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GGS   Partners: BA & GR 

ŏ I’ll Get A Rise Out of You!   

The Question: How will different leavening agents affect our bread? For  this  experiment,  we  are  making  5  different  loaves  of  bread,  each  with  a  unique  leavening  agent.  We  are  doing  this to see the difference in how the leavening agent  affects  the  bread’s  taste,  smell,  rise,  and  texture.  A leavening agent is an ingredient  used  in  food  to make it rise and lighten in texture. The agents we will be using in this  experiment  are  yeast,  baking  soda,  and  air/bacteria  (sourdough).  Yeast  works  by  eating  the  sugar  inside  of  the  dough  and  releasing  carbon  in  the  process giving the  bread  bubbles  of  carbon  making  it  light  and  fluffy.  Baking  soda  works  by  being  activated  by  an  acid-base  reaction.  So  when  it  is  mixed  with  an  acid,  since  it  is  a  base,  it  releases  carbon  again  creating  bubbles  in  the  dough  and  making  it  fluffy.  Air/bacteria  work  by  eating  the  dough,  it  is  a  sort  of  yeast  as  it  does  the  same  process  of  eating  something  from  the  dough  and  releasing  carbon  dioxide.  The  5  loaves  of  bread  we  will  be  making  are  commercial yeast bread, chemical leavening  agent  (baking  soda)  bread,  homemade  sourdough  yeast  bread,  commercial  sourdough  yeast  bread,  and  the  Dennis’  sourdough  yeast  bread.  Our  control dough  is  the  commercial  yeast  bread  as  we  understand  how  it  works  and  it  is  a  biological  leavening  agent  which  makes  it  different  from  the  other  dough’s  we  are  use  ‘chemical’  leavening  agents.  By  chemical  I  do  not  mean  that  it  was  made  in  a  lab,  I  mean  that  is  not  a  natural  process  of  leavening  bread.  The  sourdoughs  and  baking  soda were made to rise quicker than biological leavening agents.    

We didn't  do  this  experiment  alone,  but  as  a  class.  As  such  we  were  divided  into  groups.  each  taking  care  of  a  loaf  of  bread.  Our  group  received  the  homemade  sourdough, which is the one we shall be focused on.   

The Hypothesis:   My  hypothesis  for  each  dough  are  as  follows:  The  baking  soda  dough  will  be  the  quickest  to  rise,  the  biggest  in  size,  the  quickest  to  bake  and  it  will  taste  bland.  The  yeast  bread  will  taste  slightly  bitter  and  rise  at  a  usual  pace  for  bread  and  be short.  The  homemade  sourdough  will  be  sour  and  dense.  The  commercial  sourdough  I  believe will have a lot of bubbles and taste sour. The Dennis sourdough I believe will  be the smallest of our experiment, and the least sour out of the sourdoughs. 

The Materials: Here are the ingredients found in each bread:    Yeast (Control)   ➢ 1 Cup of water  ➢ 2.5 Cups of all-purpose flour  ➢ 1 Tablespoon of salt  ➢ 1.5 Tablespoons of Yeast    Baking Soda (Experimental #1)  ➢ 1 ½ Cup of buttermilk  ➢ 3 ½ Cups of all-purpose flour  ➢ 1 Teaspoon of salt  ➢ 1 Teaspoon of sugar  ➢ 1 Teaspoon of baking soda    Homemade Sourdough (Experimental #2)  Our original recipe used to make 3 loaves of bread so we divided everything by 3  Ingredient (used to make 3) 


Revised Amount

10 cups flour

10/3 = 3 1/3

3 ⅓ cups flour

4 t0 4 ½ cups of water

4/3 | 9/2 * ⅓ = 1 1/2

4/3 to 1 ½ cups of water

3 ½ teaspoons of salt

7/2 * ⅓ = 7/6

1 ⅙ teaspoons of salt

¾ cup starter

¾ /3 = 1/4

¼ cup starter

Commercial Sourdough (Experimental #3)  ➢ 1 Cup of water  ➢ 3 ⅓ Cups of all-purpose flour  ➢ 1 Tablespoon of salt  ➢ ⅓ Cup of starter    Dennis’ Sourdough (Experimental #4)  ➢ 2 ⅔ Cup of water  ➢ 3 Cup of all-purpose flour  ➢ ½ Tablespoon of salt  ➢ ½ Tablespoon of starter     

Bickering Variables  


Exp. 1

Exp. 2

Exp. 3

Exp. 4

Rest Time

2 hours in Fridge or 7  days outside 


7 days


3 ½ hours

Rise Time

2 hours Then again  60+ mins. 


15-60 mins.

4-24 hours

30 mins- 4 hours  Then again  3-4 hours 

Bake Time

25-35 min.

35-45 mins

1-3 hours

30-60 mins

30-50 mins

Oven Temp. 







Slight kneading 

Not necessary 

10-15 mins.

20 mins.

2 ½ hours



Buttermilk, sugar &  baking soda 




Most  of  these  different  variables  between  our  loaves  of  bread  have  simple  explanations  as  to  why  they  are  needed.  Depending  on  how  wet  or  dry, how dense  or  airy,  and/or  how  big  the  dough  is  there  will  be  differing  baking  times  and  oven  temperatures.  Kneading  is  the  way  to  activate  the  gluten in the dough, for all of you  sourdoughs  it  is  necessary  to  give  the  bread  structure  so  it  isn’t  flat,  but  for  the  baking soda loaf kneading is not necessary. This is because there is a reaction called  an  acid-base  reaction  that  happens  in  the  dough which activates the gluten without  needing  to  be  kneaded.  Speaking  of  reactions,  the  baking  soda  loaf  has  3  distinct  variables  that  differ  from  the  other  loaves,  buttermilk,  sugar,  and  baking  soda.  Buttermilk  is  the  acid  in  the  acid-base  reaction  inside  of  the  baking  soda  bread and  the  baking  soda  itself  is  the  base,  but  the  sugar  is  needed  to  quicken  this  process.  And  lastly,  there  is  yeast  in  the  yeast  loaf  because  it  is  needed  as  the  leavening  agent and a structural support.           

The Procedure: Here are the procedures our class took in making the 5 loaves of bread:    Yeast (Control)  ➢ Combine all of the ingredients in a large mixing bowl, For first-timers,  "lukewarm" means about 105°F.Mix and stir everything together to make a  very sticky, rough dough. If you have a stand mixer, beat at medium speed  with the beater blade for 30 to 60 seconds.   ➢ Next, you're going to let the dough rise, just let it stay there, covering the  bucket with a lid or plastic wrap.  ➢ Cover the bowl or bucket, and let the dough rise at room temperature for 2  hours. Then refrigerate it for at least 2 hours, or for up to about 7 days.  ➢ When you're ready to make bread, sprinkle the top of the dough with flour;  this will make it easier to grab a hunk. Grease your hands, and pull off about  1/4 to 1/3 of the dough. It'll be about the size of a softball, or a large  grapefruit.  ➢ Plop the sticky dough onto a floured work surface, and round it into a ball, or  a longer log.  ➢ Place the loaf on a piece of parchment; or onto a lightly greased or  parchment-lined baking sheet. Sift a light coating of flour over the top.  ➢ Let the loaf warm to room temperature and rise; this should take about 60  minutes or longer.  ➢ If you're using a baking stone, position it on a middle rack while the oven  preheats. Place a shallow metal or cast iron pan on the lowest oven rack, and  have 1 cup of hot water ready to go. Preheat your oven to 450°F while the loaf  rests.   ➢ When you're ready to bake, take a sharp knife and slash the bread 2 or 3  times, making a cut about 1/2" deep.  ➢ Place the bread in the oven and carefully pour the 1 cup hot water into the  shallow pan on the rack beneath.  ➢ Bake the bread for 25 to 35 minutes.  ➢ Remove the bread from the oven, and cool it on a rack. Store leftover bread in  a plastic bag at room temperature.  Baking Soda (Experimental #1)  ➢ Preheat oven to 450 fahrenheit  ➢ Place flour, sugar, baking soda, and salt into a large bowl and whisk together. 

➢ Make a well in the center and pour in most of the buttermilk, leaving about ¼ cup in the measuring cup. Using a fork, or one hand with your fingers  outstretched like a claw, bring the flour and liquid together, adding more  buttermilk, if necessary. Don’t knead the mixture, or it will become heavy. The  dough should be soft, but not too wet and sticky.  ➢ When the dough comes together, turn it onto a floured work surface and  bring it together a little more. Pat the dough into a roundabout 1½ inches thick  and cut a deep cross in it. Place on a baking sheet.  ➢ Bake for 15 minutes. Turn down the heat to 400° and bake for 20-30 minutes  more. When done, the loaf will sound slightly hollow when tapped on the  bottom and be golden in color. One way to check if your bread is done is to  use a thermometer. Cook until temperature in center reaches 195-200  degrees.  Homemade Sourdough (Experimental #2)  ➢ First you must make the starter for this bread. You mix 1 cup of flour and ½  cup of water into a bowl after this you cover it with a cheesecloth. Everyday  for a week you take half of the dough and put it in a separate jay, you then  replace the missing dough with another cup of flour and another ½ cup of  water.  ➢ When you are ready to make the dough you will be baking bring out your  starter, more flour, salt, and water.  ➢ Take out ¼ cup of starter and put it in a pereate bowl  ➢ Add 3 ⅓ cups of flour to the bowl  ➢ Add 1 ½ cups of water to the bowl  ➢ Mix well   ➢ Let it rest and ferment for 15- 60 minutes  ➢ Add 1 1/16 or a teaspoon of salt  ➢ Knead well for 10-15 minutes  ➢ Check to see if the dough is kneaded enough by doing a windowpane test   ➢ Make the dough into a loaf  ➢ Set the oven to 500 degrees for less than an hour  ➢ Place your loaf of bread inside of the oven for 1-3 hours at 400 degrees  ➢ Ideally your loaf should be 195 degrees when fully cooked  Commercial Sourdough (Experimental #3)  ➢ Mix the sourdough starter, flour, and salt together.  Add 1 cup water and then more as needed to make a  moist bread dough. 

➢ Knead the dough until it passes the “window pane test” (about 20 minutes): a small piece of dough will stretch  between 4 fingers without breaking thin enough to allow  light to pass through.  ➢ Shape the dough into a loaf. Place it in a pan, proofing  basket, or on a board. Cover the dough lightly with a  towel and allow the dough to rise for 4-24 hours.  ➢ Slice an X shape in the top of the loaf with a very sharp  knife or razor blade.  ➢ Bake at 400°F for 30-60 minutes, depending on the size  of the loaf, until the internal temperature reaches 210°F  (use a meat thermometer inserted into the bottom or  side of the loaf). Cool before slicing.    Dennis’ Sourdough (Experimental #4)  ➢ Make sure your sourdough culture is active  ➢ Make the leaven (overnight)  ➢ Test that the leaven is ready  ➢ Dissolve the salt  ➢ Mix the leaven and water  ➢ Add the flour  ➢ Rest the dough (30 minutes, or up to 4 hours)  ➢ Mix in the salt  ➢ Begin folding the dough (2 1/2 hours)  ➢ Let the dough rise undisturbed (30 to 60 minutes)  ➢ Prepare 2 bread proofing baskets, colanders, or mixing bowls  ➢ Shape the loaves  ➢ Transfer to the proofing baskets  ➢ Let the dough rise (3 to 4 hours, or overnight in the fridge)  ➢ Heat the oven to 500°F  ➢ Transfer the loaves to the Dutch ovens  ➢ Score the top of the loaf  ➢ Bake the loaves for 20 minutes  ➢ Reduce the oven temperature to 450°F and bake another 10 minutes  ➢ Remove the lids and continue baking 15 to 25 minutes  ➢ Bake another 15 to 25 minutes  ➢ Cool the loaves completely     

The Results  

SN, 2018, YeastBread

GR, 2018, homemade bread

GGS, 2018, Baking Soda Bread    

GGS, 2018, Baked Homemade Bread

GGS, 2018, Comercial bread BA, 2018, Dennis’ Bread   The Control ​Yeast  This bread was the most risen  Baking  soda  chemical  1st  baked  :  dense,  dry,  the  crust  has  a  burnt  aftertaste,  the  center is sweet and clumpy when eaten fluuffy a lil salty     Experiment 1 ​Baking Soda  salty    Experiment 2 ​Homemade Sourdough  Very  sour  a  lil  dense  but  has  a  lot  of  bubblrs, hard crust crunchy inside slightly gold  outside     Experiment 3 ​Commercial Sourdough  The  sourest  ,  very  hard  crust,  sourish,  denseish  some  bubbles  at  botto,m  softer  inside moist, underbaked slightly elesticc    Experiment 4 ​Dennis’ Sourdough    Hard to bite into dense moist blondest,          

What Are You Eating? All-Purpose Flour  1 serving size= ¼ cup  ¼ 3 ½   100cal  X  3.5/.25=14  14*100=1400 cal  Potassium  40mg *14= 560mg  Total Carbohydrate  22g*14= 308mg  Dietary Fiber  1g*14= 14g  Sugar  1g*14= 14g  Protein  3g*14= 42g  Iron  6%*14= 84%  Salt   1 serving size=17/16 tsp   ¼ 17/16  590 mg X  17/16 / ¼= 4 1/4  4 ¼ *590= 2507 1/2 mg sodium or 2.5075 g sodium    ¼ starter   ⅙ cup flour   1 serving size= ¼ cup  ¼ 1/6  100cal X  ⅙ / ¼ ---> ⅙ * 4/1 = 4/6 --> 2/3  2/3*100=66.2/3 cal  Potassium  40mg *2/3= 26 ⅔ mg  Total Carbohydrate  22g*⅔ = 14 ⅔ mg  Dietary Fiber  1g*2/3= ⅔ g  Sugar  1g*2/3= ⅔ g  Protein  3g*2/3= 2g 

Iron 6%*2/3= 4%  +  14*100=1400 cal  Potassium  40mg *14= 560mg  Total Carbohydrate  22g*14= 308mg  Dietary Fiber  1g*14= 14g  Sugar  1g*14= 14g  Protein  3g*14= 42g  Iron  6%*14= 84%    TOTAL:  Calories​ 1466 ⅔   Potassium​ 586 ⅔ mg  Total Carbohydrate​ 322 ⅔ mg  Dietary Fiber ​14g  Sugar​ 14g  Protein ​42 ⅔ g  Iron​ 88%    Daily Percentage  Calories ​1466 ½= 2000 = 73.3%  Potassium​ 586 ⅔ mg3500= 16.8%  Total Carbohydrate​ 322 ⅔ /300 = 107.6%  Dietary Fiber ​14g /25= 56%  Sugar​ 14g /25=56%  Protein ​42 ⅔ g /50= 85.3%  Iron​ 88%  Sodium​ 2507 ½ mg/2400= 104.5%                   

The conclusion:  

GGS, 2018, Graphing Height    Baking  soda  chemical  1st  baked  :  dense,  dry,  the  crust  has  a  burnt  aftertaste,  the  center is sweet and clumpy when eaten 

Lab report food ggs (1)  
Lab report food ggs (1)