2014 JOR - Full Report

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Programme Research

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Generations For Peace Institute Research September - December 2014

Generations For Peace’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in East Amman, Jordan Maira Seeley 2014 Summer Field Researcher The University of Oxford

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@Gens_For_Peace

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About Generations For Peace Institute

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enerations For Peace Institute (GFPI) conducts, invests in, and disseminates applied interdisciplinary research and best practices in partnership with leading universities such as the Georgetown University, the University of Oxford, the University of Western Cape, as well as other institutes, research centres, individual academics and researchers. As well as research on Generations For Peace’s own programmes, the Institute’s research projects also examine peace-building interventions by other organisations, therefore making broader contributions to the fields of peace building and conflict transformation in general. The overall objectives of the Institute reflect the aspirations of Generations For Peace to make a practical difference to programme work on the ground, supporting a growing community of practice by demonstrating the impact of and advocating for increased use of sport, advocacy, art, dialogue and empowerment activities for sustainable peace building.

About Generations For Peace

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enerations For Peace (GFP) is a Jordanbased leading global non-profit peacebuilding organisation founded by HRH Prince Feisal Al-Hussein and Sarah Kabbani in 2007. Dedicated to sustainable peace building and the use of sport, advocacy, art, dialogue and empowerment for conflict transformation, Generations For Peace empowers volunteer leaders of youth to promote active tolerance and responsible citizenship in communities experiencing different forms of conflict and violence. In the last seven years, Generations For Peace has trained and mentored more than 8,500 volunteer leaders of youth in 50 countries in the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and Europe. With our support, their ongoing programmes address local issues of conflict and violence, and have touched the lives of more than 216,000 children, youth and adults.

Disclaimer: I, Maira Seeley, hereby confirm that the enclosed document is entirely my own work. I confirm that this written submission has, in no part, been copied from a book, article, encyclopaedia or any other source, including the Internet, except where such sections are clearly identified by the use of quotations. I confirm that all sources utilised have been correctly identified within the body of the text or in the final list of references.


Table of Contents

Glossary

6

Acronyms Used

7

1. Introduction

9

1.1 Purpose and Relevance to Generations For Peace

13

2. Context and Literature Review

15

3. Research Questions and Methodology 3.1 Research Questions 3.2 Hypothesis and Expected Results 3.3 Methodology 3.4 The Use of Data Collection Techniques 3.5 Method of Analysis 3.6 Limitations

23 23 24 24 27 30 31

4. Findings and Discussion 4.1 Findings 4.2 Discussion

33 34 47

5. Conclusion and Recommendations 5.1 Conclusion 5.2 Recommendations

51 52 54

6. Appendix A: Research Tools

57

Bibliography

70

Full List of Interviews, Focus Groups and Surveys Cited in the Text

72


List of Figures Figure 1: Number of mentions of participants’ character traits influenced by participation in GFP programmes 35

4 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Figure 2: GFP’s effects on Target Group members

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Figure 3: Attitudes to violence among parent Beneficiaries

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Figure 4: Changes in attitudes to violence among parent Beneficiaries as reported by parent Beneficiaries themselves

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Figure 5: Changes in attitudes to violence among parent Beneficiaries

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Figure 6: Attitudes towards violence: Percentage of total mentions in interviews and Focus Groups, by gender of participants

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Figure 7: Numbers of mentions of boys’ and girls’ discussions of GFP

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Figure 8: Percentage of total mentions of improved and/or increased communication between children and parents to solve conflict as an effect of participation in GFP programmes, by child’s gender and parent’s gender

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Figure 9: Percentage of total mentions of direct discussion of GFP’s message, by type of interaction

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Figure 10: Percentage of total mentions of communication with teachers, disaggregated by type of interaction 45 Figure 11: Percentage of total mentions of discussion of GFP programmes with teachers, disaggregated by type of interaction

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Figure 12: Cascading GFP content in Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: girls

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Figure 13: Cascading GFP content in Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: boys

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List of Tables Table 1: Data gathered from Schools A, B, C and D

29 Table 2: Target Group characteristics influenced by GFP

36

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GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan


Glossary* Beneficiary Community: The society to which the Target Group belongs and among whom cascading is intended to occur. Examples include parents, neighbours, siblings, friends, extended family members, and community/religious leaders.

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Cascading:

GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

In this report, this refers to the process by which those who are trained to facilitate or who participate in GFP activities (Delegates and Target Group members) influence attitudes and behaviour among the wider Beneficiary Community, by modelling behaviour change, sharing their experience, or directly addressing problematic attitudes and behaviour around them. It also refers to GFP’s model of training Delegates who go on to become GFP Pioneers, and in turn train other Delegates to “cascade” the effects of GFP’s work. Delegate: A local volunteer trained by GFP to facilitate sessions with the Target Group. Pioneer: A local volunteer trained by GFP who assists in training and leading Delegates. Peacebuilding: The process by which attitudes contributing to conflict and the way in which conflict is managed are changed. Target Group: The direct participants of GFP activity sessions. Members of the Target Group cascade the effects and message of GFP through the wider Beneficiary Community.

* Generations For Peace, “Approach,” accessed 1 October 2014, http://www.generationsforpeace.org/ how-we-work/approach/.


List of Acronyms Generations For Peace Generations For Peace Institute

PE RIPP SES UN WHO

Participatory Evaluation Responding in Positive and Peaceful Ways Socioeconomic Status United Nations World Health Organisation

7 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

GFP GFPI



© GFP 2014 | Amman, Jordan

1.

Introduction


10 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Learn more about what Generations For Peace does in Jordan and 49 other countries in the Middle East, Africa, Asia and Europe: http://bit.ly/1piYDFO

Generations For Peace seeks to improve peace-building skills among youth through activities centred on advocacy, sport, art, dialogue and empowerment. In parallel, the Generations For Peace Institute is responsible for organising and undertaking research into programme monitoring and evaluation, best practices, and improvements to programming.

© GFP 2014 | Amman, Jordan

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his paper presents the results of research undertaken through the Generations For Peace Institute and its partnership with the University of Oxford. Generations For Peace (GFP) is a Jordanian NGO that seeks to improve peace-building skills among youth through activities centred on advocacy, sport, art, dialogue and empowerment.1 GFP operates internationally, with programmes in 50 countries and territories, and its programmes’ goals include creating sustainable peace through active tolerance and responsible citizenship.2 In parallel, the GFP Institute (GFPI) is responsible for organising and undertaking research into programme monitoring and evaluation, best practices, and improvements to programming.3

GFP works by training and mentoring local volunteers to lead specific activities in each country. These volunteers are known as GFP Delegates; Delegates are carefully selected local volunteers trained by GFP to facilitate activities according to GFP’s methodology as expressed in the GFP Curriculum. Having completed a set of programmes and specific requirements with GFP’s support, Delegates are then certified as “Pioneers.” Pioneers continue to lead programmes and are consistently supported by GFP through a mentoring process.4 GFP volunteers (both Pioneers and Delegates) lead sessions with the Target Group (the specific group of individuals who participate in GFP activities). Members of the Target Group are expected to pass on to the wider community (the Beneficiary Community) the content they have learned or the changes they have internalised through GFP programmes. This report discusses a GFP pilot programme in Amman, Jordan in 2013-2014. 1 Generations For Peace, “Pass It On,” accessed 1 October 2014, http://www.generationsforpeace.org/ pass-it-on/. 2 Ibid. 3 Generations For Peace, “Institute,” accessed 1 October 2014, http://www.generationsforpeace.org/ pass-it-on/institute. 4 Generations For Peace, “Approach,” accessed 1 October 2014, http://www.generationsforpeace.org/ how-we-work/approach/.


This is one of a series of recent programmes in Jordan, which have included a programme to reduce physical and psychological violence among male secondary school students in Mafraq through sport-based activities, and a programme aimed at reducing violent conflict in Jordanian universities. The pilot programme, titled Violence in Schools, worked with groups of students in secondary schools on the outskirts of Amman.5 These schools included two girls’ schools (referred to as Schools A and B throughout this report) and two boys’ schools (referred to as Schools C and D throughout this report). The programme included 200 students in three hours of sport-based programming per week, led by 20 Delegates (who were also teachers at these schools).

The conflict addressed through this programme had two main dimensions: personal and relational. The “personal dimension” of the conflict refers to individual feelings, attitudes, and behaviour,8 and in the context of the pilot programme discussed here includes students’ lack of confidence, self-esteem, communication skills and leadership skills.9 The conflict’s “relational dimension” refers to the quality of relationships, interactions, cooperation, and conflict management between people or groups,10 and in this case includes students’ poor communication, lack of cooperation, and lack of respect.11 Expected outcomes (the changes ultimately desired within the Target Group) included an increase in teachers’ ability to create a peaceful, positive and safe learning environment, a reduction of physical and verbal violence and bullying between students, and improved problem solving and relational skills.12 Expected impacts (results desired within the wider Beneficiary Community) included more parent involvement in school activities such as the Parent-Teacher Association and Open Day.13 To assess whether these expected outcomes and impacts are achieved, data is collected along specific indicators by the volunteers themselves. In addition, all GFP programmes are assessed by means of Participatory Evaluations, or day-long meetings at each of the participating schools in which members of the Target Group, the Beneficiary Community, the 5 6 7 8

Generations For Peace, “Generations For Peace (GFP) M&E Grid Version 10/04/2013” (2013). Generations For Peace, “Sport For Peace,” Generations For Peace Curriculum (2014). Generations For Peace, “Art For Peace,” Generations For Peace Curriculum (2014). Generations For Peace, “Conflict, Peace Building and Conflict Transformation,” Generations For Peace Curriculum (2014). 9 Generations For Peace, “Generations For Peace (GFP) M&E Grid Violence in Schools” (2013). 10 Generations For Peace, “Conflict, Peace Building and Conflict Transformation,” Generations For Peace Curriculum (2014). 11 Generations For Peace, “Generations For Peace (GFP) M&E Grid Violence in Schools” (2013). 12 Ibid. 13 Ibid.

11 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

The programme was focused on reducing the incidence of bullying and other forms of violence in schools. Violence in schools includes physical, verbal and sexual violence between students, and possible influencing factors include gender, economic stress, school policies, school infrastructure, and domestic violence. The programme provided peace-building education and sport- and artbased activities in order to address different dimensions of the conflict. Sportbased activities included group games, such as kickball and different versions of “tag,” within school groups to foster cooperation and communication.6 The artbased activities included composing poems, letters, and journal entries to peers, in which students expressed frustration with different dimensions of the school environment and reasons for using violence, and then group presentations and discussions of these writings.7

The programme provided peace-building education and sport- and art-based activities in order to address different dimensions of the conflict. Sport-based activities included group games, such as kickball and different versions of “tag,” within school groups to foster cooperation and communication. The art-based activities included composing poems, letters, and journal entries to peers, in which students expressed frustration with different dimensions of the school environment and reasons for using violence, and then group presentations and discussions of these writings.


Pioneers and Delegates, and Key Stakeholders such as the school administration engage in discussion of the successes and failures of the past year’s programme.

12 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

This research revealed that GFP programming did indeed influence attitudes towards violence in both the Target Group and the Beneficiary Community, but that the effects of GFP programming varied considerably depending on both the gender of Target Group members and the gender of Beneficairy Community members.

I investigated the degree to which the effects of GFP programming to change students’ attitudes towards conflict successfully “cascaded” into the Beneficiary Community (other school students, other non-trained teachers, teachers’ families, and especially students’ families). How did GFP programming influence attitudes towards violence in the Target Group, did GFP programming influence attitudes towards violence in students’ families, and if so, what was the nature of that influence? How receptive are members of the wider Beneficiary Community (not the Target Group) to GFP’s proposed alternatives to violence, and what factors influence their receptiveness? What factors are relevant for understanding variation in attitudes towards/acceptance of violence? In order to answer these questions, I conducted interviews and Focus Groups with students, Delegates (who were also students’ regular school teachers), students’ parents, and school administrators and staff. I also collected surveys from these groups, received briefings from GFP staff, and undertook participant observation to better understand how the programmes functioned. This research revealed that GFP programming did indeed influence attitudes towards violence in both the Target Group and the Beneficiary Community, but that the effects of GFP programming varied considerably depending on both the gender of Target Group members and the gender of Beneficiary Community members. A particularly important finding was the different structure of cascading among male and female Target Group members: while male Target Group members appeared to cascade GFP’s content mostly with their peer groups, female Target Group members appeared to cascade content to a wider selection of the Beneficiary Community. Mothers appeared to form a particularly important cascading link between schools (and GFP Delegates) and the wider community, particularly in terms of communication with spouses. Cascading was facilitated in the girls’ schools through strong relationships that developed (through GFP programming) between girls, female teachers/Delegates, and girls’ mothers, but such relationships did not appear to develop between boys, male teachers/ Delegates, and boys’ fathers. Parents of boys more readily considered a wide variety of types of violence acceptable, while parents of girls supported the use of violence for disciplinary purposes but not other reasons. Despite the positive changes outlined here, the need for better availability of information about GFP programming was clear among the entire Beneficiary Community. This report will include four main sections in addition to this Introduction: Context and Literature Review, which will explore some of the existent literature on violence in Jordan and elsewhere in the Middle East; Research Questions and Methodology, which provides greater detail on the structure and design of this study; Findings and Discussion, in which the results of the study will be discussed in detail and their implications explored; and Conclusions and Recommendations, where I will present suggestions for future improvements to the GFP programme in Jordan, based on these findings. An Appendix will include all research tools used.


1. 1 Purpose and Relevance to Generations For Peace

Students’ attitudes towards violence are closely linked to those of their parents, their peers and the wider community (see “Context and Literature Review,” below). Lasting change in schools is inseparable from wider community perceptions of violence as a response to conflict.14 Acceptance of violence in the home environment and parental modelling of aggression and physical response to conflict relates to students’ attitudes towards violence.15

14 Marwan Khawaja, “Domestic violence in refugee camps in Jordan,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 86 (2004): 67–69, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2004.04.008, 67; Rana F. Sweis, “Jordan Struggles to Protect Children,” The New York Times, 25 January 2012, accessed 10 October 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/world/middleeast/jordan-struggles-to-protectchildren.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. 15 Ibid., Stephanie Holt, Helen Buckley, and Sadhbh Whelan, “The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: a review of the literature,” Child Abuse and Neglect 32 (2008): 797-810, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.02.004. 16 Discussion with GFP staff members, Amman, Jordan. 29 July 2014. 17 Generations For Peace, “Generations For Peace (GFP) M&E Grid Violence in Schools” (2013). 18 Generations For Peace, “Generations For Peace (GFP) M&E Grid Violence in Schools” (2013).

Understanding impact of programming on wider community & factors that influence that impact is critical 4 creating durable change #GFP

13 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Understanding the impact of programming on the wider Beneficiary Community and the factors that influence that impact is critical for creating the wider, durable change that GFP seeks to bring about through cascading change. GFP programming aims to change the responses of young people to conflict, with the ultimate aim of changing the attitudes in the wider society of which participants are a part. However, the degree to which GFP’s programmes in Jordan successfully influence attitudes in communities where they are implemented is not well understood, as a clear causal link has not been demonstrated.16 The causal link or mechanism behind change in attitudes towards violence among the wider Beneficiary Community is not specified in the pilot’s Programme Grid.17 Nor is it clear how the concepts presented in GFP programming can most effectively reach the families and wider communities of the participants, and how this process can be improved or encouraged.18 This report seeks to address this gap by identifying causal links in change in attitudes and behaviour among the wider Beneficiary Community, as well as ways to facilitate better cascading of GFP’s message.



2.

Context and Literature Review


16 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

#VAW & children in home/family is significant problem that contributes to acceptance of violence in schools/universities #InstituteGFP

Violent student conflict may occur along ethnic, tribal, economic, and religious divisions; the recent influx of Syrian refugees has been associated with harassment and bullying of Syrian children in school contexts.

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© GFP 2014 | Amman, Jordan

he GFP programmes examined in this report were implemented in schools in Greater Amman in some of the most disadvantaged urban areas in Jordan (Mkhayyim Wehdat, or Wehdat Palestinian Refugee Camp, and Mkhayyim Shneler, or Shneler Palestinian Refugee Camp), where educational and recreational opportunities are extremely limited and incomes are low.19 The population in these areas is characterised by a combination of Jordanians of Palestinian descent and “East Bankers,” or indigenous Jordanians, as well as Egyptian migrant workers and recently arrived Syrian refugees, and is generally socially and religiously conservative.20 Public services are of a poorer quality than in western Amman;21 domestic violence is a recognised problem.22 Violence has also been an ongoing problem in Jordanian schools and universities, where physical aggression is an accepted response to conflict.23 The areas of Amman and Zarqa are known for high levels of child abuse in schools; many residents attribute this to poverty, unemployment, and cultural acceptance of violence.24 Article 62 of the Jordanian penal code specifically recognises as 19 Reema Safadi, “Jordanian women: Perceptions and practices of first-time pregnancy,” International Journal of Nursing Practice 11 (2005): 269–276, accessed 14 August 2014, DOI: 10.1111/j.1440172X.2005.00534.x; Robert Potter, Khadija Darmame, Nasim Barham, and Stephen Nortcliff, “An introduction to the urban geography of Amman,” Geographical Paper Number 182 (2007), Reading: University of Reading. 20 Robert Potter, Khadija Darmame, Nasim Barham, and Stephen Nortcliff, “An introduction to the urban geography of Amman,” Geographical Paper Number 182 (2007), Reading: University of Reading. 21 Ibid. 22 Rana F. Sweis, “Jordan Struggles to Protect Children,” The New York Times, 25 January 2012, accessed 10 October 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/world/middleeast/jordan-struggles-toprotect-children.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. 23 Ibid; IRIN, “Child abuse often goes unnoticed, say experts,” IRIN News, 17 May 2006, accessed 5 August 2014, http://www.irinnews.org/report/26889/jordan-child-abuse-often-goes-unnoticed-sayexperts; Khetam Malkawi, “More campus violence breaks out as phenomenon discussed,” Jordan Times, 21 November 2013, accessed 10 February 2013, http://jordantimes.com/more-campusviolence-breaks-out-as-phenomenon-discussed; Tamer al-Samadi, “Tribal-Fueled University Violence on Rise in Jordan”, Al-Monitor, 15 April 2013, accessed 10 February 2013, http://www.al-monitor.com/ pulse/security/2013/04/jordanian-tribal-violence.html#. 24 Rana F. Sweis, “Jordan Struggles to Protect Children,” The New York Times, 25 January 2012, accessed 10 October 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/world/middleeast/jordan-struggles-toprotect-children.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.


legitimate the disciplinary beating of children by parents.25 Violence against both women and children in the home and within the family is a significant and widespread problem that contributes to acceptance of violence in schools and universities.26 Some teachers feel that without violence, they “cannot gain respect of students who are physically abused at home,” and a 2007 United Nations report stated that at least 70% of Jordanian parents “supported teachers hitting students if they misbehave, don’t do their work, or get bad grades.”27

In the following paragraphs I will explore several different bodies of literature that provide useful background information on the issue of violence in Jordan (particularly violence involving young people). The literature surveyed here is organised and presented by topic or approach to violence, with additional information included on the effectiveness of different approaches to violence reduction. A. Violence, social capital, socioeconomic status, and family influence: Violence has been defined by the World Health Organisation as “the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation.”32 25 Ibid. 26 Diab Al-Badayneh, “Violence against women in Jordan,” Journal of Family Violence 27, no. 5 (2012): 369-379, accessed 25 July 2014, DOI:10.1007/s10896-012-9429-1. Khetam Malkawi, “More campus violence breaks out as phenomenon discussed,” Jordan Times, 21 November 2013, accessed 10 February 2013, http://jordantimes.com/more-campus-violence-breaks-out-as-phenomenondiscussed. 27 Tom Peter, “In Jordan, school violence begins at home,” Global Post, 30 May 2010, accessed 5 August 2014, http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/jordan/100419/school-violence-jordan-teachers. 28 Aoife Dineen, “Syrian refugee children in Jordan,” UNICEF (2013), accessed 5 August 2014 http://issuu. com/unicef.mena/docs/syrian_refugee_children_in_jordan_d/3>. 29 ICG (International Crisis Group), “Popular Protest in North Africa and the Middle East (IX): Dallying With Reform in a Divided Jordan,” Middle East/North Africa Report No. 118 (ICG 2012), accessed 10 August 2014, http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/Middle East North Africa/Iran Gulf/ Jordan/118-popular-protest-in-north-africa-and-the-middle-east-ix-dallying-with-reform-in-adivided-jordan.pdf. 30 Ibid. 31 Rana F. Sweis,“Jordan Struggles to Protect Children,” The New York Times, 25 January 2012, accessed 10 October 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/world/middleeast/jordan-struggles-toprotect-children.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. 32 Taghreed El Hajj, Rema Afifi, Marwan Khawaja, and Trudy Harpham, “Violence and social capital among young men in Beirut,” Injury Prevention 17 (2011): 401-406, accessed 6 August 2014, DOI: 10.1136/ip.2010.029124, 401.

Some tensions reflect a continuing divide between East Bankers and PalestinianJordanians: a sense of exclusion and suspicion of PalestinianJordanians is pervasive, influenced by historical conflict between PalestinianJordanians and the Jordanian state. While in reality the overlap is not so clear - both poor PalestinianJordanians and poor East Bankers have suffered in times of economic hardship - the perception of the fault line remains.

17 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Violence between school or university students is another serious problem. Violent student conflict may occur along ethnic, tribal, economic, and religious divisions; the recent influx of Syrian refugees has been associated with harassment and bullying of Syrian children in school contexts.28 Some tensions reflect a continuing divide between East Bankers and Palestinian-Jordanians: a sense of exclusion and suspicion of Palestinian-Jordanians is pervasive, influenced by historical conflict between Palestinian-Jordanians and the Jordanian state. “The impact of the East Banker/Palestinian-Jordanian fault line is compounded by its rough overlap with an urban-rural and a private-public sector divide.”29 While in reality the overlap is not so clear – both poor Palestinians and poor East Bankers have suffered in times of economic hardship – the perception of the fault line remains.30 In addition to this perception, economic stress itself remains an important risk factor in predicting both violence in schools and domestic violence.31

Useful resource: “Popular Protest in North Africa and the Middle East (IX): Dallying With Reform in a Divided Jordan,” Middle East/North Africa Report No. 118 (ICG 2012) http://bit.ly/1LtXc62


GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

© GFP 2014 | Amman, Jordan

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Understanding regional/cultural/ social context in which #JO students live is critical to identifying factors in attitudes to violence #GFP

Understanding the regional, cultural and social context in which Jordanian students live is a critical part of identifying factors in families’ attitudes to violence. Social capital, or the “resources and networks that produce social cohesion, trust and a willingness to engage in community activities,” has been demonstrated as an important factor as well in understanding youth violence.33 El Hajj et al. also describe other factors influencing the incidence of youth violence in their 2011 Beirut-based study, such as “social cognitive deficits, exposure to stressful life events, and religiosity,” as well as “low emotional attachment to parents/ caregivers,” “poor family functioning,” “low commitment to school,” “high level of neighbourhood disruptions,” and “impoverished environments.”34 The Beirut study defined social capital as reciprocity in non-material services, availability of material and non-material support from family, friends, and neighbours, trust expressed towards people in the individual’s neighbourhood, and the degree to which the individual liked living in his neighbourhood. Variations in these factors contributed to increased violence among young men in Beirut, suggesting that a similar connection may exist in urban communities with similar family and social structures elsewhere in the Middle East, and demonstrating the critical importance of social context. Clark et al. have also noted the role of the extended family in intimate partner violence in Jordan, which is also associated with prior experiences of violence in the natal family.35 The effects of family violence on children and young peoples’ behaviour more generally have been surveyed by Holt et al., revealing a positive association between domestic violence and children’s likelihood to either perpetrate acts of bullying in school or to be targeted by bullies.36 Morse 33 Ibid. 34 Ibid. 35 Cari Jo Clark, Jay G. Silverman, Manal Shahrouri, Susan Everson-Rose, and Nora Groce, “The role of the extended family in women’s risk of intimate partner violence in Jordan,” Social Science and Medicine 70, (2010): 144-151, accessed 5 August 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.09.024. 36 Stephanie Holt, Helen Buckley, and Sadhbh Whelan, “The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: a review of the literature,” Child Abuse and Neglect 32, (2008): 797-810, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.02.004.


et al. report evidence of a link between violence by men against their wives and children and boys’ violence against their sisters, suggesting another aspect of causation behind violence among young Jordanians.37 Violence in the family is also associated with young peoples’ inability to form secure relationships and achieve academic success.38

C. Gender and attitudes towards violence in Jordan: Khawaja has demonstrated the existence of gender differences in attitudes towards domestic violence against women in urban Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan.40 Khawaja notes that although younger men and women (aged 20-29) were more likely to express approval of wife-beating, younger men were more likely to “condone beating” than were young women, and that among older respondents, older women were more likely to “condone beating” than were older men.41 The existence of gender differences in attitudes to violence more generally in Jordan

© GFP 2014 | Jordan

37 Diane S. Morse, Yael Paldi, Samah Salaymeh-Egbarya, and Cari Jo Clark, “An effect that is deeper than beating: Family violence in Jordanian women,” Family, Systems & Health 30, no. 1 (2012): 19–31, accessed 14 August 2014, DOI: 10.1037/a0027137. 38 Ibid. 39 B. B. Robbie Rossman, “Time heals all: How much and for whom?” Journal of Emotional Abuse 2, (2000): 31–50, accessed 14 August 2014, DOI: 10.1300/J135v02n01_04. 40 Marwan Khawaja, “Domestic violence in refugee camps in Jordan,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 86, (2004): 67–69, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2004.04.008, 67; Rana F. Sweis, “Jordan Struggles to Protect Children,” The New York Times, 25 January 2012, accessed 10 October 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/world/middleeast/jordan-struggles-to-protectchildren.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. 41 Marwan Khawaja, “Domestic violence in refugee camps in Jordan,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 86, (2004): 67–69, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2004.04.008, 67.

The concept of “adversity package” applies to GFP programme context of disadvantaged communities in Amman, as students who perpetrate and suffer from violence also contend with economic and social stresses in their immediate environment, obscuring the nature of the potential relationship between students’ violent reactions to conflict, their experiences of domestic violence, and other risk factors in their lives.

19 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

B. The “adversity package”: Rossman’s term “adversity package” describes the way in which multiple sources of stress in a child’s environment (domestic violence, poverty, parental substance abuse and mental illness, unemployment, social isolation and homelessness) can accumulate, both increasing the risk of harm to the individual and obscuring the relationship between domestic violence and that harm.39 This concept applies to the GFP programme context of disadvantaged communities in Amman, as students who perpetrate and suffer from violence also contend with economic and social stresses in their immediate environment, obscuring the nature of the potential relationship between students’ violent reactions to conflict, their experiences of domestic violence, and other risk factors in their lives.


© GFP 2014 | Jordan

20 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

It is hoped that the results presented here will, among other things, demonstrate how (by what communication channels) individuals of different genders are differently influenced by external interventions. This issue remains a gap in the existing literature on gender and attitudes to violence.

has not been rigorously demonstrated. However, Clark et al. report a high level of reported approval for wife-beating in Jordan among women who attended family planning clinics,42 as well as generally high approval rates among both genders for violence against wives.43 It is hoped that the results presented here will, among other things, demonstrate how (by what communication channels) individuals of different genders are differently influenced by external interventions. This issue remains a gap in the existing literature on gender and attitudes to violence. D. Targeting violence in Jordanian families: If youth violence and other violent acts are associated with prior experience of family violence, how is it possible to influence violent parenting behaviour within Jordanian families? A report on the effects of the Better Parenting Programme, an initiative created after a 1996 survey revealed significant gaps in Jordanian parents’ knowledge regarding child needs and development, demonstrated that the direct parent training programme had had a positive but slight impact on participants’ parenting practices.44 This suggests that targeting abusive or neglectful behaviour through direct instruction may have minimal effects on participants’ behaviour in Jordan; the degree of decline in violence expressed by participating parents towards children was the same across experimental (Better Parenting Programme-instructed) and control groups. It appears that another approach is needed to address parental violence towards children. There is some evidence that school-based programmes involving both parents and children are effective in preventing some child abuse.45 E. Programme effectiveness in violence reduction: On an international scale, there are a number of challenges in understanding how effective a programme intending to address youth violence has been. This is because many times measures of effectiveness include changes in attitudes that are judged by asking participants 42 Cari Jo Clark, Allan Hill, Khelda Jabbar, and Jay G. Silverman, “Violence during pregnancy in Jordan: its prevalence and associated risk and protective factors,” Violence Against Women 15, no. 6 (2009) : 720735, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI: 10.1177/1077801209332191, 727. 43 Ibid; Muhammad Haj-Yahia, “Beliefs of Jordanian women about wife-beating,” Psychology of Women Quarterly (2002) 26: 282–291, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI: 10.1111/1471-6402.t01-1-00067. 44 Suha M. Al-Hassan and Jennifer E. Lansford, “Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan,” Early Child Development and Care 181, no. 5 (2011): 587-598, accessed 25 July 2014, DOI: 10.1080/03004431003654925. 45 Karen Zwi, Sue Woolfenden, Danielle M. Wheeler, Tracey O’Brien, Paul Tait, and Katrina J. Williams, “School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3, (2007): Art. No.: CD004380, accessed 10 August 2014, DOI: 10.1002/14651858. CD004380.pub2.


(1) a schoolwide commitment to preventing violence; (2) a core group of school staff who serve as advocates for RIPP; (3) a qualified full-time violence prevention facilitator; (4) adequate training for the violence prevention facilitator in RIPP and peer mediation; (5) willingness by the school staff to incorporate the RIPP and peer mediation programmes throughout the school year; and (6) establishing and evaluating objectives for implementing RIPP. Notable in the literature described above is the absence of investigation into the effectiveness of anti-violence programming in reaching and influencing the community beyond programmes’ immediate participants. How exactly are messages conveyed from a specific programme to the wider social network of its participants? What influences the degree to which messages are received and/ or accepted? How can this process be influenced or improved? This investigation intends to fill this gap within the specific context of GFP’s programming in Jordan, using as a starting point the links identified in the literature above between family violence and violence perpetrated by young people, and between gender and attitudes towards violence in Jordan, in order to understand the specific means by which programming messages reach and influence (or fail to influence) the wider community of non-participants. This investigation ultimately seeks to identify means by which violence in schools’ wider communities can be addressed through the GFP model, as its effects cascade from direct participants (the Target Group) to their families and other community members (Beneficiary Community). In consideration of the evidence above, I examined the hypothesis that GFP programmes impact differently views among men and women in the Beneficiary Community due to differences in the way in which the programmes’ message is communicated among male and female Target Group and Beneficiary Community members. This difference might be highly salient for designing programmes for maximal positive effect on violence in the community. The methods employed to test this hypothesis are presented in the following section. 46 Albert D. Farrell and Daniel J. Flannery, “Youth violence prevention: are we there yet?” Aggression and Violent Behavior 11, (2006): 138-150, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2005.07.008. 47 Mary Ann Limbos, Linda S. Chan, Curren Warf, Arlene Schneir, Ellen Iverson, Paul Shekelle, and Michele D. Kipke, “Effectiveness of Interventions to Prevent Youth Violence: A Systematic Review,” American Journal of Preventative Medicine 33, no.1 (2007) : 65–74, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2007.02.045.

Notable in the literature described is the absence of investigation into the effectiveness of anti-violence programming in reaching and influencing the community beyond programmes’ immediate participants. This investigation ultimately seeks to identify means by which violence in schools’ wider communities can be addressed through the GFP model, as its effects cascade from direct participants (the Target Group) to their families and other community members (Beneficiary Community).

21 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

to respond to hypothetical situations rather than to actual behaviour (participants say that they will respond to conflict in a certain way but do not actually do so in practice); the duration that the effects of a programme last is limited (changes in participant responses to conflict do not last long-term but disappear after a few weeks or months); and programme effectiveness is demonstrated for only a specific group of participants or a specific region (there is no significant effect on wider society or conflict in a broader sense).46 Some of these challenges suggest that the level at which interventions occur may have a strong effect on their success in preventing violence among youth: Limbos et al. note that “secondary” and “tertiary” interventions, targeting youth already identified as likely to engage in violence or previously engaged in violence, were significantly more successful than “primary” interventions aimed at preventing violence at the population level.47 Meyer et al. suggest six requirements for successful violence prevention programmes, according to their experience of implementing the Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways (RIPP) programme:


questionnaires ethn open ended interview semi−structured interviews

obs

structured interview team action research

n o i t va

ni no

y

g ar te

st

wo


nography

focus groups

research

servations

surveys

mwork

ideas

ership

lead

3.

case study

Research Questions and Methodology

orkshop


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#InstituteGFP research in #JO aims to answer how receptive wider beneficiary community is to #GFP-proposed alternatives to violence

n this section, I introduce in greater detail the specific areas investigated in this research, the hypothesis tested and the expected results, and the methods used to gather data. I will also examine some limitations of the methods I used and summarise the data gathered.

3.1 Research Questions

1. What was the outcome of GFP programming on attitudes towards violence in the Target Group (students)? 2. Did GFP programming influence attitudes towards violence in students’ families, and if so, what was the nature of that influence? 3. How did the outcome in the Target Group compare with changes in attitudes towards violence in the wider Beneficiary Community of family members and individuals associated with the schools (teachers who are not Delegates, school administrators)? a. How was GFP’s message communicated between the Target Group and Beneficiaries in the wider community? 4. Did GFP programming influence attitudes towards violence among teachers (not Delegates) and school administrators, and if so, what was the nature of that influence? 5. How receptive are members of the wider Beneficiary Community (not the Target Group) to GFP’s proposed alternatives to violence? a. What factors or which actors influence their receptiveness? 6. What different factors influence variation in attitudes towards violence in the wider Beneficiary Community? How powerful is variation in the following categories as an explanation for variation in attitudes towards violence? a. Gender b. Age c. Socioeconomic status (SES) d. Location


25

7. What changes should GFP make to its programmes to increase the degree to which their message cascades through the wider Beneficiary Community (especially parents)?

3.2 Hypothesis and Expected Results

Hypothesis: GFP programmes have an impact on the views of the Beneficiary Community, but impact differently views among men and women. This difference may later be highly salient for designing programmes for maximal effect on violence in the community. Expected Results: I anticipated that the difference in impact might be related to differences in the way in which GFP’s message was communicated between male and female members of the Target Group and Beneficiary Community, and that there might be a disparity in the degree of receptivity to GFP’s message among male and female members of the Beneficiary Group.

3.3 Methodology

Approach, justification, and limitations In order to answer the research questions outlined above, I undertook research between July and September 2014, speaking with 37 individuals in Focus Groups, interviewing 15 individuals, collecting 43 surveys, and attending three Participatory Evaluations in which participants and members of the Beneficiary Community commented on the programmes and two summer camps for the Target Groups. I used both qualitative and quantitative approaches to assess the impact of GFP programming on the wider Beneficiary Community, relying primarily on observations and responses from Focus Groups as well as responses to (brief ) surveys. I sought to triangulate my analysis by using multiple methods to gather data, comparing between data from different sources in order to correct for biases created by methods of data collection. A detailed breakdown of each of the methods used and the number of sources for each is included later in this section. 1. I undertook direct or participant observation as part of my qualitative analysis, because I expected that observation would enable me to record the

GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

© GFP 2014 | Amman, Jordan


26 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Target Group and Beneficiaries’ attitudes and perceptions in greater detail (both through opinions expressed and through nonverbal communication) than would be possible through Focus Groups or interviews alone. Three Participatory Evaluations at three different participating schools (during August-September 2014), in which members of both the Target Group and the Beneficiary Community shared their opinions and experiences of the programme, provided a useful opportunity for such observation. I also attended two summer camps in August 2014, which celebrated participants’ successful completion of the programme and provided additional practice in nonviolent responses to conflict. I hoped to gain a sense of opinions that might not otherwise have been expressed directly in Focus Groups or surveys. Unfortunately it was not possible to observe the programmes while running, as they had already been completed. 2. I also conducted nine semi-structured Focus Groups and 15 interviews with both male and female members of the Target Group, the Beneficiary Community, Delegates, and the school administration, in order to gain a more complete understanding of their attitudes through discussion. The Focus Groups and interviews involved discussion of perceived changes in attitude among other groups, in order to cross-check and contrast responses. The aim here was to gain a level of detail through these in-depth qualitative methods that would enable me to distinguish between different aspects of the “adversity package” that might affect participants’ attitudes towards violence and towards the concepts that GFP seeks to inculcate. Limitations: While these qualitative approaches provided a more holistic view of Beneficiaries’ attitudes, there is some danger that such data gathered through direct/participant observation and interviews may have been anecdotal. Its representativeness could not be verified. In Focus Groups, peer pressure, discomfort with speaking publicly or dissenting, and “groupthink”48 may have influenced responses. Interviews were as private (confidential) as possible in order to record maximally honest responses, but interviewing conditions varied and I was forced to hold some interviews outdoors (though at a distance from other people). I sought to overcome these issues by comparing results from qualitative analysis with those from surveys. Surveys were given at the same time (i.e., before the interview or Focus Group discussion) for all participants except one, in case the discussion influenced their initial responses. 3. As mentioned briefly above, I used short surveys to obtain quantitative data on attitudes in the Target Group and the Beneficiary Community (for instance, the percentage of respondents who felt that the use of violence was an acceptable form of discipline for children). I used this data to draw comparisons between perceptions of the Target Group and those of the Beneficiary Community, and within each group, between perceptions of males and females. These were critical comparisons for assessing the ability of GFP’s message to cascade. Limitations: Surveys that focused on quantitative data were more easily 48 Rebecca J. Welch Cline, “Detecting groupthink: methods for observing the illusion of unanimity,” Communication Quarterly 38, no.2 (1998): 112–126, accessed 12 October 2014, DOI 10.1080/01463379009369748.


compared across larger groups and represented visually, but they lacked the depth of detail that I needed to gain real insight into the impact of programming on the attitudes of the Beneficiary Community. Focus Group discussions and participant observation provided a more nuanced perspective, overcoming some of the limitations of survey results.

3.4 The Use of Data Collection Techniques

• I also attended two summer camps for participants and participated in activities there to better understand the impact of programming on the Target Group and how this relates to attitudes in the wider community. The camps ran over two to three days and included Sport For Peace activities, both celebrating the programme’s completion and providing the Target Group with additional practice in techniques for dealing with conflict. The camps were also used to prepare for the Closing Ceremony of the programme (held on 25 August 2014). The boys’ camp was residential and took place in a hotel in Ajloun, in the north of Jordan, while the girls’ was day-only and took place partly in a public park in Amman and partly at GFP’s Headquarters. The camps provided an opportunity to conduct Focus Groups, as well as creating space for less formal discussions with the Delegates and Target Group. Focus Groups: • I conducted five Focus Groups, including in total 13 parent Beneficiaries from all programme locations (both men and women) to discuss individuals’ own perceptions of violence, the impact of the programme on the Target Groups, and what factors influenced that impact. In most Focus Groups informed consent for audio recording was given and the discussion was recorded. • Before conducting the Focus Groups, I asked participants to complete surveys (see Appendix for interview and Focus Group guides, as well as Arabic and English versions of the surveys). • I conducted two Focus Groups with students (Target Group members aged 12-18), one with each gender group, during the summer camps to discuss their impressions of the programme’s impact on each other, on the Beneficiaries Community more broadly, and how that impact came about. Each Focus Group was audio recorded with participants’ consent. • I conducted two Focus Groups (separated by gender), each with six Delegates to discuss their impressions of the programme’s impact on the Target Group and on the Beneficiary Community in the wider community, and how that impact came about. Each Focus Group was also audio recorded, with participants’ consent.

27 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Direct or participant observation: • I attended three Participatory Evaluations, in three of the four schools involved in the Jordan Violence in Schools programme. During these Participatory Evaluations, I observed the reactions of the Target Groups and the Beneficiary Community (parents and others) to the programme over a four-day period, taking written notes throughout, collating and summarising observations at the end of each PE.


• The groups were not all representative samples, due to practical limitations; as a consequence, results must be interpreted with caution and awareness of possible bias. Please refer to Table 1 below for exact counts of participants.

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Interviews: • I conducted brief (between eight and 20 minutes) individual semi-structured interviews (in English or in Arabic) with three parent Beneficiaries, four school administration Beneficiaries, and eight Target Group members in order to gain additional details of the ways in which the message of GFP programmes reaches (and possibly affects the behaviour of ) members of the Beneficiary Community.

GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

• These interviews occurred after the respondent(s) had completed the survey. Each interview was semi-structured, based on the survey questions but exploring them in more detail. Results from confidential individual interviews were intended to help correct for the effects of social pressure in Focus Group settings. In most cases permission was granted for audio recording and the discussion was recorded and transcribed. Surveys: • I conducted a brief survey (note: before the Focus Group discussion or interview began) with 23 Target Group members and 20 Beneficiary Community members. All but one of these individuals were also either included in Focus Groups or interviewed in order to cross-check responses. These respondents were asked to identify situations in which physical punishment or violence is justified and those in which it is not justified, and to describe their experiences and the effects of the programme (see Appendix for survey in Arabic and in English). Results were disaggregated by gender and relationship to participants. • There were necessarily some slight differences between the survey designs, as some were created for the students in the Target Group and others for adults in the Beneficiary Community. • The survey included a number of multiple-choice questions and a number of questions that were answered according to a 5-point numerical scale, with 1 meaning “no, never” and 5 meaning “yes, absolutely.” In consideration of the potential problems created by double counting participants in Focus Groups, I had planned to also distribute surveys among Target Group and Beneficiary Community members who did not participate in Focus Groups and analyse these once they were returned, but this was not practically feasible. While practical constraints meant a smaller sample size overall, by conducting surveys and interviews and Focus Groups with the same individuals, I was able to triangulate my data collection techniques and cross-check responses to monitor consistency.


Both

Distribution by location

Parent Beneficiaries

Gender

13 (in 5 groups)

Type of participants

Number of participants

Type of data Focus Group

School A: 1 male and 2 female participants School B: 3 female participants School C: 2 male participants School D: 5 female participants (split into two Focus Groups, one with 3 participants and one with 2)

6

Target Group

Female

School A: 3 School B: 3

Focus Group

6

Target Group

Male

School C: 3 School D: 3

Focus Group

6

Delegates

Female

School A: 3 School B: 3

Focus Group

6

Delegates

Male

School C: 3 School D: 3

Surveys

13

Target Group

Female

School A: 7 School B: 6

Surveys

10

Target Group

Male

School C: 5 School D: 5

Surveys

12

Parent Beneficiaries

Female

School A: 3 School B: 4 School D: 5

Surveys

4

Parent Beneficiaries

Male

School A: 1 School C: 2 School D: 1

Interviews

4

Target Group

Female

School A: 2 School B: 2

Interviews

4

Target Group

Male

School C: 2 School D: 2

Interviews

1

Parent Beneficiaries

Male

School C

Interviews

2

Parent Beneficiaries

Female

School A: 1 School B: 1

Interviews

4

School Admin Beneficiaries

Mixed

1 from each school (2 male, 2 female)

Surveys

4

School Admin Beneficiaries

Mixed

1 from each school (2 male, 2 female)

Colour coding: Target Group Delegates School Administration Beneficiaries

Parent Beneficiaries

Table 1: Data gathered from Schools A, B, C and D (Schools A and B are girls’ schools, Schools C and D are boys’ schools)

GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Focus Group

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3.5 Method of Analysis

Having listed the different data collection techniques used in this research, this section describes the methods of analysis used for each type of data collected.

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Participant observation of the PE and the Summer Camps: After and during the sessions, I recorded: • Who participated in discussions and activities (and who did not) • What topics were discussed by the participants • Attitudes that participants expressed and others’ responses to them: e.g. which attitudes met with peer approval and which did not • General description (body language, etc.)

GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

All notes were recorded on the same day as the observations were made. The aim of these observations was to see whether GFP’s alternatives to violence were in evidence in individual interactions. These observations were not as useful as data generated through surveys, interviews, and Focus Groups and I did not rely on them. The main value of participant observation was ultimately the opportunity to establish rapport with members of the Target Group, Delegates, Beneficiary Community, and school staff and administrators, which later facilitated data collection in interviews and Focus Groups. Surveys, interviews, and Focus Groups: I used content analysis to compare responses from the Target Group (surveys, interviews, and Focus Groups) with those from Beneficiaries and Delegates (surveys, interviews and Focus Groups). Within the Beneficiary Community, I compared the responses of parents with those of school teachers and administrators (all of whom were part of surveys, interviews, and Focus Groups, in different combinations). By triangulating data collection methods and comparing responses, I sought to gain a more accurate understanding of respondents’ perceptions and behaviour. Surveys included both free response portions and scored responses in order to gain well-rounded measurements of respondents’ views and opinions. More specifically, I used content analysis to draw conclusions from comparisons (A) between Target Group and Beneficiary Community survey results (free response portion and scored responses) and (B) between all three groups’ (Target Group, Beneficiary Community, and GFP Delegates) Focus Group and interview results. This analysis was done using a single set of codes, mostly pre-determined but some created during the coding process. Responses were disaggregated by gender, relationship to participants, and location. I used NVivo software to code the transcripts of interviews and Focus Groups, and to identify relationships between respondent group type and specific attitudes and reported behaviours. I used basic descriptive statistics to compare the Target Group and Beneficiary Community’s survey results, comparing only identical questions present in both surveys. Within broader codes applied to mentions of specific topics in interview and Focus Group transcripts, I calculated the frequency of mentions of subcodes (for example, within the broader category of “Discussion of GFP,” I calculated the percentage of mentions of “Mother-child discussion of GFP”) and compared these across groups.


3.6 Limitations

I was unable to access equal numbers of male and female parent Beneficiaries for interviews, surveys, and Focus Groups, despite repeated attempts. This was partly due to the work schedules of men in the communities researched; most of the women were not engaged in wage labour and were therefore far more available for interviews and Focus Groups. Therefore, my conclusions regarding female Beneficiary Group members are more representative than my conclusions regarding male Beneficiary Group members.

In addition, the technique I used to complete content analysis in NVivo relied on the frequency of mentions of a code, which I had organised into categories (for example, parent opinion of GFP). I then analysed the percentage that a category (or specific sub-category – for example, favourable parent opinion of GFP) was mentioned. This technique is vulnerable to bias if a single data source (e.g., a single interview transcript) contains a disproportionate and non-representative number of mentions. I examined my data sources, however, and found that the distribution of mentions of specific codes was relatively even within categories (for example, gender and relationship to Target Group).

31 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

It is also possible that those with strong (or particularly positive) feelings towards GFP may have self-selected for participation in the Participatory Evaluations, which provided the context in which most interviews, Focus Groups, and survey completion happened. In addition, completing this research during and directly after the Participatory Evaluation may have influenced the way in which respondents understood and answered the questions, because the questions asked through the research tools employed for this study were somewhat similar to questions that were asked of participants during the discussions in the Participatory Evaluation. Respondents may therefore have felt that they were already prepared to answer the questions I asked, and may have provided similar responses. I sought to overcome this by emphasising the independent nature of this research prior to surveys, interviews, and Focus Groups.



4.

Findings and Discussion


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Surveys, Focus Groups, and interviews demonstrated that the GFP programme influenced behaviour as well as views on violence within the Target Group, the wider Beneficiary Community, and GFP Delegates themselves.

n this report, I sought to identify the specific ways in which GFP’s message was transmitted (if it was transmitted) between the Target Group and the Beneficiary Community, as well as what factors influenced this transmission and how it could be improved. Analysis of data gathered on GFP’s programmes revealed marked gender differences in (1) the effects of GFP programmes and (2) the way in which male and female Target Group members cascaded GFP’s message to and influenced the wider Beneficiary Community (parents, siblings, classmates, non-participant teachers, neighbours, relatives, and other community members).

4.1 Findings

4.1.1 The Effects of GFP Programmes Surveys, Focus Groups, and interviews demonstrated that the GFP programme influenced behaviour as well as views on violence within the Target Group, the wider Beneficiary Community, and GFP Delegates themselves. This section presents first the changes brought about by the GFP programme within the Target Group itself (outcomes), and then within the Beneficiary Community (impacts). Changes in the Target Group (Programme Outcomes) Respondents mentioned generic positive change and a direct decrease in violence as outcomes of the GFP programme. They also mentioned specific character traits that they felt had been influenced by the GFP programme, which included (among others) increased self-confidence, cooperative behaviour, and respectfulness. Finally, they mentioned an improvement in academic performance as part of the outcomes of the programme. A breakdown of these separate outcomes is presented below. General changes: Across all interviews and Focus Groups, positive change in male Target Group members represented 64% of total mentions of effects of GFP on


male participants, compared to 80% mentions of positive change in female Target Group members’ mentions of effects of GFP on female participants. Respondents mentioned unspecified positive change more frequently, with regards to both genders, than a direct decrease in violence as a result of GFP programming (which was mentioned in 36% of responses regarding males and only 20% of responses regarding females).

Figure 1: Number of mentions of participants’ character traits influenced by participation in GFP programmes (compiled from all Focus Groups and interviews, with n = 48)

The characteristics most frequently mentioned during interviews and Focus Groups as influenced by the GFP programme are listed in Table 2 (below) in decreasing order of relative frequency. Table 2 also describes how these characteristics were influenced by the GFP programme, both for boys and for girls. Among girls particularly, the programme was perceived to produce greater “cooperation” and a “stronger personality” (i.e., more outgoing behaviour, more social ease, and better leadership among peers). The programme was also described as increasing self-confidence among participants of both genders.

35 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Perceived effects on participants’ character traits: The GFP programme in Jordan was considered to have an influence on particular character traits, the full list of which is presented in Figure 1. This chart demonstrates the number of times participants mentioned characteristics that were influenced by GFP’s programme, separated by whether the characteristic was mentioned with regards to boys or with regards to girls.

In Target Group, a direct decrease in violence as a result of GFP programming was mentioned in 36% of responses regarding males and only 20% of responses regarding females.


36 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Surveys, interviews adn Focus Groups revealed that 61% of mentions by parents reflected community satisfaction with the programme effects, 33% of mentions referred to a perceived need for more programming and/or more participants, and 5% of mentions referred to community dissatisfaction with GFP programming.

Boys Respectfulness (increased towards parents, teachers, friends) Cooperation (improved with others at school, with siblings, with parents); Discipline (orderliness improved); Obedience (to teachers and parents); Self-confidence (increased in class, at home) Problem solving (conflict resolution improved), Awareness (increased awareness of the implications of behaviour and of others’ needs) Manners (improved manners)

Girls Cooperation (improved with others at school, with siblings, with parents) Irritability (decreased); Stronger personality (more outgoing behaviour, more social ease, better leadership among peers) Respectfulness (increased towards parents, teachers, friends) Self-confidence (increased in class and at home) Awareness (increased awareness of the implications of behaviour and of others’ needs)

Bold = commonly mentioned for both boys and girls Table 2: Target Group characteristics influenced by GFP (compiled from all Focus Groups and interviews)

Another outcome of the GFP programme that this research surfaced was the perceived effect that the programme had had on the academic performance of individual students. Both male and female members of the Target Group stated that the programme had improved their academic standing in school. However, more members of the female Target Group (n = 13) than members of the male Target Group (n = 10) felt that their academic performance was affected by GFP programmes. To ascertain this, Target Group members were asked the question, “In your opinion, did the GFP programme affect your academic performance in the past year?” Answers were scored using a 5-point numerical scale, with 1 meaning “no, never” and 5 meaning “yes, absolutely.” For female Target Group members, the answer averaged 4.4 points. In comparison, the male Target Group responses averaged only 2.9 points. When discussing the effects of GFP programming on the Target Group, it is also interesting to comment on levels of community satisfaction with the programme. Surveys, interviews and Focus Groups revealed that 61% of mentions by parents reflected community satisfaction with the programmes’ effects, 33% of mentions referred to a perceived need for more programming and/or more participants, and 5% of mentions referred to community dissatisfaction with GFP programming. A limitation to note here is that as a result of the small sample size of male parent respondents (four individuals), any combined results (such as the table of characteristics above) necessarily reflect mothers’ views more than fathers’. Effects on Target Group students’ attitudes to violence and self-reported change: The survey also measured the attitudes of Target Group students themselves regarding violence, and the degree to which they perceived their attitudes and behaviour and their parents’ behaviour to have changed during the year of GFP programming (see Figure 2).


As illustrated in Figure 2, male students on average agreed more than female students with the statement that “Violence is legitimate in the school environment.” Male students on average also felt more strongly that their parents’ behaviour regarding violence specifically had changed during the GFP programming year. However, on average, female students perceived GFP as having a greater effect on their academic achievement over the programming year than was perceived among boys. Changes in the Beneficiary Community (Programme Impacts) This section presents the changes that occurred in the Beneficiary Community as a result of the programme run by GFP Pioneers and Delegates in Jordan. This included, most significantly, changes in the Beneficiary Community’s attitudes towards the use of violence. The use of violence: Interviews, Focus Groups, and surveys suggested some effects of GFP programming on the parents’ own perspectives on the use of violence. It must be noted that prompting introspection proved difficult in all research contexts and it is possible that some respondents misunderstood the survey question targeting this issue (“Did your perspective on the use of violence change in the last year?”). As before, respondents answered questions using a 5-point numerical scale, with 1 meaning “no, never” and 5 meaning “yes, absolutely.” Average responses are presented in Figure 3.1 below.

37 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Figure 2: GFP’s effects on Target Group members (self-reported in surveys, n = 23): Average responses on a 1-5 scale (1 = “no, never” and 5 = “yes, absolutely”)

Male students on average felt more strongly that their parents’ behaviour regarding violence specifically had changed during the GFP programming year. However, on average, female students perceived GFP as having a greater effect on their academic achievement over the programming year than was perceived among boys.


38 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Fathers were, on average, more willing than mothers to support the use of violence in the scenarios presented (school and home environment, and the use of violence in preparing girls and boys for life overall).

Figure 3: Attitudes to violence among parent Beneficiaries (n = 16): Average responses on a 1-5 scale (1 = “no, never” and 5 = “yes, absolutely”)

It is notable that fathers were, on average, more willing than mothers to support the use of violence in the scenarios presented in the questions (the use of violence in the school environment, the use of violence in the home environment, and the use of violence in preparing girls and boys for life overall). Three (all female) of the sixteen parents surveyed cited disrespect or contravention of Islamic law and/or “customs and traditions” as legitimate reasons for violence, while two of sixteen (both female) mentioned prayer as a circumstance in which the use of violence would not be legitimate (i.e., that exemplified “good” behaviour requiring no disciplinary response). In comparison, fathers appeared slightly more willing to support the use of violence in general terms beyond simply disciplinary action, as is in evidence in the graph above. It is interesting to note that GFP’s programming also coincided with slightly more change (towards less use of violence) among the fathers of male Target Group members than among their mothers, according to both boys’ and fathers’ responses (see Figures 4 and 5, below). Parents of male participants, when asked in the survey if they felt that their perspective on the use of violence had changed in the past year, responded with an average of 4.4, closely followed by parents of female students, whose responses averaged 4.2. Although the difference is small, the slightly greater reported change in behaviour and perspective on violence among parents of sons than parents of daughters exists in both the Focus Groups/ interviews and the survey data.


Figure 5: Changes in attitudes to violence among parent Beneficiaries as reported by student Target Group members (n = 23): Average responses on a 1-5 scale (1 = “no, never” and 5 = “yes, absolutely”)

Interestingly, the female parent survey respondents were more descriptive of their own behaviour change in the free response “How” portion of the question “Did your perspective on the use of violence change in the last year?” Male respondents did not refer to their own behaviour in this written portion. Women’s responses included: Survey 11P: Yes, very much. No to violence.49 Survey 3P: Yes, it changed, it changed completely.50 Survey 2P: I stopped yelling at the children and hitting because I saw my son’s behaviour change.51 Members of the Target Group surveyed, when asked if their parents’ behaviour had changed with respect to violence during the GFP programming period, responded affirmatively that: Survey 9TGM: They don’t hit us now.52 Survey 7TGM: My family was using violence but after GFP programme they stopped using it. Survey 1TGM: They became against violence.53 49 All surveys are presented in the following form: Survey Number, Category, and Gender (when necessary). For example: Survey 89TGM refers to Survey 89, Target Group, Male. Survey 11P, completed by parent, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. 50 Survey 3P, completed by parent, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. 51 Survey 2P, completed by parent, Amman, Jordan. 7 September 2014. 52 Survey 9TGM, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 18 August 2014. 53 Survey 1TGM, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 18 August 2014.

39 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Figure 4: Changes in attitudes to violence among parent Beneficiaries as reported by parent Beneficiaries themselves (n = 16): Average responses on a 1-5 scale (1 = “no, never” and 5 = “yes, absolutely”)


40 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Why #M&E in #Peacebuilding? Simply put, if you don’t know what is causing the problem, you must ask #GFP #InstituteGFP

Survey 6TGF: The family doesn’t use any violence against me.54 Survey 7TGF: My mother started to treat me in a better way.55 Survey 10TGF: They didn’t use violence since the GFP programme began.56 Survey 11TGF: They became better and they understand each other more but every family has a nervous person.57 Survey 2TGM: They paid attention to me because they noticed a big change inme.58 Survey 13TGF: At the beginning I was very stubborn and they were using violence but when I changed in a positive way they also stopped using violence.59 Survey 3TGM: By not using physical violence and to use dialogue.60 In response to the same question, members of the Target Group responded negatively that: Survey 2TGF: No, because the family considers violence as a way to raise their children.61 Survey 4TGF: There is a change but not too much.62 Survey 4TGM: Sometimes they use their intelligence and sometimes violence.63 The quotes above demonstrate changes in both the actual use of violence and attitudes towards violence among the Beneficiary Community. From the discussion above, it is apparent that while the GFP programme brought about changes in parent Beneficiaries as a whole, there were important differences in the impact the programme had on parents of male Target Group members and the parents of female Target Group members. This is demonstrated below. In analysing surveys, Focus Group transcriptions, and interview transcriptions, I grouped data into the following categories based on the most frequently occurring responses: “Violence is an acceptable form of discipline,” “Violence is necessary to teach children,” “Violence is never acceptable,” “Violence is an acceptable response to conflict after other alternatives are exhausted,” and “Violence is acceptable” (in a general sense). The results of this analysis for all interviews and Focus Groups with parents are presented in Figure 6. For the parents of female Target Group members, Figure 6 charts the percentages of the full list of responses they mentioned (in their case, “violence is an acceptable form of discipline,” and “violence is never acceptable”). Out of these two categories of responses, 80 per cent of the mentions by parents of female Target Group members referred to violence being an acceptable form of discipline, and 20 per cent of the mentions by parents of female Target Group members referred to violence never being acceptable. Figure 6 presents information for parents of the male Target Group members the same way; the percentages demonstrate how frequently parents of 54 Survey 6TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. 55 Survey 7TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. 56 Survey 10TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. 57 Survey 11TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. 58 Survey 2TGM, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 18 August 2014. 59 Survey 13TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. 60 Survey 3TGM, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 18 August 2014. 61 Survey 2TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. 62 Survey 4TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. 63 Survey 4TGM, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 18 August 2014.


the male Target Group members mentioned a particular attitude, out of the total number of times they mentioned attitudes towards violence. In other words, Figure 6 shows the percentage of specific attitudes within the total number of mentions of attitudes towards violence, by the parents of male Target Group members and female Target Group members separately.

Figure 6: Attitudes towards violence: Percentage of total mentions in interviews and Focus Groups, by gender of participants (Parents of female Target Group members: n = 12, parents of male Target Group members: n = 4)

From this chart, it can be seen that a significant difference existed between parents of male Target Group members and parents of female Target Group members in Focus Groups and interviews. The parents of male students showed a range of opinions on violence, mentioning many different situations in which violence may be acceptable, whereas parents of female students overwhelmingly focused on violence as an acceptable form of discipline. A comparable trend also exists in the survey data. When asked whether the use of violence is legitimate in the home environment, parents of female participants responded with an average of 2 (indicating slightly more agreement) and parents of sons responded with an average of 1.6 (indicating less agreement). This reinforces the findings from the interviews and Focus Groups. While parents of female students mentioned violence as an acceptable form of discipline more often than parents of male students, the proportion of parents of female students responding that violence is never acceptable was larger than the proportion of parents of male students giving this response. As a result, this analysis showed that while parents of male students may have found violence to be acceptable in many different contexts – and not as a form of discipline only – parents of female students were more likely to say that violence should be used as a form of discipline only, or otherwise never considered it acceptable. Possible reasons for this difference may include social stigma on girls’ and women’s use of physical violence, which is the form usually understood to be referenced by the word “violence,” and greater social approval for boys’ and men’s use of violence; participants may have understood the survey question in terms of their own hypothetical actions and responded accordingly.

41 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

The parents of male students showed a range of opinions on violence, mentioning many different situations in which violence may be acceptable, whereas parents of female students overwhelmingly focused on violence as an acceptable form of discipline.


The findings above suggest that GFP programmes are perceived to have had a generally positive effect (encouraging positive character traits and behaviour) on members of the Target Group, and also that GFP programming contributed more to a direct decrease in violence among male participants than to a direct decrease in violence among female participants. GFP also appears to have had a greater impact on girls’ academic performance than on boys’ academic performance (see Figure 2), although the nature of that effect was not specified.

42 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

In addition, differences in attitude and behaviour change appear to exist (1) between the genders in the Beneficiary Community and (2) between parents of boys and parents of girls. In the Beneficiary Community, men appeared slightly more willing to support the use of violence in general terms. Parents of girls, however, appeared more willing to support the use of violence specifically as a disciplinary tool and in the home environment. In addition, slightly more change in parents’ perspective on violence during the year of GFP programming occurred for parents of male Target Group members. This was reported both by sons in the Target Group and by the parents of the sons themselves. 4.1.2: Cascading GFP’s Message: Patterns of Communication between the Target Group and the Beneficiary Community The Beneficiary Community in GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools programme includes the parents and families of the Target Group, as well as members of the wider community (neighbours, friends, the school administration, and teachers and schoolmates who are not themselves programme participants).64 Other groups that are potentially affected by the GFP programme might include other nearby communities and schools, as well as participants’ families in other areas. GFP’s programmes aim to create lasting change through the Target Group, who transmit the nonviolent content and message of the programmes to the Beneficiary Community, influence Beneficiaries’ attitudes towards violence and thus widen programmes’ impact through this “cascading” process. I identified several patterns of communication by which GFP programmes’ message was communicated (cascaded) by the Target Group of students to this wider community. These are presented in Figure 7.

Figure 7: Numbers of mentions of boys’ and girls’ discussions of GFP (n = 36) 64 Generations For Peace, “Generations For Peace (GFP) M&E Grid Violence in Schools” (2013).


For girls, these main patterns included daughter-mother discussion, female studentsibling discussion, and female student-peer discussion; for boys, these patterns consisted of male student-peer discussion, male student-mother discussion, and male student-father discussion. In addition a strong link was evident between female Delegates and female students and their mothers.

For the first indicator, “communication” was coded as including general interaction that did not directly mention GFP, its programmes, and its content, but which was used as a means of dealing with conflict and whose increased frequency or improved quality was mentioned as being among the effects of GFP. A significant gender disparity existed in the relative frequency of mentions of general childfather and general child-mother communication to solve potential conflict (not direct discussion of GFP) in all interviews and Focus Groups (see Figure 8). In general, girls’ communication with both parents (although more often mothers) was mentioned with greater relative frequency as being improved by participation with GFP than was boys’ general communication with both parents (see Figure 8). Within girls’ communication with parents, daughters’ communication with mothers was more frequently mentioned than daughters’ communication with fathers. For the second indicator, “discussion of GFP” included any conversations regarding GFP, its programmes, or its content. Gender disparity was much less significant in mentions of direct discussions of GFP’s programmes and content (Figure 7, y-axis limited to 50% to facilitate comparison between Figures 6-9). Boys’ discussion of GFP itself was mentioned with greater relative frequency than girls’ discussion of GFP itself (see Figure 9). Within mentions of boys’ discussion of GFP, discussions between fathers and sons were more frequently mentioned than discussions between mothers and sons.

Figure 8: Percentage of total mentions (by all individuals in all Focus Groups and interviews, n = 48) of improved and/or increased communication between children and parents to solve conflict as an effect of participation in GFP programmes, by child’s gender and parent’s gender

43 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Indicators used here to measure the links through which GFP’s message was being cascaded to the wider Beneficiary Community included 1) the percentage of total mentions of communication with others as a way to deal with potential conflict, influenced by GFP’s programmes, and 2) the percentage of mentions of direct discussion of GFP programmes with others. Results for the first indicator are presented in Figure 8, and results for the second indicator are presented in Figure 9.


44 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Figure 9: Percentage of total mentions (by all participants in Focus Groups and interviews) of direct discussion of GFP’s message, by type of interaction

Communication between groups and direct discussion of GFP – both elements that allowed for the “cascading” of the GFP message – were not limited to interaction between children and the wider community. General communication and direct discussion of GFP also occurred between parents and teachers who had been trained as GFP Delegates. In fact, discussions between parents and these teachers were described in interviews and Focus Groups as forming a persuasive means of cascading the message and impact of GFP, as teachers represented a trusted source of information within the community.65 General communication between parents and teachers seemed to build these relationships and thus contribute to better transmission of GFP’s specific message (as teachers were also Delegates), as well as making it possible for more students to attend programmes by allaying parents’ fears. For this reason, understanding these patterns of transmission is critical. It is also notable that gender differences existed between boys’ parents and girls’ parents interactions with their children’s teachers, both in discussions of GFP programmes themselves and in terms of general communication (see Figures 10 and 11). In terms of general communication, boys’ fathers had a significantly higher relative frequency of mentions of communication with their sons’ teachers than did boys’ mothers, while girls’ mothers had a significantly higher relative frequency of mentions of communication with their daughters’ teachers than did the girls’ fathers. This strengthened mother-teacher link was emphasised in interviews and Focus Groups as an important result of GFP programming.66 Interestingly, the disparity between girls’ mothers’ and fathers’ communication with girls’ teachers was far greater (20.9 percentage points) than the disparity between boys’ mothers’ and fathers’ communication with boys’ teachers (only 2.8 percentage points). This demonstrated that the connection between girls’ mothers and girls’ teachers was not simply an important result of GFP programming; it was also a key link in the way in which GFP’s message cascaded across the Beneficiary Community. The effect discussed above was less pronounced but still noticeable in discussions of GFP specifically (see Figure 11), with mothers’ discussions with their daughters’ teachers appearing 8.6 percentage points higher than fathers’ discussions with their daughters’ teachers. Among boys’ parents, fathers’ and mothers’ discussions of GFP with teachers were mentioned equally frequently. 65 Focus Group with female Delegates, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. Focus Group 1 with female parents, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. Focus Group 3 with male and female parents, Amman, Jordan. 7 September 2014. Focus Group 4 with female parents, Amman, Jordan. 7 September 2014. 66 Ibid; Interview 2 with female parent, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014.


Figure 11: Percentage of total mentions (by all participants in Focus Groups and interviews, n = 48) of discussion of GFP programmes with teachers, disaggregated by type of interaction

A gender disparity was also marked in child-child general communication and child-child discussions of GFP (“child-child” refers to programme participantnon-participant interactions). In interviews and Focus Groups, mentions of boys communicating with other children (usually friends) were more than twice as frequent as mentions of girls doing the same, and mentions of boys discussing GFP specifically with other children were also nearly twice as frequent as mentions of girls discussing GFP. In terms of communication with the wider community, the results were different. Although the vast majority of Target Group members surveyed (85% of girls and 89% of boys) responded that they discussed GFP and its content with people in wider society (not parents), the girls had discussed GFP with a wider group of non-participants than the boys had. The girls reported discussing GFP with not only their friends but their neighbours, their relatives in general, their uncles, and their siblings, while all except one of the male Target Group members reported discussing GFP with friends only. Based on the analysis above, it appears that cascading occurs largely between boys and their peers, and between girls and their families, neighbours, and peers (see Figures 12 and 13).

45 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Figure 10: Percentage of total mentions (by all respondents in Focus Groups or interviews, n = 48) of communication with teachers, disaggregated by type of interaction


Cascading GFP Content in Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: GIRLS

GFP Pioneer

GFP Delegates / Female Teachers

Target Group Girls

46 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Mothers Extended family Siblings

Neighbours

Student Peers • Red Connector= Strongest/ Most critical links • Bold= Most important agents of communications

Figure 12: Cascading GFP content in Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: girls

Cascading GFP Content in Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: BOYS

GFP Pioneer

GFP Delegates / Male Teachers

Target Group Boys Mothers Father

Student Peers • Red Connector= Strongest/ Most critical links • Bold= Most important agents of communications

Figure 13: Cascading GFP content in Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: boys


Girls’ patterns of cascading GFP content appeared to be somewhat more complex and to involve a wider variety of individuals than existed in boys’ cascading patterns. A significant link also existed between girls’ mothers and girls’ teachers (the programme’s Delegates), but this connection was not strong for boys’ mothers and teachers. Mothers of both genders appeared to influence both the Target Group members’ fathers and the wider Beneficiary Community.

The fact that gender-based differences existed in cascading patterns reinforced the fact that – as mentioned in the section that listed effects of the programme on the Target Group – gender-based differences also existed in the outcomes of the programme. The programme had a slightly stronger effect on reducing boys’ physically violent behaviour than girls’. Among girls, the programme was perceived to produce a “stronger personality” and increase self-confidence, and it had a stronger effect on perceived quality of academic performance. Mothers appeared significantly more likely than fathers to interact with teachers regarding their children’s behaviour, possibly because many mothers do not have set work schedules. Comments from school principals and teachers/Delegates suggested that mothers are a source of strong influence on the fathers, who are (as I experienced) a more difficult group to reach. The fathers, however, displayed a more diverse tolerance of different uses of violence (such as a “preparation for life” or in the home environment; see Figure 3). Obstacles to participation in GFP programmes (aspects of the “adversity package” mentioned in the literature review) existed for some girls, but it is hoped that these could be overcome with improved communication between GFP, schools, and Target Group members’ families. The cascading trends identified above could be used to share information more effectively and reduce gender barriers to participation, as well as to improve cascading. Specific recommendations for future practices are outlined in the conclusion.

4.2 Discussion

4.2.1 Summary of Previous Findings Attitudes towards GFP’s message and towards violence in the Target Group and Beneficiary Community: The surveys, Focus Groups, and interviews suggest that respondents were generally happy with GFP programming, with many expressing enthusiasm for its continuation. Parents of girls more frequently expressed the view that violence is legitimate specifically as form of discipline (but not necessarily in other contexts), while the views of boys’ parents were more evenly spread across different attitudes towards the use of violence. This trend was identified through both qualitative (interview and Focus Group) and quantitative (survey) methods. Fathers appeared slightly more willing to support the use of violence in general terms beyond simply disciplinary action, but GFP’s

47 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Implications of these findings include the great importance of including as many girls as possible in GFP programmes, given their extensive cascading patterns, and the need to engage mothers to enhance the cascading process.


programming also coincided with slightly more change (i.e., less use of violence) among the parents of male Target Group members than among the parents of female Target Group members, according to both Target Group members’ and parents’ responses.

48 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

More communcation and discussion of GFP was mentioned between parents and children of the same gender (girls with mothers, boys with fathers), but girls’ general communication with both parents was more frequently mentioned as influenced by GFP than boys’ general communication. Both boys and girls appeared to discuss GFP programmes and content with non-parent non-participants, but the range of community members with whom the boys spoke appeared to be limited mostly to their (unrelated) friends, while girls reported speaking about GFP specifically with neighbours and their extended family.

Cascading and communication between the Target Group and the Beneficiary Community: Regarding the cascading of GFP’s message in the Beneficiary Community, more communication and discussion of GFP was mentioned between parents and children of the same gender (i.e., girls with mothers, and boys with fathers), but girls’ general communication with both parents was more frequently mentioned as influenced by GFP than boys’ general communication. However, boys’ and girls’ direct discussions of GFP programmes and content with their parents were comparatively closer in frequency. In addition, parents appeared to communicate and discuss GFP more with teachers of the same sex, particularly in the case of girls’ (mostly female) teachers. Finally, both boys and girls appeared to discuss GFP programmes and content with nonparent non-participants, but the range of community members with whom the boys spoke appeared to be limited mostly to their (unrelated) friends, while girls reported speaking about GFP specifically with neighbours and their extended family (see Figures 10 and 11). 4.2.2 Analysis of Cross-Cutting Issues This section lists some of the cross-cutting issues that have emerged from the analysis of GFP’s Violence in Schools programme in Jordan. Gender-specific issues: Focus Groups and interviews demonstrated some gender-specific benefits, concerns, and restrictions connected with GFP’s programmes. Female teachers/Delegates particularly emphasised the improvement in the quality of general communication between them and their female students, stating that the girls were more willing to come to them for help and advice with their personal problems.67 The Delegates also noted the feedback they had received from three girls’ mothers in particular, who attributed significant improvement in their daughters’ behaviour to participation in GFP’s programme. The Delegates discussed some of the social challenges they had overcome in order to get girls from very conservative backgrounds into the programme at all, describing the fears of highly religious parents that their daughters would be inappropriately exposed during GFP activities and some parents’ refusal to permit daughters to develop artistic or other non-academic talents. The issue of participation was overcome only with repeated home visits from a teacher to explain the purpose and nature of GFP activities. Lastly, parents expressed concern about the logistics of GFP sessions, particularly those scheduled in the evening that could require girls to leave the house. Parents of male students (but not female students) emphasised their fears of their sons receiving “bad influences” in the street, primarily drugs, during after school and vacation hours when they lack recreational activities outdoors. This seemed to increase their enthusiasm for participation in GFP programmes as an alternative to time spent in the street. Leaving the house in the evening to participate in activities was not, however, a concern for parents of male students. 67 Focus Group with female Delegates, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014.


Sharing information about GFP: Focus Group and interview participants also expressed a serious need for more information about GFP programming. This was mentioned 51 times in the qualitative data set, spread across 21 out of 24 interviews and Focus Groups; it was a particular concern in the parent and Delegate Focus Groups. Providing more information appears to be an important way to overcome some of the gender-specific barriers to girls’ participation in GFP programming. Means of distributing information suggested during interviews and Focus Groups included leaflets, open days or other events to distribute information, an accessible website specifically about the school programmes, and a video. Contrary to prior expectations, attendance or observation of GFP sessions was not associated with any particular effects on parent Beneficiaries.

49 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

© GFP 2014 | Amman, Jordan

Why should you evaluate postprogramme? #GFP believes that doing so is essential to strengthening future interventions #InstituteGFP



5.

Conclusion and Recommendations


GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

While GFP programming appears to have had some strong effects overall on Target Group, Delegates, and Beneficiary Community members’ use of communication to resolve conflict, programming affected male and female Target Group and Beneficiary Community members differently, and male and female groups cascaded GFP’s content in different ways. This suggests that the gender differences in programming effects are more complex than anticipated.

© GFP 2014 | Amman, Jordan

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Watch the Jordan Violence in Schools video in which teachers and students share their thoughts on GFP programme: http://bit.ly/1DbobPL

5.1 Conclusion

The findings presented here are the result of research undertaken to examine how effectively and through what channels GFP’s message was communicated or “cascaded” to the wider community by programme participants in Amman, Jordan. Interviews, Focus Groups, surveys, and participant observation were used to generate data to answer this question. Respondents included members of the Target Group (students aged 12-18 who participated directly in GFP programming), Delegates (teachers trained by GFP to lead activities designed to teach nonviolent ways to respond to conflict to children and youth in GFP programmes), and members of the wider Beneficiary Community (parents, members of school administration, and school staff ). I conducted individual semi-structured interviews (in English or in Arabic) with three parent Beneficiaries, four school administration Beneficiaries, and eight Target Group members. I conducted five Focus Groups with parent Beneficiaries including 13 respondents in total, two Focus Groups with students (each with eight participants of the same gender representing all four schools involved), and two Focus Groups with six Delegates each (separated by gender). I collected surveys from 23 Target Group members (13 male, 10 female), four school administration Beneficiaries, and 16 parent Beneficiaries. With NVivo software, I completed content analysis on Focus Group and interview transcripts, using a single set of codes for all sources and disaggregating responses by gender, relationship to participants, and location. Within broader codes applied to mentions of specific topics, I calculated the relative frequency of mentions of subcodes (for example, within “Discussion of GFP,” the percentage of mentions of “Mother-child discussion of GFP”) and compared these across groups. I used basic descriptive statistics to compare survey responses across groups. The results of this analysis demonstrated that while GFP programming appears to have had some strong effects overall on Target Group, Delegate group, and Beneficiary Community members’ use of communication to resolve conflict, programming affected male and female Target Group and Beneficiary Community members differently, and male and female groups cascaded GFP’s content in different ways. In the parent Beneficiary group, the results and patterns of cascading varied according to the gender of the child participating in GFP


programming. This suggests that the gender differences in programming effects are more complex than anticipated. Figures 10 and 11 map this complexity by presenting the main patterns of cascading for both boys and girls.

The results of this study suggest that, as discussed in the literature review, gender remains an important element in understanding attitudes to violence, and examining social networks and social capital (in this case, the ability of individuals to communicate with, access, and influence members of their communities on the subject of violence) is critical to identifying ways to change violent behaviour. As noted by both Khawaja and Clark et al., differences in attitudes to violence in Jordan fall along gender lines (as well as age group divisions).68 The results described here suggest some of the complexities of these gender differences in attitude – for example, differences in GFP’s effects on parental attitudes according to the child’s gender rather than simply the gender of the parent. These results also reveal apparent gender differences in the ways in which attitudes in the wider community are influenced by interventions: GFP programmes reportedly prompted more change in perspectives on violence among parents of male Target Group members than among the parents of female Target Group members, according to both parents’ self-reporting and students’ survey responses. Also, mothers of participants (but not fathers) were reportedly influenced not only by communication and discussion of GFP with their children but also communication and discussion of GFP with female teachers (Delegates). In addition, female participants’ communication with their parents to solve conflict was more frequently described as having increased than was male participants’ communication with their parents.

68 Marwan Khawaja, “Domestic violence in refugee camps in Jordan,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 86, (2004): 67–69, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2004.04.008. Cari Jo Clark, Jay G. Silverman, Manal Shahrouri, Susan Everson-Rose, S., and Nora Groce, “The role of the extended family in women’s risk of intimate partner violence in Jordan,” Social Science and Medicine 70, (2010): 144-151, accessed 5 August 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.09.024.

The results suggest that gender remains an important element in understanding attitudes to violence, and examining social networks and social capital (in this case, the ability of individuals to communicate with, access, and influence members of their communities on the subject of violence) is critical to identifying ways to change violent behaviour.

53 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

From the findings, five important trends can be identified: 1. There is a greater degree of communication between Target Group members’ mothers and teachers than between Target Group members’ fathers and teachers. 2. GFP programming has a significant influence on girls’ communication with others, including their own family members and members of the school and neighbourhood communities. 3. The width of girls’ communication circles in their school, home, and family communities is greater than that of boys. 4. There are certain gender-specific barriers to girls’ participation in GFP programming, including most notably cultural norms. 5. There is a need for greater availability of information regarding GFP programming. This information, particularly if delivered by school staff who maintain a strong relationship with Target Group members’ families, is likely to reduce barriers to girls’ participation.


5.2 Recommendations

I now use the findings described above to provide specific recommendations to improve school-based programmes of this type. While the current form of the GFP programme described here appears to be effective (see below), results could be enhanced by some additions and changes to the current programme design.

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Possible additions and changes to the current programme design:

GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

• Establish a meeting group specifically for the mothers of Target Group • Schedule sessions during the day rahter than at night • Consult the students’ parents regarding the time and place of the sessions in general • Ensure that the sessions are not detracting from class time • Make clear the reasons or criteria for selection of student participants, as well as the capacity limits on participation.

Given the importance of women and girls for communicating GFP’s message and influencing the wider Beneficiary Community, as well as the lack of adequate information and outreach in the Beneficiary Community, I would recommend that GFP Delegates establish a meeting group specifically for the mothers of the Target Group, the purpose of which would be to more effectively share information regarding GFP’s programming and message. The Target Group’s mothers appear to be a source of influence on the fathers, who are otherwise more difficult to reach. Increasing the information available to families should help in reducing the barriers to participation for girls from conservative backgrounds. The reportedly strong rapport that teachers/Delegates developed with both mothers and female Target Group members (as a result of GFP’s activities and corresponding improvements in all groups’ communication skills) could be utilised in creating a mothers’ group and improving information sharing. Another way to reduce obstacles to girls’ involvement would be scheduling sessions during the day rather than at night. It is anticipated that increasing girls’ involvement would improve cascading of the GFP programmes’ message in general, considering girls’ wider communication with their community, which (according to trends identified above) would itself be further enhanced by participation in GFP programming. Other aspects of the programmes are working extremely well, according to the data described above. The activities themselves were clearly popular among the participants and I heard frequent requests to continue the programming from both the Target Group and the Beneficiaries. The programmes have reportedly generated positive change in members of the Target Group and the Beneficiary Community, as well as among the Delegates. GFP programmes are described as enhancing specifically the quality of communication used to resolve conflict both at home and at school, and appear to be associated with positive changes in attitudes towards violence in both the Target Group and Beneficiary Community. Relationships between members of the Target Group and their teachers and between parent Beneficiaries (especially mothers) and their children’s teachers (especially girls’ female teachers) appear to have been strengthened over the course of the year, leading to better communication on the subject of conflict and other problems at school and at home that affect students’ academic performance and wellbeing. However, without the baseline study including many more questions to gather data on these different factors, the degree to which this positive change is attributable to GFP programming is difficult to determine precisely. Nonetheless, programme participants and Beneficiaries seem to be on their way to realising the GFP programmes’ goal of better abilities among teachers to create a “peaceful, positive and safe learning environment” and less “physical and verbal violence” and bullying among students,69 although continued programming to develop the above results further is recommended. 69 Generations For Peace, “Generations For Peace (GFP) M & E Grid Violence in Schools” (2013).


Other general recommendations include: • Parental consultation: Consult the students’ parents regarding the time and place in which the sessions will be held. Aside from concerns about girls’ ability to access sessions held in the evening, some respondents reported that the time and place were not convenient, and that the school building environment was not the best context for students to rethink their behaviour and attitudes. • Logistical changes: Ensure that the sessions are not detracting from class time. One respondent reported that the sessions were taking place in the time usually reserved for English class.70 • Clarity on selection criteria: Make clear the reasons or criteria for selection of student participants, as well as the capacity limits on participation. There was some confusion as to why some students were permitted to participate and not others, and one mother reported that this caused some conflict among parents. In conclusion, the first cycle of GFP programmes in East Amman schools has been well-received among the Target Group and the wider Beneficiary Community, but some changes are recommended to facilitate girls’ greater participation and to increase the cascading effects of programming among the wider Beneficiary Community.

70 Survey 12TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014.

Watch the Jordanian teachers receive 2014 Samsung Generations For Peace Award for Sustainability: http://bit.ly/1BxktOW

55 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Antagonistic attitudes to GFP were not reported first-hand in interview, survey, or Focus Group results, although there were 14 second-hand mentions of others’ non-support of GFP (35.7% among female respondents and female Target Group members’ parents, 64.3% among male respondents and male Target Group members’ parents). I suspect that the gender difference in second-hand reported antagonistic attitudes is attributable to a specific misunderstanding that occurred in one of the boys’ schools (and which could be avoided in the future by improved access to information about GFP and its programmes, as mentioned in the recommendations in this section). This issue involved a belief (sparked by the appearance of a small American flag on a donor logo) among some teachers, students, and parents at the school that the programme was funded by Israel for political ends and “pacification” of Palestinians in Jordan. Such misunderstandings could be avoided in the future by providing more information in a transparent way to the school staff and wider Beneficiary Community. Improved information sharing between schools/GFP and parent Beneficiaries would also allay fears that the activities will distract from children’s schoolwork, which were mentioned several times.



6.

Appendices


Appendix A: Research Tools Guiding questions for interviews and Focus Groups with parents: (REMINDER: request permission, get oral consent for recording/use of information) (REMINDER: administer surveys BEFORE conducting interviews and Focus Groups, make sure to get demographic data)

58 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

1. What effect does GFP programming have, in a general sense, on the community? 2. Did you discuss GFP programmes with your child? 3. Did you discuss GFP programmes with members of your community? Your family? 4. What is the reputation of GFP in the community? 5. What is the opinion in the community of GFP’s message? 6. Do the participants discuss what they have learned in GFP programmes with their families? With others in the community? 7. Does the content/ideas/message from GFP reach the families? a. When is responding physically to conflict acceptable at school/at home/ in the community? When is it not? 8. What do you think of the ideas taught to the children in GFP programmes? Are they useful, or correct? 9. What do people in the wider community think is the message that children learn in GFP programmes? What is their opinion of it? a. Do you agree with them? 10. What is the most important influence on community members’ opinions regarding GFP and its message? 11. Do you have any comments about how the GFP ideas/concepts can reach people better? 12. Do you have any additional comments on reactions in the community to GFP programmes and their message?

Guiding questions for interviews and Focus Groups with administrators/ teachers who are not Delegates: (REMINDER: request permission, get oral consent for recording/use of information) (REMINDER: administer surveys BEFORE conducting interviews and Focus Groups, make sure to get demographic data)

1. What effect does GFP programming have, in a general sense, on the community? 2. Did you discuss GFP programmes with members of your community? Your family? a. School administrators: did members of the community come to you to talk about the programme? If so, what did they say, and how did you respond? 3. What is the reputation of GFP in the community? 4. What is the opinion in the community of GFP’s message? 5. Do the participants discuss what they have learned in GFP programmes with their families? With others in the community? 6. Does the content/ideas/message from GFP reach the families?


Guiding questions for interviews and Focus Groups with students/Target Group: (REMINDER: request permission, get oral consent for recording/use of information) (REMINDER: administer surveys BEFORE conducting interviews and Focus Groups, but BE SURE TO GIVE SURVEY to gather demographic data)

1. When is responding physically to conflict acceptable at school/at home/in the community? When is it not? 2. What effect does GFP programming have, in a general sense, on your community? a. What signs do you see of this effect? 3. What effect does GFP programming have, in a general sense, on your school? a. What signs do you see of this effect? b. Was there a difference in teacher-student relationships after the program started? c. Was there a difference in student-student relationships after the program started? 4. Did you discuss GFP programmes and the message in them with your family? a. With your mother, or your father? b. With your siblings? 5. Did you discuss GFP programmes and the message in them with members of your community? a. With who? 6. What is the reputation of GFP in the community? What do you hear from people around you about GFP’s programmes and its message? a. What is the opinion in the community of GFP’s message? 7. Does the content/ideas/message from GFP reach families? 8. What do you think of the ideas shared in GFP programmes? a. Are they useful, or correct? 9. What do people in the wider community think the message is that children learn in GFP programmes? What is their opinion of it? a. Do you agree with them? 10. If you wanted to change their mind about something to do with GFP, how would you do that? What is the first thing you would do?

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a. When is responding physically to conflict acceptable at school/at home/ in the community? When is it not? 7. What do you think of the ideas taught to the children in GFP programmes? Are they useful, or correct? 8. What do people in the wider community think is the message that children learn in GFP programmes? What is their opinion of it? a. Do you agree with them? 9. What is the most important influence on community members’ opinions regarding GFP and its message? 10. Do you have any comments about how the GFP ideas/concepts can reach people better? 11. Do you have any additional comments on reactions in the community to GFP programmes and their message?


11. Do you have any additional comments on reactions in the community to GFP programmes and their message?

Guiding questions for interviews and Focus Groups with Delegates: (REMINDER: request permission, get oral consent for recording/use of information) (REMINDER: administer surveys BEFORE conducting interviews and Focus Groups, but BE SURE TO GIVE SURVEY to gather demographic data)

60 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

1. What effect does GFP programming have, in a general sense, on the community? 2. Did you discuss GFP programmes with members of your community? Your family? 3. Have you discussed GFP programmes and message with parents of participants or other members of the community? 4. What is the reputation of GFP in the community? 5. What questions do people from the Beneficiary Community ask about GFP? 6. What is the opinion in the community of GFP’s message? 7. Do the participants discuss what they have learned in GFP programmes with their families, as far as you know? With others in the community? 8. Does the content/ideas/message from GFP reach the families? 9. What do you yourself think of the ideas taught to the children in GFP programmes? Are they useful, or correct? 10. What do people in the wider community think is the message that children learn in GFP programmes? What is their opinion of it? a. Do you agree with them? 11. What is the most important influence on community members’ opinions regarding GFP and its message? 12. Do you have any comments about how the GFP ideas/concepts can reach people better? 13. Do you have any additional comments on reactions in the community to GFP programmes and their message?


Surveys Student Survey (English)

2. What is your opinion on the following issues? (Please use the scale) The use of violence is legitimate in some circumstances in school. No, never 1 2 3 4 5 Absolutely The use of violence is legitimate in some circumstances in the home. No, never 1 2 3 4 5 Absolutely Boys should respond to conflict physically as preparation for life. No, never 1 2 3 4 5 Absolutely Girls should respond to conflict physically as preparation for life. No, never 1 2 3 4 5 Absolutely What are the circumstances in which the use of violence is legitimate? (Please give examples)

What are the circumstances in which the use of violence is NOT legitimate? (Please give examples)

Did you discuss the Generations for Peace programme with your mother? (Yes) (No) If so, what was her opinion of GFP’s programme and message?

Did your mother ever attend a Generations for Peace programme? (Yes) (No) Did you discuss the Generations for Peace programme with your father? (Yes) (No) If so, what was his opinion of GFP’s programme and message?

Did your father ever attend a Generations for Peace programme? (Yes) (No) Did you discuss the Generations for Peace programme with people in your community (besides your parents)? (Yes, with___________________) (No) If so, what was their opinion of GFP’s programme and message?

61 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

Evaluation: Generations for Peace: Students 1. About you Age: Gender: Grade: Parents’ occupation: Programme: (which school): How long have you been participating in GFP programmes and how regularly have you attended the programmes?


Did you discuss the Generations for Peace programme with school friends who did not participate in the programme? (Yes) (No) If so, what was their opinion of GFP’s programme and message?

What are the most important changes you have noticed in yourself in the past year? Why are these changes important to you? 62 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

What are the most important changes you have noticed in your family in the past year? Why are these changes important?

What are the most important changes you have noticed in your community (your friends, your neighbours) in the past year? Why are these changes important?

Do you think that GFP impacted the way in which you react to conflict during the past year? No, never 1 2 3 4 5 Absolutely If so, how?

Do you think that GFP’s programme impacted your academic performance during the last year? No, never 1 2 3 4 5 Absolutely If so, how?

Do you think your perspective on the use of violence changed during the past year? No, never 1 2 3 4 5 Absolutely If so, how?

Do you think that the way you react to situations at home changed during the past year? No, never 1 2 3 4 5 Absolutely If so, how?


Do you think that your parents’ opinions on the use of violence changed during the past year? (Yes) (No) If so, how did you notice this change?

In the future, what changes do you want with respect to responses to conflict among students?

63 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

In the future, what changes do you want with respect to responses to conflict in society?


Parents and Delegates Survey (English) Age Gender Employment Program: (which school) How are you related to GFP?

Did your son or daughter participate in GFP programs? What is your opinion on the following issues? (Please use the scale) No, never 1 2 3 4 5 Absolutely 64 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

The use of violence is legitimate in some circumstances in school. Scale: The use of violence is legitimate in some circumstances in the home. Scale: Boys should respond to conflict physically as preparation for life. Scale: Girls should respond to conflict physically as preparation for life. Scale: What are the circumstances in which the use of violence is legitimate? (please give examples) What are the circumstances in which the use of violence is NOT legitimate? (please give examples) If the parent of a student: in your view, did the behaviour of your son or daughter change due to GFP? How did you notice the change? - Through discussion - Behaviour at home - Mentality - Academic performance - Comments from others - Other What is your opinion on the effects of GFP programs, and why? Did you discuss the program with your family or with people in the community? Do you think your perspective on the use of violence changed during the past year? Did you attend or watch any of the programs? In the future, what changes do you want to see with respect to responses to violence among students? In the future, what changes do you want to see with respect to responses to violence in society?


Student Survey (Arabic)

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Parents and Delegates Survey (Arabic)

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• Al-Badayneh, Diab “Violence against women in Jordan,” Journal of Family Violence 27, no.5 (2012): 369-379, accessed 25 July 2014, DOI 10.1007/s10896012-9429-1. • Al-Hassan, Suha M. and Jennifer E. Lansford, “Evaluation of the Better Parenting Programme in Jordan,” Early Child Development and Care 181, no.5 (2011): 587598, accessed 25 July 2014, DOI: 10.1080/03004431003654925. • Al-Samadi, Tamer, “Tribal-Fueled University Violence on Rise in Jordan”, AlMonitor, 15 April 2013, accessed 10 February 2013, http://www.al-monitor.com/ pulse/security/2013/04/jordanian-tribal-violence.html#. • Clark, Cari Jo, Allan Hill, Khelda Jabbar, and Jay G. Silverman, “Violence during pregnancy in Jordan: its prevalence and associated risk and protective factors,” Violence Against Women 15, no.6 (2009): 720-735, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI: 10.1177/1077801209332191. • -------, Jay G. Silverman, Manal Shahrouri, Susan Everson-Rose, S., and Nora Groce, “The role of the extended family in women’s risk of intimate partner violence in Jordan,” Social Science and Medicine70, (2010): 144-151, accessed 5 August 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.09.024. • Cline, Rebecca J. Welch. “Detecting groupthink: methods for observing the illusion of unanimity,” Communication Quarterly 38, no.2 (1990): 112–126, accessed 12 October 2014, DOI 10.1080/01463379009369748. • Dallago, Lorenza, Douglas D. Perkins, Massimo Santinello, Will Boyce, Michal Molcho, and Antony Morgan, “Adolescent place attachment, social capital, and perceived safety: a comparison of 13 countries,” American Journal of Community Psychology 44 (2009): 148-60, accessed 5 August 2014, DOI: 10.1007/s10464009- 9250-z. • Dineen, Aoife “Syrian refugee children in Jordan,” UNICEF (2013), accessed 5 August 2014 http://issuu.com/unicef.mena/docs/syrian_refugee_children_in_ jordan_d/3. • El Hajj, Taghreed, Rema Afifi, Marwan Khawaja, and Trudy Harpham, “Violence and social capital among young men in Beirut,” Injury Prevention 17, (2011): 401-406, accessed 6 August 2014, DOI: 10.1136/ip.2010.029124. • Farrell, Albert D. and Daniel J. Flannery, “Youth violence prevention: are we there yet?” Aggression and violent behavior 11, (2006): 138-150, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2005.07.008. • Generations For Peace, “Sport for peace,” Generations For Peace Curriculum (2014). • -------, “Arts for peace,” Generations For Peace Curriculum (2014). • -------, “Pass It On,” accessed 1 October 2014, http://www.generationsforpeace. org/pass-it-on/. • -------, “Approach,” accessed 1 October 2014, http://www.generationsforpeace. org/how-we-work/approach/. • -------, “Institute,” accessed 1 October 2014, http://www.generationsforpeace. org/pass-it-on/institute. • -------, “Generations For Peace (GFP) M & E Grid Violence in Schools” (2013). • Haj-Yahia, Muhammad, “Beliefs of Jordanian women about wife-beating,” Psychology of Women Quarterly (2002) 26: 282–291, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI: 10.1111/1471-6402.t01-1-00067. • Holt, Stephanie, Helen Buckley, and Sadhbh Whelan, “The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: a review of the literature,”


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Child Abuse and Neglect 32, (2008): 797-810, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.02.004. ICG (International Crisis Group), “Popular Protest in North Africa and the Middle East (IX): Dallying With Reform in a Divided Jordan,” Middle East/North Africa Report No. 118 (ICG 2012), accessed 10 August 2014, http://www.crisisgroup. org/~/media/Files/Middle East North Africa/Iran Gulf/Jordan/118-popularprotest-in-north-africa-and-the-middle-east-ix-dallying-with-reform-in-adivided-jordan.pdf. IRIN, “Child abuse often goes unnoticed, say experts,” IRIN News, 17 May 2006, accessed 5 August 2014, http://www.irinnews.org/report/26889/jordan-childabuse-often-goes-unnoticed-say-experts. Khawaja, Marwan, “Domestic violence in refugee camps in Jordan,” International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 86, (2004): 67–69, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2004.04.008. Limbos, Mary Ann, Linda S. Chan, Curren Warf, Arlene Schneir, Ellen Iverson, Paul Shekelle, and Michele D. Kipke, “Effectiveness of Interventions to Prevent Youth Violence: A Systematic Review,” American Journal of Preventative Medicine 33, no.1 (2007): 65–74, accessed 12 August 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j. amepre.2007.02.045. Malkawi, Khetam, “More campus violence breaks out as phenomenon discussed,” 21 November 2013, accessed 10 February 2013, http://jordantimes. com/more-campus-violence-breaks-out-as-phenomenon-discussed. Morse, Diane S., Yael Paldi, Samah Salaymeh-Egbarya, and Cari Jo Clark, “An effect that is deeper than beating: Family violence in Jordanian women,” Family, Systems & Health 30, no.1 (2012): 19–31, accessed 14 August 2014, DOI: 10.1037/ a0027137. Peter, Tom, “In Jordan, school violence begins at home,” Global Post, 30 May 2010, accessed 5 August 2014, http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/ jordan/100419/school-violence-jordan-teachers. Potter, Robert, Khadija Darmame, Nasim Barham, and Stephen Nortcliff, “An introduction to the urban geography of Amman,” Geographical Paper Number 182 (2007), Reading: University of Reading. Rossman, B. B. Robbie, “Time heals all: How much and for whom?” Journal of Emotional Abuse 2, (2000): 31–50, accessed 14 August 2014, DOI: 10.1300/ J135v02n01_04. Safadi, Reema, “Jordanian women: Perceptions and practices of first-time pregnancy,” International Journal of Nursing Practice 11, (2005): 269–276, accessed 14 August 2014, DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-172X.2005.00534.x. Stickley, Andrew and Pridemore, William Alex, “The effects of binge drinking and social capital on violent victimisation: findings from Moscow,” Journal of Epidemiology Community Health 64, (2009): 902-7, accessed 6 August 2014, DOI: 10.1136/jech.2009.092031. Sweis, Rana F. “Jordan Struggles to Protect Children,” The New York Times, 25 January 2012, accessed 10 10 October 2013, http://www.nytimes. com/2012/01/26/world/middleeast/jordan-struggles-to-protect-children. html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. Zwi, Karen, Sue Woolfenden, Danielle M. Wheeler, Tracey O’Brien, Paul Tait, and Katrina J. Williams, “School-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3, (2007) 3: Art. No.: CD004380, accessed 10 August 2014, DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004380. pub2.


Full List of Interviews, Focus Groups and Surveys Cited in the Text

72 GFP’s Jordan Violence in Schools Programme: Gendered Communication Patterns and Programme Impact on the Beneficiary Community in Jordan

• Focus Group 3 with male and female parents, Amman, Jordan. 7 September 2014. • Focus Group 4 with female parents, Amman, Jordan. 7 September 2014. • Focus Group with female Delegates, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. • Focus Group 1 with female parents, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. • Interview 2 with female parent, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. • Survey 2P, completed by parent, Amman, Jordan. 7 September 2014. • Survey 6TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. • Survey 7TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. • Survey 10TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. • Survey 11TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. • Survey 13TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. • Survey 2TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. • Survey 4TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. • Survey 11P, completed by parent, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. • Survey 12TGF, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014 • Survey 3P, completed by parent, Amman, Jordan. 19 August 2014. • Survey 9TGM, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 18 August 2014. • Survey 1TGM, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 18 August 2014. • Survey 2TGM, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 18 August 2014. • Survey 3TGM, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 18 August 2014. • Survey 4TGM, completed by student, Amman, Jordan. 18 August 2014.


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About the Summer Field Researcher

About the Summer Field Research

Maira Seeley graduated from the University of Oxford with a BA in Archaeology and Anthropology (2013) and an MSc in Refugee and Forced Migration Studies (2014). During her studies she undertook dissertation fieldwork in rural Jordan (2012 and 2013). Her work has appeared in the Forced Migration Review, the Journal of Nomadic Peoples (forthcoming 2015), and the Oxford Refugee Studies Centre’s Working Paper series (forthcoming 2015). Maira is originally from the United States

Generations For Peace awards two research grants annually to selected postgraduate students pursuing Masters or Doctorate studies at the University of Oxford. The awardees conduct a field research which takes place during the University’s summer vacations. The multi-disciplinary field research is focused on an activity or programme implemented in one or more countries in which Generations For Peace volunteers operate. In terms of outputs, each awardee is expected to provide a full research report focused on the local activity/programme, including a detailed write-up of the research conducted and any practical recommendations for the activity/programme organisers; and a supplementary report with further meta analysis and recommendations for Generations For Peace regarding activity/ programme adjustment and opportunities for further research. A key objective of Generations For Peace in supporting research grants is to support knowledge transfer and capacity development therefore, it is also expected that the awardees will use their best endeavours to demonstrate (within the limits of practical context of their particular research situation) some knowledge transfer to and capacity development of the local actors.

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