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GGAT 103: Arfordir Coastal Heritage 2010-11 March 2011

GGAT report no.2011/019 Project no.GGAT 103

A report for Cadw by Ellie Graham BA AIfA

Recording stone fish trap SBIS SF 3 Brynmill, Swansea Bay

The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd Heathfield House Heathfield Swansea SA1 6EL


Contents Summary ............................................................................................................................................... 2 Acknowledgements.............................................................................................................................. 4 1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 Project Outline ...................................................................................................................... 5 1.2 Project Background.............................................................................................................. 5 1.3 Aims and Objectives ............................................................................................................ 6 1.4 Methodology.......................................................................................................................... 6 Volunteer Recruitment and Training.......................................................................................... 6 Identification of Coastal Sites (both under threat and new sites) ......................................... 7 2 Main activities undertaken in the course of the pilot year ...................................................... 8 2.1 Review of baseline data and mapping of study area...................................................... 8 2.2 Advertising of the project..................................................................................................... 8 2.3 Creation of display materials, presentations, information packs and website ............ 8 2.4 Recording forms and guidance (see Appendices 1 and 2).......................................... 13 2.5 Training events and Meetings .......................................................................................... 13 2.6 Guided walks and field visits ............................................................................................ 14 2.7 Servicing HER requests .................................................................................................... 16 2.8 Equipment packs ................................................................................................................ 16 2.9 Identification of coastal sites............................................................................................. 17 3 Conclusions................................................................................................................................. 20 3.1 Outreach .............................................................................................................................. 20 3.2 Proposed work for 2011-12 .............................................................................................. 21 Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................ 23 Appendix 1. Recording Forms......................................................................................................... 24 Appendix 2. Recording form guidance............................................................................................ 28 Appendix 3. New sites identified in the course of the project...................................................... 39 Appendix 4. Known HER sites with new data................................................................................ 86

Figures and Plates Figure 1. Leaflet .................................................................................................................................................... 10 Figure 2. Website front page ................................................................................................................................. 11 Figure 3. Website home page ............................................................................................................................... 12 Figure 4. Map of guided walk routes ..................................................................................................................... 14 Plate 1. Guided walk at Penmaen Castle Tower PRN 00300w............................................................................. 15 Plate 2. Guided walk to Rhossili Down.................................................................................................................. 16 Plate 3. Walling eroding out of dune at Broughton ................................................................................................ 17 Plate 4. Wooden and iron structure, Pennard Pill.................................................................................................. 18 Plate 5. Square-cut timber post, Brynmill peat shelf.............................................................................................. 18 Plate 6. Remains of wall, Penmaen Burrows, TC002............................................................................................ 19 Plate 7. View to northwest of southernmost of stone structures, ELG001. Visited 16/12/2010 ............................. 49 Plate 8. View to northwest of southernmost of stone structures, ELG001. Visited 24/01/2011. The northern wall has been destroyed by erosion in the preceding month. .............................................................................. 49 Plate 9. View to northwest of southernmost of stone structures, ELG001. Visited 18/02/2011. ............................ 50 Plate 10. View to northwest of revetting structure on Pennard Pill, ELG012......................................................... 54 Plate 11. View to north of small fish trap ELG026 ................................................................................................. 59 Plate 12. View to north of Post A, ELG041 ........................................................................................................... 64 Plate 13. View to the east of the Oystermouth trackway, ELG 052 ....................................................................... 68 Plate 14. View to the southeast of wall, part of field system RD008...................................................................... 80 Plate 15. View to the south of lines of wooden stakes, SB004.............................................................................. 82 Plate 16. View to the north across the apex of the westernmost weir of SBIS SF3 .............................................. 83 Plate 17. Detail view of surviving wattling amongst the stonework on the western arm of the westernmost weir of feature SBIS SF3 ......................................................................................................................................... 84 Plate 18. Detail of an embayment with a dense cluster of wooden stakes on the western arm of the western weir of feature SBIS SF3 ..................................................................................................................................... 84 Plate 19. View to the northeast showing damage to rampart, Old Castle Promontory Fort PRN 00139w............. 86 Plate 20. View to the south showing ivy growing on interior walls, causing damage to render, Penmaen Burrows Church, PRN 00287w................................................................................................................................... 87 Plate 21. View to the northeast showing remains of Area I, PRN 04667w ............................................................ 88


Summary Climate change is recognised by the Welsh Assembly Government as one of the biggest threats facing the planet. Associated sea level rise, increased coastal erosion and increased frequency of severe weather events will have a major impact on heritage and archaeological sites in the coastal zone. This can manifest as destruction of sites, inundation of currently dry sites, or greater deposition of sand and silting of other areas. Human responses to these issues will vary, and it is unlikely that archaeological sites will be made a priority for protection from these threats, while mitigatory measures will also impact on the archaeological resource in the coastal zone, with the creation of new sea defences in some areas, while others will be abandoned under ‘managed change’. Loss of landscape and heritage caused by this will have a negative impact on the quality of life in Wales. The Arfordir project has been funded by Cadw both to take advantage of the dynamic environment in the coastal zone to identify new sites, monitor and record archaeological sites under threat of tidal erosion, or other forms of damage, such as pressure of visitor numbers, livestock trampling; and to engage interested local individuals and community groups, and encourage them to take an active role in the monitoring of threatened sites, and in the identification of new sites, on a largely independent basis following initial training. The work in the first year of the project in Glamorgan and Gwent has focused both on enhancing the Historic Environment Record and the data held on sites in the coastal zone and on engaging the community with the coastal heritage of the area. Much of the pilot year has been spent creating display materials, the dedicated project website, recording forms and guidance notes. Additionally, time was invested in contacting community history and archaeology groups, advertising the project locally, delivering presentations to existing groups, and holding meetings for volunteers who responded to the advertising. Following these initial meetings and basic theoretical training in identifying and recording archaeological sites, a series of guided walks and fieldwork events were held to familiarise the volunteers with recording techniques and to allow them to undertake practical recording on site. Much of the feedback from volunteers has been very useful in guiding the direction the project has taken, while the data they have generated about the historic environment has fulfilled its archaeological aims. A variety of baseline data has been used to identify sites at risk from coastal erosion; including analysis of the results of the 1990s Coastal Survey (Locock 1996) and the Swansea Bay Intertidal Survey (Nayling 1998), cartographic information, aerial photographs, and information from members of the public. A series of initial reconnaissance field visits were undertaken to assess the condition of a selection of sites, the threats facing stretches of coastline and priorities for further fieldwork. Data generated by the project will be used to enhance and update the regional HER and to highlight archaeological sites and areas most under threat. Based on this data, management plans can be created, and programmes of regular monitoring, recording and further archaeological investigation implemented and the work undertaken both by volunteers working independently on the project and in collaboration with professional archaeologists. Three separate sites have been identified in the course of the initial fieldwork as being suitable for further investigative work: a wooden structure on the bank of Pennard Pill, a section of trackway located on a newly-exposed section of the Oystermouth peat shelf – possibly a different part of that investigated and lifted by GGAT in early 2010 (Sherman 2010) – and a series of timber posts eroding out of the Brynmill peat shelf. It is anticipated that work will be undertaken on these sites in the early part of the next financial year.

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This report presents the methodologies, results and outcomes of the pilot year of the Arfordir project in the Glamorgan-Gwent area, and will present strategies and feedback to aid in the continuation of the project into 2011-12.

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Acknowledgements The fieldwork has been undertaken by volunteers of the Arfordir project, Ellie Graham and Andy Sherman of the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust. Thanks are due to all the volunteers who have taken part in the project, particularly Anna Noel, Lyn Richards, Pete Francis and Esther Richards. The assistance of Sian Rees and Polly Groom of Cadw, Dr Scott Simmons and exchange students of UNCW, Colin Jones of Gower Caving & Mining Group, James Meek, of Dyfed Archaeological Trust, Andrew Davidson, of Gwynedd Archaeological Trust, Andrew Marvell, Richard Roberts, Charina Jones, Edith Evans, and Andy Sherman, all of the GlamorganGwent Archaeological Trust, is also gratefully acknowledged.

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1 Introduction 1.1 Project Outline Arfordir is a pan-Wales project funded through grant-aid to the Welsh Archaeological Trusts administered by Cadw. In South Wales it has been designed to monitor the condition and the impact of erosion on archaeological sites in the coastal zone of the Gower peninsula and Swansea Bay, and to develop community support and participation to sustain ongoing programmes of monitoring long-term. Furthermore, in delivering this, the Trust also enabled members of the local community, local interest groups, history groups and university students to learn more about the coastal archaeology in the area to provide them with the information and skills to allow them to take an active role in monitoring and recording sites threatened by erosion, and to identify new sites, with minimal supervision from professional archaeologists. The primary output of the project is data entered into the regional Historic Environment Record (HER), which will enhance and update records held, as well as adding new records of previously unrecorded sites. This report on the results of the work undertaken in the course of the pilot year of the project demonstrates the success of the project, both in yielding hard archaeological outputs through the collection of new data, and in engaging local members of the community, while also contributing to the Welsh Assembly Government’s objectives regarding climate change, and addressing research issues identified in Introducing a Research Framework for the Archaeology of Wales.

1.2 Project Background The impact of coastal erosion on heritage has been recognised in past works, both Cadwfunded projects, (Locock 1996, Nayling 1998) and National Trust commissioned studies (Poucher 2002-3, Poucher 2003, Poucher 2003-4a, Poucher 2003-4b, The Muckle Partnership 2002) which identified stretches of coastline most vulnerable to erosion. Increasing awareness of the issues of global warming and climate change has highlighted their potential effects on the historic environment in coastal areas, and the need for a sustainable programme of monitoring, with contingency to mitigate the impact in certain cases. The rising profile of archaeology in public forums and the popularisation of the subject via a variety of media has led to an increased public awareness of the heritage of local areas, and an associated growing interest in and enthusiasm for that heritage. Members of the public are taking an active role in the historic environment, and public engagement is becoming an important component in archaeological projects achieving success. The project parallels, and is based upon, those run under the same umbrella identity by Dyfed Archaeological Trust and Gwynedd Archaeological Trust, (the pilot years for which were one year ahead of that in Glamorgan and Gwent, in 2009-10). Its goals are based on those of the award-winning SCAPE (Scottish Coastal Archaeology and the Problem of Erosion) project run by Shorewatch in Scotland, and the Thames Discovery Programme (TPD). All of these have been invaluable sources of ideas and inspiration in the course of the pilot year.

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1.3 Aims and Objectives The aims of the project are to monitor the condition of archaeological sites in the coastal zone, the impact of erosion on these sites and to identify new sites in the study area. This will enhance and update information held in the regional HER. The project also aims to establish and develop community involvement and engagement with coastal heritage; encouraging participation and facilitating a programme of sustainable and long-term monitoring of sites with minimal input from the professional sector. Creating and developing links with other professional bodies, educational institutions, community and local interest groups will provide interested local individuals and groups with the information, skills and tools they need to undertake monitoring the condition of, and threats to, archaeological sites. The monitoring work can, in some areas, lead to further mitigatory measures against the impact of climate change and coastal erosion on the historic environment of the coastal zone. The project will also update the information generated by previous survey work undertaken in the study area and add value to previous work undertaken relating to coastal heritage.

1.4 Methodology The project has adopted a variety of methodologies in different areas of the work programme, with different outcomes, results and feedback. For the purposes of the project, the coastal zone has been defined as the intertidal zone, plus a band 500m inland of Mean High Water. Volunteer Recruitment and Training A major focus of the Arfordir project has been on the engagement of members of the public with the coastal heritage of the area, fostering their involvement in the monitoring of areas most vulnerable to coastal erosion, the condition of archaeological sites in these areas, and the identification of new sites. To accomplish this, volunteers were recruited and trained, to provide them with the skills to undertake monitoring work independently, so that such work can continue on a long-term basis with little support or input from professional archaeologists. Emphasis was placed on recruiting local people and residents who regularly use the coastal areas for recreational leisure and/or work purposes, as these will be bestplaced to notice change and undertake regular site monitoring. It was anticipated that a large proportion of the work in the pilot year of the project would consist of advertising the project to the community; identifying local groups, making contact with existing groups, and setting up new groups of volunteers, followed by training events, guided walks and field visits. Archaeological activities were expected to include:  Monitoring  Fieldwalking  Survey  Excavation/evaluation Monitoring visits and walkover surveys have been undertaken, both with groups and without, but due to timetabling and scheduling of the project, there has not as yet been an opportunity to undertake further investigatory work such as fieldwalking, earthwork survey, or excavation/evaluation in the year 2010/11. Several sites have been identified, however, which would benefit from further investigation and the implementation of measures to mitigate erosion damage, and it is anticipated that this work will be undertaken as a priority in the early part of 2011-12.

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Identification of Coastal Sites (both under threat and new sites) Data generated by the 1996 coastal survey of the area (Locock 1996) and by the Swansea Bay Intertidal Survey (Nayling 1998) was added to a GIS and combined with HER data, allowing the identification of areas most vulnerable to erosion. This data was analysed in combination with aerial photography coverage, the results of the National Trust surveys and cartographic sources to enhance understanding of the threat of coastal erosion. This was combined with targeted visits and walkover surveys of selected stretches of the coastline to assess the imminence and severity of threat to known archaeological interests in these areas and to identify new sites. This has highlighted areas to be prioritised for further and more intensive monitoring work, and several sites which will most benefit from investigatory work. For some sites, a series of visits made over a period of time highlighted the speed of erosion in these areas and the importance of a photographic record, where the same view of a site taken at different times shows the degree of damage caused by erosion. This is perhaps most clearly demonstrated by the new sites at Broughton dunes, ELG001, where photographs taken over a three-month period show the ongoing process of collapse and erosion of the sand dunes around the walling.

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2 Main activities undertaken in the course of the pilot year 2.1 Review of baseline data and mapping of study area The study area, comprising the intertidal area and a 500m band inland of Mean High Water, was mapped in a GIS, with major waterways (i.e. the rivers Loughor and Tawe) being included as far inland as the lowest historical crossing point. HER data for the study area was then extracted, and to this was added data from previous coastal surveys which had identified areas of coastline vulnerable to erosion, and which had identified both new sites and areas with a high archaeological potential.

2.2 Advertising of the project The initial stage of recruitment involved a mail-shot to all volunteers previously involved with GGAT’s community work in the City and County of Swansea area, most of whom had volunteered on the Oystermouth Castle community excavation. This yielded very positive results, with 27 people becoming volunteers for the Arfordir project. Promotional display materials, posters and leaflets were also produced and were distributed at various local libraries, museums and community centres as well as being taken to various outreach events the Trust attended: the National Archaeology Week GGAT Open Day and the National Eisteddfod where 10 people expressed an interest and/or signed up for the project. A press release was issued to the South Wales media, including local radio stations and newspapers, and a piece in the South Wales Evening Post resulted in a further 11 applicants for the project. Letters and emails were also written to local community councils on Gower, to the West Glamorgan Ramblers, Glamorgan Young Farmers, Friends of Oystermouth Castle, the Gower Society, Swansea Metal Detecting Club, the Royal Institution of South Wales, Oystermouth Historical Association, the Women’s Institute and the Swansea University Society of Ancient Studies. Following this initial contact with groups, a number of presentations were made to several groups Swansea Metal Detecting Club – 19th January 2011 (c.35 attendees) Swansea University Society of Ancient Studies – 24th November 2010 (c.25 attendees) AGM of the Royal Institution of South Wales – 27th January 2011 (c.40 attendees) As a result of these, another 10 volunteers were recruited to the project.

2.3 Creation of display materials, presentations, information packs and website A basic introductory text was prepared at the start of the year, and was used as the basis for most of the promotional materials. A leaflet (see Figure 1) was produced at a variety of sizes, and with a series of posters, was distributed to local community hubs and displayed at various GGAT events and shows. The photographs chosen for these were mainly taken from previous Cadw-funded projects undertaken by the Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust which covered coastal areas, particularly in the Gower peninsula, and were chosen to emphasise the variety of different coastal environments which can be found in the study area.

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The colour scheme, layout and fonts were chosen to reflect those already in use for the project in the other areas where it is active, (e.g. Gwynedd and Dyfed) in order to preserve its pan-Wales identity and branding. The same branding and design was used when creating all other project materials, including the website, see Figures 2 and 3. In addition to the project website, where all information and recording packs are available to be downloaded, blogs have also been set up where volunteers can write directly about their experiences, share their findings and talk about new sites, and a Flickr group has been established, where site photographs can be shared between volunteers and groups, in order to foster a sense of ownership and direct involvement amongst volunteers and groups, as well as a means of disseminating results. The same design style was carried through the PowerPoint presentations prepared for introductory meetings and was also used for the information packs distributed to volunteers. These information packs included a leaflet, a registration form for the project (which included acknowledgement that all photographs taken in the course of the project could be used in material and reports on the project) a full set of recording forms and guidance on how to complete them, as well as an example of a completed form. In addition to this, a list of useful websites was also provided, with details of similar projects (Arfordir elsewhere in Wales, SCAPE, Thames Discovery Programme, Cadw, RCAHMW, Nautical Archaeology Society) as well as safety information for undertaking work in the coastal zone, and information on the Portable Antiquities Scheme and the Receiver of Wreck. A leaflet and bookmark promoting the Archwilio website were also included in the pack.

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Figure 1. Leaflet

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Figure 2. Website front page

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Figure 3. Website home page

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2.4 Recording forms and guidance (see Appendices 1 and 2) The recording forms were created in consultation with the regional HER to facilitate ease of entry of data from the forms in the record. They are closely based upon those used by the Dyfed and Gwynedd Trusts for the Arfordir project, and have been created based on those of the SCAPE project, though simplified. In addition to the forms, several pages of guidance were produced to aid the volunteers when completing forms and recording sites. For the fields which required the use of HER standard terminology, sheets were created giving lists of standard terms to act as prompts for volunteers.

2.5 Training events and Meetings A number of meetings have been held with others involved in the project and with other professionals working in the area. 17th November 2009 – Coastal Forum Meeting, Aberystwyth – Cadw, National Trust, RCAHMW, DAT, GAT 9th December 2009 – Meeting and site visit with James Meek of Dyfed Archaeological Trust 29th June 2010 – Coastal Forum Meeting, Aberystwyth – Cadw, National Trust, RCAHMW, DAT, GAT 23rd November – Meeting with Huw Lloyd, Gower AONB ranger 22nd February – Meeting with Dr Scott Simmons, Swansea University 15th March – Meeting with Dr Scott Simmons, Swansea University As a result of advertising, mail shots and presentations, a total of 71 people expressed interest in the project, and a series of introductory meetings were arranged to give further details and background about the project as well as covering some principles of recording archaeological sites, distributing information packs and going through the recording forms and guidance 10th December 2010 – 1 attendee 13th December 2010 – 9 attendees 15th December 2010 – 4 attendees 11th January 2011 – 3 attendees 13th January 2011 – 10 attendees 15th January 2011 – 11 attendees 17th January 2011 – 2 attendees 19th January 2011 – 3 attendees 21st January 2011 – 1 attendee 24th January 2011 – 1 attendee 11th February 2011 – 1 attendee

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15th February 2011 – 2 attendees 23rd February – 11 attendees 8th March 2011 – 8 attendees A total of 67 people received this training in meetings, a further four received the same training at the meeting of the Swansea Metal Detecting Club. Feedback: “Very many thanks for the superb training yesterday - I've just spent a happy hour re-reading and making a file for my future adventures into surveying. Very many thanks also for the web address for a trowel. I look forward to the upcoming coastal site walks too. Best wishes” Gillian Austin “Dear Ellie, Just a quick email to let you know how good it was to meet you yesterday. Today I've seen some of the people who came along and they really enjoyed your presentation too...so thanks! Regards” Esther Richards

2.6 Guided walks and field visits A series of five guided walks was initially arranged to allow the volunteers to put the theoretical recording training into practice, and to get used to noticing and recognising archaeological sites. The routes were chosen to cover a range of site types and periods, to include both intertidal and dry sites, and to highlight areas where erosion was known to be an issue.

Figure 4. Map of guided walk routes

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Wednesday 16th February - Three Cliffs Bay and Penmaen Burrows (morning and early afternoon) (13 attendees) Thursday 17th February - Port Eynon to the Knave (all day) (4 attendees) Friday 18th February - Broughton Bay and Whiteford Sands (all day) (12 attendees) Saturday 19th February - Rhossili Down and the Vile (all day) (12 attendees) Monday 21st February - Swansea Bay (afternoon) (16 attendees)

Plate 1. Guided walk at Penmaen Castle Tower PRN 00300w

Many volunteers requested further weekend dates, as these best suited those involved in the project who work full-time. Feedback also suggested that particular routes were most popular with people who wanted to attend additional sessions. Three additional weekend dates were arranged, as well as one further weekday session. Saturday 5th March - Three Cliffs Bay and Penmaen Burrows (morning and early afternoon) (15 attendees) Saturday 12th March - Swansea Bay (afternoon) (7 attendees) Sunday 20th March – Rhossili (all day) (13 intended attendees) Thursday 31st March – Broughton (afternoon) (8 intended attendees) Additional fieldwork was undertaken both as reconnaissance walkover survey by GGAT staff to assess the suitability of these routes for volunteer groups and specific visits to new and known sites with individual volunteers who brought them to our attention. Thursday 16th December 2010 – Broughton dunes Thursday 20th January 2011 – Rhosilli Down Monday 24th January 2011 – Broughton and Whiteford Tuesday 25th January 2011 – Oxwich Bay

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Wednesday 26th January 2011 – Three Cliffs and Penmaen Thursday 27th January 2011 – Port Eynon to the Knave Tuesday 1st February 2011 – Swansea Bay: Brynmill and Oystermouth Tuesday 1st March – Brandy Cove

Plate 2. Guided walk to Rhossili Down

Feedback: “Dear Ellie, Thanks for walks last week. I really enjoyed them. Best wishes” Lyn Richards “Hello, Thank you Ellie for the guided walk today! I enjoyed myself and learned a lot! Best wishes,” Rosa Cheesman “Hi Ellie, I really enjoyed last week - can't believe how many sites we found. I keep thinking of more around the coast now, wondering if they’re recorded. I'll look up photos etc soon to send in. Best wishes,” Peter Francis

2.7 Servicing HER requests For the purposes of the guided walks and follow-up fieldwork to be undertaken independently by volunteers, HER data and maps have been supplied to groups as part of the project. Specific data sets have been compiled for all of the areas covered by the guided walks, with additional information for the Rhossili area for the group active on this stretch of the coastline.

2.8 Equipment packs Sets of equipment were put together for the use of volunteer groups while recording sites for the project. These consist of a 10 megapixel digital camera and 16 GB memory card, a 50m surveyors tape, 1:25,000 OS map of Gower, handheld Garmin GPS unit, and 2 x 1m ranging poles. Three sets of equipment were bought on the basis that there appear to be three main areas of interest for volunteers and therefore three discrete groups.

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2.9 Identification of coastal sites A number of site visits have been undertaken, both with volunteers as part of the guided walk routes and with other professionals, specifically targeting those areas where the threat of erosion has been assessed as severe. Seven separate areas have been visited in the course of the pilot year, and this will be increased in the next financial year, when the study area will also be extended to the east to encompass the coastline as far as the mouth of the Ogmore River. A list of new sites is included in Appendix 3. These are listed separately from known HER sites where the data held on them has been enhanced by the project: where a description has been expanded; threats identified; a misplaced NGR has been relocated (see Appendix 4). Where new sites have been identified, these will be entered into the regional HER as polygons where possible. Several sites of specific note have been identified in the course of fieldwork as being of archaeological significance and at risk of erosion or other threat. Further detail and full records for these are available in Appendix 3. i)

Stone-built structures, Broughton dunes, ID ELG001. Several stretches of stonework have been revealed in the dunes at Broughton Bay as they are eroded by tidal action. There appear to be three separate areas of stonework, one of which consists of two stretches of well-built stone walling, one forming a corner with a return, with a possible doorway between the two. The other areas of stone are less well-defined. All sit on top of a buried former land surface visible as a thick dark band of soil where the dunes have collapsed.

Plate 3. Walling eroding out of dune at Broughton

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ii)

Wooden and iron structure, Pennard Pill, ID ELG012. A low kerb constructed of wooden planking, iron spikes and upright wooden stakes, on the southeast bank of Pennard Pill. The ends of other pieces of timber are visible protruding from the stream bed adjacent to the structure, and may be related. This may represent revetting for the bank of the Pill.

Plate 4. Wooden and iron structure, Pennard Pill

iii)

Square Timber Posts, Brynmill peat shelf, Swansea, ID ELG041. A group of five square-cut timber posts eroding out of the peat shelf, three forming a roughly straight line, a fourth offset from the main alignment, and one outlier to the south. These are particularly vulnerable, as the peat shelf they are contained by is eroding, and being high up the beach, are also within the area subject to a beach cleaning regime by the council.

Plate 5. Square-cut timber post, Brynmill peat shelf

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iv)

Low stone wall, Penmaen Burrows, ID TC002. The low remains of a stone-built wall, on a NNW-SSE alignment, visible where it crosses the footpath. It is constructed of dressed stone, and appears to have been coursed, though only one course is visible. The wall seems to have been faced, with a rubble core. This is particularly vulnerable to visitor erosion where it crosses the popular and busy footpath across the Burrows.

Plate 6. Remains of wall, Penmaen Burrows, TC002

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3 Conclusions The initial work has laid the foundations for a longer-term project, which will be supported by Cadw in 2011-12. A successful methodology has been established for identifying threatened coastal sites, and will continue to be used in both the Year 1 study area, and in the extended study area proposed for the second year. The records of several existing sites have been updated, enhanced and expanded, and new sites have also been identified, including a possible deserted medieval settlement, a number of shipwreck sites, a complex of prehistoric features, wooden revetting on Pennard Pill, a section of possible prehistoric trackway and a collection of timber posts on the Swansea Bay foreshore. Several of these have been identified as justifying further archaeological investigation, particularly those in the intertidal areas. As volunteers and groups return information and completed forms, it is hoped that further sites will be identified, and the need for mitigation work can then be assessed individually. Although assessing and responding to the threat of coastal erosion is the main focus of the project, where threat to sites is from sources other than tidal/coastal erosion, other means of protection could be considered, such as establishing alternative access routes for visitors, listing or statutory protection. Predictions about climate change, sea level change, and increased risk of severe weather events indicate that areas of the South Wales coastline will come under threat from significantly increased coastal erosion. While this could have severely damaging effects on archaeological sites in the coastal zone, it may also expose new sites. Although this is a long-term issue, and the full impact will not become clear for several years, the project can identify those sites which are most likely to come under specific threat in the future. The project is intended to encourage long-term monitoring of archaeological sites by volunteers, with the groups continuing to operate and observe sites in perpetuity, beyond the formal end of the project.

3.1 Outreach The project has successfully engaged members of the public and encouraged involvement in, and awareness of the archaeology of the coastal area. Feedback from volunteers who attended events and training has been very positive. During the course of the project, it has become apparent, perhaps not unsurprisingly, that a number of volunteers have considerable knowledge of the history and archaeology of the area. This, combined with local knowledge, is a valuable resource which can make major contributions to the project. It is obvious that many individuals are aware of archaeological sites in the study area which are not recorded in the HER, and the Arfordir Project provides a vehicle through which these can be identified and recorded. During the training and events, it has become clear that there is great enthusiasm for the project in the community, and working with volunteers and groups has been a very rewarding experience, which in turn has generated greater enthusiasm and interest. It is hoped that the groups have now been established in a position to undertake fieldwork and recording on a largely independent basis, requiring less input from the professional sector, and that this will allow them to continue into the future, generating enough momentum to continue with the work in perpetuity. In the first year, timetabling issues and commitment to other projects has meant that the work on the Arfordir Project has been focused on the final months of the financial year, with the result that all work with volunteers has been compressed into a few months. This has

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had the positive effect of capitalising on initial momentum, maximising enthusiasm in the groups by allowing initial training and meetings to be quickly followed-up with fieldwork. It is proposed to continue this way of working as much as possible into the next financial year. However, the pilot year has shown that while all efforts can be made to timetable elements of the workload, a degree of flexibility is required, as certain means of advertising can take longer to take effect, and volunteer responses can vary in time, with the result that volunteers are still applying to take part when others have already been trained and established into operational groups. There is a generally even distribution of volunteers across different stretches of the coastline, most prefer to work in their own local area, on sites they find most interesting, though some are keen to get involved everywhere. The areas in which most volunteers have expressed an interest in are generally in the areas previously identified as being most vulnerable to coastal erosion. As the programme of work for the project has been largely confined to the latter part of the year, while almost all of the volunteers and groups are trained and ready to start recording independently, they have only just finished training, and therefore no independentlycompleted Arfordir recording forms have yet been returned to GGAT for inclusion in the HER. The new sites which have so far been generated, and the existing site records which have been enhanced, are the result of both reconnaissance fieldwork undertaken by GGAT staff ahead of group walks, and guided walks where sites were recorded by staff in partnership with volunteers. As volunteers have now been equipped with the skills they need to start monitoring and recording, it is hoped, however, that forms will soon start to be returned.

3.2 Proposed work for 2011-12 In the next year, the study area for the project will be extended to the east, to include the coastlines of Neath Port Talbot and Bridgend. As the methodology for volunteer recruitment in the pilot year has proved to be successful, it will continue to be followed in the next year. Contact has already been established with the archaeology group of Porthcawl U3A, and several of their members are already taking part in the current year’s work. This will be expanded upon next year, and a talk with the whole group is planned for early on in the year. More contacts will be made with existing history and local interest groups in next year’s study area, and a similar programme of advertising will be undertaken, with leaflet drops to appropriate venues, and local press releases. The project will also be advertised to all volunteers who took part in GGAT’s fieldwalking event in 2010, which took place in Monknash, which, although not within the study area, is close by. Once volunteers have been recruited to the project, a similar programme of training events, workshops and guided walks will then be undertaken, to establish and strengthen a network of volunteers. In the first year, these were most often held at the Trust’s offices in Swansea, as these were close to the study area. For the second year, however, it is anticipated that an alternative venue close to various parts of the new study area will be chosen to minimise travelling and inconvenience for the new volunteers. Reconnaissance work on this section of the coastline to assess condition, threats and current erosion, as well as suitability for fieldwork with volunteer groups, will also be undertaken. Additionally, work by existing groups and volunteers in the current year’s study area will also continue to be supported. As well as monitoring work, this will take the form of investigative work, at the site of revetting on Pennard Pill, at the timber posts in Swansea Bay, opposite Brynmill and the Oystermouth trackway.

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The various blogs and the Flickr group will be maintained, and volunteers encouraged to use them independently for disseminating information, writing about their experiences of working on the project, and the results of their fieldwork, and networking with each other. Most of the proposed tasks for the pilot year have been achieved, where they have not, this is due to the lack of information as yet returned by volunteers, which in turn is due to the timing of the project within the year, there simply has not been enough time for volunteers to start undertaking independent fieldwork and returning data to GGAT. The tasks proposed for the initial year will remain important goals for 2011-12, and include: 

contact existing community and history groups in the new area with details of project



organise and advertise meetings in the new area raising awareness of the project



following meetings and initial contact, set up training days with groups and guided walks. This will take place in the new area and possibly also in the first year study area, as more volunteers are recruited to the project



fieldwork; monitoring, fieldwalking, survey, excavation, both with groups and without, to provide training and increase local skills

Tasks which have not yet been achieved, but which will form part of the 2011-12 work programme are: 

verify data returned by volunteers



enter data generated by fieldwork into HER. This will take the form, where possible, of digitised polygons.

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Bibliography Locock, M, 1996, GGAT 50: Coastal Survey (Glamorgan) Loughor, West Glamorgan to Sker Point, Mid Glamorgan. GGAT Report No. 96/015 Nayling, N, 1998, Swansea Bay Intertidal Survey. GGAT Report No. 98/059 Poucher, P, 2002-3, The National Trust Archaeological Survey: Pennard and Bishopston Poucher, P, 2003, The National Trust Archaeological Survey: North Gower Properties: Whiteford Burrows, Llanrhidian Marsh, The Bulwark, Ryer’s Down & Welsh Moor Poucher, P, 2003-4a, The National Trust Archaeological Survey: South-west Gower properties: Rhossili-Mewslade Poucher, P, 2003-4a, The National Trust Archaeological Survey: South-west Gower properties: Rhossili-Mewslade Poucher, P, 2003-4b, The National Trust Archaeological Survey: South Gower coastal properties: Mewslade-Port Eynon, Pilton Green, Pilton Cross and Oxwich Sherman, A, 2010, Wooden Structures on the Oystermouth foreshore, Swansea. GGAT Report No. 2010/062 Sherman, A, forthcoming, Prehistoric trackways of Swansea Bay The Muckle Partnership, 2002, Archaeological Survey of Rhossili Down, Gower, West Glamorgan. For the National Trust

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Appendix 1. Recording Forms ARFORDIR – Coastal Heritage Site Recording Form SITE DETAILS This information will be used to distinguish the site from others Site Name.

PRN/ID Number:

LOCATION OF THE SITE Mark the site location on an OS map, if possible attach a photocopy of the location to this form. Record the National Grid Reference. National Grid NGR taken from map? Reference (NGR) GPS? Use the centre of the site area if possible, otherwise note where the grid reference has been taken from: Approximate Distance to coast edge: SITE DESCRIPTION The description will help to identify the site type, function and date Full description (including approximate size of site area if possible)

continue over if necessary Form: (please use HER standard terms) Estimated period: (if possible) SITE CONDITION This information will help to assess the condition of the site and threats to its survival Condition: (please use HER standard terms) Condition description: (including extent of survival, damage)

Any threats to site? (please select HER standard terms and include descriptions)

YOUR RECORDS This will help to cross reference to other records and to things that you have found Have you taken photos? Produced any other drawings?

Any Finds?

Pottery/Animal bone/Human /Glass/Shell/Other

bone/Wood/Metal/Bricks

or

tiles/Stonework/Flint

FIELDWORK INFORMATION This will remind you and others about the actual survey Group name Form recorded by Survey date

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ARFORDIR – Coastal Heritage Site Recording Form SKETCH LOCATION DRAWING: a drawing showing the location of the site in relation to other features, (with distances), the location of the coast edge (if relevant) and the approximate position of north (usually north is at the top of the drawing).

DETAILED SKETCH PLAN / SECTION: a more detailed drawing showing the principal elements of the site, either in plan, section, or both. Show the dimensions of features and the approximate position of north.

Please return forms to: ARFORDIR, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust, Heathfield House, Swansea SA1 6EL

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Site Register Group name:………………………………………………………………………………… Site No.

Site name/location

Number given Date by

26


PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD SHEET Group name/your name .................................…………………………………... FRAME

DATE

DESCRIPTION

LOCATION

NAME

TO

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Appendix 2. Recording form guidance Registers To keep track of the sites you record and make sure different sites and records don’t get confused, you can use pro-forma recording sheets and registers in addition to the individual Arfordir site recording forms. Site Register Each site you record has to be given a unique identifier; if it’s already recorded in the HER (Historic Environment Record), use the PRN (Primary Record Number) of that site, which should be available on the site lists in the information packs given to you by the project coordinator before you start fieldwork. If it’s a new site, however, or if you’re unsure as to whether or not a PRN refers to the site you’ve found) you need to assign it a new code before you start recording information about it. Once the information is returned to GGAT, the new sites will be entered into the Historic Environment Record, and will be assigned a PRN at this stage. Entering the codes you assign into the register prevents records becoming confused and helps with cross-referencing information. To assign an identifier to a new site, use the code based on your group name which should have been given to you by the project coordinator (if not, contact GGAT to ask). Then assign a series of consecutive numbers following this code. Starting with 1 and working up is logical, but as long as each code is unique and is not repeated, it doesn’t really matter which number is used. If a number of people from the same group to out to different areas at the same time, they can be assigned blocks of numbers to use (e.g., one person may be given 1-20, while someone surveying a different part of the coast is assigned 21-40, etc.). The site register has several columns: Site number Site name/location

Assigned by Date

The next consecutive number you assign, prefixed by your group code Write the name of the site as recorded in the HER, or if it’s a new site, assign it a name and briefly describe its location. The name of the person who is recording the site and issued the number. The date of the fieldwork when the site was recorded.

Photographic Register The photographic register helps to keep a record of all the photographs you take during fieldwork. Recording every photograph ensures that pictures of sites don’t get confused with other sites. Again, each frame should be assigned a consecutive number, until you download your camera; when you have downloaded the pictures onto a computer and deleted them from the camera, start the numbering from one again. When you download photos onto a computer, label the file with the dates you did the fieldwork, and make a backup copy of the images, on a CD or USB memory stick, etc. It is also important to keep a note of where the pictures are stored.

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Frame Date Location Description Name To

Fill in the frame number here, starting with 1 and using consecutive numbers. The date you took the photograph Where the photo was taken, e.g. site number/site name/NGR A brief description of what the photograph shows (e.g. general view of site, detail of south wall). The name of the person who took the photo. The direction you were facing when you took it (compass points – N, NE, etc).

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THE ARFORDIR – COASTAL HERITAGE SITE RECORDING FORM Information to assist with filling in the form Why do we need to use the form? “Archaeology is not only about finding things, but about telling others about what has been found. To help do this, archaeologists write information on recording forms. Using a form:  helps to jog your memory, prompting you to note down enough information to make a meaningful record  ensures that your data is recorded in a consistent manner  helps with cross-referencing to other information you collect (such as photographs, finds or drawings)  helps when transferring data to a computer database.” * The aim of the form is to provide a consistent means of recording that can be used by anyone assisting with the ARFORDIR project. All sites should be identified with a unique ID number (or PRN – Primary Record Number) and site name, and this used again for any further episodes of recording at the site. This should ensure that sites are not recorded twice or two sites get confused. The data recorded on the form will be used to provide information to the Regional Historic Environment Record (HER). Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust maintain the HER for Southeast Wales. Using the form means that the information you collect can be easily checked and allow new records to be generated or existing records to be updated. The recording form will also provide information on the condition of sites between one visit and the next, in order that an understanding of any changing conditions of the site may be noted (identifying those sites under threat of erosion, through changes of use, agricultural processes, neglect, public access or vandalism). Recording the date the record was made is essential. The Site Recording Form should be ideally completed on-site, but this may be impractical at times due to weather conditions. Some parts of the form, may be easier to complete when off site. In all cases please complete the form as soon after the site visit as possible. It is always worth taking a notebook to record details of archaeological sites, and the information may be added to the recording form (or additional record sheets) at a later date. The forms will be photocopied or scanned, so please use black pen to complete them. Once the form is completed, send a copy to the Arfordir coordinators. Arfordir Glamorgan Gwent Archaeological Trust Heathfield House Heathfield Swansea SA1 6EL

*

Taken from the SHOREWATCH project

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HOW TO FILL IN THE ARFORDIR SITE RECORDING FORM SITE NAME: This information will be used to distinguish the site from others. Ideally this name should not just be a place name – but should be distinguished by a unique feature of the site, landmark or even the type of site it may be. If the site already has a site name (perhaps it is already recorded on the HER, or it is a site which is being revisited), please reuse the same site name. PRN/ID NUMBER: The PRN number is the Primary Record Number that will be assigned to the site by the regional Historic Environment Record. Fill this in if the site has already been assigned the record number. In many cases where new sites are being recorded, this will be filled in following the submission of the site record to the Arfordir project coordinators and input onto the HER. In the interim, please enter a temporary unique ID number for the site based on you group name as provided by your project coordinater. You can check whether the site already has a PRN by contacting Glamorgan Gwent Archaeological Trust and asking for information about the particular site, or the area within which you are working. LOCATION OF THE SITE The location of a site must be identified in at least one of two ways (or both if possible): The location should be marked on an OS 1:25000 map: your project coordinater will provide you with an OS 1:25000 map which you can use to locate and label your site. The NGR location should be recorded using a GPS device The NGR location should be recorded from an OS 1:25000 map Provide a National Grid Reference (NGR): The National Grid Reference refers to the Ordnance Survey grid which is used for standard mapping across the UK. This can be recorded using a GPS device or from the OS 1:25000 map. Indicate which method was used on the recording form. The grid reference can be identified by locating the site on an OS map and reading the easting along the bottom of the map, followed by the northing which goes up the side. Many people will have used grid references before, but we can offer further help and assistance to anyone who has not, or is not confident in how this is done. The eventual grid reference is ideally recorded as an eight-figure reference, for example SM 8803 2130 (the location of Roch Castle) - where SM is the 100x100km grid square in which the map lies (recorded on OS maps), and the eight figure grid reference is taken by using the Eastings running from left to right and the Northings running from top to bottom. The Ordnance Survey states: “When giving a National Grid reference for any point, always read the distance eastwards (Eastings) before the distance northwards (Northings). Eastings and Northings must always be recorded in the same number of figures, even if some are zero.” If a map is not used it may be that a GPS device is being used (Geographical Positioning System) which locates the instrument using signals taken from satellites circling the earth. The accuracy of these depends on the GPS instrument being used or how many satellite signals are being received (tree cover, buildings or cliffs can disrupt this). If possible it would also be useful to record: Approximate distance to coast edge: A rough indication of the site to the coastal edge is useful to note. An estimate of the distance (preferably in metres) is perfectly acceptable, so please do not take any risks to your own safety for the sake of accuracy!

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SITE DESCRIPTION Full Description: The site description should be a summary of the site to help identify the site type, its function and an estimate of the date. Some descriptions may be very short, and others may require further notes being written on additional sheets of paper (or on the reverse of the recording form). The more concise the description, the better in some ways! Record information about the size of the site. It may be useful to refer to photographs that you take, which may assist the description. In some cases it may not be possible to assign an accurate function or date to the site – or the recorder may not feel confident enough to ascribe such information (just like most archaeologists!). In these cases just highlight the information which has made you consider the site may be of archaeological importance. What have you identified that makes you consider the site to be of archaeological interest? Is it a building or structure? An earthwork? A field boundary? Further work or research may be necessary on the majority of sites to provide further information on what they actually represent. Form: There are a number of standard form descriptions terms that should be used to describe a site, standard HER terminology, which are as follows: Form Building Buried Feature Cropmark Documents Earthwork Finds Landform Other Structure Place-name Topography

Use for Roofed structure Use for below ground features, known only from excavation, geophysical survey or exposed in cliff faces etc. Features visible from aerial photographs (usually), where below ground archaeological features are visible in crops, grass or soil Use for sites known only from documentary sources Earth mounds or linear features, such as field banks, indicating archaeological features below Site where an artefact is recovered Where natural features have been used for past activities e.g. cave Use for built structures that are not buildings e.g. bridges, lime kilns e.g. field names or road names indicating previous land use or activities A topographic feature or location may be considered to indicate a high potential for earlier archaeological activity

Period: It may be possible to ascribe a certain period or even a specific set of dates for some archaeological sites. For pre-Roman sites sometimes no better description than ‘prehistoric’ can be assigned, or if it is not possible to ascribe a date use ‘unknown’. The following date ranges are used to ascribe periods: Approximate date

Palaeolithic –

c.450,000 – 10,000 BC

Mesolithic –

c. 10,000 – 4400 BC

Neolithic –

c.4400 – 2300 BC

Bronze Age –

c.2300 – 700 BC

Iron Age –

c.700 BC – AD 43 AD 43 – c. AD 410

Post-Roman / Early Medieval / Dark Age -

c. AD 410 – AD 1066

Medieval Period –

1066 – 1485

Post-Medieval Period –

1486 – 1750

Industrial Period -

1750 – 1899

Modern –

20th century onwards

Historic

Roman (Romano-British) Period –

Prehistoric

Period

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SITE CONDITION Condition of site: This will tell us the current condition of the site, and record damage – both historic and modern. The majority of archaeological sites will have suffered from some form of damage in the past, and it is worth recording the extent of survival – for example: The structure is relatively intact; or the earthworks are clearly visible within a pasture field; or the field boundary would appear to have partially collapsed recently; or the site is visible within a collapse in the cliff; or the site is only exposed at low tide etc. etc. The following terms should be used to describe condition of a site (standard HER terminology): Condition

Use for

Near intact

E.g. a roofless building surviving to gable height

Damaged

E.g. a feature surviving as low earthworks

Destroyed Near destroyed

Use only for features that have been fully excavated or quarried away i.e. where excavation would find no trace E.g. a building shown on an historic map that is no longer visible on the ground

Restored

Where a site or building has undergone a program of restoration

Intact

Where a site or structure can be seen to be in very good state of preservation

Moved

Various

Usually where a feature such as a gatepost, cannon has been moved from its original location. Worth stating how you know it has been moved. Use for sites identified from maps/photographs where the condition has not been verified from a site visit Use for complexes and linear features, farmsteads, leats etc.

Converted

Where a structure has been altered for a different usage

Not Applicable

Use for findspots

Not known

Condition description: In addition, where possible the condition of a site should be described more fully, noting any visible damage or deterioration, vegetation growth, or contrastingly, well-preserved features of a site, areas in good condition. For example, the site is very much overgrown with bracken, some damage to the southern wall as a number of stones are missing, however, the northern wall is very well-preserved, original mortar intact. Describing the condition may also help to identify threats to the site. Any threats to the site? This will be very important to the Arfordir project, and will help us to identify those sites where further archaeological recording or investigation may be essential. Threats may include: coastal erosion affecting cliffs, beach heads or sand dunes and the archaeology upon or within them; disused buildings may be decaying and collapsing; public access may be leading to erosion across archaeological sites, through constant walking, climbing, camp fires or even vandalism; a change of use of a building or structure may lead to damaging alterations. The following terms should be used to describe condition of a site (standard HER terminology): Adaptive Re-use Afforestation Agricultural Re-use Agriculture Animal Burrowing

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Building Caving Clearance Coastal Erosion Collapse Development Dredging Dumping Electricity Pole Erosion Extractive Industry Fire Flooding Footpath Forestry Industry Landscaping Metal Detecting Military activity Natural decay Nil Not Applicable Other Peat Desiccation Ploughing Recreational Use Redevelopment Re-use Road Root Action Scrub growth Sea Defences Static Fisheries Stock Trampling Stone Robbing Tourism Tree Felling Tree Growth Tree Throw/Roots Vandalism Vegetation Vehicle Erosion Visitor Damage Visitor Erosion Water Drainage Woodland YOUR RECORDS If you have taken any photographs, made any written descriptions or drawings that are not on the main recording form, please note these here. It is best that these can be made easily accessible to the Arfordir project coordinators and the HER in order that as much information as possible is archived regarding the sites. Any Finds? Note any artefacts that you have recovered, even if you are unsure if the objects are significant or not. For most site visits finds will not be recovered and should certainly not be removed from the ground (for archaeological reasons as well as issues

34


with landowners or any legal permission that may be necessary). In most cases finds should be left where they are. FIELDWORK INFORMATION Group Name: Please record your Group Name, if you belong to one, or note if you are an individual involved with the project. Form Recorded By / Survey Date: Please note who has completed the Site Recording Form, and on what date the survey was undertaken. Then we can come back to you if we don’t understand something!

35


REVERSE OF SITE RECORDING FORM SKETCH LOCATION DRAWING: This provides space in which to put a sketch location plan of the site in question, and is very useful where accurate written descriptions of the locations are difficult. They can also be used to locate sites on return visits if grid references are inaccurate or could not be clearly defined. To assist with the locations, show features around the site that will not move or change over time (such as outcrops of rocks, walls or buildings or large trees). Indicate distances between these features and the site by using tape measures, or estimate distances as best as one can where such equipment is not available. DETAILED SKETCH PLAN / SECTION Room is given to provide a more detailed drawing of the site in question, which may include different elements to the site, and can be used to show dimensions of the area and any features within. Ideally the direction of north should be shown on the plans. For both of the sketch plan sections we are not looking for works of art! The sketches will be an aid to recognising the sites for any subsequent visits. On one day a feature may be visible, but a return visit a number of weeks later, the same feature may not be identified due to vegetation growth or due to bad light or weather. In a few cases, the Site Record Form may be the only record we have of a site or feature as it is in the process of being removed (e.g. demolition of a building or structure) or may be destroyed through erosion processes. The sketch plans are a basic record, and where more detailed drawings are needed, or are being done, then these will be done on different sheets. Ideally measurements should be given in metres – BUT whatever units of measurement you use, please make sure they are noted on the drawings! If you are providing additional accurate scaled drawings, please write the scale of any the drawings upon them. Where additional photographs, finds, drawings, written records etc are taken of an identified site, please ensure that they are all recorded with the same ID/PRN number and name and referenced on the Site Recording Form, to enable cross referencing.

36


ARFORDIR – Coastal Heritage Site Recording Form - EXAMPLE SITE DETAILS This information will be used to distinguish the site from others Site Name PRN/ID Number: 00022w BURRY HOLMS HILLFORT LOCATION OF THE SITE Mark the site location on an OS map, if possible attach a photocopy of the location to this form. Record the National Grid Reference. National Grid SS 3988 9258 NGR taken from map? Reference (NGR) GPS?  Use the centre of the site area if possible, otherwise note where the grid reference has been taken from: Approximate Distance to coast edge: SITE DESCRIPTION The description will help to identify the site type, function and date Full description (including approximate size of site area if possible) A rampart and ditch cut across the island at almost the highest point, and enclose about a third of its area. Rampart about 100m long, running almost straight across the island from N to S. The ditch is c.2m deep and the bank on the N side is larger than to the S. On the N side, it is 15m wide by 4.5m high, and c.1m above the interior of the fort. To the south, just 12m wide. A well defined entrance to S of centre formed by gap, with causeway over ditch. continue over if necessary Form: (please use HER standard terms) EARTHWORK Estimated period: (if possible) IRON AGE SITE CONDITION This information will help to assess the condition of the site and threats to its survival Condition: (please use HER standard terms) NEAR INTACT Condition description: (including extent of survival, damage) GENERALLY GOOD CONDITION AND WELL VEGETATED, SOME DAMAGE TO BANK ON S SIDE

Any threats to site? (please select HER standard terms and include descriptions) ANIMAL BURROWING, SOME RABBIT ACITIVTY ON ISLAND, AND SEVERAL MOLEHILLS NOTED IN THE AREA COASTAL EROSION, PARTICULARLY TO W TOURISM AND VISITOR DAMAGE WEARING A PATH THROUGH THE BANK YOUR RECORDS This will help to cross reference to other records and to things that you have found Have you taken photos? Produced any other drawings? PHOTOS ON DIGITAL CAMERA, RECORDED ON PHOTO INDEX SHEET Any Finds?

Pottery/Animal bone/Human bone/Wood/Metal/Bricks or tiles/Stonework/Flint /Glass/Shell/Other

FIELDWORK INFORMATION This will remind you and others about the actual survey Group name Form recorded by Survey date GGAT Ellie Graham 07/07/2010

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ARFORDIR – Coastal Heritage Site Recording Form SKETCH LOCATION DRAWING: a drawing showing the location of the site in relation to other features, (with distances), the location of the coast edge (if relevant) and the approximate position of north (usually north is at the top of the drawing).

DETAILED SKETCH PLAN / SECTION: a more detailed drawing showing the principal elements of the site, either in plan, section, or both. Show the dimensions of features and the approximate position of north.

Please return forms to: ARFORDIR, Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust, Heathfield House, Swansea SA1 6EL

38


Appendix 3. New sites identified in the course of the project The list of new sites has been created from the data generated by the project to date, but more information is being added all the time. In some cases, particularly the intertidal areas of Swansea Bay, only brief records have so far been created, comprising site type, location and a very brief description. These sites will be prioritised for further work and more detailed survey by volunteers. Photographs of sites have been included where the site is of particular interest, or is particularly vulnerable to erosion and future work has been planned to mitigate this. Photographs have also been included where they have been taken of the same area over a period of time and can highlight the ongoing erosion from which that site is suffering. These new sites will be added to the regional HER, as polygons where possible. PRN/ID no

Site Name

BC001

Trial Shaft

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 58469 87645

S edge of shaft

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

200m

Earthworks

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description A trial shaft for the lead mine workings, roughly 2m by 1m, now an irregular depression in the surface. Excavated from 2000 onwards by the Gower Caving and Mining Group, later capped. Found to descend to a depth of 23m, and the base of the shaft had been drilled but never blown. Part of a larger complex of mining remains in the area.

Condition description Re-excavated, later backfilled and capped. Position now marked by a large irregular depression

Threats Footpath, root action

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brandy Cove

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BC002

Adit

Date

ELG

01/03/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 58503 87594

Edge of depression to west

From map? GPS?

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

150m

Earthworks

Near Intact

Unknown

No

Yes

Description Low irregular arched adit entrance cut into exposed bedrock on the east side of Brandy Cove valley, the portal is c.1m high and c.0.5m wide, with a large irregular hollow c.6m by 6m in front of it to the west. Reputedly Roman in date. Part of a larger complex of mining remains in the area.

Condition description Portal remains open, though tunnel beyond has been blocked

Threats Vandalism, visitor damage, collapse, root action

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Brandy Cove

Recorded by ELG

Date 01/03/2011

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PRN/ID no

Site Name

BC003

Old Forge, Brandy Cove

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 58522 87574

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

120m

Building

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Remains of walling defining a rectangular building, depicted on the 1st edition OS map (1878) and known locally as 'the Old Forge'. The structure is very overgrown, but is roughly 8.4m long in total (N-S), and 1.3m wide (E-W). The walling stands to around 1m on average, and is constructed of roughly coursed, roughly dressed stone blocks. On the north side of the building, a low kerb consisting of a single course of stone is visible continuing the alignment of the long wall for a distance of 1.3m from the corner. The end of this low kerb appears to curve at its far end, but this is very obscured by vegetation. This structure sits on a large flat area which appears to have been terraced into the east side of the valley to provide a working platform. Part of a larger complex of mining remains in the area.

Condition description Walls standing to 1m, but is very heavily overgrown

Threats Root action, tree felling, tree growth, tree throw/roots

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brandy Cove

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BC004

Beach adit, Brandy Cove

NGR

Date

ELG

01/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 58537 87479

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

At MHW

Other Structure

Near Intact

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Entrance into the underground mine workings from the beach at Brandy Cove. This level portal leads directly into an upper gallery, with a wall built directly in front of the portal blocking access to these workings, presumably constructed to prevent access when the mine was decommissioned. Between the portal and the wall is a shaft, around 5m deep, to the lower level workings. Water was pumped out of the workings here via a cast iron pipe in the shaft. A dam below the portal at the level of the lower gallery blocks off a tunnel which runs south offshore, and holds the seawater back at high tide. Part of a larger complex of mining remains in the area.

Condition description Mine has been backfilled and flooded. Now in the process of being re-excavated by the Gower Caving and Mining Group.

Threats Flooding, collapse

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brandy Cove

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BC005

Beam Engine Pit

NGR

Date

ELG

01/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 58483 87535

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

100m

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description A large stone-lined pit, with a narrow stone-built beam slot. Now fenced off for safety and very overgrown. The associated shaft is nearby, but its exact location is unknown. This would have housed a weighted beam attached to a steam engine which counterbalanced the pumping rod, allowing the workings to be pumped out via the entrance on the beach (BC004), and also allowing workers, materials and ore to be transported up and down the shaft. Depicted on the 1st edition OS map (1878) as earthworks. Part of a larger complex of mining remains in the area.

Condition description Very heavily overgrown and vegatated

Threats Root action, tree throw/roots, tree felling, tree growth.

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Brandy Cove

Recorded by ELG

Date 01/03/2011

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PRN/ID no

Site Name

BC006

Water tank, Brandy Cove

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 58476 87531

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

100m

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Stone-built, concrete-lined tank, c.2m by 1m, with a clay base for retaining water, fed by pond BC011 via a leat for the steam engine. Now fenced off and very overgrown. Part of a larger complex of mining remains in the area.

Condition description Very overgrown, small area of concrete lining survives in one corner.

Threats Root action, tree throw/roots, tree felling, tree growth.

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brandy Cove

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BC007

Twin mine shafts

Date

ELG

01/03/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 58507 87574

N edge of depression

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

120m

Earthworks

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Two sub-circular depressions, side by side, both c.6m in diameter and 2-3m deep, possibly the location of former mine shafts for the lead workings. Part of a larger complex of mining remains in the area.

Condition description Survives as two irregular and well-vegetated depressions

Threats Root action, tree throw/roots, tree felling, tree growth.

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brandy Cove

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BC009

Limekiln

Date

ELG

01/03/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 58685 87544

originally GPS, under tree cover, corrected to that above based on 1st edition OS (1878)

From map? GPS?

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

140m

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Description A semi-circular, stone-built limekiln. The chamber is open to the north, with the wall defining the semi-circle to the south. The walling is 1.15m in height and the chamber is 2.15m east-west, and 2m north-south. Depicted on the 1st edition OS map (1878) (labeled 'Old' at this time).

Condition description stable, well-vegetated

Threats Root action, tree throw/roots, tree felling, tree growth.

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Brandy Cove

Recorded by ELG

Date 01/03/2011

41


PRN/ID no

Site Name

BC010

Boundary bank

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 58734 87459

Point where path crosses bank

From map? GPS? Yes

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

25m

Earthworks

Damaged

Post-Medieval

No

Description A stone and earth boundary bank, aligned north-south. Noted where it crosses the coastal footpath, depicted on both historical (1st edition OS map - 1878) and modern OS maps. Measured 2.4m wide and 0.5m high (where recorded), continues in both directions, in deep vegetation, but is still visible in undergrowth. Historical property division, still in use as a modern property ownership boundary.

Condition description Eroded and work down by footpath, heavily vegetated elsewhere

Threats Root action, tree throw/roots, tree felling, tree growth, erosion, coastal erosion, footpath, visitor erosion

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brandy Cove

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BC011

Lower Hareslade Farm Pond

NGR

Date

ELG

01/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 58409 87645

Yes

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

230m

Earthworks

Near Intact

Post-Medieval

No

Description A low earth bank which formerly retained water in a holding pond/reservoir, necessary for water supply as this is a dry valley. This pond supplied both the farm and the mine workings, via a stone-lined leat. It fed into the tank (BC006), providing water for the steam engine which powered the pump for draining the workings, and the lift for carrying workers, equipment and ore up and down to the mine. Part of a larger complex of mining remains in the area.

Condition description No longer retains water, but survives as an earth bank

Threats Root action, tree throw/roots, tree felling, tree growth

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brandy Cove

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BC012

Lead Mine

NGR

Date

ELG

01/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 58440 87611

Yes

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

180m

Other Structure

Near Destroyed

Post-Medieval

No

Description Lead workings depicted on the 1st edition OS map (1878). Landscaped during the 1960s by the landowner, and land has now been returned to agriculture, nothing is visible of surface remains at this point, though other features around the valley survive is varying degrees of preservation. Lead (and silver) were reputably extracted here during the Roman period, and in the late 1700s, 1810-1813 and 1849-53.

Condition description Area has been landscaped.

Threats Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Brandy Cove

Recorded by ELG

Date 01/03/2011

42


PRN/ID no

Site Name

BC013

'Mamie Stuart's' Mine Shaft

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 58626 87529

Edge of shaft

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

100m

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Believed to be a mine shaft associated with the lead and silver working in Bishopston valley, possibly an air shaft, sloping east at an angle of c.30 degrees, about 6m deep. Irregular shape, uneven sides and 30 degree slope suggest this may be a natural fissure, or be a partially collapsed entrance. In 1961, a female skeleton, believed to be that of Mamie Stuart, a 26 year old local woman who disappeared in 1919, was discovered at the base of this shaft by three cavers.

Condition description Possibly collapsed

Threats Root action, tree throw/roots, tree felling, tree growth

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brandy Cove

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BS001

Submerged Forest, Brynmill

NGR

Date

ELG

01/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63571 91817

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Landform

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description In exposed areas of the Brynmill peat shelf, the remains of root systems and tree boles are visible, representing the remains of a submerged forest on this part of the foreshore.

Condition description Peat is suffering from erosion, and is becoming fragmented

Threats Coastal erosion, visitor erosion, recreational use, vehicle damage, peat desiccation, other (beach clearance)

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Recorded by

Brynmill

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BS003

Fishing posts

NGR

Date

ELG

12/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63270 91318 - SS 63546 91304

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description E-W aligned linear arrangement of stakes. Four low wooden stakes in a row, all with pieces of string attached. Likely represent the remains of fishing posts.

Condition description Survive as low posts, string attached

Threats Coastal erosion, re-use, visitor damage, visitor erosion

Photos? No

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Brynmill

Recorded by ELG

Date 12/03/2011

43


PRN/ID no

Site Name

BS004

Road Iron

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63768 91671

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Upright road iron, protruding at an angle from the sand, c.0.6m visible. Possibly part of a modern fish trap.

Condition description Survives, though no longer in use

Threats Re-use, coastal erosion

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brynmill

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BS005

Upright metal post

NGR

Date

ELG

12/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63806 91629

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Modern

Yes

Description A square-section metal post protruding from the sand, of which c.0.4m is visible. Possibly the remains of Second World-War anti-invasion defences.

Condition description Survives as an isolated upright

Threats Coastal erosion, beach clearance

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brynmill

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BS006

Upright Scaffolding Pole

NGR

Date

ELG

12/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63848 91552

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description A modern upright scaffolding pole, placed upright in the sand, with an exposed height of c.0.3m. Clear of corrosion or barnacles when visited, suggests recent date.

Condition description Survives as isolated upright of unknown purpose

Threats Coastal erosion, re-use, beach clearance

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Brynmill

Recorded by ELG

Date 12/03/2011

44


PRN/ID no

Site Name

BS008

Clay Pits

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63490 91729

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Earthworks

Near Intact

Modern?

Yes

Description A series of shallow pits cut into the clay, uneven depth, up to c.0.2m deep. On the offshore side, they are well-defined with relatively straight edges and visible tool marks. Less well-defined on the inland side. Overall length (E-W) of 17.4m and width (N-S) of 6.4m, though the lack of definition on the north side makes this difficult to judge exactly. The straight-sided south side has visible tool marks and cut marks, with the imprint of a spade and the tines of a fork. On the south side, a very small (c.0.3m by 0.3m) straight-sided, rhomboid depression is connected to the main pits by a short channel. This may be fairly modern in date and represent an area where clay has been extracted for potting?

Condition description Edges of pits are eroding and they are becoming besanded and besilted.

Threats Coastal erosion, visitor erosion, besanding/besilting

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brynmill

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BS009

Drilled wooden post

NGR

Date

ELG

12/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63537 91250

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description An upright, rectangular-cut wooden post, c.0.3m exposed height, with a drill-hole towards the top, with a rope still attached. The upper part of the post, around the hole, appears to have been deliberately burnt. Possibly the remains of a fish trap or fishing post.

Condition description Survives as an isolated upright, though with rope still attached from most recent use.

Threats Coastal erosion, re-use

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Recorded by

Brynmill

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BS010

Fish trap

NGR

Date

ELG

12/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63556 91297 - SS 63593 91301

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description An E-W linear arrangement, c.37m long, of 7 wooden stakes, aligned E-W, generally c.0.2m high. Most likely the remains of a fish trap.

Condition description Wooden upright stakes survive to 0.2m high

Threats Coastal erosion, visitor erosion

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Brynmill

Recorded by ELG

Date 12/03/2011

45


PRN/ID no

Site Name

BS011

Two wooden stakes - possible fish trap

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63599 91270

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description A group of two upright wooden stakes, 1.2m apart and standing to a height of 0.1m above the current level of the sand and clay. Stakes are quite eroded. Possibly represents the remains of a small fish trap.

Condition description Survives as two low, eroded wooden stakes

Threats Coastal erosion, visitor erosion

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brynmill

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BS012

Wooden fish trap

NGR

Date

ELG

12/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63586 91300 - SS 63592 91282

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description A double row of rounded, low upright wooden stakes, varying in height from c.0.5-0.15m, and quite eroded. Aligned NNW-SSE and c.19m long in total. The rows are offset from each other to form a zigzag shape. Fifteen stakes survive in total, some paired. Most likely represents the remains of a fish-trap of the double-row type seen elsewhere in the bay.

Condition description Wooden stakes survive to varying height but generally low and eroded.

Threats Coastal erosion

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brynmill

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BS013

Fish trap

NGR

Date

ELG

12/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63537 91288 - SS63570 91312

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description An NE-SW alignment of wooden stakes, 11 in total, rectangular cut, up to c.0.35m in height. Total length of c.40m. Grooves visible in the tops of some stakes, possibly the remains of drill-holes, such as that seen in BS009. Probably the remains of a wooden fish trap.

Condition description Wooden stakes survive to c.0.35m, upper part eroded.

Threats Coastal erosion

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Brynmill

Recorded by ELG

Date 12/03/2011

46


PRN/ID no

Site Name

BS014

Fish Trap

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63524 91284 - SS 63535 91287

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description E-W aligned linear arrangement c.13m in length, of four upright wooden stakes, rectangular-cut and standing to a height of c.0.25m. Probably the remains of a wooden fish trap.

Condition description Wooden uprights survive to height of c.0.25m

Threats Coastal erosion

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brynmill

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BS015

Wooden stakes

NGR

Date

ELG

12/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63563 91306

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Three wooden stakes, in a linear N-S alignment, c.3m long in total. Southernmost has a groove cut into the top, most likely the remains of a hole, with the upper part broken off, the northernmost has a piece of rope attached. The largest (to the south) is rectangular cut and c.0.2m high, the lowest, on the north side, is circular and stands to c.0.1m. Likely the remains of fishing posts.

Condition description Posts survive to varying heights but are eroded and broken

Threats Coastal erosion, re-use

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Brynmill

PRN/ID no

Site Name

BW001

Worked timber

NGR

Date

ELG

12/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 42747 94584

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Finds

Near Destroyed

Unknown

Yes

Description A large piece of timber and attached peat, deposited by tidal action in the intertidal zone. The timber appears to have been worked. Total size is 1.17m by 0.73m; the timber is 1.17m long by 0.41m.

Condition description Loose in intertidal zone, detached from peat bed.

Threats Coastal erosion, flooding, peat desiccation

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Broughton and Whiteford

Recorded by ELG

Date 18/02/2001

47


PRN/ID no

Site Name

BW003

Ship's Timber

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 43832 94705

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

On Mean High Water

Finds

Near Destroyed

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description A worked curving timber 1.65m long, with 5 circular holes drilled through it, part of the hull of a wooden ship.

Condition description Washed up at MHW

Threats Coastal erosion

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Broughton and Whiteford

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG001

Stone-built structures, Broughton dunes

Date

ELG

18/02/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS41979 92976

Edge of eroded dune roughly

From map? GPS?

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

At extreme point of highest tides

Building

Damaged

Unknown

No

Yes

Description Several areas of stone and an associated dark soil band are visible eroding out of the edge of the dunes along a distance of c.25m. These appear to represent the remains of stone-built structures and a buried land surface. There are three main groups of stonework visible, the southernmost, and largest at SS41979 92976. This group consists of two lengths of possible walling exposed in the eroding edge of the dune. One appears to be a northwest-facing elevation, with a corner at the northeast end, with a possible return (of which very little is visible) forming a northeast facing elevation and running back into the dune. The exposed section appears to stand to a height of around 0.7m, with 5 rough courses visible, and an exposed length of c.0.5m. The uppermost course consists of large conglomerate blocks, while the lower courses appear to be of roughly hewn sandstone. Approximately 1m to the northeast of this is a further length of stonework c.0.5m wide, which shows no signs of facing or forming a straight side. This may be a northwest-southeast aligned wall, the end of which has been destroyed by the action of erosion. Again with this wall, there appear to be some signs of rough coursing to the construction, and it appears to incorporate both sandstone and conglomerate blocks. A number of large loose blocks from the structure have tumbled down the dune as it has been eroded. At the time of the site visit (16.12.10), a band of soil was noted, varying in depth, but averaging c.0.4m, located approximately 2m above the top of the clay bank which forms the base of the dunes. The structures appear to be sitting on top of this layer, which is visible as a continuous band running along the dunes to the northeast for a distance of in excess of 10m. Approximately 10m to the north of the first structure, at SS41981 92971, more stone is visible. Two large blocks have been exposed at the northeastern extent of the exposure here, one on top of the other, and there are several smaller stones lying haphazardly along the top of the soil band over a length of c.1m. A number of large voids in the sand and soil were noted here, several large blocks are visible at the foot of the dune where they have tumbled down. Roughly 15m further north of this, two further short lengths of the soil layer visible: that to the south side is c.1m long and 0.3m high, that to the north c.0.3m long and 0.2m high. Both are associated with small jumbled stones which appear random and haphazard. A lot of stone lies at the base of the dune, most likely having been washed up by tides, along with a large amount of material dumped here in an attempt to consolidate the dune and prevent further erosion. Some of the larger blocks, however, and those further up the slopes of the dune, are probably part of the structures which have fallen due to the erosion of the dunes. Some of the blocks appear to have possibly been worked and faced. This is close to the site of 03043w lenses of slag and coal, which may be related.

Condition description This site is currently in a seriously damaged condition, some of the walling appears near intact, however, other parts have obviously already been badly eroded, and are very vulnerable to further damage. This site is under severe and imminent threat from a number of causes, the major one being coastal erosion. The site is at the upper limit of extreme high tides, but is in an area where there is active erosion and collapse of the dunes. Over the past few years there has been significant scouring of sand from beach, and the dunes have retreated by several metres. It is evident from the amount of stone and large blocks which have already tumbled down the dunes, and from the fresh scars visible, that significant damage has already been done, and is ongoing. It is likely that a single high tide coupled with a severe storm could do further major damage to the site, and possibly destroy it entirely.

Threats Coastal erosion, erosion, collapse, natural decay.

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

None

N/A

Recorded by ELG

Date 16/12/2010

48


Plate 7. View to northwest of southernmost of stone structures, ELG001. Visited 16/12/2010

Plate 8. View to northwest of southernmost of stone structures, ELG001. Visited 24/01/2011. The northern wall has been destroyed by erosion in the preceding month.

49


Plate 9. View to northwest of southernmost of stone structures, ELG001. Visited 18/02/2011.

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG002

ANTI-TANK DEFENCES

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 44605 96956

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Modern

Yes

Description Double row, c. 5m apart, of scaffolding posts forming inverted V-shapes. Landward row is very badly collapsed, there has been more collapse of both rows towards the lighthouse. The eastern extent of the line is at SS 44794 96700. Interpreted as Second World War anti-invasion defences, though recorded in the HER as a modern fish trap.

Condition description Roughly 50-60% of the individual elements have collapsed. Fishing nets have snagged on several, causing further damage.

Threats Coastal erosion, other (fishing damage)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

No

No

Recorded by

WHITEFORD POINT

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG003

Fe OBJECT

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 44723 97044

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Destroyed

Modern

Yes

Description Fe framework object, rectangular shape, Fe struts forming three sides, fourth side in sand. Exposed length c.3m, c.1m wide. Rectangular frame lying flat, with one upright, c.1m high at the east corner

Condition description Little survives, other than the framework, which is partly covered by shingle and sand.

Threats Erosion, natural decay

Photos? No

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

WHITEFORD POINT

Recorded by ELG

Date 24/01/2011

50


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG004

Fe UPRIGHT ANGLE IRON

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 42765 93999

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Upright angle iron protruding vertically from sand

Condition description Protruding from sand

Threats Clearance, coastal erosion

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

No

No

Recorded by

WHITEFORD

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG005

WRECK DEBRIS

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 44525 96491

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Destroyed

Modern

Yes

Description Fe engine block and upright Fe post with exposed attach sheet metal, 0.5m long and 0.5m high, (part of superstructure)

Condition description Fragments of wrecked ship

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

WHITEFORD

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG006

WRECK DEBRIS

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 44450 96424

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Destroyed

Modern

Yes

Description Fe sheeting, curving with large rivets. Sheeting has large hole (possible damage to hull) associated with long Fe shaft, very corroded, possibly incorporates a chain.

Condition description Fragments of wrecked ship

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay

Photos? No

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

WHITEFORD

Recorded by ELG

Date 24/01/2011

51


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG007

Bridge abutments

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 64312 92206

Yes

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

c.20m from MHW

Other Structure

Near Intact

Post-Medieval

No

Description The stone-built abutments of a former footbridge over Oystermouth Road, in use until c.2004 when the span of the bridge was removed by City and County of Swansea for repair and was never replaced, instead being relocated and laid as part of the footpath along the seafront at Brynmill close to the war memorials. The abutments are constructed of coursed rusticated stone blocks in a style typical of Swansea in the 19th century.

Condition description The structure of the abutments is stable and solid, though the span of the bridge was removed for repair circa 2004 and has not been reinstated, leaving the abutments redundant

Threats Vehicle damage, adaptive reuse, development, erosion, coastal erosion, redevelopment, road, vandalism, other (removal)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG008

FORMER BRIDGE, NICHOLASTON PILL

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 51423 87793

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Former bridge over Nicholaston Pill. The original structure was recently replaced and the old span left on the west side of the pill. Iron framework with timber planking.

Condition description Span of former bridge is intact and has been moved to one side of the pill when the bridge was replaced.

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay.

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

No

No

Recorded by

OXWICH

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG009

PRESERVED TREES

NGR

Date

ELG

25/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 52118 87556

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Landform

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description Several submerged preserved trees, lying in a close group, one piece possibly structural or worked, has one flat face protruding from the sand.

Condition description Waterlogged

Threats Coastal erosion

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

OXWICH

Recorded by ELG

Date 25/01/2011

52


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG010

LOOP-TOPPED IRON POST

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 53694 88231

Edge of Pennard Pill

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Fe loop-topped post visible part-submerged in centre of Pennard Pill. Possibly a former mooring post or buoy anchor. May originally have been on an earlier alignment of the pill, which has changed its course over time.

Condition description Partially submerged, even at low tide

Threats Natural decay, coastal erosion

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

PENNARD PILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG011

TREE TRUNK AND BOLE

Date

ELG

26/01/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 53694 88231

Edge of pill

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Landform

Damaged

Natural

Yes

Description Preserved tree trunk and bole submerged in middle of Pennard Pill. Tree trunk is 5.94m long and c.1m in diameter, with a large branch forking from the SE end. NW end of trunk is covered in sand.

Condition description Semi-submerged at edge of pill, stable and waterlogged, but threatened if pill changes course

Threats Coastal erosion, flooding

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Three Cliffs and Penmaen Burrows

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG012

WOODEN AND Fe STRUCTURE

NGR

Date

ELG

26/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 53698 88274

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Timber structure on east bank of Pennard Pill formed of two rows of parallel wooden planks, laid on edge, with wooden upright stakes between. Fe spikes visible in planks. A bent, square-section Fe shaft lies across the structure, may be associated but out of situ. On the west (stream) side of the structure, the ends of two parallel lengths of timber were visible protruding from the sand on the bed of the pill running lateral to the revetting, across the line of the pill. There is a patch of jumbled stone just upstream of this structure. May be revetting/quay/bridge base? Requires further work, measured drawing, recording, excavation?

Condition description In area with ongoing cycle of silting and erosion

Threats Coastal erosion, visitor erosion, visitor damage, water drainage

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

PENNARD PILL

Recorded by ELG

Date 26/01/2011

53


Plate 10. View to northwest of revetting structure on Pennard Pill, ELG012 PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG013

FISH WEIR

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 47062 84709

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description A row of upright wooden stakes: 10 form a curving line orientated north-south, with a further 8 stakes to the north, possibly part of the same structure. Most likely a fish weir.

Condition description Survives as a line of upright wooden stakes

Threats Coastal erosion, desiccation, visitor damage

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

PORT EYNON

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG014

QUARRY SCOOP

Date

ELG

27/01/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 44116 85825

South side

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

230m

Earthworks

Near Intact

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description A small quarry scoop, 9m E-W, 4m N-S, 1.5m deep.

Condition description Overgrown and vegetated, otherwise intact

Threats Footpath, erosion, stock trampling

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

CLIFFS ABOVE OVERTON

Recorded by ELG

Date 26/01/2011

54


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG015

FIELD BOUNDARY BANK

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 44566 85658

Footpath

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Continues to edge

Earthworks

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description A linear stone and earth bank, aligned N-S. Former field boundary.

Condition description Stable and vegetated

Threats Coastal erosion, visitor erosion, footpath

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

CLIFFS ABOVE OVERTON

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG016

FIELD BOUNDARY BANK

Date

ELG

27/01/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 44292 85726

Footpath

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Continues to edge

Earthworks

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description A linear stone and earth bank, c.4m wide at base, 0.5m high. aligned N-S. Former field boundary. Eroded.

Condition description Eroded, vegetated

Threats Coastal erosion, visitor erosion, footpath

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Recorded by

CLIFFS ABOVE OVERTON

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG017

Fe WRECK

NGR

Date

ELG

27/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 46378 84719/SS 46343 84679/SS 46327 84700

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Wreck of an iron vessel, elements in two groups. On east side of bay (SS 46378 84719) there appear to be elements of the superstructure (Fe plating with a doorway) and hull plating. On W side of bay is a funnel stack (SS 46343 84679), just to the W of this is small piece of hull plating, riveted, 2m by 1m (SS 46327 84700).

Condition description Shipwreck in several fragmentary pieces

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay,

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

OVERTON MERE

Recorded by ELG

Date 26/01/2011

55


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG018

UPRIGHT ANGLE IRON

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 64302 91776

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Modern

Yes

Description Upright angle iron, interpreted as possibly being remains of Second World War defences. Protruding from sand.

Condition description Protruding from sand

Threats Coastal Erosion, beach clearance

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG019

UPRIGHT 'U' PROFILE Fe POST

NGR

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 64402 91798

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Upright 'U' profile Fe post protruding from sand.

Condition description Protruding from sand

Threats Coastal erosion, beach clearance

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG020

MODERN FISH TRAP

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 64316 91650

East end

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Landform

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Upright pig irons, some with rope attached, forming a line, 59m long, running E-W.

Condition description All uprights appear to survive

Threats Re-use, beach clearance

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

Recorded by ELG

Date 01/02/2011

56


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG021

MODERN FISH TRAP

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 64172 91573

Yes

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

No

Description Three upright pig irons forming a curving arc.

Condition description Three uprights survive protruding from sand

Threats Coastal erosion, beach clearance

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG022

UPRIGHT 'U' PROFILE Fe POST

NGR

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 64154 91501

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Upright 'U' profile Fe post protruding from sand.

Condition description Protruding c.0.4m from sand

Threats Coastal erosion, beach clearance

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG023

MODERN FISH TRAP

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 63828 91468

East end

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Example modern fish trap, net tied between two upright Fe posts.

Condition description Survives, functional though net has several holes

Threats Coastal erosion, beach clearance, re-use

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

Recorded by ELG

Date 01/02/2011

57


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG024

UPRIGHT SCAFFOLDING PIPE

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63809 91420

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Upright scaffolding post, exposed height 0.5m. Possibly remains of Second World War defences?

Condition description Protruding upright from sand

Threats Coastal erosion, beach clearance

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG025

FISH TRAP

NGR

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63837 91394

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Line of low timber stakes aligned NE-SW.

Condition description Survives as low wooden stakes

Threats Coastal erosion, beach clearance

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG026

SMALL FISH TRAP

NGR

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63852 91401

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Group of 8 wooden stakes forming a sub-circular shape, c.1m diameter. Probably a small fish trap.

Condition description Survives as low stakes up to c.0.15m high

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime, desiccation), water drainage

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

Recorded by ELG

Date 24/01/2011

58


Plate 11. View to north of small fish trap ELG026 PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG027

FISH TRAP

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 63854 91426

Apex

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Fish trap with two arms (apex at NGR given). Arms formed by lines of wooden stakes, one arm running SSW, the other SSE. West arm 24m long, comprised 10 stakes, E arm 31m long, comprised 5 stakes.

Condition description Survives as low wooden upright stakes

Threats Coastal erosion, beach clearance

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG028

UPRIGHT POLE WITH CAIRN

NGR

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63867 91417

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Upright scaffolding pole with ‘cairn’ of stones packed around base. Exposed height of pole 0.3m, diameter of cairn 0.5m. Second possibly related upright pole at SS 63875 91407

Condition description Survive protruding upright to height of c.0.3m

Threats Coastal erosion, beach clearance

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

Recorded by ELG

Date 01/02/2011

59


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG029

?FISH TRAP

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 63880 91412

Apex

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Possible fish trap comprised of 3 stakes, apex to the NW (at NGR given). One arm to SE 22m in length, second arm to E 33m in length.

Condition description Survives as low wooden stakes

Threats Coastal erosion, beach clearance

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG030

UPRIGHT RECTANGULAR PROFILE POST

NGR

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63948 91416

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Upright rectangular-profile metal post protruding from sand.

Condition description Protruding from sand by c.0.5m

Threats Beach clearance

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG031

PIG IRON

NGR

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63894 91365

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Pig iron protruding upright from sand. Possibly part of a recent fish trap.

Condition description Protruding upright

Threats Coastal erosion, beach clearance

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

Recorded by ELG

Date 01/02/2011

60


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG032

FISH TRAP

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 63847 91376

South end

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Fish trap consisting of 9 wooden stakes running N-S for a distance of 38m.

Condition description Survives as low wooden stakes in the mud

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG033

MODERN FISH TRAP

NGR

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63809 91420

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description N-S aligned fish trap, northern end formed by large scaffolding pole (ELG024) rest of trap consists of pig irons, 11 in total, 98m long. Also includes one wooden stake which may be part of this structure or may be part of an earlier trap.

Condition description Majority of uprights appear to survive

Threats Re-use, coastal erosion

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG034

TIMBER FISH TRAP

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 63831 91360

Apex

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Timber fish trap, apex at NGR given, 6 timbers, 36m long with Fe pole at S end.

Condition description Upright wooden stakes survive

Threats Coastal erosion, desiccation

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

Recorded by ELG

Date 01/02/2011

61


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG035

FISH WEIR

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 63821 91336

Apex

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Apex at NGR given, 3 timber uprights, all appear to have drill holes.

Condition description Only three upright wooden stakes survive

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG036

UPRIGHT ANGLE IRON

NGR

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63788 91280

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Upright angle iron protruding from sand.

Condition description Protruding from sand

Threats Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

No

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG037

LINE OF STAKES

NGR

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63633 91334

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Line of stakes, aligned roughly N-S, possibly one arm of a fish weir?

Condition description Several upright stakes survive

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

Recorded by ELG

Date 01/02/2011

62


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG038

RECTANGULAR CUT TIMBER STAKES

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63526 91283

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Rectangular cut timber stakes.

Condition description Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG039

LARGE POST

NGR

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63485 91254

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Modern

Yes

Description Upright metal hollow pipe protruding from sand, possibly the remains of Second World War defences?

Condition description Protruding c.0.25m from sand

Threats Coastal erosion

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG040

TWISTED UPRIGHT Fe OBJECT

NGR

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63602 91732

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Modern

Yes

Description Iron object protruding upright from the sand. Unknown function.

Condition description Twisted out of original shape

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, beach clearance

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

Recorded by ELG

Date 01/02/2011

63


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG041

SQUARE TIMBER POSTS

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 63615 91875

Northwest corner of group

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Unknown

Yes

Description Group of timber posts eroding out of Brynmill peat shelf. Square-cut posts, tangentially converted, ?oak. Five posts total (A-E) Three posts (B, C, D) form a straight E-W line, Post A is to the NW of this, Post E lies separately to the south. Post A: 6cm x 6cm, 5cm high (SS 63615 91875). Post B: 5cm x 5cm, 3cm high (SS 63616 91871). Post C: 8cm x 4cm, 5cm high. Post D: 5cm x 6cm, 3cm high. Post E: 7cm x 3cm, 7cm high (SS 63620 91852). Post A lies 1.2m north of main line, and 3.3m west of Post B. Post C lies 4.7m east of Post B. Post D lies 6.38m east of Post C.

Condition description Contained in eroding peat shelf

Threats Coastal erosion, beach clearance, desiccation, visitor damage

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

BEACH OPPOSITE BRYNMILL

Date

ELG

01/02/2011

Plate 12. View to north of Post A, ELG041 PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG042

Wreck

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61752 88156

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Fe-hulled wreck, possibly the remains of an oyster boat?

Condition description Fragmented wreck

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Oystermouth

Recorded by ELG

Date 24/01/2011

64


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG043

Wreck

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61787 88165

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Timber-ribbed wreck.

Condition description Fragmented wreck

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG044

Wreck

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61792 88201

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Timber-ribbed wreck.

Condition description Wreck

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG045

Anti-invasion defences

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61733 88154

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Modern

Yes

Description Remains of Second World War anti-tank defences. Scaffolding pipes forming an inverted V. Now collapsed.

Condition description Now collapsed and isolated, though likely originally part of a larger system of defences

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Oystermouth

Recorded by ELG

Date 24/01/2011

65


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG046

Wreck

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61728 88149

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description An element of a shipwreck, the ends of two timber ships ribs protruding from the sand.

Condition description Most of structure of wreck beneath level of sand; only the ends of two ribs protrude above surface.

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime, desiccation)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG047

Wreck

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61719 88130

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description The wreck of a timber boat, consisting of the keel and ribs. There is also a second long timber adjacent to the main body of the boat, this may indicate that there is a second wreck site here.

Condition description Wreck

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG048

Wreck

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61743 88106

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Timber-ribbed wreck.

Condition description Wreck

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Oystermouth

Recorded by ELG

Date 24/01/2011

66


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG049

Wreck

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61759 88117

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Wreck debris consisting of a piece of timber planking and caulking.

Condition description Fragment of a wreck

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG050

Wreck

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61958 88078

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Large wreck, keel and ribs survive. May be site PRN 05800w

Condition description Wreck

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG051

Anti-invasion defences

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61963 88036

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Modern

Yes

Description Iron post, upright in the sand, H-section shape, railway line? Possibly represents Second World War defences. Records suggest that railway lines were used on beaches as anti-invasion defences.

Condition description Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Oystermouth

Recorded by ELG

Date 24/01/2011

67


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG052

Trackway

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61718 88520

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description Part of a wooden trackway exposed in the eroding peat shelf at Oystermouth, consisting of several large wooden planks laid parallel to each other. Possibly a different part of the same structure as that recorded and lifted by GGAT staff in 2010.

Condition description Revealed by tidal action removing sand from peat.

Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime, drainage/desiccation), peat desiccation, water drainage

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Plate 13. View to the east of the Oystermouth trackway, ELG 052

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG053

Wreck fragment

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61963 87971

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Fragment of a timber shipwreck. Piece of hull planking.

Condition description Wreck fragment

Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Oystermouth

Recorded by ELG

Date 24/01/2011

68


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG054

Wreck fragment

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61934 87998

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Fragment of a timber shipwreck. Piece of hull planking.

Condition description Wreck fragment

Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG055

Wreck debris

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61852 88040

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Fragments of a wreck, including the stem post, keel and planking.

Condition description Fragmentary wreck

Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG056

Wood and concrete feature

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61848 88055

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Wooden and concrete structure, possibly the remains of a wreck, or possibly the remains of Second World War anti-invasion defences. Consists of a triangular piece of wooden planking attached to moulded concrete (possibly ballast?) with both screwed and straight iron piping.

Condition description Fragment in intertidal zone

Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Oystermouth

Recorded by ELG

Date 24/01/2011

69


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG057

Wreck

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61825 88074

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Elements of a wreck, a keelson, a large timber with attached iron fittings.

Condition description Wreck fragment in the intertidal zone

Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG058

Concrete Block

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61811 88080

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Square concrete block and attached chain. Possibly an anchoring point, mooring post or buoy base.

Condition description Chain broken, out of situ, otherwise intact

Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG059

Iron uprights

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61804 88161

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Modern

Yes

Description Six iron uprights, V section posts with lugs on end. Forming a line 25m long. Possibly the remains of a weir?

Condition description Only uprights remain, any other elements removed/destroyed

Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Oystermouth

Recorded by ELG

Date 24/01/2011

70


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG060

Metal object

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61757 88181

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Upright metal (possibly lead?) object, twisted V shape, protruding upright from sand.

Condition description Unknown function or original form

Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG061

Anchor

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61749 88194

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Finds

Near Intact

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Large anchor, partially buried in sand.

Condition description Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG062

Tree Bole

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61634 88270

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Landform

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description Tree bole, part of the submerged forest at Oystermouth.

Condition description Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime, drainage/desiccation), flooding

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Oystermouth

Recorded by ELG

Date 24/01/2011

71


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG063

Tree Bole

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61677 88328

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Landform

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description Tree bole, part of the submerged forest at Oystermouth.

Condition description Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime, drainage/desiccation), flooding

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG064

Wooden pile structure

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61624 88378

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description A group of six large wooden piles on the foreshore, possibly the remnants of a structure such as a quay, slipway or groyne.

Condition description Upright standing to roughly 0.5m average

Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime, drainage/desiccation), flooding

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG065

Post

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61635 88396

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Destroyed

Unknown

Yes

Description Square-cut wooden post.

Condition description Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime, drainage/desiccation), flooding

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Oystermouth

Recorded by ELG

Date 24/01/2011

72


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG066

Wreck debris

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61640 88432

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Wreck debris consisting of articulated hull planking with large iron rivets.

Condition description Fragment of a wreck

Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime), flooding

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG067

Tree Bole

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61711 88416

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Landform

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description Tree bole, part of the submerged forest at Oystermouth.

Condition description Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime, drainage/desiccation), flooding

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG068

Wreck

NGR

Date

ELG

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61634 88469

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Iron engine block, possibly from a shipwreck.

Condition description Fragment of a wreck

Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime)

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Oystermouth

Recorded by ELG

Date 24/01/2011

73


PRN/ID no

Site Name

ELG069

Tree Trunk

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 61670 88513

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Finds

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description Waterlogged and preserved tree trunk in the intertidal zone, part of the submerged forest at Oystermouth.

Condition description Waterlogged

Threats Coastal erosion, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime, drainage/desiccation), flooding

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Oystermouth

PRN/ID no

Site Name

PE001

?Worked wood, Port Eynon Peat Shelf

Date

ELG

NGR

24/01/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 47068 85198

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal zone

Landform

Damaged

Natural

Yes

Description Root system of tree, with possible cut marks which may indicate working?

Condition description Embedded in eroding peat shelf

Threats Coastal erosion, peat desiccation

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Port Eynon

PRN/ID no

Site Name

PE002

Worked wood, Port Eynon Peat Shelf

NGR

Date

ELG

17/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 47103 85212

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Landform

Damaged

Unknown

Yes

Description Piece of wood, 1m long, width varying but up to 0.15m. Multiple cut marks along the length, and the end has been cleanly cut.

Condition description Embedded in eroding peat shelf

Threats Coastal erosion, peat desiccation

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Port Eynon

Recorded by ELG

Date 17/02/2011

74


PRN/ID no

Site Name

PE003

Worked wood, Port Eynon

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 47117 85218

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Landform

Damaged

Natural

Yes

Description Length of wood, c.1m long with possible cut marks, and three parallel shallow cuts.

Condition description In eroding peat shelf

Threats Coastal erosion, peat desiccation

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Port Eynon

PRN/ID no

Site Name

PE004

Perches Pools

NGR

Date

ELG

17/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 46974 84706

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Earthworks

Near Intact

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description A group of three irregularly shaped pools in Port Eynon bay used for the storage of oysters after fishing to allow them to grow to saleable size.

Condition description Stable, besilted and besanded

Threats Coastal erosion

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Port Eynon

PRN/ID no

Site Name

PE005

Crowder's Quay

NGR

Date

ELG

17/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 47137 84756

Yes

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

No

Description A stone-built quay for mooring ships taking lime from South Gower across the Bristol Channel to Devon. Includes iron mooring rings.

Condition description Threats Coastal erosion

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Port Eynon

Recorded by ELG

Date 17/02/2011

75


PRN/ID no

Site Name

PE006

Quarries, Port Eynon

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 46740 84520

Yes

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

varies

Earthworks

Near Intact

Post-Medieval

No

Description There is an extensive complex of quarries along both sides of the point which separates Port Eynon from Overton, where limestone was extracted for burning in limekilns.

Condition description Generally stable, some damage caused by paths

Threats Erosion, coastal erosion, visitor damage, footpath

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Port Eynon

PRN/ID no

Site Name

PE007

Field boundary bank

NGR

Date

ELG

17/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 46573 84609

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

To edge of cliff

Earthworks

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Linear stone and earth bank aligned NE-SW across the point, visible for a length of c.22m, c.1m wide and 0.3-0.5m high. NE end likely continues into gorse.

Condition description Stable and well vegetated, survives to varying heights along its length, some erosion where paths cross bank

Threats Coastal erosion, visitor damage, erosion, footpath

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Port Eynon

PRN/ID no

Site Name

PE008

Enclosure, Overton

NGR

Date

ELG

17/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 46599 84632

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

c.40m

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Rectangular enclosure, aligned NE-SW, defined by stone walls at NE end and by and stone and earth banks to the SW. The enclosure is c.18m NE-SW, c.14m NW-SE. Possible entrance facing SW. The best preserved section of walling is on the SE-facing elevation, standing to c.0.7m high and constructed of random rubble, incorporating both weathered surface stone and quarried stone. The NW side of this enclosure continues to both the SW (as PE007) and to the NE, as a low earth and stone bank.

Condition description Stable and well-vegetated, very heavily overgrown with gorse at the S corner and to the NE

Threats Vegetation, erosion

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Port Eynon

Recorded by ELG

Date 17/02/2011

76


PRN/ID no

Site Name

PE009

Concrete block

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 45809 84813

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

1m

Other Structure

Damaged

Modern

Yes

Description Square concrete block c.0.3m by 0.3m with the corroded base of an iron post in the middle, located on the landward side of the coastal path - possibly a former fence post.

Condition description Stable, by side of well-used path, in area of erosion

Threats Erosion, coastal erosion, visitor damage

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Port Eynon

PRN/ID no

Site Name

RD001

Enclosure bank

NGR

Date

ELG

17/03/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 41820 88424

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

350m

Earthworks

Near Intact

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Low curvilinear enclosure bank, c.2m wide at base and c.0.6m high, encloses a relatively flat area partway up the south side of Rhossili Down.

Condition description Stable and fairly complete other than one small area of collapse to the northwest.

Threats Visitor damage, visitor erosion, animal burrowing, collapse, erosion, footpath, recreational use

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Rhossili Down

PRN/ID no

Site Name

RD002

Wandering wall

NGR

Date

ELG

19/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 42197 89110

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

500m

Other Structure

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description Substantial linear bank, maximum width 3.55m, inner width 1.65m, aligned E-W, with large sandstone conglomerate blocks c.1m in size. Appears to run for a length of nearly 400m.

Condition description Stable and waterlogged, stone badly robbed out

Threats Fire, waterlogging, stock trampling, stone robbing

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Rhossili Down

Recorded by ELG

Date 19/02/2011

77


PRN/ID no

Site Name

RD003

Cairn

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 42033 89107

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

500m

Other Structure

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description A stony area, c.24m in diameter, with traces of both outer and inner circles formed by low banks and stones. Two very large upright stones in the outer circle, one in the inner group.

Condition description Stable, stone robbed out

Threats Visitor erosion, stock trampling

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Rhossili Down

PRN/ID no

Site Name

RD004

Ovoid enclosure

Date

ELG

19/02/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 41937 89641

E corner

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

390m

Other Structure

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description Ovoid enclosure, c.90m long and c.30m wide, aligned NW-SE, open at the SE end. Formed by two curving linear stone and earth banks, joined at the NW end forming a point marked by a mound of stones and a large upright boulder. There is a further mound of stones at the SE terminal points of each of the banks defining the sides. May be related to feature RD005 immediately to the east.

Condition description Stable, some damage caused by path cutting through the middle

Threats Visitor damage, footpath, stock trampling, erosion

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Rhossili Down

PRN/ID no

Site Name

RD005

Crescentic Bank

NGR

Date

ELG

19/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 41971 89634

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

500m

Earthworks

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description A low curving earth bank, well-defined, on a N-S alignment, forming a semi-circle with the bank only on the east side, open to west. 32m long N-S, 3.9m wide and c.0.5m high, with a centrally located gap. Possibly a stock enclosure? May be related to feature RD004 immediately to the west.

Condition description Stable

Threats Stock trampling, erosion

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Rhossili Down

Recorded by ELG

Date 19/02/2011

78


PRN/ID no

Site Name

RD006

Worked stone

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 41749 89959

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

320m

Other Structure

Near Intact

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Large conglomerate slab (1.3m by 1.9m by 0.6m), with chisel marks (average 0.08m long) forming a large curve, possibly representing an attempt to cut a millstone from the slab. The curve of the marks would form a stone with a radius of c.0.75m. Possibly related to enclosure RD007 immediately to the east? May originally have been part of this feature?

Condition description stable

Threats Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Rhossili Down

PRN/ID no

Site Name

RD007

Stone enclosure

NGR

Date

ELG

19/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 41752 89963

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

320m

Other Structure

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description Sub-rectangular enclosure defined by large stones on the west and south sides. Externally 5.8m by 5.25m, internal width of 3.85m. The large stone immediately to the west may originally have been part of this feature?

Condition description stable and well-vegetated

Threats erosion, visitor damage

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Rhossili Down

PRN/ID no

Site Name

RD008

PREHISTORIC FIELD SYSTEM

NGR

Date

ELG

19/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 41963 89711

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

500m

Earthworks

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description Low remains of curving walling running NNW-SSE roughly 1m wide, incorporating large sandstone conglomerate blocks. Running parallel to this are long low ridges, c.1m wide and up to 0.2m high, with narrow gullies between them, possibly former cultivation banks.

Condition description Wall appears to have been robbed out, otherwise stable

Threats Stock trampling, visitor erosion

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

RHOSSILI DOWN

Recorded by ELG

Date 19/02/2011

79


Plate 14. View to the southeast of wall, part of field system RD008 PRN/ID no

Site Name

RD009

Burnt Mound

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 41963 89711

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

500m

Earthworks

Damaged

Prehistoric

Yes

Description Sub-circular mound, c.4m diameter and c.0.3m high. Contains a lot of heat-cracked stone.

Condition description Stable

Threats Erosion, stock trampling

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Rhossili Down

PRN/ID no

Site Name

RD010

Cross Base, Rhossili Green

NGR

Date

ELG

19/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 41739 88105

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

330m

Other Structure

Damaged

Medieval

Yes

Description Square platform, 3.5m square defined by large stones up to c.1m along the edges. Reputed locally to be the base of a medieval church cross.

Condition description On corner of green, by road

Threats Erosion, vehicle damage

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Rhossili Down

Recorded by ELG

Date 19/02/2011

80


PRN/ID no

Site Name

RD011

Wandering Wall

NGR

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS42047 89757 - SS 42422 89824

Yes

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Other Structure

Damaged

Prehistoric

No

Description Low linear spread of stone running roughly WSW-ENE across the east slope of Rhossili Down.

Condition description Survives as spread of stone, no structure or coursing survives

Threats Animal burrowing, stock trampling, stone robbing

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

No

No

Recorded by

Rhossili Down

PRN/ID no

Site Name

SB001

Group of timber posts

Date

ELG/JS

11/03/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 63662 91840

Central point of group

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Roman

Yes

Description A group of four square/rectangular cut timber posts upright in the sand. Post A at SS 63670 91852 Post B at SS 63662 91840 Post C at SS 63657 91836 Post D at SS 63576 91799 Posts A-C form a closely-spaced line aligned ENE-WSW, with three posts in a space of c.25m, with post D is isolated to the west of the main group, lying to the WSW at a distance of c.90m. This grouping of posts appears similar to ELG041 and may be related or part of the same feature.

Condition description Survive as low upright posts, eroding and fragmenting

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime, desiccation)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Swansea Bay (Brynmill)

PRN/ID no

Site Name

SB002

Pulley

NGR

Date

ELG

21/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63722 19707

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Near Destroyed

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Remains of a pulley system, consisting of two iron objects, shafts of around 0.5m long, with a small wheel with a central groove around the edge, possibly for winching ropes etc. May have been associated with maritime trade for loading boats etc.

Condition description Fragmentary remains survive

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime), flooding

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Swansea Bay (Brynmill)

Recorded by ELG

Date 21/02/2011

81


PRN/ID no

Site Name

SB003

Line of stakes

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 63806 91627

North end of line

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Line of timber stakes aligned roughly N-S, northernmost at SS 63806 91627, southernmost at SS 63850 91401. Includes at least 24 stakes, often in groups of 2, generally c.5m apart.

Condition description Survives as a line of low stakes varying in height up to c.0.1m

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, visitor erosion, visitor damage, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime, desiccation)

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Swansea Bay (Brynmill)

PRN/ID no

Site Name

SB004

Upright wooden stakes

NGR

Date

ELG

21/02/2011

Reference taken from

From map? GPS?

SS 63674 91190

No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Two intersecting lines of wooden stakes running roughly NW-SE and ESE-WSW intersecting at the NGR given. The NW-SE aligned line is a double line of stakes, the ESE-WSW row is single. Where the double line survives, the stakes are offset, forming a zigzag pattern. In both lines, the stakes are well-preserved, standing up to c.0.3m high. In one section of the double line, a drilled base-plate wooden plank was noted still in situ attached to an upright stake. This plank is c.0.65m long with three holes drilled through it, one of which attaches it to the upright.

Condition description Survives as low wooden stakes

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime, desiccation), water draining, visitor damage, visitor erosion

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Swansea Bay (Brynmill)

Recorded by ELG

Date 21/02/2011

Plate 15. View to the south of lines of wooden stakes, SB004

82


PRN/ID no

Site Name

SBIS SF3

Stone Fish Trap

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 63806 91244

Central apex of weir

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Post-Medieval

Yes

Description Two adjoining stone-built fish traps, forming a ‘W’ shape, originally recorded by the Swansea Bay Intertidal Survey. Enclose angles of 90-100 degrees. The low surviving walls are constructed of rounded beach pebbles and cobbles, between 1 and 2 meters wide, with roundwood stakes along the inside edge. In some stretches of walling (most notably along the westernmost arm) there are sub-rectangular embayments in the stonework with dense groupings of stakes, presumably where nets were located. Running northwest from this arm, at an angle to the stone walling, several parallel lines of timber stakes were visible in the water, dividing the main west arm into sections. The easternmost apex is located at SS 63942 91372. From this point, the walling runs to the NE for 140m in a line where no stakes were visible and to the NW for a distance of 100m with 89 upright wooded stakes. This stretch of walling reaches a corner at SS 63847 91400, the point at which the arms of the two weirs meet. The westernmost apex is located at SS 63806 91244, with one arm running NNE for a distance of 130m (to meet the arm of the first weir) in a stretch including 308 upright timber stakes. The western arm of this weir runs west for 127m from the apex. This stretch of walling includes 548 upright timber stakes, both aligned along the inside of the walling and in groups of c.6-8 in the small sub-rectangular embayments noted. On the eastern arm of the western weir, a large worked timber was noted, lying along the line of the walling at SS 63842 913399. Also on this arm, a long (1.5m) out of situ sharpened timber post was noted lying next to the stonework. As well as the end of the post having been sharpened to a point, it was also blackened, suggesting it may have been fired for strength. It appeared to be similar to the exposed upright timber stakes still in situ, and may have originally been part of the structure recently removed. In several places along the three arms where timber stakes were noted, the remains of woven wattling between the posts were also observed.

Condition description Survives as a low stone and wood feature, standing to a maximum of c.0.3m above the current level of the sand. The apices of both weirs were still effective at retaining water.

Threats Coastal erosion, natural decay, other (beach-cleaning/clearance regime, desiccation), visitor erosion, visitor damage, re-use, water drainage

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Swansea Bay (Brynmill)

Recorded by

Date

ELG

21/02/2011

Plate 16. View to the north across the apex of the westernmost weir of SBIS SF3

83


Plate 17. Detail view of surviving wattling amongst the stonework on the western arm of the westernmost weir of feature SBIS SF3

Plate 18. Detail of an embayment with a dense cluster of wooden stakes on the western arm of the western weir of feature SBIS SF3

84


PRN/ID no

Site Name

TC001

Group of Fe objects

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 53801 88332

NW side of pill

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

Intertidal

Other Structure

Damaged

Modern

Yes

Description A group of angle irons and exposed pieces of Fe sheeting. On the northwest side of Pennard Pill there are two upright posts, protruding from the shingle at an angle of c.45 degrees, for c.0.15m, with a flat piece of iron visible under the shingle. Located 4.5m to the northwest of this is a hollow cylindrical iron shaft, lying on its side in the shingle. The entire area on this side of the pill is 0.4, by 0.5m. On the southeast bank of the pill is another upright angle iron, at SS 53804 88286. These two areas are located directly across the Pill from each other, and are likely related, possibly originally forming a bridge, or the bases of metal signs.

Condition description Protruding from shingle by 0.15m.

Threats Natural decay, beach clearance

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Three Cliffs

PRN/ID no

Site Name

TC002

Stone wall

Date

ELG

05/03/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 53192 88161

Footpath

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

300m

Other Structure

Damaged

Medieval

Yes

Description A low length of wall visible on one side of the footpath through Penmaen Burrows. Aligned NNW-SSE, exposed length of 0.95m and an exposed width of 0.5m. Constructed of dressed stone facing, with a rubble core. It appears to be coursed, though only one course is visible. Total height of 0.3m, facing stands to a visible height of 0.1m. Thought to possibly be medieval due to the proximity of the besanded church of Penmaen, and the rumours of a deserted medieval village here.

Condition description Low remains of stone wall, standing to maximum 0.3m high. Crosses busy footpath.

Threats Footpath, root action, visitor erosion

Photos?

Drawings? Finds? Group name

Yes

No

Recorded by

Three Cliffs

PRN/ID no

Site Name

TC003

Earthwork spiral

Date

ELG

05/03/2011

NGR

Reference taken from

SS 53825 88266

Centre

From map? GPS? No

Approx distance to coast edge

Form

Condition

Period

10m from MHW

Earthworks

Intact

Modern

Yes

Description Low earthwork ridges containing stones with very shallow hollows between them, forming a tight spiral c.21.5m diameter. At the centre of the spiral is a patch of loose stone. Average distance of 0.7m between the ridges, total approximately 17 ridges from the centre to the outermost circle. Some stones are contained within the ridges; others are placed loose on top. Ridges are up to 0.1m high from base of hollow to top of ridge. Perhaps a modern art installation/feature? Land art?

Condition description Stable with low grass vegetation

Threats Coastal erosion, visitor erosion, visitor damage

Photos? Yes

Drawings? Finds? Group name No

Three Cliffs

Recorded by ELG

Date 05/03/2011

85


Appendix 4. Known HER sites with new data PRN/ID no

Site Name

00139w

Old Castle Promontory Fort

Description At time of site visit (19/02/2011) vegetation had recently been cleared back. Recent damage was noted across the rampart on the west side of the entrance. A long narrow scar, up to c.0.2m deep, was observed running across the ditch from the top of the outer bank to the top of the inner one. Spoil from the cut appeared to have been dumped in the middle of the ditch. Possibly damage caused by motorbike scrambling, metal detectorists or amateur diggers. Appeared to be too deep to simply be the result of pressure of visitor numbers.

Threats Visitor erosion, visitor damage, coastal erosion, footpath, vandalism. Recorded by Date ELG

19/02/2011

Plate 19. View to the northeast showing damage to rampart, Old Castle Promontory Fort PRN 00139w PRN/ID no

Site Name

00250w

PENMAEN BURROWS CHAMBERED TOMB

Description At date of visit, vegetation had been recently cleared from around the site. It appeared generally stable, but there is a large crack running vertically through the capstone. One suggestion made by the group is to create an information board for this site, and Penmaen Burrows Church, to be placed on the footpath to draw visitors' attention to both sites, which are not immediately visible from the path.

Threats Recorded by ELG

Date 16/02/2011

PRN/ID no

Site Name

00287w

PENMAEN BURROWS CHURCH

Description Vegetation had been recently cleared from the site. Whilst the site appeared to be in a generally stable condition, ivy growing on the interior walls, which are rendered, is likely causing damage not only to the walling, but also the surviving render, and should be removed. Pieces of medieval mortar were visible in the spoil of a nearby rabbit burrow, which may have come from this site or another in close proximity. One suggestion made by the group is to create an information board for this site, and Penmaen Burrows Chambered tomb, to be placed on the footpath to draw visitors' attention to both sites, which are not immediately visible from the path.

Threats Animal burrowing, vegetation Recorded by Date ELG

16/02/2011

86


Plate 20. View to the south showing ivy growing on interior walls, causing damage to render, Penmaen Burrows Church, PRN 00287w PRN/ID no

Site Name

00300w

PENMAEN CASTLE TOWER

Description At the time of the site visit vegetation had been cleared from the site, allowing the earthworks to be clearly seen. A sub-rectangular pit was noted against the bank defining the west side of the interior structure, which is not recorded in any existing description of the site. This hole is c.1m N-S by 0.5m E-W and c.0.2m deep, the interior appears to be faced with stone. The site appears generally stable, though there has been some erosion caused by visitor damage at the entrance and on the bank to the west of the entrance.

Threats Erosion, visitor damage Recorded by Date ELG

16/02/2011

PRN/ID no

Site Name

03056w

Quarry, Brandy Cove

Description Quarry embayment, roughly 7m by 10m, quarry face is c.15m high platform to E side of valley. Depicted on 1st edition OS map (1878) and labeled as 'Old'. The quarry basin is overgrown and heavily vegetated. In use by unauthorised campers. NGR corrected from record to SS 58452 87458.

Threats Root action, tree throw/roots, tree felling, tree growth, visitor damage Recorded by Date ELG

01/03/2011

PRN/ID no

Site Name

03057w

Lime kiln, Brandy Cove

Description Double lime kiln set into terrace in hillside. The chamber to the north is exposed to a width of 2.4m and 1.3m high, that to the south is exposed to a width of 1.5m and a height of 1.25m. Roughly constructed of rough stone blocks, badly collapsing, overgrown and backfilled. NGR corrected from record to SS 58468 87470.

Threats Root action, tree throw/roots, tree felling, tree growth Recorded by Date ELG

01/03/2011

87


PRN/ID no

Site Name

04667w

Radar station

Description A complex of features part of the Second World War radar station. A. A concrete pad, 2.8m by 3.07m, with three courses of bricks in the west corner. At SS 41909 89820 B. A concrete pad, 3.05m by 7m. At SS 41905 89826 C. A concrete pad, 9.15m by 2.75m. At SS 41897 89832 D. Causeway entrance and approach to main part of complex, c.2m wide, becomes a concrete walkway close to main part of area (E). Runs roughly NW from the area of pads A, B and C to area E. E. Series of concrete platforms on two levels approached by concrete walkway (D). The lower level consists of five concrete platforms of roughly equal size on same level as walkway D, with a higher level uphill to the east consisting of five platforms of unequal size, with some stairways between the two surviving intact. Collapsed brick walls around the foundations. At SS 41834 89921 F. Concrete and breezeblock structure, standing to c.1.2m externally, deeper internally, 3.4m by 5.33m. Remains of a concrete slab covering the top of the structure. Possibly a reservoir or holding tank likely associated with water management/waste disposal for the station. At SS 41805 89936 G. Roughly rectangular hollow depression, very overgrown, in line with tank F. Partly covered by a concrete slab. Likely also a part of the water management system, and linked to tank F. At SS 41793 89938 H. Concrete platform and pedestal with a series of concrete steps and rectangular concrete block with recessed top and drainage hole. Total length 5.05m by 6.4m. At SS 41788 89908. I. Damaged structure, including a concrete pad, the remains of brick walling, collapsed concrete walls and the remains of an iron turntable, possibly an emplacement for a gun or a searchlight. SS 41778 89900. J. A concrete pad c.3m by 2m with a single course of bricks on one side and two small depressions on the north side, possibly related to the water management system and related to features F and G. K. Depression, c.2m by 1m, possibly related to the water management system and related to features F and G. At SS 41767 89955. L. L-shaped concrete pad, c.10m by 2.5m. At SS 41811 90008. M. Demolished brick structure, 5.5m by 3.8m, possibly a mast emplacement, consisting of an arrangement of six concrete stilt supports, with collapsed brick walling around. English garden wall style brickwork. At SS 41771 90061. N. An irregularly arranged brick structure, with four anchorage points, the length of the entire arrangement is 5.15m N-S and 3.42m E-W. The structure comprises an arrangement of six lengths of brick walling, again constructed in the English garden wall style, standing up to four courses high, which appears to have been their original height, possibly the remains of a supporting base for something. There are the concrete foundations of another wall on the north side. Consists of three lengths of walling running roughly east-west, the southernmost is L-shaped, with the arm on the northeast corner, facing into the middle of the arrangement of walls. There is also the remains of a fourth wall on this orientation on the north side of the structure. There are two north-south walls, one on either side of the east-west walling. Each wall is 0.34m wide, the length of a single brick. At SS 41777 90097. O. Base of a small structure on the east side of the track leading into the complex. Possible sentry point at entrance to main complex of the Second World War radar station, consisting of a rectangular platform, 3.55m by 3.6m, defined around the edges by single-skin low brick foundations, standing to two courses high. To either side of the base of the structure are the low foundations of two roughly built stone walls, up to c.0.3 m wide on the south side consisting of a single thickness of rough boulders, to the north it is up to c.1m and double-thickness. At SS 41913 89812 Appears to have been deliberately demolished, and in some areas blown up, presumably after the complex was rendered obsolete after the end of the war. The remains of the demolished walling are still in situ, and all the foundations survive, in some cases with the remains of low walls.

Threats Erosion, collapse, vandalism Recorded by Date ELG

19/02/2011

Plate 21. View to the northeast showing remains of Area I, PRN 04667w

88


PRN/ID no

Site Name

05799w

Stakes

Description Two parallel curving lines of large timber stakes believed to represent the remains of a groyne depicted on the 2nd edition OS map. In places horizontal timbers are visible in the shingle between the upright stakes. Visible from SS 61966 88001 to SS 61971 87971.

Threats Coastal erosion Recorded by Date ELG

01/02/2011

89

Arfordir coastal survey 2010-11  

Annual report on the Arfordir Coastal survey project. The project was set up to monitor and survey archaeology in the coastal zone and to en...