ANNUAL REPORT 2013
Table of Contents Letter from the President
Towards a carbon-lean GGGI
Green Growth Planning and Implementation
Knowledge Development & Management
Letter from the President Dear Friends and Members of the Global Green Growth Institute, GGGI has been an international organization for less than two years. Yet â€“ as you will see in this Annual Report - it is starting to make its mark across the world, and its achievements are beginning to build up. GGGI is now responsible for 34 programs of change in 20 countries; it is collaborating in some of the worldâ€™s most innovative green growth research projects; it is creating emerging partnerships with the private sector; and it is developing new experience and expertise in all the areas which will matter in the new global economy. But to simply list these achievements is to miss the main point - which is that GGGI is the only international organization where a diverse community of countries has self-selected to come together to plot a way to a greener global future. This is because our 20 Members and our other partners all recognize that inclusive green growth is the only form of growth that makes economic and societal sense. They have all demonstrated strong leadership towards this goal at home. Yet, they also recognize that creating a new global model of growth cannot be done by any one country, no matter how rich or powerful. This Annual Report sets out how GGGI is rising to the challenge of meeting this global need. It gives information about the diverse projects across the world that will build real experience about what is needed for the sustainable global economy â€“ case studies in the Report describe diverse experiences from an ambitious vision for the Amazon in Colombia, to energy strategy in Mongolia, to low carbon transformation in Ethiopia and green housing development in Rwanda. The Report highlights how GGGI remains an integral partner to some of the most innovative and significant global research projects related to green growth, including the Green Growth Knowledge Platform (GGKP) and the New Climate Economy (NCE) initiative.
The Report also sets out how the new Public Private Cooperation advisory committee will provide guidance on the organization’s overall public-private program of work. Finally, the Report describes how GGGI faced up to significant organizational and financial challenges. I hope you will find it an informative summary of how far GGGI has come in 2013, and a useful predictor of how GGGI will continue to create value. Recent institutional recognition – such as receiving Official Development Assistance eligibility from the OECD and becoming an observer to the UNFCC and UN General Assembly -- represents important milestones for GGGI. But, the only recognition that matters is when GGGI helps its Members, partners and the wider world to move from the polluting path to development, and instead to create a better world for generations to come. It will take time to get there, and mistakes will be made – but I hope you will see from this Report that the organization is readying itself to stay the course. Thank you for your support to GGGI.
Bharrat Jagdeo President of the Assembly of the Global Green Growth Institute
About Us The Global Green Growth Institue (GGGI) is a new intergovernmental organization intergovernmental organization founded to support and promote a model of economic growth known as â€œgreen growth.â€?. Headquartered in Seoul, Korea, the organization has 20 Member countries and states. GGGI also has offices in Abu Dhabi, Copenhagen, and London, a liaison office in Songdo, Korea, as well as representation in Ethiopia, Indonesia and a number of other partner countries where operations are taking place.
Mission The organization partners with countries to help them build economies that grow strongly, and are more efficient and sustainable in the use of natural resources, less carbon intensive, and more resilient to climate change.
What We Do It achieves this through a program of work tailored to their needs at national or regional level, and harnesses expertise across GGGIâ€™s broad work areas of green growth planning, knowledge development, and public-private cooperation. GGGIâ€™s experts are already working with governments around the world, building their capacity and working collaboratively on green growth policies that can impact the lives of millions.
Our Partners Member Countries Australia, Cambodia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Ethiopia, Guyana, Indonesia, Kiribati, Mexico, Mongolia, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, The Philippines, Qatar, Republic of Korea, Rwanda, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Vietnam Core Contributors
Institutional Milestones January
Second Session of the GGGI Council was held in Abu Dhabi. Korea signed the GGGI Headquarters agreement, agreeing to host and recognize GGGI as an international organization with an international legal personality.
Cambodia, Qatar, Papua New Guinea Ratify GGGI Establishment Agreement.
Former Australian Ambassador, Howard Bamsey, appointed to lead GGGI for one year term.
The United Kingdom ratified the GGGI Establishment Agreement.
Mongolia and Rwanda became members of GGGI. Third Session of the GGGI Council was held in Songdo, Korea. GGGI was granted Official Development Assistance (ODA) eligibility status by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development â€“ Development Assistance Committee (OECDDAC), joining an select group of international organizations whose contributions from donor nations are considered ODA.
Norway ratified GGGI Establishment Agreement.
GGGI was given observer status at sessions of the Conference of Parties (COP) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
The organizationâ€™s Songdo liaison office was opened as a venue for international cooperation and coordination with multilateral organizations, including the Green Climate Fund (GCF), as well as for specialized training and capacity-building activities, and high-level governance activities. The Fourth Session of the GGGI Council was held in Songdo, Korea. The United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution granting the GGGI observer status, which gives GGGI the right to speak at General Assembly meetings and sponsor and sign resolutions. GGGI is also be able to cast procedural votes. 10
June - Global Green Growth Summit 2013 The Global Green Growth Summit was held in June 2013 in Songdo, Incheon City, Republic of Korea. The third annual Summit focused on the nexus between finance, innovation and policy, providing a unique platform for international best practice in accelerating the transition to an inclusive, green growth pathway. The Summit placed emphasis on taking innovative approaches to blend private and public finance, advance technology deployment at scale, and drive an era of economic development that strives for an inclusivegreen economy transition. Securing investments, delivering the required financing and institutional innovations and increasing the involvement of fiscal instruments were the core topics discussed at sessions. Among the key speakers and participants were H.E. Mr. Bharrat Jagdeo, President of the Assembly, GGGI and Former President, Co-operative Republic of Guyana; H.E. Mr. Juan JosĂŠ Guerra, Minister of Environment and Natural Resources, United Mexican States; H.E. Dr. Mok Mareth, Senior Minister and Minister of Environment, Kingdom of Cambodia; H.E. Dr. Sanjaasuren Oyun, Minister of Environment and Green Development, Mongolia; Dr. Ir. Endah Murniningtyas, Deputy Minister and Head of Natural Resource and Environment, State Ministry of National Development Planning (BAPPENAS); Mr. Michael Liebreich, Chief Executive, Bloomberg New Energy Finance; Dr. JĂ¸rgen Randers, Professor of Climate Strategy, BI Norwegian Business School; and H.E. Ato Sileshi Getahun, State Minister of Agriculture, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. For more on GGGS 2013, please visit: http://gggsummit.org/
Towards a carbon-lean GGGI Our carbon emissions in 2013 As part of GGGIâ€™s corporate social responsibility, we measured our carbon footprint in 2013 from our two largest sources of emissions - air travel and building use. Air travel included staff and non-staff (consultants, research fellows etc.) travel as well as meeting participants financed by GGGI. Emissions from buildings only included electricity use from headquarters in Seoul.
GGGI Carbon Emissions in 2013 Building 10%
Building (HQ only) Air Travel Total (tCO2)
tCO2 88 793 881
Air travel 90%
GGGI Carbon Emissions from Air Travel in 2013
Other non-staff (Consultants etc.) 6%
Meeting participants 21% HQ (Seoul) 50%
Project offices 9% Abu Dhabi 2%
Copenhagen 2% 12
tCO2 392 77 16 19 73
HQ (Seoul) London Copenhagen Abu Dhabi Project offices Other non-staff (Consultants etc.) 50 Meeting participants 166 Total (tCO2) 793
A total of 881 tons of CO2 (tCO2) was emitted by GGGI in 2013, 90% of which came from air travel and the remaining 10% from building electricity use. As over 70% of staff members are currently based in Seoul headquarters, the largest share (50%) of air travel emissions came from staff based in Seoul, while staff travel from non-headquarter based GGGI offices accounted for 23%. Meeting participants supported by GGGI attending major events such as Council sessions and the Global Green Growth Summit amounted to 166 tCO2, which accounted for 21% of total air travel emissions.
Methodology used GGGIâ€™s calculation of our carbon emissions followed the principles from the Greenhouse Gas Protocol developed by the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). Carbon emission for air travel were captured based on Mission Requests submitted by GGGI staff in 2013, and lists provided by the Events team for meeting participants. ICAO Carbon Emissions Calculator (Version 2.6) was used for calculating carbon emission from air travel. As for emissions from building energy use, the calculation only included purchased electricity from Seoul headquarters as other offices did not have the required data in 2013.
Looking ahead GGGI strives to walk the talk and become a carbon-lean international organization. We will use 2013 carbon data as a baseline to see how best to reduce our emissions, especially from air travel, either through bundling missions or more effective use of video conferencing or other online means of communication. While focus will be given to reducing carbon emission in our day-to-day operations, GGGI will in parallel explore modalities for purchasing carbon offsets for unavoidable emissions to become a carbon-neutral organization.
Green Growth Planning and Implementation Working on the ground to develop green growth strategies
GGGI has 34 programs in 20 countries, working with them to integrate green growth into their regional or national economic goals. A typical GGGI country program consists of green growth plan (GGP) analysis and design, domestic capacity building, and public-private partnership to support GGP implementation. GGGI’s project cycle starts from understanding a given country’s economic and development objectives and to then assess the potential for green growth to achieve them. We do this by conducting rigorous, sector-by-sector, analysis and by prioritizing actions and policies along multiple dimensions that reflect a country’s own priorities. This leads to developing multi-sector, comprehensive strategies for green growth. These are then assessed in terms of their costs, including their implications for the wider economy. Finally GGGI, building on international best practice, supports the development of appropriate institutional frameworks to implement such strategies, and eventually helps countries transform the strategies into programs and projects that can attract funding from the public and private sector. GGGI’s current operations span across a wide range of sectors and activities. From supporting a national forest plan in Peru to collaborating with Ethiopia on a climate policy and green growth strategy. From helping to strengthen state-level development plans in Karnataka (India), to working with the new Megalopolis Environmental Commission in Mexico on priorities for a green growth plan that has the potential to impact the lives of more than 30 million people. In 2013, GGGI invested heavily in on-the-ground experts to advise partner countries on their green growth planning and started moving its teams to be based in partner countries. GGGI experts have been working closely with government ministries and agencies in order to gain an in-depth understanding and knowledge of local priorities. This approach helps GGGI understand better its partners and tailor its support, and also helps governments build internal capacity to eventually carry out green growth work without the assistance of outside groups. The following details the status in 2013 of GGGI’s Green Growth Planning and Implementation projects.
Focus: Forestry Following up on its support to Brazil’s national climate change strategy, GGGI is assisting the Ministry of the Environment (MoE) in developing a sustainable timber industry in the Amazon as part of a broader policy framework designed to reinforce the progress made so far in tackling deforestation in the Amazon region. GGGI is concentrating its efforts in the Tapajos basin, at the frontier of forest development, identifying policy recommendations and actions to support the forest industry’s sustainability and growth. In 2013, GGGI conducted a survey of companies in the sector, providing the first thorough assessment of the barriers faced by the industry. GGGI is working with the MoE to integrate the lessons learned from this experience into national policy recommendations.
Case Study: Colombia / Amazon Basin GGGI’s engagement with Colombia began in early 2013 as part of the organization’s Amazon Basin Green Growth Planning and Implementation project. It initially was designed to assist Amazon Basin countries to build international partnerships to strengthen the maintenance of their forests and promote the adoption of green growth policies. Currently, GGGI is focusing on Colombia, where the Government and international donors have developed a strong partnership on forestry and green growth. The effort is designed to develop a large-scale investment plan and funding mechanism to support international donors’ engagement in green growth options in the Colombian Amazon Region. GGGI is partnering with Colombia’s Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development (MADS) to assess the feasibility of the plan and financing vehicle. The initiative aims to generate payments from donors in the range of $100 million to $150 million per year to compensate for the country’s reduced deforestation up to zero net goal by 2020. In the coming years, GGGI hopes to further collaborate with MADS to identify linkages with the lowcarbon development strategy that Colombia has already developed. In 2013, GGGI actively engaged other key government ministries to explore the potential to further integrate green growth into the country’s broader economic planning. In particular, GGGI is in the early stages of developing an agenda of work with the National Planning Department toward mainstreaming green growth into the development planning process, national growth and social indicators, and into key sectors.
Focus: Climate Change Adaptation; Urban Development and Transport GGGI assisted the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment (SEMARNAT), in collaboration with the National Institute of Ecology and Climate Change (INECC), to expand the scope of Mexico’s National Climate Change Strategy. This was achieved primarily by helping to incorporate climate adaptation into the strategy based on risk management, the evaluation of the effects of climatic events on key sectors of the economy, and the analyses and prioritization of adaptation actions. In addition, GGGI developed a methodology to identify municipalities that are most at-risk to major climate events. In 2013, GGGI also began working with the Megalopolis Environmental Commission (CAMe) to develop a framework for regional environmental policy and green growth initiatives. The CAMe represents a novel approach to tackling cross-jurisdictional challenges, and has been given the mandate of overseeing environmental issues across 6 states in central Mexico that together account for about a third of the country’s population. GGGI has helped assess and design policies related to green taxes on gasoline and vehicle ownership and Eco-zones with restricted movement of vehicles.
Focus: Forestry; Competitiveness Peru’s forest sector has been undergoing dramatic change over the past three years with a series of new policies and the establishment of a new Forestry Service and Forestry Management System. GGGI is helping the government incorporate green growth into its National Forestry and Wildlife Plan (NFWP). In 2013, GGGI helped establish a cross-ministerial technical committee and advisory group, gave technical assistance on the content of the NFWP, and convened stakeholders to consider and prioritize green growth objectives for the forest sector. In 2013, GGGI also began supporting the National Competitiveness Council to integrate sustainability issues into its strategy for national competitiveness through technical inputs and a series of workshops.
Middle East and North Africa
United Arab Emirates
Focus: Institutional Development; National Planning; Green Growth Data System Since the establishment of a regional office in July 2011 at Masdar City- Abu Dhabi, GGGI has supported the UAE government in developing the National Green Growth Strategy (NGGS) and other activities to facilitate the UAEâ€™s transition towards green economy. The NGGS was submitted to the Cabinet of Ministers in 2013, with plans for implementation in 2014. Overall, the NGGS provides a holistic plan that spans across all sectors and encompasses the federal and emirate levels to ensure green growth initiatives take root in the UAE. In 2013, GGGI performed a number of tasks assisting the government, including comprehensive situation analysis, extensive green growth benchmarking analysis, greenhouse gas abatement cost analysis, macroeconomic analysis and built a green growth repository as an initial data foundation for monitoring and assessing progress on green growth in the UAE. Additionally, in partnership with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the UAE, GGGI is working on a Renewable Micro Grids Project for the UAE and MENA region. In 2013, GGGI completed the first phase of the project, which focused on the design and verification of a renewable energy powered micro grid system for the UAE. In 2014, GGGI will conduct an implementation assessment and identify suitable sites in other MENA countries that would benefit from such a system.
Northeast and Central Asia
China – Yunnan Province
Focus: 5-year Green Growth Action Plan; Waste Management; Transport Yunnan Province in China was selected by the national government as one of five pilot provinces for low-carbon development. GGGI, in the context of scoping potential work in the province, held training workshops for provincial officials to introduce them to international experiences of green growth and conducted foundational research on the green growth potential in Yunnan Province. GGGI will begin program implementation in 2014 in support of provincial green growth goals.
Focus: Green Economy strategy; Climate financing GGGI’s initial work in Kazakhstan was to provide analytic and technical support to the Government in developing its Green Economy strategy. In 2013, GGGI, in consultation with the Ministry of Environment and Water Resources and other development partners, conducted scoping work to identify potential priorities for further work, and submitted a plan that aims to pursue analysis of climate financing possibilities. Work on this project is expected to begin in 2014.
Focus: Institutional Development; Climate Financing; Urban Development GGGI’s work in India was launched in 2012. The portfolio of current and planned projects in India focuses on the linkages of green growth and development at various levels of governance (i.e. national, state, urban, and rural, as well as across a range of key sectors). In 2013, GGGI performed analytical work for the Climate Resilient Green Economy Development Plan for Karnataka, a strategy to accelerate Karnataka’s green growth transition. The program conducted the first ever state-level energy system modeling, and the highest resolution climate change impact assessment to date. It aims to build upon prior initiatives (e.g. the State Action Plans on Climate Change) and incorporate broader considerations of energy security, climate resilience, and social inclusion into mainstream development plans. In 2013, GGGI also launched a partnership with The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in India aimed at developing an integrated national assessment of green growth opportunities, developing two state-level green growth strategies, and assessing the relationship between green growth and poverty and human development in rural areas. Finally, GGGI also launched its work on Green Growth and Urban Development in India in partnership with the National Institute of Urban Affairs.
Case Study: Mongolia In 2013, GGGI completed a project with the Stockholm Environment Institute – US about green energy systems in Mongolia. The project – Strategies for Development of Green Energy Systems – was an analysis of four broad potential scenarios about the country’s evolving energy use over the next 20 to 30 years. The analysis used Long-range Energy and Alternatives Planning (LEAP) software developed by SEI-US. The first scenario, called the reference scenario, was simply a continuation of current trends and practices. The second, the recent plans scenario, was one based on recent plans and suggestions from the Ministry of Energy and the Ministry of Environment and Green Development to introduce a gradual and limited shift to renewable energy. This scenario incorporates the deployment of more hydro-power, wind power, and more energy-efficient housing methods than the business-as-usual trajectory. The third scenario was one that employed extensive and ambitious renewable and efficient energy measures across the Mongolian economy and assumed a transition away from a coal-dominated economy. This was dubbed the expanded green energy scenario. The fourth and last scenario developed was the same as the third but with an added component of a change from exporting coal and oil to neighboring countries to selling electricity derived from renewables. This was called the shifts in energy exports scenario. The latter scenario raised substantial interest, as it could be a significant source of green growth for Mongolia as it emphasizes green economic export opportunities and could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 50 percent compared to the reference scenario, holding GHG emissions constant from 2020. The results of the modeling exercise showed that this scenario would see Mongolia’s economy grow while reducing its GHG emissions growth, and further contributing to global climate change mitigation by exporting renewable electricity. Importantly, the analysis carried out indicated that this scenario would save over $400 million to the Mongolian economy when compared to the first, business-as-usual scenario. The GGGI-SEI project also looked, together with the Mongolian government, at some policy recommendations emerging from the analysis. It should how the country could strengthen its 2007 Renewable Energy Law based on the project’s analysis, reform subsidies on coal, develop more an energy efficient building code, and introduce more stringent efficiency standards in the transport sector, where a lot of Mongolia’s energy use is expected to grow.
Focus: Water Resource Management In 2013, GGGI scoped some potential work to identify green growth opportunities in Uzbekistan in the context of water security. Initially focusing on the Aral Sea, and generating a compendium of water analysis for the five nations of the Aral Sea, GGGI’s 2014 work will focus on scoping potential activities in the context of the Government of Uzbekistan’s Vision 2030 strategy and in particular, on supporting improved water governance to support achieving that vision for sustainable development.
Southeast Asia and Pacific Islands
Focus: Greenhouse Gas Abatement Thailand’s Climate Change Master Plan has an overall goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions without impeding the country’s economic growth or competitiveness. GGGI is helping the Thai Government by developing a roadmap for GHG reduction in two to three industry subsectors. In 2013, the project was in the initial scoping stage. In 2014, it will move into delivery mode with analysis of GHG abatement potential, technologies, and policy measures for the selected subsectors.
Focus: Urban Development; Investment Strategy; Water Management GGGI has been supporting the Government of Vietnam in implementing the National Green Growth Strategy (VGGS), launched in September 2012, and in mainstreaming it into existing socio-economic development goals and plans. In 2013, GGGI completed a joint project with UN-HABITAT on the Green Growth-led City Development Strategy (GG-CDS) of Da Nang City, which identified key economic opportunities and programs for the city. The strategy, submitted to the municipal government of Da Nang in November 2013, will be part of the city’s official urban planning framework. At the national level, GGGI has been assisting the Ministry of Planning and Investment in developing analytical tools and guidelines to prioritize policy actions and investment for green growth. GGGI has also assisting the Vietnam National Mekong Committee (VNMC) in assessing the potential of sustainable water management in the context of green growth for the Mekong River Basin. In October 2013, the Mekong Delta was selected as the initial area for a study assessing green growth intervention opportunities. The results of the study will be submitted to the VNMC in 2014.
Case Study: Indonesia The Government of Indonesia (GoI) and GGGI have been working together since 2011 to develop a program of activity that is aligned with Indonesia’s existing vision for economic and development planning. The joint GoI and GGGI stated goal is to promote green growth in Indonesia that recognizes the value of natural capital, improves resilience, builds local economies and is inclusive and equitable. The specific objectives to achieve this goal are: • To ensure the green growth vision matches or exceeds existing development targets; • To track the green growth priorities of Indonesia by providing targets and indicators; • To evaluate the implications of the country’s current development path against green growth targets and indicators; • To identify the key sectors and high green growth potential projects and investment interventions that will help deliver green growth development; • To harness private sector engagement and investment in support of delivering green growth opportunities in Indonesia; • To undertake economic modeling to analyze each project showing their financial returns and identifying any gaps in the incremental spend required to secure green projects. To achieve this, GGGI provides technical support, research and capacity building that is in line with Indonesia’s vision and direction. In April 2013, the GoI signed a Memorandum of Understanding of mutual collaboration to launch programs and activities for the promotion of green growth in Indonesia. The program is structured along three complementary work components. The first is focused on mainstreaming green growth within Indonesia’s economic and development planning processes, and increasing the use of green technology as well as capital investment in green industry. Activities include supporting the Ministry of Planning and Development in the development of a national Green Growth Roadmap. The second component relates to reducing emissions form deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). GGGI is working with the GoI to ensure that REDD+ finance, programs and policies catalyze green growth in Indonesia. This involves supporting sub-national governments to develop high-quality REDD+ programs and to mainstream REDD+ into development planning and budgeting processes. The third component focuses on regional engagement to support key provincial governments. GGGI has already partnered with the governments of East and Central Kalimantan to assist them with their green growth goals. More specifically, in East Kalimantan, GGGI is providing technical input for the province’s medium-term development plan for the period of 2014 to 2018. In Central Kalimantan, GGGI is supporting the provincial government to bring together key provincial initiatives and policy instruments in the context of green growth and explore additional green growth interventions. In Central Kalimantan, GGGI also recently co-hosted the launch of the first district level activity in Murung Raya, the northern most inland region of the province, the headland of the major Barito river system.
Pacific Small Island Developing States (SIDS) Scoping Project Focus: Institutional Development
The commitment to pursue sustainable development and poverty eradication through green growth is strong among the Pacific island countries. GGGI is designing a strategic roadmap for green growth plans for the Pacific island countries, with a focus on the growth potential of different adaptation options. 2013 was primarily a year of initial assessments and scoping. Program delivery is expected to commence in mid-2014, and will begin with a focus on two Pacific island countries and a project to integrate green growth into regional processes.
Focus: Institutional Development; National Planning GGGI has been a key partner of the Cambodian Government since 2011. It has been bringing together ministries and provincial governments and providing legal and economic analysis to assess green growth opportunities and help design institutions to support the governmentâ€™s National Policy on Green Growth and the National Strategic Plan on Green Growth. These two landmark policies were adopted by the Government in 2013. Another key focus of GGGI in 2013 was assisting the Cambodian Government to incorporate green growth into core economic development plans. Green growth has been identified as a policy mechanism in both the Rectangular Strategy 2014-2018 and the National Strategic Development Plan 2014-2018. These national plans will guide the economic development of Cambodia over the next four years, and GGGI will assist the Government with achieving private-sector led growth and developing green growth sectoral action plans over this period.
Case Study: The Philippines The Philippines has experienced steady economic growth in recent years, and forecasts show this trend will continue for at least the near future. Despite this promising outlook, its geographic location and archipelagic characteristics make it one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to the effects of climate change. In recognition of this serious threat to its economy, the Government has established the National Climate Change Action Plan to prioritize climate change vulnerability in its overall development strategy. GGGI has teamed up with the Government’s Climate Change Commission (CCC) for two major projects to incorporate green growth action plans into municipalities and provinces located within and around high-risk biodiversity areas. The first project – the Eco-town Framework – was completed in late 2013 and was designed to demonstrate how at-risk municipalities can become ecologically stable and economically resilient to climate change. The bulk of GGGI’s work took place in the town of San Vicente, Palawan. GGGI and CCC conducted climate change vulnerability and risk assessments and environmental and natural resource accounting exercises in multiple sectors, including agriculture, coastal and marine, forestry, and health. These analyses helped prioritize several climate change adaptation options, which provided the basis for a climate-proofing plan for San Vicente. These include modernizing farming practices, introducing more climate-resilient crops, establishing sea walls and dikes, and setting up an early warning system. The San Vicente municipal government voted unanimously to adopt the policy recommendations. This plan will be incorporated into future economic development plans for the town. The second phase of the project focuses on taking the lessons learned from the Eco-town Framework and applying them at the provincial level. Dubbed the Eco-town Scale-up, the scoping phase of the project began in late 2013 and is expected to be launched in 2014. It will aim at enhancing climate resilience and promoting green growth in four provinces, with the potential to be then replicated in provinces nationwide.
Case Study: Ethiopia As it strives to reach middle-income status by 2025, Ethiopia has committed to building a Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE), in recognition that traditional economic development through intense fossil fuel use and environmental degradation is not sustainable. CRGE aims to build a society that is able to withstand the shocks and stresses caused by a changing climate. As it grows, Ethiopia also aims to decouple economic development from greenhouse gas emissions, with no increase in net emissions from today’s level. Realizing this vision will require coordinated and sustained efforts by all sectors of Ethiopian society — the government, civil society, and most important, the public. GGGI began green growth support operations in Ethiopia in 2010 in one of its earliest programs. Today, the organization’s work in the country is among its largest programs, both in terms of the ambitious scope of work and the number of GGGI experts on the ground. The work in Ethiopia has included supporting the Government’s launch of the CRGE strategy in 2011 and supporting government efforts to develop other, more specific climate resilient strategies in the agriculture, energy, and water sectors in 2014. In 2013, GGGI worked closely with the Government to design the Sectoral Reduction Mechanism (SRM) — the mechanism within the CRGE for planning, mobilizing finance, and evaluating action on the ground. It also helped establish and operationalize the CRGE Facility, which will allow Ethiopia to aggregate resources from a range of sources and deploy it strategically and effectively to meet its CRGE objectives. 2013 has seen some early results of the work carried out by the Ethiopian government on green growth, with substantial commitment of funding from donors to support the CRGE strategy (such as the $24m commitment by the UK Government) and some early but significant private sector investment in renewable energy, mostly in wind and geothermal.
Case Study: Rwanda In 2013 GGGI completed a year-long project with the Government of Rwanda focused on supporting inclusive green growth, specifically to address its severe housing shortages for low-income people, and a rapidly increasing rate of urbanization. The project helped develop recommendations on suitable low-cost and environmentally friendly housing construction materials and to develop prototype sustainable affordable housing units based on local climate conditions to maximize natural resource efficiency. The Government now aims to move from the prototype stage to building actual affordable and sustainable housing. Also at the request of the Government, and with a view to informing the elaboration of a Building Code in Rwanda, GGGI presented a set of energy efficient measures in the housing and building sector, combining regulations and market-based options, incentives, and awareness specifically suited to the Rwandan context. Recognizing the effectiveness of regulatory and legislative instruments, the focus was placed on the possible framework and composition of the future Building Code in Rwanda, and additionally how different energy efficiency measures can be integrated into the related laws and regulations. In 2013, the Government of Rwanda and GGGI also scoped and launched a new partnership project on green urbanization through developing secondary cities as model green cities with green economic opportunities. The objective is to support the government in implementing its Second Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy 2013-2018 (EDPRS2) and the Strategy for Green Growth and Climate Resilience, particularly in the areas of green urbanization and green economy. The output is intended to be a comprehensive green city framework and guideline that incorporates a package of government interventions and sectoral policies for green secondary city development. Activities will start in 2014.
Focus: Mining; Transport GGGI’s work in South Africa in 2013 assessed the economic impact of electricity price increases on selected value chains in the mining industry. The South African government’s Economic Development Department (EDD) and GGGI collaborated to conduct primary research that explores the effect of increases in electricity prices on firms’ competitiveness, covering five value-chains — coal, gold, platinum, iron ore and aluminum. The research also investigates mitigation strategies of firms to reduce their exposure to higher electricity prices, especially their current and planned investments in energy-saving methods or alternative energy. The project, which suggests that energy policy should be designed using information collected primarily at the value-chain level rather than the aggregate level, has also encouraged greater SouthSouth knowledge sharing between South Africa and Brazil on the mining sector. In November 2013 a multi-stakeholder workshop was held where businesses and government officials discussed the preliminary findings of the research.
Renewable Energy Potential for Green Growth in the East African Community (EAC) Scoping Project Focus: Renewable Energy for Green Growth
The East African Community (EAC) is a regional intergovernmental organization composed of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda. Still at scoping stage, GGGI is in discussion with the EAC Secretariat and its key development partners including UNIDO and IRENA, to support an assessment of the potential for green growth of renewable energy in the region. In 2013, GGGI focused on partnership building with the EAC and other international stakeholders and proposal development on renewable energy and green growth in the region.
Knowledge Development & Management
Under its KDM program, GGGI develops practitioner-oriented knowledge and tools related to various aspects of green growth. The program also comprises various knowledge sharing and networking efforts, designed to advance the knowledge available to policymakers and the public. In 2013, the focal areas of KDM programs included: • • • •
Macroeconomic modeling of a full-scale transition to green growth Employment and poverty reduction potential of green growth strategies Country and industry best practice Trade and technology policy.
Through its KDM program, GGGI has been involved in some of the most comprehensive and innovative research projects related to green growth. Both the Green Growth Best Practice initiative and the Green Growth Knowledge Platform were scaled up in 2013 and produced cutting-edge results in the field. Furthermore, GGGI became a key partner in the New Climate Economy initiative, one of the largest and most prominent research projects focused on climate change and economics.
GGGI’s KDM projects: Climate Smart Planning Platform The Climate Smart Planning Platform (CSPP) seeks to provide developing countries with access to the tools and guidelines necessary forlow emissions climate-resilient growth. More specifically, the CSPP initiative provides a suite of open global, regional, and country datasets; a set of linked, open tools, methods and approaches that span a country’s modeling needs and has been tested in developed and developing countries; and capacity support. It will also provide an open forum where other providers of open source data and tools can exchange knowledge and experience with developing country practitioners. The CSPP is an affiliated program of the Green Growth Knowledge Platform and GGGI is an Implementing Partner of the World Bank. In 2013, the CSPP developed and online prototype for the platform (http://climatesmartplanning.org). The prototype provides access to set of more than 60 well-established modeling tools, methods, and approaches from more than 20 partners. The objective of the Platform is to provide a “one-stop-shop” for high-quality, trusted data sets, tools, and knowledge from multiple sources—with a lot of built-in social interaction.
Impact of Green Industrial Investment on Employment GGGI and The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) launched a joint research project in 2013 to examine the relationship between green industrial investment and employment generation. The research looked at five countries (Brazil, Germany, Indonesia, South Africa, and Korea) and examined the employment effects of alternative energy investments compared to fossil fuel investments. A draft report of the findings was unveiled in December 2013 and the final report will be launched in the second half of 2014.
Green Growth Best Practices Launched in October 2012, the Green Growth Best Practice initiative is supported by three organizations – Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI), Climate Development and Knowledge Network (CDKN), and European Climate Foundation (ECF), and is governed by a steering committee with representatives from 12 international organizations. The Project Secretariat is hosted at the GGGI. In 2013, GGBP analyzed around 60 specific government programs across nine areas of the green growth policy cycle, from planning, setting visions, analysis, implementation, and monitoring. It is a global, practitioner-based, and participatory research, authored by 75 experts and practitioners who are leading the green growth efforts at various levels of government, field of expertise and regions. The initial findings demonstrate that green growth has potential to unlock substantial economic, social and environmental benefits and is actively practiced around the world as a pathway to achieve a green economy and sustainable development. To design an effective green growth strategy, an integrated approach for planning, analysis, implementation, and monitoring is essential, with a broad support for transformative change. Initial findings of the research were released in a synthesis report in February 2014. A full report with detailed analysis will be published in June 2014 both in print and online forms. For more information, please visit www.ggbp.org.
Green Growth Knowledge Platform (GGKP) The Green Growth Knowledge Platform (GGKP) was established by GGGI, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the United Nations Environment Programme, and the World Bank. It is a global network that aims to identify and address major knowledge gaps in green growth theory and practice. The GGKP aims to achieve this through the development of an online Knowledge Platform, convening research committees to identify and address knowledge gaps on key themes, holding conferences and regional practitioners’ workshops, and bringing together international green growth experts through GGKP Knowledge Partnerships. In 2013, GGKP launched its state-of-the-art online knowledge-sharing platform. It contains more than 600 technical and policy resources related to green growth and data sets and policies for 193 countries. Also in 2013, GGGI established its secretariat and launched four research committees on Trade and Competitiveness, Innovation (co-chaired by GGGI), Measurement and Indicators, and Fiscal Instruments. Finally, it produced a joint paper “Moving towards a Common Approach on Green Growth Indicators” with a core contribution from GGGI-KDM experts. For more information, please visit www.greengrowthknowledge.org.
Green Growth Methodology Development The aim of Green Growth Methodology Development (GGMD) is to develop a methodology for green growth planning and assessment as well as an array of methods and tools to be used in developing and implementing green growth plans and strategies. To this end, GGMD is pursuing research in areas that include green growth measurement and indicators, green growth modeling, and green growth assessment. The overall methodology is to be introduced and applied in a Green Growth Methodology Handbook series, the first of which is the Green Growth Energy Planning Guidebook (2014). Key initiatives/activities include: a) Developing sets of green growth Indicators to measure a countryâ€™s green growth performance and identify key sustainability issues that must be addressed in its green growth plan; b) Providing models for green growth planning along with training sessions and exercises in close partnership with external partners; c) Developing frameworks and reports that offer green growth assessment at the country and global level; and d) Collaborating with other international organizations with similar research areas on a routine basis, including UNEP, OECD, the World Bank.
Unlocking Green Growth through Technology Innovation In 2013, GGGI launched the Technology Innovation program to support GGGI partner countries, and the broader community of practitioners, in better leveraging technology innovation to successfully pursue green growth pathways. The program is analyzing and mapping the green growth innovation ecosystem in several countries, facilitating knowledge sharing between them, and supporting the development of policy recommendations on how to improve the effectiveness of domestic innovation efforts. This includes improved coordination of government-funded R&D, better support for commercializing the results of research, policies to catalyze private risk capital for innovative startups, and streamlined and improved intellectual property policy. The program is also identifying emerging technologies that can help improve the delivery of green growth policies, such as the use of ultra-lowcost nano-satellite imagery for improved forest monitoring, and supporting interested governments in utilizing these technologies.
New Industrial Revolution Research Program This project with the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment (GRI) sets out to better understand the link between environmental protection, growth, and development. It aims to strengthen the analytical and empirical underpinnings of green growth in both developed and developing countries through four major focus areas: Macroeconomic issues: Jobs, poverty, and ‘green’ growth; the growth impacts of climate-change policies; evidence from economic history about the sources of growth and the role of policy; and growth and adaptation to climate change. So far, 13 working papers have been produced throughout the course of the research program (2012–2013) and are available to the public (on the GRI and GGGI websites). A workshop was held for the first two of the four major focus areas in 2013 and workshops for the last two areas will be held in 2014. Also in 2013, a first conference was held featuring papers by prominent economists considering green growth from “mainstream” economic perspectives. In 2014, the program will focus on deriving policy implications from the work, including a series of policy briefs.
Social Inclusion and Poverty Alleviation In late 2013, GGGI began its Social Inclusion and Poverty Alleviation program. The program aims to work with GGGI’s in-country programs to develop knowledge and guidance for the effective integration and reconciliation of “inclusion” with “sustainability” goals in policies and programs. Key areas identified include mapping of win-win opportunities and major trade-offs in the socialenvironmental nexus; developing and sharing policy and program opportunities that reconcile underlying conflicts between social inclusion and environmental sustainability and developing and sharing practices that integrate sustainability into large scale social inclusion policies and programs. As part of the work in 2013, GGGI engaged with The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in India to explore the relationship between green growth and combating the problems of poverty and human development in rural areas. This engagement resulted in a Green Growth Planning and Implementation program with this as a focal topic. In 2014, GGGI plans to fully launch the program in support of a number of partner countries.
Special Initiatives New Climate Economy The New Climate Economy initiative is a major research project being undertaken by a global partnership of governments and organizations, including GGGI. It aims to provide independent and authoritative evidence on the relationship between actions that can strengthen economic performance and those that reduce the risk of climate change. The project will present recommendations at the UN Secretary Generalâ€™s Leadersâ€™ Summit on Climate Change in 2014 on actions and policies that can spur growth and at the same time address climate change. GGGI is taking a leading role in the project, engaging 10 fulltime experts working on the NCE. More specifically, GGGI is focusing its work for this project on three topics: Ethiopia, macroeconomic pathways, and technology innovation. In Ethiopia, GGGI is looking at three of the main NCE workstreams from an Ethiopian context: energy and finance, agriculture and landuse, and country transitions. This research will pull together a compelling narrative on the climate-resilient green economy and inform policymakers of its importance. For technology innovation, GGGI is working with Stanford University to develop a set of recommendations for effective innovation policy, and analyzing technology learning curves to better understand the rates of cost reduction and performance improvement in innovative low-carbon energy technologies. For macro-economic pathways, GGGI is working with a number of research institutes to examine the implications of transformational (non-incremental) shifts in development pathways.
Infrastructure for Development: Needs, Current Constraints and Way Forward The infrastructure for development project is a collaborative project with the Group of 24 (G24) with the goal of exploring the possibility of the formation of a new financial institution and its potential role in channeling public and private investment towards green infrastructure GGGI presented early findings on the project in Pretoria, South Africa in March of 2013 at the annual BRICS meeting. The project focuses on identifying policies and financial instruments to unblock financial flows to invest in sustainable infrastructure and new technologies within and among developing and emerging economies.
Scaling green growth requires the private sector as a key driving force. GGGI identifies barriers to and incentives for green growth related private sector investment.
Corporate Advisory Committee In order to reflect the concerns and objectives of private sector actors when addressing planning for green growth, GGGI established an operational-level Corporate Advisory Committee in December 2013. This Committee provides essential guidance on GGGIâ€™s program of work, on addressing specific country circumstances, and on reporting and measuring the performance of program execution. The Committee will play a key role in GGGIâ€™s mission to facilitate and incentivize private investment in green growth related opportunities and technologies. The Committee consists of 19 prominent individuals and experts drawn from a wide array of companies and organizations in the financial services, green technology and services sectors. The Committee meets at least twice a year in-person while maintaining formal and informal lines of communication throughout the year. A number of relevant thematic working groups have already been established to respond to GGGI global and in-country needs. Committee members join thematic work streams based on interest and contribution potential. GGGI will ensure that such processes are streamlined and lead to tangible recommendations and outcomes. The Committee held its first meeting in December 2013 in Incheon, Korea. This meeting led to the identification of the following thematic streams: technology (risk sharing, replication and commercial viability); global value chains and resource/land use efficiency and deforestation; Energy efficiency finance; attracting institutional investors into green growth related sectors.
Green Growth Action Alliance (G2A2) The Green Growth Action Alliance (G2A2) was established at the G20 meeting in Los Cabos, Mexico, and implemented by a coalition of private and public participants. To unlock global investment flows for green growth, the Alliance has been developing innovative financing mechanisms and has supported best practices in blending public and private finance for green investment. In 2013, GGGI was chosen to host G2A2’s Secretariat and developed its new strategy in partnership with the World Bank and the World Economic Forum among other many more stakeholders. The Alliance’s Chairman is Felipe Calderon, the former Mexican President who provided strong leadership throughout the year. In 2013, G2A2 produced a number of outcomes, including a floor price mechanism for India’s solar energy certificate market, a corporate partnership for bulk renewable energy purchases, an agroforestry fund in Vietnam, and designing a commercial insurance product to attract capital for Kenya’s ambitious growth plan in the geothermal power sector. The Alliance released a report in 2013, showcasing these and other examples of the group’s work. The report can be found at the following web address: http://reports.weforum.org/green-investing-2013.
Global Green Growth Forum (3GF) Throughout 2013, GGGI provided strategic input to the Global Green Growth Forum (3GF) process and conference in Copenhagen. The relationship with the 3GF has been reset to increase GGGI’s qualitative engagement with the 3GF team, leading to joint efforts on addressing challenges related to attracting institutional investors to green growth areas and co-convening workstreams on energy efficiency finance (also in collaboration with G2A2).
21st Century Power Partnership (21CPP) in Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) GGGI has developed its engagement with the US National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) and the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) in the 21st Century Power Partnership (21CPP). It aims to further advance a public-private partnership on Low Carbon Power Sector Initiative under the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) and to partner with the 21 CPP’s Public-Private Leadership Forum (PPLF), which aims to accelerate the transition to clean, efficient, reliable and cost-effective power systems.
Mapping Financial Instruments: Climate Finance GGGI has entered into the initial phases for a project designed to develop and identify innovative financing mechanisms that can enhance private sector investments to promote green growth in developing countries. GGGI is also supporting processes that may lead to investments for green growth country programmes by leveraging existing climate facilities and funds. In Thailand, GGGI has begun to have discussions on supporting Thailand’s goal of establishing a compliance based national emissions trading scheme by 2020. GGGI provides essential support for the design, establishment, and operation of its national carbon market in close coordination with the World Bank led Partnership for Market Readiness.
In-Country Support In 2013, GGGI’s PPC Division embarked on early in-country dialogues to support processes in Indonesia, Ethiopia, Mongolia, Thailand and Cambodia. GGGI aims at engaging with both the domestic and the international private sector (including through the previously-mentioned Advisory Committee) in order to develop concrete solutions to market failures in green growth areas. These elements were geared towards a robust delivery support service for GGGI’s country programs and projects. Under the overall country green growth planning and implementation strategy of the United Arab Emirates, GGGI has partnered with Masdar/Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (MIST) and POSCO – a leading Korean steel producing company – to develop a renewable energy microgrid project. In Mongolia, the PPC group supports the government in establishing Public-Private Partnership financing structures for green infrastructure operations.
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