GGS Partners: BA & GR
ŏ I’ll Get A Rise Out of You!
The Question: How will different leavening agents affect our bread? For this experiment, we are making 5 different loaves of bread, each with a unique leavening agent. We are doing this to see the difference in how the leavening agent affects the bread’s taste, smell, rise, and texture. A leavening agent is an ingredient used in food to make it rise and lighten in texture. The agents we will be using in this experiment are yeast, baking soda, and air/bacteria (sourdough). Yeast works by eating the sugar inside of the dough and releasing carbon in the process giving the bread bubbles of carbon making it light and fluffy. Baking soda works by being activated by an acid-base reaction. So when it is mixed with an acid, since it is a base, it releases carbon again creating bubbles in the dough and making it fluffy. Air/bacteria work by eating the dough, it is a sort of yeast as it does the same process of eating something from the dough and releasing carbon dioxide. The 5 loaves of bread we will be making are commercial yeast bread, chemical leavening agent (baking soda) bread, homemade sourdough yeast bread, commercial sourdough yeast bread, and the Dennis’ sourdough yeast bread. Our control dough is the commercial yeast bread as we understand how it works and it is a biological leavening agent which makes it different from the other dough’s we are use ‘chemical’ leavening agents. By chemical I do not mean that it was made in a lab, I mean that is not a natural process of leavening bread. The sourdoughs and baking soda were made to rise quicker than biological leavening agents.
We didn't do this experiment alone, but as a class. As such we were divided into groups. each taking care of a loaf of bread. Our group received the homemade sourdough, which is the one we shall be focused on.
The Hypothesis: My hypothesis for each dough are as follows: The baking soda dough will be the quickest to rise, the biggest in size, the quickest to bake and it will taste bland. The yeast bread will taste slightly bitter and rise at a usual pace for bread and be short. The homemade sourdough will be sour and dense. The commercial sourdough I believe will have a lot of bubbles and taste sour. The Dennis sourdough I believe will be the smallest of our experiment, and the least sour out of the sourdoughs.
The Materials: Here are the ingredients found in each bread: Yeast (Control) ➢ 1 Cup of water ➢ 2.5 Cups of all-purpose flour ➢ 1 Tablespoon of salt ➢ 1.5 Tablespoons of Yeast Baking Soda (Experimental #1) ➢ 1 ½ Cup of buttermilk ➢ 3 ½ Cups of all-purpose flour ➢ 1 Teaspoon of salt ➢ 1 Teaspoon of sugar ➢ 1 Teaspoon of baking soda Homemade Sourdough (Experimental #2) Our original recipe used to make 3 loaves of bread so we divided everything by 3 Ingredient (used to make 3)
10 cups flour
10/3 = 3 1/3
3 ⅓ cups flour
4 t0 4 ½ cups of water
4/3 | 9/2 * ⅓ = 1 1/2
4/3 to 1 ½ cups of water
3 ½ teaspoons of salt
7/2 * ⅓ = 7/6
1 ⅙ teaspoons of salt
¾ cup starter
¾ /3 = 1/4
¼ cup starter
Commercial Sourdough (Experimental #3) ➢ 1 Cup of water ➢ 3 ⅓ Cups of all-purpose flour ➢ 1 Tablespoon of salt ➢ ⅓ Cup of starter Dennis’ Sourdough (Experimental #4) ➢ 2 ⅔ Cup of water ➢ 3 Cup of all-purpose flour ➢ ½ Tablespoon of salt ➢ ½ Tablespoon of starter
2 hours in Fridge or 7 days outside
3 ½ hours
2 hours Then again 60+ mins.
30 mins- 4 hours Then again 3-4 hours
2 ½ hours
Buttermilk, sugar & baking soda
Most of these different variables between our loaves of bread have simple explanations as to why they are needed. Depending on how wet or dry, how dense or airy, and/or how big the dough is there will be differing baking times and oven temperatures. Kneading is the way to activate the gluten in the dough, for all of you sourdoughs it is necessary to give the bread structure so it isn’t flat, but for the baking soda loaf kneading is not necessary. This is because there is a reaction called an acid-base reaction that happens in the dough which activates the gluten without needing to be kneaded. Speaking of reactions, the baking soda loaf has 3 distinct variables that differ from the other loaves, buttermilk, sugar, and baking soda. Buttermilk is the acid in the acid-base reaction inside of the baking soda bread and the baking soda itself is the base, but the sugar is needed to quicken this process. And lastly, there is yeast in the yeast loaf because it is needed as the leavening agent and a structural support.
The Procedure: Here are the procedures our class took in making the 5 loaves of bread: Yeast (Control) ➢ Combine all of the ingredients in a large mixing bowl, For first-timers, "lukewarm" means about 105°F.Mix and stir everything together to make a very sticky, rough dough. If you have a stand mixer, beat at medium speed with the beater blade for 30 to 60 seconds. ➢ Next, you're going to let the dough rise, just let it stay there, covering the bucket with a lid or plastic wrap. ➢ Cover the bowl or bucket, and let the dough rise at room temperature for 2 hours. Then refrigerate it for at least 2 hours, or for up to about 7 days. ➢ When you're ready to make bread, sprinkle the top of the dough with flour; this will make it easier to grab a hunk. Grease your hands, and pull off about 1/4 to 1/3 of the dough. It'll be about the size of a softball, or a large grapefruit. ➢ Plop the sticky dough onto a floured work surface, and round it into a ball, or a longer log. ➢ Place the loaf on a piece of parchment; or onto a lightly greased or parchment-lined baking sheet. Sift a light coating of flour over the top. ➢ Let the loaf warm to room temperature and rise; this should take about 60 minutes or longer. ➢ If you're using a baking stone, position it on a middle rack while the oven preheats. Place a shallow metal or cast iron pan on the lowest oven rack, and have 1 cup of hot water ready to go. Preheat your oven to 450°F while the loaf rests. ➢ When you're ready to bake, take a sharp knife and slash the bread 2 or 3 times, making a cut about 1/2" deep. ➢ Place the bread in the oven and carefully pour the 1 cup hot water into the shallow pan on the rack beneath. ➢ Bake the bread for 25 to 35 minutes. ➢ Remove the bread from the oven, and cool it on a rack. Store leftover bread in a plastic bag at room temperature. Baking Soda (Experimental #1) ➢ Preheat oven to 450 fahrenheit ➢ Place flour, sugar, baking soda, and salt into a large bowl and whisk together.
➢ Make a well in the center and pour in most of the buttermilk, leaving about ¼ cup in the measuring cup. Using a fork, or one hand with your fingers outstretched like a claw, bring the flour and liquid together, adding more buttermilk, if necessary. Don’t knead the mixture, or it will become heavy. The dough should be soft, but not too wet and sticky. ➢ When the dough comes together, turn it onto a floured work surface and bring it together a little more. Pat the dough into a roundabout 1½ inches thick and cut a deep cross in it. Place on a baking sheet. ➢ Bake for 15 minutes. Turn down the heat to 400° and bake for 20-30 minutes more. When done, the loaf will sound slightly hollow when tapped on the bottom and be golden in color. One way to check if your bread is done is to use a thermometer. Cook until temperature in center reaches 195-200 degrees. Homemade Sourdough (Experimental #2) ➢ First you must make the starter for this bread. You mix 1 cup of flour and ½ cup of water into a bowl after this you cover it with a cheesecloth. Everyday for a week you take half of the dough and put it in a separate jay, you then replace the missing dough with another cup of flour and another ½ cup of water. ➢ When you are ready to make the dough you will be baking bring out your starter, more flour, salt, and water. ➢ Take out ¼ cup of starter and put it in a pereate bowl ➢ Add 3 ⅓ cups of flour to the bowl ➢ Add 1 ½ cups of water to the bowl ➢ Mix well ➢ Let it rest and ferment for 15- 60 minutes ➢ Add 1 1/16 or a teaspoon of salt ➢ Knead well for 10-15 minutes ➢ Check to see if the dough is kneaded enough by doing a windowpane test ➢ Make the dough into a loaf ➢ Set the oven to 500 degrees for less than an hour ➢ Place your loaf of bread inside of the oven for 1-3 hours at 400 degrees ➢ Ideally your loaf should be 195 degrees when fully cooked Commercial Sourdough (Experimental #3) ➢ Mix the sourdough starter, flour, and salt together. Add 1 cup water and then more as needed to make a moist bread dough.
➢ Knead the dough until it passes the “window pane test” (about 20 minutes): a small piece of dough will stretch between 4 fingers without breaking thin enough to allow light to pass through. ➢ Shape the dough into a loaf. Place it in a pan, proofing basket, or on a board. Cover the dough lightly with a towel and allow the dough to rise for 4-24 hours. ➢ Slice an X shape in the top of the loaf with a very sharp knife or razor blade. ➢ Bake at 400°F for 30-60 minutes, depending on the size of the loaf, until the internal temperature reaches 210°F (use a meat thermometer inserted into the bottom or side of the loaf). Cool before slicing. Dennis’ Sourdough (Experimental #4) ➢ Make sure your sourdough culture is active ➢ Make the leaven (overnight) ➢ Test that the leaven is ready ➢ Dissolve the salt ➢ Mix the leaven and water ➢ Add the flour ➢ Rest the dough (30 minutes, or up to 4 hours) ➢ Mix in the salt ➢ Begin folding the dough (2 1/2 hours) ➢ Let the dough rise undisturbed (30 to 60 minutes) ➢ Prepare 2 bread proofing baskets, colanders, or mixing bowls ➢ Shape the loaves ➢ Transfer to the proofing baskets ➢ Let the dough rise (3 to 4 hours, or overnight in the fridge) ➢ Heat the oven to 500°F ➢ Transfer the loaves to the Dutch ovens ➢ Score the top of the loaf ➢ Bake the loaves for 20 minutes ➢ Reduce the oven temperature to 450°F and bake another 10 minutes ➢ Remove the lids and continue baking 15 to 25 minutes ➢ Bake another 15 to 25 minutes ➢ Cool the loaves completely
SN, 2018, YeastBread
GR, 2018, homemade bread
GGS, 2018, Baking Soda Bread
GGS, 2018, Baked Homemade Bread
GGS, 2018, Comercial bread BA, 2018, Dennis’ Bread The Control Yeast This bread was the most risen Baking soda chemical 1st baked : dense, dry, the crust has a burnt aftertaste, the center is sweet and clumpy when eaten fluuffy a lil salty Experiment 1 Baking Soda salty Experiment 2 Homemade Sourdough Very sour a lil dense but has a lot of bubblrs, hard crust crunchy inside slightly gold outside Experiment 3 Commercial Sourdough The sourest , very hard crust, sourish, denseish some bubbles at botto,m softer inside moist, underbaked slightly elesticc Experiment 4 Dennis’ Sourdough Hard to bite into dense moist blondest,
What Are You Eating? All-Purpose Flour 1 serving size= ¼ cup ¼ 3 ½ 100cal X 3.5/.25=14 14*100=1400 cal Potassium 40mg *14= 560mg Total Carbohydrate 22g*14= 308mg Dietary Fiber 1g*14= 14g Sugar 1g*14= 14g Protein 3g*14= 42g Iron 6%*14= 84% Salt 1 serving size=17/16 tsp ¼ 17/16 590 mg X 17/16 / ¼= 4 1/4 4 ¼ *590= 2507 1/2 mg sodium or 2.5075 g sodium ¼ starter ⅙ cup flour 1 serving size= ¼ cup ¼ 1/6 100cal X ⅙ / ¼ ---> ⅙ * 4/1 = 4/6 --> 2/3 2/3*100=66.2/3 cal Potassium 40mg *2/3= 26 ⅔ mg Total Carbohydrate 22g*⅔ = 14 ⅔ mg Dietary Fiber 1g*2/3= ⅔ g Sugar 1g*2/3= ⅔ g Protein 3g*2/3= 2g
Iron 6%*2/3= 4% + 14*100=1400 cal Potassium 40mg *14= 560mg Total Carbohydrate 22g*14= 308mg Dietary Fiber 1g*14= 14g Sugar 1g*14= 14g Protein 3g*14= 42g Iron 6%*14= 84% TOTAL: Calories 1466 ⅔ Potassium 586 ⅔ mg Total Carbohydrate 322 ⅔ mg Dietary Fiber 14g Sugar 14g Protein 42 ⅔ g Iron 88% Daily Percentage Calories 1466 ½= 2000 = 73.3% Potassium 586 ⅔ mg3500= 16.8% Total Carbohydrate 322 ⅔ /300 = 107.6% Dietary Fiber 14g /25= 56% Sugar 14g /25=56% Protein 42 ⅔ g /50= 85.3% Iron 88% Sodium 2507 ½ mg/2400= 104.5%
GGS, 2018, Graphing Height Baking soda chemical 1st baked : dense, dry, the crust has a burnt aftertaste, the center is sweet and clumpy when eaten