge students who you know, and it almost always quite disconcerting for the students. If you know students competing in the tournament, check with their instructors to get the code numbers and events in which they are competing – so that you can avoid judging them. If you know a student in a group you are about to judge, try to find another judge to replace you.

p. 54 GGSA Attachment XI I.E. Judging Instructions 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

Enforcing the rules: Confusion or conflict about specific rules may arise while you are judging. Almost always, the best course of action is for you to hear the speeches, make your evaluation of the speakers as if there were no question about the rules, and then consult with tournament officials about the rules in question. If the speeches have been heard and evaluated completely, we can do a much better job of determining the best course of action. THE CONTEST EVENTS: General descriptions and rules for each of the speech events are provided in the accompanying instructions sheet. Please use that sheet to clarify questions regarding rules, time limits, and general questions you have about each type of contest. Thank you very much for your help in conducting this tournament. Without your effort, this activity would not be possible. TO THE JUDGES: Here is a sample of comments that might suggest ways to mark your evaluation sheet for each speaker. If a student doesn’t place among the top speakers in the room, its very useful for him to understand why. Use your brief comments as a means of helping him or her improve in the future. Be tactfully truthful! Thank you for your care in making comments for the competitors. • •

• •

Students spoke too loudly, too rapidly, too slowly, just right Students when speaking: Didn’t look at the audience. Spoke to only one side of the room. Turned back to the audience. Scratched various parts of the face. Swayed form side to side. Was pleasantly forceful. In presenting expository speech the competitor’s work would have been more appreciated if: Lettering were larger neater. The drawings were clearly delineated. The presenter had used bold colors for lettering. The subject had more substance to it. In Impromptu or Extemporaneous speaking the speaker: Sign posted well. Make good use of personal anecdotes or quotes. Needs to be more aware of current events. Wandered off the topic. Stayed on target. Make good use of time. Spoke too briefly. As an Interpretation performer you: Chose a piece with literary merit. Set the scene well for us. Kept your characters separate. Need to work on characterization. Have a flair for drama or humor. Kept your characters in focus so we could “see” them as you did.

GENERAL COMMENTS: •

AREAS OF STRENGTH: Good selection. Effective use of voice. Excellent diction. Wonderful prop or visual aid. Focused delivery. Expressive gestures. Ideas well organized/well thought through. Confident delivery. AREAS TO IMPROVE: Take a deep breath. Relax and slow down. Make eye contact. Look towards the audience (except in interpretations). Speak more clearly, loudly, softly. The piece you chose (interps) didn’t seem well suited to you. Your gestures, movements seemed to interfere with rather than enhance your speech. Give more enthusiasm, intensity to your speech. We want to believe you. SPORTSMANSHIP: Please feel free to make comments about the sportsmanship of the competitors. Was contestant a good sport and courteous to others by not fidgeting, sighing, or otherwise distracting the person performing? Please comment on this and let the tab room know if a speaker was particularly unsportsmanlike

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GGSA Attachment XI I.E. Judging Instructions 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

INDIVIDUAL EVENTS: JUDGES’ INSTRUCTIONS DESCRIPTION AND RULES FOR EACH EVENT: IMPROMPTU SPEAKING: Each student has two minutes to prepare a short speech on an assigned topic. Topic areas include quotations, abstract words and current events. The judge gives each contestant three pre=assigned topics when it is that student’s turn to speak. The contestant selects one of the three topics and prepares the speech in the room where the speech is delivered in “A” division, no notes may be used in delivering the speech (although the student may make notes during the preparation time); violation of this rule results in a fifth place ranking for the contestant. EXTEMPORANEOUS SPEAKING: Each student has thirty minutes to prepare a speech on a an assigned topic. The preparation is done prior to arriving to the contest room. Topics are drawn from current events, and two types of extemporaneous speaking contests are conducted-international Extemp and National Extemp. In “A” division, no notes may be used in delivering the speech (although the student may make notes during the preparation time); violations of this rule results in a fifth place ranking for the contestant. EXPOSITORY SPEAKING: The student gives a speech to inform the listeners about a subject of interest. Students are encouraged, but not required, to use audio and/or visual aids. The speech is prepared prior to the tournament. Specific Rules: No more than 150 words of the speech may be quoted from other speeches or writing. The subject and writing must be based on genuine facts or published material. Notes or manuscripts may be used in “A” division. Clothing necessary to the speech must be added and removed during the course of the presentation. No costumes shall be worn by the contestant. No live animals are permitted. No other person may assist in the set-up or presentation. ORIGINAL ORATORY: The student gives a speech to generate interest or concern about a subject. The speech is prepared prior to tournament. Specific Rules: No more than 150 words of the speech may be quoted from other speeches or writing. Notes or manuscripts may not be used in “A” division. Props and/or visual aids may not be used. ORIGINAL ADVOCACY: The student gives a speech that advocates a specific public policy. The speech is prepared prior to the tournament. Specific Rules: No more than 150 words of the speech may be quoted from other speeches or writing. Notes or manuscripts may not be used in “A” division. Props and/or visual aids may not be used. The student must specify the policy proposed and the agency which should adopt the policy. DRAMATIC INTERPRETATION: The student gives an interpretation performance of all or part of a dramatic piece of published writing. The contestant must state the title and author of the piece. Failure to do so results in lowering of one rank. Specific Rules: Selections must be published writing. Contestants must remain standing throughout the presentation. NO notes or manuscripts may be used in “A” division. No costumers are permitted. Singing and dancing are not permitted. HUMOROUS INTERPRETATION: The student gives an interpretative performance of all or part of a humorous piece of published writing. All rules are the same as for Dramatic Interpretation. DUO INTERPRETATION: Two students give an interpretation performance of all or part of a humorous or dramatic piece of published writing. The performance must begin and end center stage. Students must remain center stage area throughout the performance. During the performance, off-stage focus (meaning contestants may not look directly at each other).

p. 56

GGSA Attachment XI I.E. Judging Instructions 9/2007


GGSA Constitution, revised September 2007

must be employed by both contestants; during presentation of narration, introductory and/or transitional material, eye contact should be made with the audience. The contestants may react to each other’s verbal and/or non-verbal expressions, but may not touch each other. Each of the two performers may play one or more characters. ORATORICAL INTERPRETATION: The student gives an interpretative presentation of all or part of three or more pieces of published writing, connecting the pieces with a theme. All rules are the same as for Dramatic Interpretation. Specific Rules: The date of the original delivery must be given. THEMATIC INTERPRETATION: The student gives an interpretative performance of all or part of three or more pieces of published writing, connecting the pieces with a theme. All rules are the same as for Dramatic interpretation. Specific Rules: Manuscripts are required. Contestants must hold scripts in their hands throughout their performances. The student’s own writing must not exceed one-third of the total presentation. ORIGINAL PROSE/POETRY: The student gives a presentation of material written by the student. Any appropriate subjects may be used. The presentation must constitute prose or poetry, or a combination of both. All rules are the same as for Dramatic Interpretation. Specific Rules: The work presented must not be the published writing of others. The student’s own writing published or not, must be used, although the contestants may use 150 words quoted from other sources. VIOLATIONS OF SPECIFIC RULES RESULT IN THE CONTESTANT BEING RANKED NO HIGHER THAN FIFTH PLACE: TIME LIMITS: Impromptu.…. 5 minutes (not counting 2 minutes prep time) Extemp………7 minutes (not including 30 minute prep time) Expository….10 minutes (including set-up and take-down of audio and/or visual aids). Oratory…………….10 minutes Advocacy………….10 minutes Interpretation………10 minutes (including introductory or transitional material (dramatic, humorous, duo, thematic, oratorical) Prose/Poetry………10 minutes Students whose presentations exceed the time limits by a substantial margin shall be penalized by lowering their rankings by one. There is no minimum time limit. Extemporaneous and Impromptu speakers need time signals.

QUALIFYING TO THE STATE QUALS THROUGH INVITATIONALS Congress formula:

A student must break into a final round. It must be in varsity or open division in which there is a minimum of five schools present.

p. 57

GGSA Attachment XI I.E. Judging Instructions 9/2007

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GGSA Constitution & Bylaws_092007  

GGSA Constitution & Bylaws_092007

GGSA Constitution & Bylaws_092007  

GGSA Constitution & Bylaws_092007

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