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Figure 1: the remainder of space


Uncovering sub-themes following the topic of space, after months of research and outcomes this book marks a chapter of what has been covered and which portals are left to delve into and develop.


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Empty Avoided Hollow Abandoned Uncrowded Derelict Void Unused Deserted Clear Uncontained

Blank


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Space is everywhere of modern thought. It is the flesh that flatters the bones of theory. It is an allpurpose nostrum to be applied to whenever things look sticky.

Michael Foucault Philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, philologist and literary critic.

The outcome of a series of highly problematic tempory settlements that divide and connect things up into different kinds of collectives which are slowly provided with the meaning which render themselves durable and sustainable.

Edward Hall Anthropologist


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Nigel Thrift Academic in human geography.

It is there but we don’t talk about it. And if we do, we certainly are not expected to get technical or serious about it.

Mike Crang & Nigel Thrift

The space in which we live, which draws us out of ourselves that claws and knaws at us, is also, in itself, a heterogeneous space....we live inside a set of relations.


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Personal

Personal space is the distance between people and interaction, it is generally a term used when feeling violated using physical space. There are stages of social distance have been identified by the anthropologist Edward T. Hall; 6-18 inches; Intimate Distance This is classes as a close physical relationship between the people, this often links with contact, intimacy and close relationships. 1.5-4 feet; Personal Space This is a distance mostly used by close friends and people that are comfortable with your intimacy. 4-12 feet; Social Space This distance is let intimate, mostly used by general friends, acquaintances. With the other extent of the distance from 10-12 feet is most accustomed to people you dont not know well. 12-25 feet; Public Space This is the most common social situation, used for public speaking generally to a wide audience.


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It is evident that peoples personal space differs depending on the culture. European and Americans generally have a large distance for personal space, on comparison to people in the Eastern world. In China there are 1.3 billion residents and in the same area they can house 6-8 people in dorms, whereas Western people would feel more comfortable in the same space with 1-2 people. In the Western part of the world people generally make apologies when bumping into people otherwise it reacts in anger, however in China after close interaction leads to bumping into strangers it is ignored with no apologies and not even a look over the shoulder which suprisingly brushes off quickly. When people feel as though their personal spaces are being invaded, reactions can be subconscious and quick. Presenting such effects as; blinking, flinching, looking away and hesitating. Each individual has a variation on how and when they feel most uncomfortable in social situations. However Hall’s theory is one that most can relate to.


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Annoyance

Blinking

Confrontation

Distance

Escapism

Flinching

Grimace

Hesitate

Intimidation

Justify

Kinesics

Leeway

Margin


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Nature

Outrage

Proxemics

Quiver

Rudeness

Step

Temper

Unnerved

Violated

Withdraw

Xiphopagas

Yourself

Zones


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s

t

e

p

b

a

c

k

w

a

r

d


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if humans had whiskers

Personal space is not only applicable to humans. Animals also have unique ways of defining space. Using vibrissaes to determine to size and texture of an object by rhythmically brushing surroundings. Whiskers appear and act like hair folicles which gives the animal an accurate representation


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of a sense of space without relying on eyesight. They are grown on the face, generally on the snout allowing the animal to sense an up coming situation and also be satisfied with their personal space. People have no way of determining personal space except their own individual distances of comfort.

Mammals that have horns or antlers have evolved to protect themselves, however it also gives a safe comfort distance that is wider than their faces. Tails can be used in many ways that help the animal to monuvre. However it also gives a space that is owned by that animal to give it room to move in comfort.


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A Place To Rest Your Eyes


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Negative space is a term used in design fluently. It can be an empty space of any colour withside a lack of content. White spaces can be seen as a place for the audiences eye to rest and be able to focus on the content with precision. White space can also be seen as space for the audience to find navigation for the content. Empty space allows the audience to rest their eyes and take in information simplistically.

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Constant fear of open or empty spaces.

Kenophobia:


The par all el ali gn me nt of fb uil din gs def i

es o

tw os eri

nes wh at is

kno wn as a

et.

str e

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eet str The

ce spa

is a

ce spa

e der bor

d.

Georges Perec


is mainly on street content but not specifically on how the location is formed. These hold imperfections that are assumed are part of the space. Streets and aisles are designed for the user to reach the destination directly, both cata

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ich relays the idea that we create the roads but also responsible for the spaces inbetweem.The focus


convey. the content of a location appose to the space inbetween. These key spaces effectively convey the use and wear that is produced

agories of the inside space are designed for movement, also exability with the surroundings built to 27

. Linking back to Winston Churchill’s claim, “We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us.” w


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What if an empty space became tangible, to hold it and see how the positive inflicts the negative. Would it be the same shape as you thought? Could it be disguisabley large or bafflingly smaller? What if it had layers and was not a block space, would this change your perception?

What could you make this space out of, would it be impossibley light to show its non-use or bold for realisation for users? Where do we find these spaces, are they used in everyday life? Do they affect the way we use positive spaces, would it be the same without emptiness?

To Be Able To Hold An Empty Space


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What if you saw the negative instead of positive?


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Finding spaces in built up areas can be difficult without vertical escapism. Escaping the pollution by seeking refuge through the reliability of the idea that empty space can be found in most locations, also highlighting the relief of claustrophobia. It is apparent that growing populations entails that more must be build to house these therefore reflecting in the lack of space on the ground it an opportunity to find vertical escape appose to being horizontally blocked.

seeking escapism


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Many photographers and image makers have found this useful to excell their images by producing mirrored images that highlight the skyline. The sky is seen as the ultimate escape which helps people that suffer phobias to be relaxed as daylight provides a safe element and highlight unconfinement.

This method also reflects pathetic phallacy whereby moods are suseptable to the environments weather temperments.


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LIKE I SAID

BASICALLY ACTUALLY

OK, SO

ERM AHHH

TOTALLY


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HUH YOU KNOW?

WELL

LIKE SUPPOSEDLY

UH

ER


SPA FILL


ACE LER


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There are many spaces we use in day to day life. There are occasions whereby the negative space in objects effect and enhance the postitive. Musical instruments specifically percussion use the inside spaces to echoe sounds. Made from a variety of materials; wood, metal and plastic which effects the sound that is produced

Tangible

Although these spaces are key and the sound could not be produced without them, there is limited information as to what they look like as the focus is on the exterior. The outside of the instruments are however the insides remain the most important part to produce the sound.


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What material would you use to solidify a negative space? What other spaces effect how the positive works? Would you recognise where an empty space was from if it was tangible?


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open space fl enclosed space fl outer space fl space suit fl space age fl living space fl projective space space capsule fl lack of space fl space band fl space heater fl deep space fl space odyssey fl space salesman fl euclidean space fl space cadet fl space station fl blank space fl space out fl parking space space invaders fl space walk fl space time continuum fl space bar fl lost in space fl staring into space


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watch this space fl space curve fl space lattice fl space opera fl catcher space fl space sickness buncher space fl three dimensional space fl hair space fl space race fl null space fl leave a space space of a moment fl intercostal space fl available space fl space needle fl edges of space fl position in space fl wild open spaces fl space writer fl lack of space fl space saving fl wasted space fl enclosed space


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How can spaces be catagorised?

Where do you measure from and to?

Can you measure your personal space?

How do you measure a non space?

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Is a public area too large to measure?

What defines the length of a space?

What is a safe social distance for you?

How much larger is your social space compared to your personal space?

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Personal items = Personal space

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In recent years personal space has been challenged in commercial flights. Airlines have began to suggest that people of a larger size purchase two seating tickets to allow more room. This followed many complaints by customers whereby they expressed that their commute was uncomfortable and not the experience that had been paid for. Airlines have specified that if the seat armrests can not be lowered then a second ticket must be purchased before take-off. Transport seating challenges anthropologist, Hall’s theory of spacial measurements and comfort zones as people are forced to share personal spaces with strangers. Is it just airplanes that face this problem?


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Physical or mental?


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There are spaces and objects that can decieve the human eye, convincing that it is a different shape or depth. This can be judged through angle and perception and differed based on this and the eye of the beholder. This can be challenged when the empty space is filled and reproduced as a solid.


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space and time fl no-one space fl open space fl art space fl rented/hired space fl owned space fl desired space fl space superhero fl space man fl space shooter fl space key fl space sparkle fl white space fl space place fl space bashing fl space barred fl space bending fl space break fl space bound fl lost space fl space out fl space cadet fl space saving fl minimalistic space


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space shuttle fl shared space fl personal space fl permaculture space fl external space inner space fl space of energy fl virtual space fl distribution of space fl space sound outer space fl natural space fl social space fl space needle fl space chimps fl space camp fl space race fl space pen fl space helmet fl breathing space fl space between fl space dust fl space jam


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Public spaces are recorded with cctv to create a safer environment. With 1.85 million cameras it averages that Britons are caught at least 70 times per day. Thoughts and perceptions are not the result of freedom instead sculpted and manipulated by the limitations of our spaces.

Social interactions can be catagorised depending on the proximity and distance in the locations. Social Space is an interaction between subjects and their surroundings. The evolution of the working class was the result of dissatisfaction between the subjects in relation to their surroundings.


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Space and time is evolving with technology enabling people to predict the length and time to travel between two locations. Through combinations of GPS, GIS and radio frequency identifier in the future it will be possible to locate anything within spaces.

The idea that no two bodies can occupy the same space. Spaces can be subdivided for social purposes. In the USA, Canada and Germany there are strict rules with how CCTV imagery can be used. Citizens must informed of being recorded in public spaces and have legitamate reasoning for the footage.


The concept of ‘Habitus’ is established by Pierre Bourdieu individual person’s set of cognitive and motivating structures. Similar to how ‘common sense’ works as it the way specifics such as; gender, class and age can be interpreted. The point of interest in terms of space is the representation of the relationship between self and built space. Space dimensions can affect mental perception and moods challenging phobias as well. HABITUS


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A documentation of personal distances, three occassions a day for the duration of a week


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beyond

A

point



The remainders of Space