Web 2.0 wikipedia story
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Web 2.0 The term Web 2.0 is associated with web applications that facilitate participatory information sharing, interoperability,  user-centered design, and collaboration on the World Wide Web. A Web 2.0 site allows users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue as creators (prosumers) of user-generated content in a virtual community, in contrast to websites where users (consumers) are limited to the passive viewing of content that was created for them. Examples of Web 2.0 include social networking sites, blogs, wikis, video sharing sites, hosted services, web applications, mashups and folksonomies.
A tag cloud (a typical Web 2.0 phenomenon in itself) presenting Web 2.0 themes
The term is closely associated with Tim O'Reilly because of the O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in late 2004.  Although the term suggests a new version of the World Wide Web, it does not refer to an update to any technical specification, but rather to cumulative changes in the ways software developers and end-users use the Web. Whether Web 2.0 is qualitatively different from prior web technologies has been challenged by World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee, who called the term a "piece of jargon", precisely because he intended the Web in his vision as "a collaborative medium, a place where we [could] all meet and read and write". He called it the "Read/Write Web".
History The term "Web 2.0" was coined in January 1999 by Darcy DiNucci, a consultant on electronic information design (information architecture). In her article, "Fragmented Future", DiNucci writes:  The Web we know now, which loads into a browser window in essentially static screenfuls, is only an embryo of the Web to come. The first glimmerings of Web 2.0 are beginning to appear, and we are just starting to see how that embryo might develop. The Web will be understood not as screenfulls of text and graphics but as a transport mechanism, the ether through which interactivity happens. It will [...] appear on your computer screen, [...] on your TV set [...] your car dashboard [...] your cell phone [...] hand-held game machines [...] maybe even your microwave oven. Her use of the term deals mainly with Web design, aesthetics, and the interconnection of everyday objects with the Internet; she argues that the Web is "fragmenting" due to the widespread use of portable Web-ready devices. Her article is aimed at designers, reminding them to code for an ever-increasing variety of hardware. As such, her use of the term hints at, but does not directly relate to, the current uses of the term. The term Web 2.0 did not resurface until 2002.    These authors focus on the concepts currently associated with the term where, as Scott Dietzen puts it, "the Web becomes a universal, standards-based integration platform". John Robb wrote: "What is Web 2.0? It is a system that breaks with the old model of centralized Web sites and moves the power of the Web/Internet to the desktop." In 2003, the term began its rise in popularity when O'Reilly Media and MediaLive hosted the first Web 2.0 conference. In their opening remarks, John Battelle and Tim O'Reilly outlined their definition of the "Web as
Platform", where software applications are built upon the Web as opposed to upon the desktop. The unique aspect of this migration, they argued, is that "customers are building your business for you". They argued that the activities of users generating content (in the form of ideas, text, videos, or pictures) could be "harnessed" to create value. O'Reilly and Battelle contrasted Web 2.0 with what they called "Web 1.0". They associated Web 1.0 with the business models of Netscape and the EncyclopĂŚdia Britannica Online. For example, Netscape framed "the web as platform" in terms of the old software paradigm: their flagship product was the web browser, a desktop application, and their strategy was to use their dominance in the browser market to establish a market for high-priced server products. Control over standards for displaying content and applications in the browser would, in theory, give Netscape the kind of market power enjoyed by Microsoft in the PC market. Much like the "horseless carriage" framed the automobile as an extension of the familiar, Netscape promoted a "webtop" to replace the desktop, and planned to populate that webtop with information updates and applets pushed to the webtop by information providers who would purchase Netscape servers. In short, Netscape focused on creating software, updating it on occasion, and distributing it to the end users. O'Reilly contrasted this with Google, a company which did not at the time focus on producing software, such as a browser, but instead focused on providing a service based on data such as the links Web page authors make between sites. Google exploits this user-generated content to offer Web search based on reputation through its "PageRank" algorithm. Unlike software, which undergoes scheduled releases, such services are constantly updated, a process called "the perpetual beta". A similar difference can be seen between the EncyclopĂŚdia Britannica Online and Wikipedia: while the Britannica relies upon experts to create articles and releases them periodically in publications, Wikipedia relies on trust in anonymous users to constantly and quickly build content. Wikipedia is not based on expertise but rather an adaptation of the open source software adage "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow", and it produces and updates articles constantly. O'Reilly's Web 2.0 conferences have been held every year since 2003, attracting entrepreneurs, large companies, and technology reporters. In terms of the lay public, the term Web 2.0 was largely championed by bloggers and by technology journalists, culminating in the 2006 TIME magazine Person of The Year (You). That is, TIME selected the masses of users who were participating in content creation on social networks, blogs, wikis, and media sharing sites. In the cover story, Lev Grossman explains: It's a story about community and collaboration on a scale never seen before. It's about the cosmic compendium of knowledge Wikipedia and the million-channel people's network YouTube and the online metropolis MySpace. It's about the many wresting power from the few and helping one another for nothing and how that will not only change the world, but also change the way the world changes. Since that time, Web 2.0 has found a place in the lexicon; in 2009 Global Language Monitor declared it to be the one-millionth English word.
Characteristics Web 2.0 websites allow users to do more than just retrieve information. By increasing what was already possible in "Web 1.0", they provide the user with more user-interface, software and storage facilities, all through their browser. This has been called "Network as platform" computing. Users can provide the data that is on a Web 2.0 site and exercise some control over that data.  These sites may have an "Architecture of participation" that encourages users to add value to the application as they use it.  The concept of Web-as-participation-platform captures many of these characteristics. Bart Decrem, a founder and former CEO of Flock, calls Web 2.0 the "participatory Web" and regards the Web-as-information-source as Web 1.0.
A list of ways that people can volunteer to improve Mass Effect Wiki, on the main page of that site. Mass Effect Wiki is an example of content generated by users working collaboratively.
The Web 2.0 offers all users the same freedom to contribute. While this opens the possibility for rational debate and collaboration, it also opens the possibility for "spamming" and "trolling" by less rational users. The impossibility of excluding group members who donâ€™t contribute to the provision of goods from sharing profits gives rise to the possibility that rational members will prefer to withhold their contribution of effort and free ride on the contribution of others. Edit box interface through which anyone could edit a Wikipedia article. This requires what is sometimes called radical trust by the management  of the website. According to Best, the characteristics of Web 2.0 are: rich user experience, user participation, dynamic content, metadata, web standards and scalability. Further characteristics, such as openness, freedom and collective intelligence by way of user participation, can also be viewed as essential attributes of Web 2.0.
Concepts Web 2.0 can be described in 3 parts which are as follows: • Rich Internet application (RIA) — defines the experience brought from desktop to browser whether it is from a graphical point of view or usability point of view. Some buzzwords related to RIA are Ajax and Flash. • Service-oriented architecture (SOA) — is a key piece in Web 2.0 which defines how Web 2.0 applications expose their functionality so that other applications can leverage and integrate the functionality providing a set of much richer applications (Examples are: Feeds, RSS, Web Services, Mash-ups) • Social Web — defines how Web 2.0 tends to interact much more with the end user and make the end-user an integral part. As such, Web 2.0 draws together the capabilities of client- and server-side software, content syndication and the use of network protocols. Standards-oriented web browsers may use plug-ins and software extensions to handle the content and the user interactions. Web 2.0 sites provide users with information storage, creation, and dissemination capabilities that were not possible in the environment now known as "Web 1.0". Web 2.0 websites include the following features and techniques: Andrew McAfee used the acronym SLATES to refer to them: Search Finding information through keyword search.
Links Connects information together into a meaningful information ecosystem using the model of the Web, and provides low-barrier social tools. Authoring The ability to create and update content leads to the collaborative work of many rather than just a few web authors. In wikis, users may extend, undo and redo each other's work. In blogs, posts and the comments of individuals build up over time. Tags Categorization of content by users adding "tags"—short, usually one-word descriptions—to facilitate searching, without dependence on pre-made categories. Collections of tags created by many users within a single system may be referred to as "folksonomies" (i.e., folk taxonomies). Extensions Software that makes the Web an application platform as well as a document server. These include software like Adobe Reader, Adobe Flash player, Microsoft Silverlight, ActiveX, Oracle Java, Quicktime, Windows Media, etc. Signals The use of syndication technology such as RSS to notify users of content changes. While SLATES forms the basic framework of Enterprise 2.0, it does not contradict all of the higher level Web 2.0 design patterns and business models. In this way, a new Web 2.0 report from O'Reilly is quite effective and diligent in interweaving the story of Web 2.0 with the specific aspects of Enterprise 2.0. It includes discussions of self-service IT, the long tail of enterprise IT demand, and many other consequences of the Web 2.0 era in the enterprise. The report also makes many sensible recommendations around starting small with pilot projects and measuring results, among a fairly long list.
Usage A third important part of Web 2.0 is the social Web, which is a fundamental shift in the way people communicate. The social web consists of a number of online tools and platforms where people share their perspectives, opinions, thoughts and experiences. Web 2.0 applications tend to interact much more with the end user. As such, the end user is not only a user of the application but also a participant by: • • • • • •
Podcasting Blogging Tagging Contributing to RSS Social bookmarking Social networking
The popularity of the term Web 2.0, along with the increasing use of blogs, wikis, and social networking technologies, has led many in academia and business to coin a flurry of 2.0s, including Library 2.0, Social Work 2.0, Enterprise 2.0, PR 2.0, Classroom 2.0, Publishing 2.0, Medicine 2.0, Telco 2.0, Travel 2.0, Government 2.0, and even Porn 2.0. Many of these 2.0s refer to Web 2.0 technologies as the source of the new version in their respective disciplines and areas. For example, in the Talis white paper "Library 2.0: The Challenge of Disruptive Innovation", Paul Miller argues Blogs, wikis and RSS are often held up as exemplary manifestations of Web 2.0. A reader of a blog or a wiki is provided with tools to add a comment or even, in the case of the wiki, to edit the content. This is what we call the Read/Write web. Talis believes that Library 2.0 means harnessing this type of
6 participation so that libraries can benefit from increasingly rich collaborative cataloging efforts, such as including contributions from partner libraries as well as adding rich enhancements, such as book jackets or movie files, to records from publishers and others.
Here, Miller links Web 2.0 technologies and the culture of participation that they engender to the field of library science, supporting his claim that there is now a "Library 2.0". Many of the other proponents of new 2.0s mentioned here use similar methods. The meaning of web 2.0 is role dependent, as Dennis D. McDonalds noted. For example, some use Web 2.0 to establish and maintain relationships through social networks, while some marketing managers might use this promising technology to "end-run traditionally unresponsive I.T. department[s]." There is a debate over the use of Web 2.0 technologies in mainstream education. Issues under consideration include the understanding of students' different learning modes; the conflicts between ideas entrenched in informal on-line communities and educational establishments' views on the production and authentication of 'formal' knowledge; and questions about privacy, plagiarism, shared authorship and the ownership of knowledge and information produced and/or published on line. Marketing For marketers, Web 2.0 offers an opportunity to engage consumers. A growing number of marketers are using Web 2.0 tools to collaborate with consumers on product development, service enhancement and promotion. Companies can use Web 2.0 tools to improve collaboration with both its business partners and consumers. Among other things, company employees have created wikis—Web sites that allow users to add, delete and edit content—to list answers to frequently asked questions about each product, and consumers have added significant contributions. Another marketing Web 2.0 lure is to make sure consumers can use the online community to network among themselves on topics of their own choosing. Mainstream media usage of web 2.0 is increasing. Saturating media hubs—like The New York Times, PC Magazine and Business Week—with links to popular new web sites and services, is critical to achieving the threshold for mass adoption of those services. Web 2.0 offers financial institutions abundant opportunities to engage with customers. Networks such as Twitter, Yelp and Facebook are now becoming common elements of multichannel and customer loyalty strategies, and banks are beginning to use these sites proactively to spread their messages. In a recent article for Bank Technology News, Shane Kite describes how Citigroup's Global Transaction Services unit monitors social media outlets to address customer issues and improve products. Furthermore, the FI uses Twitter to release "breaking news" and upcoming events, and YouTube to disseminate videos that feature executives speaking about market news. Small businesses have become more competitive by using Web 2.0 marketing strategies to compete with larger companies. As new businesses grow and develop, new technology is used to decrease the gap between businesses and customers. Social networks have become more intuitive and user friendly to provide information that is easily reached by the end user. For example, companies use Twitter to offer customers coupons and discounts for products and services. According to Google Timeline, the term Web 2.0 was discussed and indexed most frequently in 2005, 2007 and 2008. Its average use is continuously declining by 2–4% per quarter since April 2008.
Web 2.0 in education Web 2.0 technologies provide teachers with new ways to engage students in a meaningful way. "Children raised on new media technologies are less patient with filling out worksheets and listening to lectures" because students already participate on a global level. The lack of participation in a traditional classroom stems more from the fact that students receive better feedback online. Traditional classrooms have students do assignments and when they are completed, they are just that, finished. However, Web 2.0 shows students that education is a constantly evolving entity. Whether it is participating in a class discussion, or participating in a forum discussion, the technologies available to students in a Web 2.0 classroom does increase the amount they participate. Will Richardson stated in Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts and other Powerful Web tools for the Classrooms, 3rd Edition that, "The Web has the potential to radically change what we assume about teaching and learning, and it presents us with important questions to ponder: What needs to change about our curriculum when our students have the ability to reach audiences far beyond our classroom walls?" Web 2.0 tools are needed in the classroom to prepare both students and teachers for the shift in learning that Collins and Halverson describe. According to Collins and Halverson, the self-publishing aspects as well as the speed with which their work becomes available for consumption allows teachers to give students the control they need over their learning. This control is the preparation students will need to be successful as learning expands beyond the classroom." Some may think that these technologies could hinder the personal interaction of students, however all of the research points to the contrary. "Social networking sites have worried many educators (and parents) because they often bring with them outcomes that are not positive: narcissism, gossip, wasted time, 'friending', hurt feelings, ruined reputations, and sometimes unsavory, even dangerous activities, [on the contrary,] social networking sites promote conversations and interaction that is encouraged by educators." By allowing students to use the technology tools of Web 2.0, teachers are actually giving students the opportunity to learn for themselves and share that learning with their peers. One of the many implications of Web 2.0 technologies on class discussions is the idea that teachers are no longer in control of the discussions. Instead, Russell and Sorge (1999) conclude that integrating technology into instruction tends to move classrooms from teacher-dominated environments to ones that are more student-centered. While it is still important for them to monitor what students are discussing, the actual topics of learning are being guided by the students themselves. Web 2.0 calls for major shifts in the way education is provided for students. One of the biggest shifts that Will Richardson points out in his book Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms is the fact that education must be not only socially, but collaboratively constructed. This means that students, in a Web 2.0 classroom, are expected to collaborate with their peers. By making the shift to a Web 2.0 classroom, teachers are creating a more open atmosphere where students are expected to stay engaged and participate in the discussions and learning that is taking place around them. In fact, there are many ways for educators to use Web 2.0 technologies in their classrooms. "Weblogs are not built on static chunks of content. Instead they are comprised of reflections and conversations that in many cases are updated every day [...] They demand interaction." Will Richardson's observation of the essence of weblogs speaks directly to why blogs are so well suited to discussion based classrooms. Weblogs give students a public space to interact with one another and the content of the class. As long as the students are invested in the project, the need to see the blog progress acts as motivation as the blog itself becomes an entity that can demand interaction. For example, Laura Rochette implemented the use of blogs in her American History class and noted that in addition to an overall improvement in quality, the use of the blogs as an assignment demonstrated synthesis level activity from her students. In her experience, asking students to conduct their learning in the digital world meant asking students "to write, upload images, and articulate the relationship between these images and the broader concepts of the course, [in turn] demonstrating that they can be thoughtful about the world around them." Jennifer Hunt, an 8th grade language arts teacher of pre-Advanced Placement students shares a similar story. She used the WANDA
Web 2.0 project and asked students to make personal connections to the texts they read and to describe and discuss the issues raised in literature selections through social discourse. They engaged in the discussion via wikis and other Web 2.0 tools, which they used to organize, discuss, and present their responses to the texts and to collaborate with others in their classroom and beyond. Web 2.0 calls for major shifts in the way education is provided for students. One of the biggest shifts that Will Richardson points out in his book Blogs, Wikis, Podcasts, and Other Powerful Web Tools for Classrooms is the fact that education must be not only socially, but collaboratively constructed. This means that students, in a Web 2.0 classroom, are expected to collaborate with their peers. However, in order to make a Web 2.0 classroom work, teachers must also collaborate by using the benefits of Web 2.0 to improve their best practices via dialogues with colleagues on both a small and a grand scale. "Through educational networking, educators are able to have a 24/7 online experience not unlike the rich connecting and sharing that have typically been reserved for special interest conferences." The research shows that students are already using these technological tools, but they still are expected to go to a school where using these tools is frowned upon or even punished. If educators are able to harness the power of the Web 2.0 technologies students are using, it could be expected that the amount of participation and classroom discussion would increase. It may be that how participation and discussion is produced is very different from the traditional classroom, but nevertheless it does increase.
Web-based applications and desktops Ajax has prompted the development of websites that mimic desktop applications, such as word processing, the spreadsheet, and slide-show presentation. In 2006 Google, Inc. acquired one of the best-known sites of this broad class, Writely. WYSIWYG wiki and blogging sites replicate many features of PC authoring applications. Several browser-based "operating systems" have emerged, including EyeOS and YouOS.(No longer active.) Although coined as such, many of these services function less like a traditional operating system and more as an application platform. They mimic the user experience of desktop operating-systems, offering features and applications similar to a PC environment, and are able to run within any modern browser. However, these so-called "operating systems" do not directly control the hardware on the client's computer. Numerous web-based application services appeared during the dot-com bubble of 1997â€“2001 and then vanished, having failed to gain a critical mass of customers. In 2005, WebEx acquired one of the better-known of these, Intranets.com, for $45 million.
Web Application Rich Internet applications (RIA) are web 2.0 applications that have many of the characteristics of desktop applications and are typically delivered via a web browser.
Distribution of media XML and RSS Many regard syndication of site content as a Web 2.0 feature. Syndication uses standardized protocols to permit end-users to make use of a site's data in another context (such as another website, a browser plugin, or a separate desktop application). Protocols permitting syndication include RSS (really simple syndication, also known as web syndication), RDF (as in RSS 1.1), and Atom, all of them XML-based formats. Observers have started to refer to these technologies as web feeds. Specialized protocols such as FOAF and XFN (both for social networking) extend the functionality of sites or permit end-users to interact without centralized websites.
Web APIs Web 2.0 often uses machine-based interactions such as REST and SOAP. Servers often expose proprietary Application programming interfaces (API), but standard APIs (for example, for posting to a blog or notifying a blog update) have also come into use. Most communications through APIs involve XML or JSON payloads. REST APIs, through their use of self-descriptive messages and hypermedia as the engine of application state, should be self describing once an entry URI is known. Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is the standard way of publishing a SOAP API and there are a range of web service specifications. EMML, or Enterprise Mashup Markup Language by the Open Mashup Alliance, is an XML markup language for creating enterprise mashups.
Criticism Critics of the term claim that "Web 2.0" does not represent a new version of the World Wide Web at all, but merely continues to use so-called "Web 1.0" technologies and concepts. First, techniques such as AJAX do not replace underlying protocols like HTTP, but add an additional layer of abstraction on top of them. Second, many of the ideas of Web 2.0 had already been featured in implementations on networked systems well before the term "Web 2.0" emerged. Amazon.com, for instance, has allowed users to write reviews and consumer guides since its launch in 1995, in a form of self-publishing. Amazon also opened its API to outside developers in 2002. Previous developments also came from research in computer-supported collaborative learning and computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) and from established products like Lotus Notes and Lotus Domino, all phenomena that preceded Web 2.0. But perhaps the most common criticism is that the term is unclear or simply a buzzword. For example, in a podcast interview, Tim Berners-Lee described the term "Web 2.0" as a "piece of jargon": "Nobody really knows what it means...If Web 2.0 for you is blogs and wikis, then that is people to people. But that was what the Web was supposed to be all along." Other critics labeled Web 2.0 "a second bubble" (referring to the Dot-com bubble of circa 1995â€“2001), suggesting that too many Web 2.0 companies attempt to develop the same product with a lack of business models. For example, The Economist has dubbed the mid- to late-2000s focus on Web companies "Bubble 2.0". Venture capitalist Josh Kopelman noted that Web 2.0 had excited only 53,651 people (the number of subscribers at that time to TechCrunch, a Weblog covering Web 2.0 startups and technology news), too few users to make them an economically viable target for consumer applications. Although Bruce Sterling reports he's a fan of Web 2.0, he thinks it is now dead as a rallying concept. Critics have cited the language used to describe the hype cycle of Web 2.0 as an example of Techno-utopianist rhetoric. In terms of Web 2.0's social impact, critics such as Andrew Keen argue that Web 2.0 has created a cult of digital narcissism and amateurism, which undermines the notion of expertise by allowing anybody, anywhere to share and place undue value upon their own opinions about any subject and post any kind of content, regardless of their particular talents, knowledge, credentials, biases or possible hidden agendas. Keen's 2007 book, Cult of the Amateur, argues that the core assumption of Web 2.0, that all opinions and user-generated content are equally valuable and relevant, is misguided. Additionally, Sunday Times reviewer John Flintoff has characterized Web 2.0 as "creating an endless digital forest of mediocrity: uninformed political commentary, unseemly home videos, embarrassingly amateurish music, unreadable poems, essays and novels", and also asserted that Wikipedia is full of "mistakes, half truths and misunderstandings". Michael Gorman, fomer president of the American Library Association has been vocal about his opposition to Web 2.0 due to the lack of expertise that it outwardly claim though he believes that there is some hope for the future as "The task before us is to extend into the digital world the virtues of authenticity, expertise, and scholarly apparatus that have evolved over the 500 years of print, virtues often absent in the manuscript age that preceded print".
Trademark In November 2004, CMP Media applied to the USPTO for a service mark on the use of the term "WEB 2.0" for live events. On the basis of this application, CMP Media sent a cease-and-desist demand to the Irish non-profit organization IT@Cork on May 24, 2006, but retracted it two days later. The "WEB 2.0" service mark registration passed final PTO Examining Attorney review on May 10, 2006, and was registered on June 27, 2006. The European Union application (application number 004972212, which would confer unambiguous status in Ireland) was  refused on May 23, 2007.
Web 3.0 Definitions of Web 3.0 vary greatly. Some believe its most important features are the Semantic Web and personalization. Focusing on the computer elements, Conrad Wolfram has argued that Web 3.0 is where "the computer is generating new information", rather than humans. Andrew Keen, author of The Cult of the Amateur, considers the Semantic Web an "unrealisable abstraction" and sees Web 3.0 as the return of experts and authorities to the Web. For example, he points to Bertelsmann's deal with the German Wikipedia to produce an edited print version of that encyclopedia. CNN Money's Jessi Hempel expects Web 3.0 to emerge from new and innovative Web 2.0 services with a profitable business model. Futurist John Smart, lead author of the Metaverse Roadmap defines Web 3.0 as the first-generation Metaverse (convergence of the virtual and physical world), a web development layer that includes TV-quality open video, 3D simulations, augmented reality, human-constructed semantic standards, and pervasive broadband, wireless, and sensors. Web 3.0's early geosocial (Foursquare, etc.) and augmented reality (Layar, etc.) webs are an extension of Web 2.0's participatory technologies and social networks (Facebook, etc.) into 3D space. Of all its metaverse-like developments, Smart suggests Web 3.0's most defining characteristic will be the mass diffusion of NTSC-or-better quality open video  to TVs, laptops, tablets, and mobile devices, a time when "the internet swallows the television." Smart considers Web 4.0 to be the Semantic Web and in particular, the rise of statistical, machine-constructed semantic tags and algorithms, driven by broad collective use of conversational interfaces, perhaps circa 2020. David Siegel's perspective in Pull: The Power of the Semantic Web, 2009, is consonant with this, proposing that the growth of human-constructed semantic standards and data will be a slow, industry-specific incremental process for years to come, perhaps unlikely to tip into broad social utility until after 2020. According to some Internet experts Web 3.0 will allow the user to sit back and let the Internet do all of the work for them. Rather than having search engines gear towards your keywords, the search engines will gear towards the user. Keywords will be searched based on your culture, region, and jargon. For example, when going on a vacation you have to do separate searches for your airline ticket, your hotel reservations, and your car rental. With Web 3.0 you will be able to do all of this in one simple search. The search engine will present the results in a comparative and easily navigated way to the user.
References  "Core Characteristics of Web 2.0 Services" (http:/ / www. techpluto. com/ web-20-services/ ). .  Paul Graham (November 2005). "Web 2.0" (http:/ / www. paulgraham. com/ web20. html). . Retrieved 2006-08-02. "I first heard the phrase 'Web 2.0' in the name of the Web 2.0 conference in 2004."  Tim O'Reilly (2005-09-30). "What Is Web 2.0" (http:/ / www. oreillynet. com/ pub/ a/ oreilly/ tim/ news/ 2005/ 09/ 30/ what-is-web-20. html). O'Reilly Network. . Retrieved 2006-08-06.  "DeveloperWorks Interviews: Tim Berners-Lee" (http:/ / www. ibm. com/ developerworks/ podcast/ dwi/ cm-int082206txt. html). 2006-07-28. . Retrieved 2007-02-07.  "Berners-Lee on the read/write web" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ technology/ 4132752. stm). BBC News. 2005-08-09. . Retrieved 2011-02-06.  DiNucci, D. (1999). "Fragmented Future" (http:/ / www. tothepoint. com/ fragmented_future. pdf) (pdf). Print 53 (4): 32. .  Carlos Ruiz: Who coined Web 2.0?: Darcy DiNucci (http:/ / www. cole20. com/ who-coined-web-20-darcy-dinucci/ )
Web 2.0  Hargadon, Steve. "Educational Networking: The Important Role Web 2.0 Will Play In Education" (http:/ / www. scribd. com/ doc/ 24161189/ Educational-Networking-The-Important-Role-Web-2-0-Will-Play-in-Education). . Retrieved 19 May 2011.  Rochette, Laura (2007). "What Classroom Technology Has Taught Me about Curriculum, Teaching, and Infinite Possibilities". English Journal. 2 37: 43–48.  "Google buys Web word-processing technology" (http:/ / www. news. com/ 2100-1032_3-6048136. html). www.news.com. . Retrieved 2007-12-12.  "Can eyeOS Succeed Where Desktop.com Failed?" (http:/ / www. techcrunch. com/ 2006/ 11/ 27/ eyeos-open-source-webos-for-the-masses/ ). www.techcrunch.com. . Retrieved 2007-12-12.  "Tech Beat Hey YouOS! – BusinessWeek" (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ the_thread/ techbeat/ archives/ 2006/ 03/ hey_youos. html). www.businessweek.com. . Retrieved 2007-12-12.  "PC World — WebEx Snaps Up Intranets.com" (http:/ / www. pcworld. com/ article/ id,122068-page,1/ article. html). www.pcworld.com. . Retrieved 2007-12-12.  Tim O'Reilly (2002-06-18). "Amazon Web Services API" (http:/ / www. oreillynet. com/ pub/ wlg/ 1707?wlg=yes). O'Reilly Network. . Retrieved 2006-05-27.  "Bubble 2.0" (http:/ / www. economist. com/ business/ displaystory. cfm?story_id=E1_QQNVDDS). The Economist. 2005-12-22. . Retrieved 2006-12-20.  Josh Kopelman (2006-05-11). "53,651" (http:/ / redeye. firstround. com/ 2006/ 05/ 53651. html). Redeye VC. . Retrieved 2006-12-21.  "Bruce Sterling presenta il web 2.0" (http:/ / www. lastampa. it/ multimedia/ multimedia. asp?p=1& IDmsezione=29& IDalbum=8558& tipo=VIDEO#mpos). "LASTAMPA.it". .  "Gartner 2006 Emerging Technologies Hype Cycle" (http:/ / www. gartner. com/ it/ page. jsp?id=495475). .  ""Critical Perspectives on Web 2.0", Special issue of First Monday, 13(3), 2008. UIC.edu (http:/ / www. uic. edu/ htbin/ cgiwrap/ bin/ ojs/ index. php/ fm/ issue/ view/ 263/ showToc)".  Flintoff, JohnPaul (2007-06-03). "Thinking is so over" (http:/ / technology. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ tech_and_web/ personal_tech/ article1874668. ece). The Times (London). .  Gorman, Michael. "Web 2.0: The Sleep of Reason, Part 1" (http:/ / www. britannica. com/ blogs/ 2007/ 06/ web-20-the-sleep-of-reason-part-i/ ). . Retrieved 26th April 2011.  "USPTO serial number 78322306" (http:/ / tarr. uspto. gov/ servlet/ tarr?regser=serial& entry=78322306). Tarr.uspto.gov. . Retrieved 2011-02-06.  "O'Reilly and CMP Exercise Trademark on 'Web 2.0'" (http:/ / yro. slashdot. org/ article. pl?sid=06/ 05/ 26/ 1238245). Slashdot. 2006-05-26. . Retrieved 2006-05-27.  Nathan Torkington (2006-05-26). "O'Reilly's coverage of Web 2.0 as a service mark" (http:/ / radar. oreilly. com/ archives/ 2006/ 05/ more_on_our_web_20_service_mar. html). O'Reilly Radar. . Retrieved 2006-06-01.  http:/ / oami. europa. eu/ CTMOnline/ RequestManager/ en_Result?transition=ResultsDetailed& ntmark=& application=CTMOnline& bAdvanced=0& language=en& deno=& source=search_basic. jsp& idappli=004972212#  Agarwal, Amit. "Web 3.0 concepts explained in plain English". Labnol.org (http:/ / www. labnol. org/ internet/ web-3-concepts-explained/ 8908/ )  Conrad Wolfram on Communicating with apps in web 3.0 (http:/ / www. itpro. co. uk/ 621535/ q-a-conrad-wolfram-on-communicating-with-apps-in-web-3-0) IT PRO, 17 Mar 2010  Keen, Andrew. "Web 1.0 + Web 2.0 = Web 3.0." TypePad.com (http:/ / andrewkeen. typepad. com/ the_great_seduction/ 2008/ 04/ web-10-web-20-w. html)  Hempel, Jessi. "Web 2.0 is so over. Welcome to Web 3.0." CNN Money. CNN.com (http:/ / money. cnn. com/ 2009/ 01/ 07/ technology/ hempel_threepointo. fortune/ index. htm)  "Metaverse Roadmap Overview" (http:/ / www. metaverseroadmap. org/ MetaverseRoadmapOverview. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2011-02-06.  http:/ / openvideoalliance. org/ about/ ?l=en  Smart, John. 2010. "The Television Will Be Revolutionized: The iPad, Internet TV, and Web 3.0." (http:/ / www. accelerating. org/ articles/ televisionwillberevolutionized. html)  "Smart, John. 2003. "The Conversational Interface."" (http:/ / www. accelerationwatch. com/ lui. html). Accelerationwatch.com. 2008-11-14. . Retrieved 2011-02-06.  HowStuffWorks "Web 3.0 Basics" (http:/ / computer. howstuffworks. com/ web-302. htm)  STI International (http:/ / www. sti2. org)
External links • McKinsey & Company - Global Survey - McKinseyQuarterly.com (http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/ Information_Technology/Applications/ How_businesses_are_using_Web_20_A_McKinsey_Global_Survey_1913?gp=1), How businesses are using Web 2.0, June 2008 • UIC.edu (http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/issue/view/263/showToc), "Critical Perspectives on Web 2.0", Special issue of First Monday, 13(3), 2008. • MacManus, Richard. Porter, Joshua. Digital-Web.com (http://www.digital-web.com/articles/ web_2_for_designers/), "Web 2.0 for Designers", Digital Web Magazine, May 4, 2005. • Graham Vickery, Sacha Wunsch-Vincent: OECD.org (http://www.oecd.org/document/40/ 0,3343,en_2649_201185_39428648_1_1_1_1,00.html), "Participative Web and User-Created Content: Web 2.0, Wikis and Social Networking; OECD, 2007
Social media The term Social Media refers to the use of web-based and mobile technologies to turn communication into an interactive dialogue. Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define social media as "a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content." Social media are media for social interaction, as a superset beyond social communication. Kietzmann et al. (2011) argue that “social media introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities, and individuals” (p. 250), enabled by ubiquitously accessible and scalable communication techniques.
Shaping Social media take on many different forms, including Internet forums, An example of the share buttons common to many social web pages. weblogs, social blogs, microblogging, wikis, podcasts, photographs or pictures, video, rating and social bookmarking. By applying a set of theories in the field of media research (social presence, media richness) and social processes (self-presentation, self-disclosure) Kaplan and Haenlein created a classification scheme for different social media types in their Business Horizons article published in 2010. According to Kaplan and Haenlein there are six different types of social media: collaborative projects (e.g. Wikipedia), blogs and microblogs (e.g. Twitter), content communities (e.g. Youtube), social networking sites (e.g. Facebook), virtual game worlds (e.g. World of Warcraft), and virtual social worlds (e.g. Second Life). Technologies include: blogs, picture-sharing, vlogs, wall-postings, email, instant messaging, music-sharing, crowdsourcing, and voice over IP, to name a few. Many of these social media services can be integrated via social network aggregation platforms. Kietzmann et al. (2011) present a honeycomb framework  that defines how social media services focus on some or all of seven functional building blocks (identity, conversations, sharing, presence, relationships, reputation, and groups). These building blocks help understand the engagement needs of the social media audience. For instance, LinkedIn users care mostly about identity, reputation and relationships, whereas YouTube’s primary building blocks are sharing, conversations, groups and reputation.
Patents There has been rapid growth in the number of US patent applications that cover new technologies related to social media. The number of published applications has been growing rapidly over the past five years. There are now over 250 published applications. Only about 10 of these applications have issued as patents, however, largely due to the multi-year backlog in examination of business method patents
Purpose Distinction from industrial media
Number of US social network patent applications  published per year and patents issued per year
Businesses may refer to social media as consumer-generated media (CGM). A common thread running through all definitions of social media is a blending of technology and social interaction for the co-creation of value. People obtain information, education, news and other data from electronic media and print media. Social media are distinct from industrial or traditional media, such as newspapers, television, and film. They are relatively inexpensive and accessible to enable anyone (even private individuals) to publish or access information, compared to industrial media, which generally require significant resources to publish information. One characteristic shared by both social media and industrial media is the capability to reach small or large audiences; for example, either a blog post or a television show may reach no people or millions of people. Some of the properties that help describe the differences between social media and industrial media are: 1. Reach - both industrial and social media technologies provide scale and are capable of reaching a global audience. Industrial media, however, typically use a centralized framework for organization, production, and dissemination, whereas social media are by their very nature more decentralized, less hierarchical, and distinguished by multiple points of production and utility. 2. Accessibility - the means of production for industrial media are typically government and/or privately owned; social media tools are generally available to the public at little or no cost. 3. Usability - industrial media production typically requires specialized skills and training. Conversely, most social media production does not require specialized skills and training, or requires only modest reinterpretation of existing skills; in theory, anyone with access can operate the means of social media production. 4. Immediacy - the time lag between communications produced by industrial media can be long (days, weeks, or even months) compared to social media (which can be capable of virtually instantaneous responses; only the participants determine any delay in response). However, as industrial media begin adopting aspects of production normally associated with social media tools, this feature may not prove distinctive over time. 5. Permanence - industrial media, once created, cannot be altered (once a magazine article is printed and distributed changes cannot be made to that same article) whereas social media can be altered almost instantaneously by comments or editing. Community media constitute an interesting hybrid of industrial and social media. Though community-owned, some community radios, TV and newspapers are run by professionals and some by amateurs. They use both social and industrial media frameworks.
Managing Social Media Kietzmann et al. (2011) contend that social media presents an enormous challenge for firms, as many established management methods are ill-suited to deal with customers who no longer want to be talked at but who want firms to listen, appropriately engage, and respond. The authors explain that each of the seven functional building blocks has important implications for how firms should engage with social media. By analyzing identity, conversations, sharing, presence, relationships, reputation, and groups, firms can monitor and understand how social media activities vary in terms of their function and impact, so as to develop a congruent social media strategy based on the appropriate balance of building blocks for their community.
Building "social authority" and vanity Business metrics (revenues, reputation...)
Social media analytics (share of voice, resonation, support response...)
Engagement Data (clicks, fans, followers, views, check-ins...)
Social media ROI pyramid according to one blogger According to the European Journal of Social Psychology, one of the key components in successful social media marketing implementation is building "social authority". Social authority is developed when an individual or organization establishes themselves as an "expert" in their given field or area, thereby becoming an influencer in that field or area. It is through this process of "building social authority" that social media becomes effective. That is why one of the foundational concepts in social media has become that you cannot completely control your message through social media but rather you can simply begin to participate in the "conversation" expecting that you can achieve a significant influence in that conversation. However, this conversation participation must be cleverly executed because while people are resistant to marketing in general, they are even more resistant to direct or overt marketing through social media platforms. This may seem counter-intuitive but is the main reason building social authority with credibility is so important. A marketer can generally not expect people to be receptive to a marketing message in and of itself. In the Edleman Trust Barometer report  in 2008, the majority (58%) of the respondents reported they most trusted company or product information coming from "people like me" inferred to be information from someone they trusted. In the 2010 Trust Report , the majority switched to 64% preferring their information from industry experts and academics. According to Inc. Technology's Brent Leary, "This loss of trust, and the accompanying turn towards experts and authorities, seems to be coinciding with the rise of social media and networks." 
Internet usage effects A study by the University of Maryland suggested that social media services may be addictive, and that users of social media services leads to a "fear of missing out". It has been observed that Facebook is now the primary method for communication by college students in the U.S.  There are various statistics that account for social media usage and effectiveness for individuals worldwide. Some of the most recent statistics are as follows: â€˘ Social networking now accounts for 22% of all time spent online in the US. â€˘ A total of 234 million people age 13 and older in the U.S. used mobile devices in December 2009.
Social media • Twitter processed more than one billion tweets in December 2009 and averages almost 40 million tweets per day. • Over 25% of U.S. internet page views occurred at one of the top social networking sites in December 2009, up from 13.8% a year before. • Australia has some of the highest social media usage in the world. In usage of Facebook Australia ranks highest, with over 9 million users spending almost 9 hours per month on the site.  • The number of social media users age 65 and older grew 100 percent throughout 2010, so that one in four people in that age group are now part of a social networking site. • As of June 2011 Facebook has 750 Million users. According to a report by Nielson “In the U.S. alone, total minutes spent on social networking sites has increased 83 percent year-over-year. In fact, total minutes spent on Facebook increased nearly 700 percent year-over-year, growing from 1.7 billion minutes in April 2008 to 13.9 billion in April 2009, making it the No. 1 social networking site for the month.” The main increase in social media has been Facebook. It was ranked as the number one social networking site. Approximately 100 million users access this site through their mobile phone. According to Nielsen, global consumers spend more than 6 hours on social networking sites. "Social Media Revolution" produced by Socialnomics author Erik Qualman contains numerous statistics on Social Media including the fact that 93% of businesses use it for marketing and that if Facebook were a country it would be the third largest. In an effort to supplant Facebook's dominance, Google launched Google+ in the summer of 2011.
Probable historic impact Social media may have been integral to the Arab revolutions and revolts of 2011.  As one Cairo activist succinctly put it, However, there is some debate about the extent to which social media facilitated this kind of change.
Criticisms Andrew Keen criticizes social media in his book The Cult of the Amateur, writing, "Out of this anarchy, it suddenly became clear that what was governing the infinite monkeys now inputting away on the Internet was the law of digital Darwinism, the survival of the loudest and most opinionated. Under these rules, the only way to intellectually prevail is by infinite filibustering." Tim Berners-Lee contends that the danger of social networking sites is that most are silos and do not allow users to port data from one site to another. He also cautions against social networks that grow too big and become a monopoly as this tends to limit innovation.
Economic impact by social marketing Thus, using social media as a form of marketing has taken on whole new challenges. As the 2010 Trust Study  indicates, it is most effective if marketing efforts through social media revolve around the genuine building of authority. Someone performing a "marketing" role within a company must honestly convince people of their genuine intentions, knowledge, and expertise in a specific area or industry through providing valuable and accurate information on an ongoing basis without a marketing angle overtly associated. If this can be done, trust with, and of, the recipient of that information – and that message itself – begins to develop naturally. This person or organization becomes a thought leader and value provider - setting themselves up as a trusted "advisor" instead of marketer. "Top of mind awareness" develops and the consumer naturally begins to gravitate to the products and/or offerings of the authority/influencer. 
Social media Of course, there are many ways authority can be created – and influence can be accomplished – including: participation in Wikipedia which actually verifies user-generated content and information more than most people may realize; providing valuable content through social networks on platforms such as Facebook and Twitter; article writing and distribution through sites such as Ezine Articles and Scribd; and providing fact-based answers on "social question and answer sites" such as EHow and Yahoo! Answers. As a result of social media – and the direct or indirect influence of social media marketers – today, consumers are as likely – or more likely – to make buying decisions based on what they read and see in platforms we call "social" but only if presented by someone they have come to trust. Additionally, reports have shown organizations have been able to bring back dissatisfied customers and stakeholders through social media channels. This is why a purposeful and carefully designed social media strategy has become an integral part of any complete and directed marketing plan but must also be designed using newer "authority building" techniques. In his 2006 book, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom, Yochai Benkler analyzed many of these distinctions and their implications in terms of both economics and political liberty. However, Benkler, like many academics, uses the neologism network economy or "network information economy" to describe the underlying economic, social, and technological characteristics of what has come to be known as "social media". The basic assumption with social media is there will be a demand for the information published using such media. The quantity of subscribers to the various providers seems to prove that assumption. However, the quality of the contents casted by individuals may be subject of a more distant view, regarding the multicast or even broadcast distribution as powered by vanity of the issuers. In contrast the reception of contents published by organisations shows the curiosity of the subscribers to learn more about the ever renewing world they are part of. Both aspects may generate economic value beyond the providers sake for the issuers of the contents. However, building reputation and becoming recognised as an expert with a high yield in "social authority" may remind the fact that there is no quality assessment for the issued contents but the acclamation or applause by the readers or the opposite, deprecation or disapproval. That does not guarantee for a reasonable value of the messages.
Ownership of Social Media Content Social Media content is generated through social media interactions done by the users through the site. There has always been a huge debate on the ownership of the content on social media platforms since it is generated by the users and hosted by the company. Critics contend that the companies are making huge amount of money by using the content that does not belong to them. Hence the challenge for ownership is lesser with the communicated content, but with the personal data disclosed by the subscribed writers and readers and the correlation to chosen types of content. The security danger beyond is the parasitic conveying, diffunding or leaking of agglomerated data to third parties with certain economic interest.
Application examples Brand monitoring • Social media measurement: Attensity, Statsit, Sysomos, Vocus
Communication • Blogs: Blogger, Drupal, ExpressionEngine, LiveJournal, Open Diary, TypePad, Vox, WordPress, Xanga • Microblogging: Dailybooth, FMyLife, Foursquare, Google Buzz, Identi.ca, Jaiku, Nasza-Klasa.pl, Plurk, Posterous, Qaiku, Tumblr, Twitter, *Engagement Advertising & Monetization: SocialVibe • Location-based social networks: Facebook places, Foursquare, Geoloqi, Google Latitude, Gowalla, The Hotlist, Yelp, Inc. • Events: Eventful, The Hotlist, Meetup.com, Upcoming, Yelp, Inc.
Social media • Information Aggregators: Netvibes, Twine (website) • Online Advocacy and Fundraising: Causes, Jumo, Kickstarter, IndieGoGo • Social networking: ASmallWorld, Bebo, Cyworld, Diaspora, Facebook, Google+, Hi5, Hyves, IRC, LinkedIn, MySpace, Ning, Orkut, Plaxo, Tagged, Tuenti, XING, Yammer
Collaboration/authority building • • • • • • • • •
Collaboration: Central Desktop Content Management Systems: Drupal, Joomla, Plone, Siteforum, Wordpress Diagramming and Visual Collaboration: Creately Document Managing and Editing Tools: Docs.com, Dropbox.com, Google Docs, Syncplicity Social bookmarking (or social tagging): CiteULike, Delicious, Diigo, Google Reader, StumbleUpon, folkd Social Media Gaming: Empire Avenue Social navigation: Trapster, Waze  Social news: Digg, Mixx, Social i my2i, Newsvine, NowPublic, Reddit Wikis: PBworks, Wetpaint, Wikia, Wikimedia, Wikispaces
Entertainment • Game sharing: Armor Games, Kongregate, Miniclip, Newgrounds • Media and entertainment platforms: Cisco Eos, Myspace, Youtube • Virtual worlds: Active Worlds, Forterra Systems, Second Life, The Sims Online, World of Warcraft, RuneScape
Leisure example The Dutch man Ramon Stoppelenburg traveled around the world for free, without spending any money, from 2001 to 2003, thanks to his blog on Letmestayforaday.com . His website was his profile with which he created his own necessary network of online offered places to stay for the night. This made Stoppelenburg one of the first people online who used the online media in a social and effective manner.
Multimedia • Livecasting: blip.tv, Justin.tv, Livestream, oovoo, OpenCU, Skype, Stickam, Ustream, Youtube • Music and audio sharing: Bandcamp, ccMixter, Groove Shark, The Hype Machine, imeem, Last.fm, MySpace Music, Pandora Radio, ReverbNation.com, ShareTheMusic, Soundclick, SoundCloud, Spotify, Turntable.fm • Photography and art sharing: deviantArt, Flickr, Photobucket, Picasa, SmugMug, Zooomr • Presentation sharing: Prezi, scribd, SlideShare • Video sharing: Dailymotion, Metacafe, Nico Nico Douga, Openfilm, sevenload, Viddler, Vimeo, YouTube
Reviews and opinions • Business reviews: Customer Lobby, Yelp, Inc. • Community Q&A: ask.com, Askville, EHow, Quora, Stack Exchange, WikiAnswers, Yahoo! Answers * Product reviews: epinions.com, MouthShut.com
References  Kaplan, Andreas M.; Michael Haenlein (2010). "Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media" (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science/ article/ B6W45-4XFF2S0-1/ 2/ 600db1bd6e0c9903c744aaf34b0b12e1). Business Horizons 53 (1): 59–68. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003. ISSN 0007-6813. . Retrieved 2010-09-15.  Kietzmann, Jan H.; Kris Hermkens, Ian P. McCarthy, and Bruno S. Silvestre (2011). "Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media" (http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science/ article/ pii/ S0007681311000061). Business Horizons 54 (3): 241–251. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.005. ISSN 0007-6813. . Retrieved 2011-08-23.
Social media  http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=MiamiCaptionURL& _method=retrieve& _udi=B6W45-52403RB-1& _image=fig0005& _ba=1& _fmt=full& _orig=na& _issn=00076813& _pii=S0007681311000061& view=full& _acct=C000049301& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=955653& md5=df40e4b57019d89faaceb2fa72d6fa01  Mark Nowotarski, "Do not Steal My Avatar! Challenges of Social Network Patents, IP Watchdog, January 23, 2011. 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Further reading • Benkler, Yochai (2006). The Wealth of Networks. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300110561. OCLC 61881089. • Gentle, Anne (2009). Conversation and Community: The Social Web for Documentation. Fort Collins, Colo: XML Press. ISBN 9780982219119. OCLC 464581118. • Johnson, Steven Berlin (2005). Everything Bad Is Good for You. New York: Riverhead Books. ISBN 1573223077. OCLC 57514882. • Li, Charlene; Bernoff, Josh (2008). Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business Press. ISBN 9781422125007. OCLC 423555651. • Scoble, Robert; Israel, Shel (2006). Naked Conversations: How Blogs are Changing the Way Businesses Talk with Customers. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley. ISBN 047174719X. OCLC 61757953. • Shirky, Clay (2008). Here Comes Everybody. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN 9781594201530. OCLC 458788924. • Surowiecki, James (2004). The Wisdom of Crowds. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 0385721706. OCLC 156770258. • Tapscott, Don; Williams, Anthony D. (2006). Wikinomics. New York: Portfolio. ISBN 1591841380. OCLC 318389282. • Powell, Guy R.; Groves, Steven W.; Dimos, Jerry (2011). ROI of Social Media: How to improve the return on your social marketing investment. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470827413. OCLC 0470827416.
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