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Adaptable daylight systems A designers guide for self responsive facade systems

N. Gondrie & G. Gooskens


1e druk - Delft

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TU Delft Course Instructor

Architecture: Master Building Technology AR0533 Innovation and Sustainability Designer’s Manual Eric van den Ham

Student 1511610 Student 4051793

Niels Gondrie Guus Gooskens


Scope of this manual

This manual aspires to make architects aware of the benefits of adaptable daylight systems in buildings and gives them a helping hand obtaining sustainable design solutions regarding adaptable facades. This helping hand is presented as an overview of all systems that are currently developed by analysing multiple case studies that represent each type of systems. These case studies are also meant to inspire. To start of, the benefits of adaptable daylight systems will be presented. This will be followed by an explanation on the importance of an analysis of the environmental conditions in advance to the search for a suitablesystem. After that, all different parameters involved within daylight management systems are presented, making the architect aware of the importance of each aspect and explaining the icons used in this manual. Then, an infographic will explain in 6 steps how this manual works. Finally, an useful overview of all the researched systems will help you quickly find the daylight management systems that you are looking for. The different case studies researched are divided in two main chapters. The first chapter presents daylight systems in which elements are changing its geometry during the day (macro level). The secondary chapter presents systems in which the characteristics and properties of the material will change (micro level).

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Index

Why adaptable daylight systems?

p. 6

Locational influences

p. 7

Parameters p. 10 Mechanisms

p. 14

6 Step program p. 16 Overview adaptable daylight systems

p. 18

Macro level daylight systems p.20 Al Bahar Towers p. 22 Kiefer Technic Showroom p. 26 JSWD Headquarter p. 30 RMIT Design HUB p. 34 Council House 2 p. 38 Simon Center p. 42 Arab World Institute p. 46 Micro level daylight systems Alterswohnen Domat/EMS Kimmel Center Conservatoire de Musique Polyshade Lotus Dome

p. 50 p. 52 p. 56 p. 60 p. 64 p. 68

Acknowledgments

p. 72

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Why adaptable daylight systems?

For a long time, facades have been designed as a static element aimed to protect the interior against the influences from the outdoor environment. One of the most important factors to change this approach is that these facades - which often contain a lot of glass - are losing too much energy and lead to a very high energy consumption and neglect the occupants comfort. The impacts from the external environment on the facade contain direct solar radiation, outside temperatures, humidity, condensation, wind, polluted air and noise. An adaptive faรงade could make use of the benefits from the outside environment. These facades respond to the stimuli from the environment, adapting themselves to regulate the indoor climate and try to obtain the the ideal balance for all user demands (i.e. no glare, appropriate cooling and still be able to look outside). Daylight reveals space, form, texture and color, hence plays a major role in architecture. It also has a great influence on human health and biorhythm of peoples lifes. Inappropriate light directly affects peoples reaction within thermal comfort, sound and light, and will result in unusual illnesses. It is therefor not uncommen that a visual discomfort during the day will lead to fatigue, nausea and headaches (sick building syndrome). The faรงade as the skin of the building is the first protection layer and is the connection between indoor and outdoor. The design of the facade has therefor great influence on not only the architetural appeal, but also on the psychological and physical welfare of the occupants of the building. Discoveries of new smart materials and innovative mechanics have resulted in a still increasing market of available adaptable facades systems. They react to the environment by i.e. diaphragms, overlapping moveable panels, folding or opening and closing and extending parts. This designers manual gives the architect the opportunity to become aware of the different aspects involved in the design process of an adaptable facade and will aspire him to implement and create his own innovative adaptable facade system.

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Locational influences Orientation Because the axis of the earth is not perpendicular to the sun path, seasons, different day lengths and different amount of solar radiation occur. This is what makes static buildings energy inefficient. To gain benefit from the natural environment and create a sustainable living, buildings have to be able to adapt. The earth’s axis to its plane of the ecliptic is fixed at an angle of 23.5 degrees. This angle remains unchanged. However, the position of the earth axis to the sun does change during the year. This change lead to a various sun height above the horizon and thereby causes the cycle of seasons due to the different light intensities and the duration of the solar radiation.

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Latitude The location of a building is of great importance when aiming to respond to the regularity of the sun incidence. The equator divides the globe into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The closer to the equatorial plane, the more consistent warm weather your building is exposed to. As opposed to areas that are further away from the equater; they have a great variation in solar radiation throughout the year. This results in colder winters and warmer summers. The Antarctic and artic receive the same period of sunlight annually as all other parts on the planet, but these poles receive it at a greater angle, decreasing its intensity and its net energy. These statistics should be taken into account when trying to find a suitable daylight management system. Pay attention to the angle of incidence, its intensity and the possible large variation solar radiation between winter and summer. In two pages find and notice the different parameters involved with adaptable daylight systems and relate them to your location.

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Wind It is not only the sun that has to be taken into account previously to selecting your facade system, but also the wind speed on your location. While the load bearing structure is taking care of transferring the dead and dynamic load to the foundations, the facade is the element of your building that is heavily subjected to the wind. Below there is an image of the world map where the mean wind speed of every location is projected on. A wind speed of 10 m/s already comes down to a pressure force of 75 N/m2 on your facade. Take into account that this image is only displaying mean wind speeds. To really find out what wind forces come at play, you will have to find out what the maximum wind speed is of your location. The formula below can be used to calculate what wind forces occur. Wind force on your facade (N/m2) = ½ x (air density (kg/m3)) x (wind speed (m/s))2 x (drag coÍfficient) The result of this equation should then be used to determine what systems are able to withstand this force. Each researched case study has a rating on wind resistance.

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Parameters Performance Shading The amount of light that falls on our eye affects our bio-rhythm. Wrong light direct¬ly affects peoples impression of the thermal comfort, sound and light, controlling their bodies improperly, leading to fatigue and headaches. The shading performance is based on the amount of sunlight the daylight system can visually block.

Heat load Facades often contain a lot of glass, causing a lot of energy loss and a high energy consumption. When sun-rays hit an object the energy can be transmitted, absorbed or reflected. Transmission will pass the heat inside the building. Absorption will heat up the material and reflection will rebound the energy. The more energy is blocked, the less cooling load is needed.

Visual Comfort Light reveals space, form, texture and color. Important aspects are illuminance, luminance ratios, colors and reflections. Comfortable light can be described as a light that produces good color impressions, with an equal distribution and without reflection. It will not cause blindness by direct sunlight and it will not create a flickering stroboscopic effect.

Reaction time This is the amount of time the daylight system need to adjust itself to the new settings of the sun. This can be accomplished each hour, in minutes or even in seconds. The less time needed, the more accurate the system. However, it should not be forgotten that a continues façade in motion can be annoying.

sec N W

E S

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Range This range shows in which orientations the facades will work, this could be more than one orientation. The east and west façade can meet the sun’s incidence at the same altitude, while the south façade interacts with the sun in a much sharper angle.


Construction Construction time The needed time to install the faรงade. From great importance for projects with a sharp schedule. Excludes the optional time for development in front of the construction phase.

Costs Contains material and labor costs. High costs can exclude certain system in low cost buildings. Cheap systems may be associated with low quality standards, unsightly finishes or less sustainable systems.

Complexity A large complexity indicates often a high-tech daylight system, but also brings more risks of errors with it. A simple daylight system may incorrect be associated with low quality but is more likely to not meet the desired architectural appearance.

Maintenance This icon concerns the frequency of maintenance intervals. A lot of maintenance may manifest in extra costs and hours of not operable spaces and buildings.

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Parameters Sustainability Energy Demand The energy required to make the façade operational. In general the less energy it need, the better it scores. This parameter only contains the electrical energy demand. For thermal properties see ‘Heat load’ under ‘Performance’.

Recyclability The possibility to change the materials at the end of the facades’ lifetime into new products. Though joints and connections are taken into account.

Lifetime Under preserve to prescribed maintenance, the expected lifetime in which the system will serve as it is meant to.

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status Concept Project is still in the concept fase. This means the project is not yet in development but still on the drawing table. The daylight system is not available on the market and time and money should be invested in the idea to make it work. Suitable for purposes in innovative building.

Under development The daylight system left the drawing table but is still under development. Most likely all errors have not yet been eliminated. The system is not yet directly applicable and need some fine-tuning.

tested The presented system is already in production and ready for use. It is already used in other buildings and approved as working.

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Mechanisms Macro - Geometry Daylight management systems which are operating by changing its geometry

Folding Movement by folding, opening and closing elements and parts.

Rotating Movement by rotating elements and parts within their own axis, following the path of the sun.

Shifting Movement by translocations and reorganizing elements and parts.

Diaphragm Movement by opening and closing apertures inside facade elements.

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Micro - material properties Daylight management systems which are operating by changing its material properties

ThermotropiC glazing With the input of thermal energy the thermotropic material changes state from solid to liquid at a certain temperature, giving it the ability to absorb energy without heating itself. The proces is reversible making it a suitable material to store thermal heat. With different crystals and water ratios, it is possible to turn the glass white and reflective.

electrochromic glazing A thin film is laminated in between two glass panes. The film is often constructed of rod-like particles suspended in a fluid. The particles move randomly absorbing light making the glass look dark, grey or blue. When voltage is applied the particles arrange in a fixed grid letting the light pass through. It is possible to dim the transmitted current.

Thermochromic paint Heat alters the molecular structure of the paint, thereby changing its color and its reflectivity. Different chemical compounds assure different behavior. Phosphorescent absorbs energy and slowly releases it in form of light (glow in the dark), in contrast to fluorescence which immediately re-emit radiation.

Polarization filters A polarized filter lets light through in one linearly direction, and is therebye mostly used in cameras to manage reflections, colors and glare. When two filters are placed one behind the other, the total amount of transmitted light can be controlled by rotating one of these filters, eliminating both linearly directions.

Bimetal By laminating two different metals with different heat coefficients to eachother, the structrure will bend when its heated. Putting these small elements together will result in a dynamic facade responding to the current solar radiation.

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6 steps to help you out

1

What is the location of your building and what are facades orientated at?

90 75 60 45 30 15 0 15 30 45 60

What value do you attach to several important characteristics?

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Performance N W

E

sec

S Shading

Heat overload prevention

Visual comfort

orientation

Construction time

Cost

Construction

Complexity

Maintenance

Sustainability

Life cycle

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Lifetime

Energy demand

reaction time

wind resistance


3

What technique has your predilection and fits within your architectural context?

Sun adapting facades systems

Macro level

Micro level

Folding

Rotating

Thermotropic

Electrochromic

shifting

Diaphragm

Thermochromic

polarization

bimetal

What level of reliability are you confident with?

Conceptual

Under development

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Tested system

Find out what system suits you best in the Table overview

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And finally, go to this case study and

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See, read & get inspired 17


Overview adaptable daylight systems N W

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Al Bahar towers page 20 Kiefer showroom page 26 JSWD headquarters page 30 Rmit Design Hub page 34 Counsil House 2 page 38 Simons Center page 42 Arab world institute page 46 alters wohnen DOMAT/ems page 52 kimmel center page 56 conservatory lille page 60 polyshade page 64

lotus dome page 68

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sec


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Chapter 1

Macro adaptive facade systems mechanism of adaptation changes geometry of building’s envelope by moving its components to demanded configuration

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Mechanism

folding

Al Bahar Towers LOCATION LATITUDE CLIENT COMPLETION DESIGN HEIGHT PRIMARY USE FACADE MATERIALS

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Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 24°28’N Abu Dhabi Investment Council 2012 Aedas 145 m Office PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) panels


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Al Bahar Towers Performance N W

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hrs

S

This particular system performs well in reducing glare and solar heat gain. In the case of the Al Bahar Towers it reduces CO2 emmissions by up to 1.750 tonnes per year. The panels are driven by a linear actuator that will progressively open and close once per day in response to a pre-programmed sequence that has been calculated to prevent direct sunlight from striking the faรงade and to limit direct solar gain to a maximum of 400 watts per linear meter.

Construction

This system was developed under the supervison of well known engineering firms. Working closely with colleagues at Arup, the Aedas team drew upon the skills of its in-house Research & Development group to apply advanced computational design techniques in support of the project. Therefor this system is not the kind you want when you are on low budget and/or on low entry level on your knowledge platform.

Sustainability

The panels are very lightweight (due to the PTFE membrane structure) and therefor not much power is needed the change their geometry. The panels are constructed in a way that one can easily be replaced when damaged, so recycling the facade will be reasonably easy. The lifetime is also quite good, but this is also due to the soft weather condition on the location.

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Working principle

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Mechanism

folding

Kiefer technic showroom LOCATION LATITUDE CLIENT COMPLETION DESIGN FLOOR AREA PRIMARY USE FACADE MATERIALS

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Bad Gleichenberg, Austria 46° 52’N Kiefer technic GmbH 2007 Ernst Giselbrecht + Partner ZT GmbH 545 m2 Showroom and office space Perforated aluminium


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Kiefer technic showroom Performance N W

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min

S

The client of the design really wanted to break a pattern and make a statement here. This system is able to adapt automatically and each panel on its self is able to move individually. As a result, the system is able to take a large amount of shape compositions, based on either the weather conditions, occupants preferences or even outdoor architectural appeal.

Construction

The moving panels are made of perforated aluminum and each single panel is powered by an electric motor. This make this facade quite costly, but also easy to maintain and replace defect parts. The highly modular system of panels makes it also quite easy to install, but connecting a pivoting axel to each panel makes it quite time consuming construction process.

Sustainability

The aluminum panels are relatively lightweight, therefor moving the panels does not cost that much energy. But they do move against the force of gravity, so this makes it a little bit more inefficient power consumption wise. Aluminum also makes the structure very weather resistant and therefor durable. When demolishing, the aluminum is recyclable by melting it.

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Working principle

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Mechanism

rotating

JSWD Headquarter LOCATION LATITUDE CLIENT COMPLETION DESIGN FLOOR AREA PRIMARY USE FACADE MATERIALS

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Essen, Germany 51°27’N ThyssenKrupp AG 2010 JSWD Architekten & Chaix & Morel et Associés 170.000 m2 Office Stainless steel lamellas


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JSWD Headquarter Performance N W

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min

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The lamellas in the facade are designed to orientate in response to the location of the sun and enable light redirection without blocking the view. Both the southern, eastern and the western facade are covered with these stainless steel lamellas. To sustain a clear view of the outdoor, the lamellas are positioned with some spacing in between. The lamellas will move all day in response to the suns position. Using steel as a sun shade will require some additional load bearing construction, but it will be a setup that is shielded well against the wind. The 1,280 motorized elements can be closed to create a more solid enclosure, follow the position of the sun, or be entirely open to allow maximum solar exposure.

Construction

Constructing the 400.000 lamellas is a time consuming process, but the the system itself is modular, so this makes it more efficient. The cost are high due to the special steel used; stainless steel. The lamellas are are anchored into 3,150 routered stainless steel moveable stalks, which move and breathe with the touch of a controller. Maintenance of the facade is difficult because there is no option to fully open up the facade, but on the otherhand, the stainless steel does not require much maintenance.

Sustainability

Moving the steel lamellas cost a lot of energy, due to the weight of the steel. But that the facade is rotating in a manner that it does not defy gravity, makes a little up for this. The stainless steel lamellas are very weather resistant and therefor have a long lifespan. The recyclability is nonetheless below average, because it requires heavy lifting to demount and a lot of energy to recycle the steel.

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Working principle

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Mechanism

rotating

RMIT Design Hub LOCATION LATITUDE CLIENT COMPLETION DESIGN FLOOR AREA PRIMARY USE FACADE MATERIALS

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Melbourne, Australia 37°49’S RMIT University 2012 Sean Godsell Architects 13.000 m2 Research/Education Glass discs & galvanised steel


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RMIT Design Hub Performance N W

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min

S

The faรงade comprises a specifically detailed double glazed inner skin and an automated operable second skin that is able to shade the building. The second skin shading device surrounds the entire building, from the ground floor to the roof plant level. Because the glass discs are sandblasted, sun radiation is not able to penetrate fully and occupants are still able to look outside. Each disc resides in a steel cylinder, protecting the discs and making them more wind and weather proof.

Construction

The second skin is made up of nominally 600 mm diameter sandblasted glass disks, which are fixed to a vertical aluminium axel. Each axel is fixed to the outer face of a galvanised steel cylinder of a slightly larger diameter and 130 mm in depth. Because these discs and cylinders are relatively small, constructing this facade is time consuming. Due the this intense construction process, the facade is also in the upper price range. Maintenance however is not that big of a deal, because the glass and galvanised steel are weatherproof and well attainable from the inside.

Sustainability

The weight of the glass discs is relatively high, therefor a lot of energy is needed to rotate the discs individually. The construction itself is well demountable and the glass discs are recyclable; they can be melted for reuse. The lifetime of the facade is also quite good, stating that glass and galvanised steel are weatherproof. Of course there is always the risc of the glass discs cracking, but one axis of discs can be demounted seperately.

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Working principle

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Mechanism

rotating

Council house 2 LOCATION LATITUDE CLIENT COMPLETION DESIGN FLOOR AREA PRIMARY USE FACADE MATERIALS

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Melbourne, Australia 37°49’S Hansen Yuncken 2006 Mick Pearce DesignInc. 12.500 m2 Office Recycled & Salvaged timber


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Council house 2 Performance N W

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hrs

S

The western faรงade features a system of recycled timber shutters that protect the building from the late afternoon sun, while also enabling views out of the building and natural light to enter the building. The shutters are open when the sun is in the eastern or northern sky, closing only when the sun is in the west. The shutters move automatically to a pre-set program based on the seasonal position of the sun. Therefore the movement occurs daily, regardless of whether the sun is hidden by overcast skies.

Construction

Installation of this facade is not as time consuming as the previous macro facades, due to the fact that the salvaged timber panels have only to be bolted to a steel support frame. The operating system is however more complicated, as they used a hydraulic system with oil. Because the facade consist of timber coming from derilict and demolished homes, maintenance is necessary to sustain quality of the wood that has already been downgraded once.

Sustainability

The movement of the shutters is hydraulically operated using vegetable oil. The power required to operate the shutters is produced by the solar photovoltaic cells on the roof of CH2. Therefor this system requires little to no extra energy to change it composition. The facade is designed to be energy neutral and therefor also when the building has to be demolished, no energy must be spilled and materials must be fully recyclable. The lifetime however is not comparable with an aluminum or stainless steel facade.

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Working principle

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Mechanism

Shifting

Simons Center LOCATION LATITUDE CLIENT COMPLETION DESIGN FLOOR AREA PRIMARY USE FACADE MATERIALS

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New York, US 40°42’N Stony Brook University 2010 Perkins Eastman 3600 m2 Mathematics and physical sciences facility Steel


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Simons Center Performance N W

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sec

S

The tessellating facade system in the Simons Center in New York is not fully tested like the previous systems. The concept behind it is that within a blink of an eye the user can change the facade its composition as he wishes or have the system automatically respond to environmental changes (such as temperature, moisture and light). Due to the fact that the system is integrated in the glass facade, it does not get harmed by the wind and other environmental forces. A downside of this integration is that it will not benefit that much in regards to lowering the heat load of the building. However, it does not impact the viewing comfort of the outdoors that much.

Construction

Installing this system is not an issue. Similar to any other glass facade, you place the prefabricated system as a whole on a secondary structure or curtain wall. Each module runs on a single motor. All these modules together are controlled by a computer processor, which can be programmed for various purposes. Maintenance is also almost needles.

Sustainability

The movement of the modules is powered by a servo motor. Due to the fact that each module is very thin and lightweight, it does not cost much energy to power this system. Recycling is a bit more tricky, because melting the little amount of steel there is available costs a lot of energy demounting and remelting. Therefor recycling it is close to non suffiecient. The life expectancy is nonetheless high.

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Working principle

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Mechanism

Diaphragm

Arab World Institute LOCATION LATITUDE CLIENT COMPLETION DESIGN FLOOR AREA PRIMARY USE FACADE MATERIALS

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Paris, France 48°52’N State of France 1987 Jean Nouvel 16.894 m2 Institure of Arab culture Steel diaphragms


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Arab World Institute Performance N W

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sec

S

The building is designed to resemble to Arab culture within France. The mechanism of the diaphragms is used to filter the light - a strategy often used in Arab architecture where climate oriented design is a dominant design process. Just like the previous system, the heat load of the sun is not much reduced by the diaphragms when closed. The viewing comfort is impacted due to the large amount of mechanical objects like pistons and rods. The response time and wind resistance are good, similar to that of the tessellating system.

Construction

The construction process of this system is complex and time consuming. The institute has 240 photo-sensitive motor-controlled apertures. The total system has over 25.000 diaphragms, differing in sizes. All of these diaphragms are actuated by rods and pistons which are connected to a motor. Due to large amount of connectors and mechanical systems, the system needs a lot of maintenance.

Sustainability

Actuation of the system requires more power than the previous system, since there are also springs, pistons and rods involved, which all cause friction. Recycling the steel is also not worth attempting, the effort to disassemble the system alone would already cost more energy than it would acquire. The life expectancy is good, on the condition that it is being maintained properly.

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Working principle

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Chapter 2

Micro adaptive facade systems mechanism of adaptation changes system’s components material properties

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Methodology

thermotropic glazing

alterswohnen domat/ems LOCATION LATITUDE CLIENT COMPLETION DESIGN PRIMARY USE FACADE MATERIALS

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Domat/EMS, Switzerland 46°83’N Domat Council 2004 Schwarz Architekten Elderly housing PCM, Glass, Steel


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alterswohnen domat/ems Performance N W

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hrs

S

The glazing system contains a salt-hydrate phase changing material which is able to store thermal energy from the outside environment. The pcm will crystalize and turn diffuse during cool nights - emiting heat - while during daytime the material will absorb heat reducing inside temperatures by 4 to 6 degrees. A comfortable regular indoor climate without heat peaks is established. The pcm is placed in between two layers of glass, and with an additional prism panel the glass also reflects the sun.

Construction

Prefab window panels will reduce construction time and labour cost, it is not necessary to connect the different panels with eachother. However the glazing is still 2 to 3 times expensive as regular triple glazing. By using pcm in your facade, the energy need of heating and cooling systems can be reduced, resulting in a pcm facade with a payback time of 5 to 10 years. Because there are no mechanical and electrical elements involved, the facade requires no maintenance except for general cleaning.

Sustainability

The pcm facade works with passive solar radiation, eliminating the need of any eletric power. If the building gets demolished, It is possible to extract the phase changing material so it can be applied towards another buildling. The material is tested and cycled in laboratory for more then 85 years without any performance losses.

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Working principle

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Methodology

Electrochromic glazing

Kimmel center LOCATION LATITUDE CLIENT COMPLETION DESIGN PRIMARY USE FACADE MATERIALS

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Philadelphia, USA 39°95’N Kimmel Inc. 2001 Rafael Vinoly Theater Normal glazing on the outside Electrochromic glazing on the inside terrace


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Kimmel center Performance N W

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min

S

The temperatures inside the enormous dome are reasing to extremely high numbers, therefore are steps taken to make the terrace in the center a comfortable place. Huge benifts are achieved by using electrochromic glazing which can be switched on and off, manually controlling the daylight penetration and radiation flowless. The high visual comfort demands to retain the beautifull view outside through the dome are achieved . A small disadvantage: the edges of each panel will look slightly different then the center.

Construction

Because this glazing is already fully tested in the architectural markt, it is refined during the years. The constructiontime is in comparison with normal glazing not that significant longe. The element price however, is almost three times as large as normal glazing. The system is innovative and slightly copmlicated, but due to the experiences of previous electromic glazing, maintenance costs are minimized.

Sustainability

A disadvantage of electrochromic glazing is that the glass needs a continues voltage to remain transparant. When there is no energy fed, it becomes dark. The energy is however reduced to a minimum and it will save you more energy on heating, cooling and lightning bills. The glass can be recycled and lifetime expectancy equals almost normal glazing.

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Working principle

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Methodology

Thermochromic paint

Conservatoire de musique LOCATION LATITUDE CLIENT COMPLETION DESIGN PRIMARY USE FACADE MATERIALS

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Maizieres-les-Metz, France 49°21’N Maizières-lès-Metz Council 2009 Coulon Architecte Conservatory Concrete Phosphorescence paint


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Conservatoire de musique Performance N W

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hrs

S

Heat alters the molecular structure of the paint, thereby changing its color and its reflectivity. The used phosphorescent paints absorbs energy and slowly releases it in form of light, arranging a comfortable climate by reducing heat- and cooling load, and making this building beautifull glow in the dark. Thermochromic materials are not yet used that much on the outside of the facade because of the still limited choise in paints that can handle the ultraviolet wavelengths.

Construction

Because it concerns paint, it can be applied very fast. Costs are not even that high. As told above, there is still a problem with the qualities of the paint, often resulting in a fast degrading process in which the ability to change color and store heat will lose immidiately. The paint should be replaced regularly.

Sustainability

There is no energy needed, the paint absorbs the energy of the sun. There is no recyclability, the paint has still a low lifetime because of the degradation by the solar radiation.

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Working principle

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Methodology

Polarizing filters

polyshade LOCATION LATITUDE CLIENT COMPLETION DESIGN PRIMARY USE FACADE MATERIALS

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TU Delft, Netherlands 52°00’N Architecture, Buckylab 2013 (concept) K. Fischer & D. Sultani Office buildings, residentials Concrete, glass


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Polyshade Performance N W

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sec

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Two polarized filters are placed one behind another. Each filter transmits daylight from one parellel direction. By rotating one filter in front of the other, the transmitted light can be eliminated to a theoritical 100%. The adaption is stepless and as accurate as you want. WIth extra reflective coatings the glazing will also block the heat.

Construction

Construction time looks promising when putting the pre-fabricated polyshade as an internal blind in your room, but due to the rounded shape installation in the facade could become harder, especially if you take into account the need of different gears, a driving engine and wires and sensors. This also raises the probably high costs and the quantity of maintenance.

Sustainability

Because of the lightweight filters, the electrical energy required to rotate these filters is low. The filters are mainly made out of natural crystals as quartz which is fully available on earth. Through more research natural filters which are 100% recycleable may be used in this system. In this conceptfase the lifetime is hard to predict, but if the polarized filters are safely mounted without damaging them, the expected lifetime should be good.

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Working principle

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Methodology

Bimetal

Lotus Dome LOCATION LATITUDE CLIENT COMPLETION DESIGN PRIMARY USE FACADE MATERIALS

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Lille, France 50°64’N Lille3000 2012 Studio Roosegaarde Artwork Metal


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Lotus dome Performance N W

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sec

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By laminating two different metals with different heat coefficients, the structrure will bend when its heated. These small elements together represents a dynamic dome. It responds to the heat of the people standing close to the dome, opening the ‘leaves’ letting light through. In order to make this a operable daylight management system, it is important to do research in the different metals letting it respond and bend at the correct amount of solar radiation.

Construction

The basis material consist of thin metal sheets. It is light, and the elements are small to retain its ductility. At this moment it is all constructed by hand, which is no option for constructing an entire facade. Material cost may be low, but the labour which you have to put into makes it uneconomic. Also because of the amount of leaves the maintenance will be heavy.

Sustainability

No electrical energy is needed, the entire sculpture - and in future the facade - responds to solar energy. There are no other materials used then metals. The metals can be recycled or re-used. At this moment the lifetime does not look all too good. There are many elements and they can not handle the outside wind conditions.

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Working principle

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Acknowledgements Research & Further readings p9 http://www.knmi.nl/samenw/hydra/faq/druk.html p9 http://www.maproomblog.com/categories/energy_resources.php p24 Al Bahar Towers – External Automated Shading System p28 http://www.architonic.com/aisht/dynamic-facade-kiefer-technic-showroom-ernst-giselbrecht-partner/5100449 p32 http://www.archdaily.com/326747/q1-thyssenkrupp-quarter-essen-jswd-architekten-chaix-morel-et-associes/ p36 http://www.archdaily.com/335620/rmit-design-hub-sean-godsell/ p36 http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/Sustainability/CH2/aboutch2/Pages/WesternTimberShutters.aspx p40 http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/sustainability/ch2/Pages/CH2Ourgreenbuilding.aspx p44 http://www.azahner.com/tessellate.cfm p48 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_World_Institute p54 http://archrecord.construction.com/products/ProductFocus/1011sustainable_solutions/default.asp http://www.baulinks.de/webplugin/2013/0232.php4 p58 http://sageglass.com/portfolio/kimmel-center-for-the-performing-arts/ p62 http://designzoom.ru/2013/04/16/konservatoriya-maizi-egrave-res-ot-dominique-coulon-amp-associ-eacute-s/ p66 K. Fischer & D. Sultani, 2013, Polyshade - Presentation Buckylab, Delft http://buckylab.blogspot.nl/p/pictures.html p70 http://www.studioroosegaarde.net/project/lotus-dome/

Images p20 http://www.hubet.it/al-bahar-towers-adaptive-building-facade p24 http://www.youtech.it/Eco-Tech/Habitat/I-palazzi-di-Abu-Dhabi-guardano-al-passato-4703 p27 http://www.topboxdesign.com/kiefer-technic-showroom-in-bad-gleichenberg-austria/kiefer-technic-showroom-exterior-1/ p29 http://mod.crida.net/thesis/S1-2013/category/uncategorized/page/2/ p35 http://www.ideidoma.com/3855 p31 http://redchalksketch.wordpress.com/2010/10/18/ p35 http://www.nicgranleese.com/ p35 http://congok.com/designer-hub.html p37 http://www.flickr.com/photos/rmit/7981665845/ p39 http://blog.naver.com/PostView.nhn?blogId=bahkpro&logNo=150142255835&redirect=Dlog&widgetTypeCall=true p41 http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/AboutCouncil/MediaCentre/ImageGallery/Pages/CH2imagegallery.aspx?i=2&s=0&n=16 p43 http://scgp.stonybrook.edu/archives/332 p45 http://www.azahner.com/tessellate.cfm p47 http://verenasparisblog.blogspot.nl/2011_06_01_archive.html p49 http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=829852&page=96 p50 http://www.wageningenur.nl/nl/show/Hoe-ziet-blauwalg-eruit.htm p53 http://www.schwarz-architekten.com/images/galleries/04_alterswohnen/pics/3_545.jpg p55 http://www.glassx.ch/uploads/media/Alterswohnen_Domat_Ems_Foto_Gaston_Wicky_02.jpg p57 http://www.blta.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/kimmel05-1000x710.jpg p59 http://www.blta.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/kimmel041.jpg p61 http://designzoom.ru/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/1372_obshhestvennyie_zdaniya_10.jpg p63 http://designzoom.ru/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/1372_obshhestvennyie_zdaniya_24.jpg p65 K. Fischer & D. Sultani, 2013, Polyshade - Presentation Buckylab, Delft p67 K. Fischer & D. Sultani, 2013, Polyshade - Presentation Buckylab, Delft p69 http://www.studioroosegaarde.net/uploads/images/2011/02/18/55/55-76-image.jpeg p71 http://www.studioroosegaarde.net/uploads/images/2012/10/09/1413/1413-4607-image.jpeg

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Legend Parameters

Heat load

Cost

Shading

construction time

visual comfort

maintenance

orientation

recyclability

Reaction time

Lifetime

Wind resistance

energy demand

N W

E S

min

complexity

Status

conceptual

under development

tested

Mechanisms Macro

micro

Folding

ThermotropiC glazing

Rotating

electrochromic glazing

Shifting

Thermochromic paint

Diaphragm

Polarization filters

Bimetal


This manual aspires to make architects aware of the benefits of adaptable daylight systems in buildings and gives them a helping hand obtaining sustainable design solutions regarding adaptable facades. This helping hand is presented as an overview of all systems that are currently developed by analysing multiple case studies that represent each type of systems. These case studies are also meant to inspire. To start of, the benefits of adaptable daylight systems will be presented. This will be followed by an explanation on the importance of an analysis of the environmental conditions in advance to the search for a suitablesystem. After that, all different parameters involved within daylight management systems are presented, making the architect aware of the importance of each aspect and explaining the icons used in this manual. Then, an infographic will explain in 6 steps how this manual works. Finally, an useful overview of all the researched systems will help you quickly find the daylight management systems that you are looking for. The different case studies researched are divided in two main chapters. The first chapter presents daylight systems in which elements are changing its geometry during the day (macro level). The secondary chapter presents systems in which the characteristics and properties of the material will change (micro level).

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