Page 1

September 2019


In this issue:

Mill E3

• A museum that embraces the future of feed • Quick viscosity measurements for production

Milling and Grain . Volume 130 . Issue 9 . September 2019

• The fortification of cereal grains • Changing the agricultural landscape through virtual reality • Build My Feedmill - Dosing See our archive and language editions on your mobile!

• The second China Food Trade Conference

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Volume 130

Issue 9

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September 2019 Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert International Marketing Team Darren Parris Martha Cornwell Tel: +1 913 2083770 Fred Norwood Tel: +1 405 834 2043 Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 Pablo Porcel New Zealand Marketing Team Peter Parker Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092

52 - Quick viscosity measurements for production: Universal compact solution for quality control

Egyptian Marketing Team Mohamed Baromh Tel: +20 100 358 3839 Managing Editor Vaughn Entwistle Features Editor Rebecca Sherratt Editorial Assistant Daniel Jackson International Editors Dr Roberto Luis Bernardi Professor Wenbin Wu Mehmet Ugur Gürkaynak Design Manager James Taylor Circulation & Events Tuti Tan Development Manager Antoine Tanguy ISSN No: 2058-5101 ©Copyright 2019 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at Perendale Publishers Ltd also publish ‘The International Milling Directory’ and ‘The Global Miller’ news service Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine was rebranded to Milling and Grain in 2015




48 A museum that embraces the future of feed

52 Quick viscosity measurements for production

56 Customised grain cleaning solutions


12-42 60 Fortification of cereal grains 64 Methionine

68 Dairy cows - It´s all about protein, isn’t it?



80 Feeding systems for hammer mills

84 Build My Feedmill - Dosing


88 Ringneck ethanol plant - a ‘showcase’ of Sukup equipment

92 Grain management technology

72 Virtual reality in agriculture

96 Storage technology of the Tang Dynasty in China

76 Maize mill

122 People news from the global milling industry



106 Event listings, reviews and previews


44 Introduction to Flour Milling Course wraps up


24 Mildred Cookson 34 Gustavo Sosa

10 GUEST EDITOR Rebecca Sherratt

102 MARKETS Mehmet Ugur Gürkaynak

120 INTERVIEW Dr Christoph Kobler

COVER IMAGE: Mill E3 at Bühler Networking Days 2019 in Uzwil, Switzerland - See more on page 14

Apply now for the GRAPAS Innovations Awards 2020!

Rebecca Sherratt

At VICTAM Asia/Animal Health and Nutrition Asia, Milling and Grain magazine are once again hosting the GRAPAS Conference and Innovations Awards, a oneday celebration of milling technological innovations!

Taking place on March 24th, 2020, the conference will feature 10-minute presentations from each applicant in the GRAPAS Innovations Awards, discussing what makes their products so special and what they bring to the flour, pasta and rice processing industry. At the end of the conference, Milling and Grain will also announce the winner(s) of the awards and hand out the coveted GRAPAS trophy! Roger Gilbert, Publisher of Milling and Grain magazine says, “the Innovations Awards aim to celebrate all that is great about this wonderful industry we work in. There have been some incredible innovations across the industry during the past 12 months and we look forward to discovering more about them at the GRAPAS Conference”. The GRAPAS Conference and Innovations Awards 2019 were a resounding success at VICTAM Cologne, with three winners crowned: Petkus’ OptoSelector 901t- The Petkus OptoSelector 901t is their latest innovation in sorting technology, consisting of a combination

of RGB and unique light transmission technology to ensure the most efficient sorting available. Developed in January 2018, the OptoSelector 901t works through a special lighting system, exact focussing and perfect homogenisation of light. Bühler’s LumoVision- Bühler’s LumoVision technology reduces the risk of aflatoxin contamination, whilst also reducing food waste and business risk. The solution effectively targets contaminated grain and has proven reductions of up to 90 percent, with a yield loss of less than five percent. SELIS’ DAPS system- Through using the DAPS system, cylinders in roller mills are grounded evenly. Straight grounded cylinders will also not press each other evenly after thermos expansion occurs. This benefits users as it minimises wear on rolls and ensures your product lasts significantly longer. All 15 shortlisted applicants, from companies such as EyeGrain, Dinnissen, Brabender and more also delivered brilliant presentations that showcased what impressive innovations companies continue to bring to the forefront of the milling sector.

Apply for the GRAPAS Innovations Awards

Applications for the GRAPAS Innovations Awards 2020 are now open! Provided that your product directly assists the flour, rice and pasta-processing industries and became available on the market no earlier than 2018, your product is eligible for application into the awards. To apply for the awards or for general enquiries, please contact myself at and I will happily provide applicants with an application form.



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Ringneck ethanol plant

Ringneck Energy’s shiny new 80- to 100-milliongallon/year ethanol plant was hailed at its grand opening June 25th as the most efficient in the United States and as a showcase of Sukup Manufacturing Co. material handling and grain storage equipment.

Ambrosia free, is not only a quality label for bird food. It is an insurance policy against a weed that is in most countries an alien invasive species threatening both health and crop production.









Changing the agricultural landscape through virtual reality

It´s all about protein, isn’t it?

Ruminants such as dairy cows accomplish true wonders, as they can transform inedible, lowquality protein in roughage and concentrates into the high-quality protein found in milk and meat. But which role does nitrogen (N) play here and, in fact, how does urea get into milk?

AgriSphere, LLC, industry leader in management software, training systems, and compliance programmes, recently released its new agVR virtual reality (VR) training application.



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125 years of Gericke: A truly global celebration


ounded by Walther Hermann Gericke in the year 1894 in the heart of Zurich, the company Gericke evolved into a globally positioned and successful provider full of solutions in the bulk goods industry. With a number of events around the globe, the Swiss Gericke group is now celebrating its 125-years anniversary. With a customer conference and an open day, employees and their families, press and business partners had the opportunity to visit the Gericke headquarters in Switzerland, see fascinating demonstrations of powder handling equipment and follow the production steps of a mixer from a piece of metal to a high-end product. During the celebration year, several customer seminars are organised in all key markets in Europe, Asia and the Americas and are open to the interested audience. These seminars are a great opportunity to learn more about the basic processes in powder handling such as mixing, feeding, size control or conveying. To underline the global presence and better integrate the Gericke subsidiaries, all activities are now combined under a new umbrella,

In our September issue of Milling and Grain magazine we have our fourth article from the Build my Feed Mill series, an informative piece all about feed dosing, courtesy of Italian family-owned company PLP Liquid Systems. Dosing technology for feed is continuing to advance at a rapid rate, and now a variety of different techniques for dosing exist such as liquid dosing and post-pelleting dosing, all of which provide different advantages and disadvantages, depending on what suits your own individual specifications. Dosing is undoubtedly a crucial process in feed production, as dosing influences the homogeneity of the mix, and therefore has great effect on the quality of the end product. What makes dosing especially tricky as a process is how seemingly easy it is for mistakes to occur. Dosing systems are often limited on how accurate their readings can really be, so often insufficient or excessive liquids can be supplied to the materials, which can cause a variety of issues. One of the most common issues with dosing is micro-agglomeration, or particles binding to one another unnecessarily. This prevents proper mixing of the materials and can prove especially traumatic at the beginning of the mixing cycle. In order to counter this issue, many experts recommend introducing a dry mixing time at the beginning of the mixing process. This ensures that solids are adequately mixed before liquid is introduced to the solution. In contrast, another problem that can often occur is introducing too much liquid to the mix. Many batch mixers cannot manage liquid levels of more than five percent of the total mix and the mash cannot absorb all these liquids. This issue can be minimised by positioning your spray nozzles in the optimal positions, which vary depending on the positions of your machinery and nozzles. Try for yourself to see what solutions work best and users will soon discover the best ways to make the most out of their dosing equipment.



12 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

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Milling News

A revolution in flour milling unfolds Mill E3


completely new approach to the plant, processes, and machinery of industrialised flourmills is about to take place with the launch at the Bühler Networking Days 2019 in Uzwil, Switzerland at the end of August.

Mill E3 will revolutionise the milling industry by setting new standards in the construction, equipping and energy required to operate the latest turnkey flour mill offered by the company. The new mill concept which is already being constructed in two locations with the first likely to come into production in mid- to late-2020 in the UK, offers mill operators tantalising advantages - a mill that occupies 30 percent less space, that takes 30 percent less time to build and require 10 percent less energy overall to operate. And there is one final advantage that is difficult to put into words. “After the introduction of automation 40 years ago, Mill E3 is the next big step forward in milling,” says Johannes Wick, CEO of Grains and Food at Bühler Group. The first customers will also benefit from Bühler blockchain technology to trace grains and provide greater transparency and food safety. For decades industrial milling concepts have focused on optimising machines and processes, but the basic design concept remained unchanged and based on buildings with a minimum of five or six floors. This completely new approach from Bühler now optimises the entire construction concept that allows for a more plug-and-play approach to flour mill construction making more efficient use of systems that do not rely

14 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

Johannes Wick, CEO of Grains and Food (right) and Stefan Birrer, Head of Business Area Milling Solutions at Bühler Group, address the press on the company’s revolutionary approach to flour milling in the 21st Century

heavily on gravity fed systems. At its Networking Days 2019, Bühler showed that it is possible to build flour mills with the latest technology more cost-effectively, install them quicker and operate them with less impact on the environment. Faster commissioning The E3 in Mill E3 stands for three areas of efficiencies: construction time, space and energy saving. The construction of the Mill E3 building not only locks up less capital, it is also completed more quickly. By using pre-assembled modules, Mill E3 is installed faster than conventional flour mills. “It’s basically a plug-and-play mill,” says Stefan Birrer, Head of Business Area Milling Solutions. This means customers can set up their Mill E3s more quickly and start generating revenues faster. It significantly reduces infrastructure cost, construction time and complexity, he says. Ongoing energy savings Achieving the same output as a traditional production facility, a Mill E3 reduces energy consumption by up to 10 percent, without compromising yield or quality. This is down to the compact mill design and innovative process solutions such as the newly developed integrated grinding

Milling News system within the Arrius. The Arrius has an integrated drive, which achieves energy savings up to 10 percent compared to conventional roller mills. The Tubo Tubular Push Conveyor replaces specific pneumatic transport passages in order to save more energy as it’s much more efficient and makes food production even safer. The product is transported gently, loses no weight due to drying and is more hygienic because the pipelines are self cleaning. “Be it space, time, or energy, on all levels we were able to show that the plant will be better than anything others have on the market,” says Mr Birrer. “The design, the new grinding system and the blockchain application are revolutionising the milling industry,” adds Johannes Wick. Food traceability The UK’s largest milling company, Whitworths Holdings Ltd - incorporating Whitworth Bros Ltd and Carrs Flour Mills Limited - operates 17 mills on nine sites. It is the first company to rely on the Mill E3. “Besides the obvious mechanical benefits E3 offers, we were also convinced of the digitalisation approach. Bühler is definitely on the forefront in this respect,” says Mike Peters, Managing Director of Whitworth Bros. Ltd. “For us, Mill E3 offers more than just a new technology approach. It will enable us to create complete transparency for our customers in the future,” he adds. Together with Mill E3, Bühler has proposed increasing

transparency along the value chain by adding connectivity features, digital services and blockchain to help guarantee end-product quality. Cloud connected “With systems in place to trace grain back to farms, Whitworth is in a good position to do a blockchain project,” says Stefan Birrer. “What we have done is transform paper-based tracking into blockchain tracking.” “If we don’t embrace these new digital technologies and embed them within our business now, in the longer term that could be a bar to entry into certain markets as pressure comes from the end consumer and eventually from regulators for increased transparency,” says Mr Peters for the reason behind introducing a blockchain pilot withing the company. The new mill is due to be completed towards the end of 2020. After that the monitoring phase will begin. “IoT and blockchain will give us the opportunity to push the bar for food safety, food security and transparency through our supply chain,” says Mr Peters. Data from the fully connected mill will be monitored through Bühler Insights, a secure cloud service powered by Microsoft Azure. For milling companies that want to monitor and benchmark various production sites, the development of a ‘digital yield management system’ support them. It makes deviations between different recipes visible and comparable, from anywhere at any time.

Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 15



Flexicon opens office in France

lexicon (Europe) Ltd have opened an office in France to provide factory-direct sales and application engineering services to customers in France and surrounding regions, it was announced by Greg Slack, Vice President Global Sales, Flexicon Corporation. The new location will be headed by Emmanuel Decoeur, Regional Sales Manager, who holds a degree in Engineering (BTS FEE) from Lycée Hippolyte Fontaine (Dijon) and has served in various technical engineering positions since 2001. He most recently served as Technical Sales Engineer for a major beverage company, managing the development, costing and installation of industrial process systems, and has trained on-site at Flexicon’s European headquarters in

Kent, England. He will be responsible for building relationships with plant managers, engineers and other decision-makers in facilities that handle bulk solid materials across the food, pharmaceutical, mineral and general chemical industries. “The local Dijon staff will have full access to Flexicon’s engineering resources derived from over 22,000 installations worldwide which, together with our Lifetime Performance Guarantee, can take the risk out of purchasing bulk handling equipment and systems,” notes Mr Slack. Headquartered in the USA, Flexicon are a leading producer of bulk handling equipment offered throughout Europe since 1974. The company established a European manufacturing and sales office in Kent, UK in 1989, and in 2002, expanded capacity by 50 percent with the purchase of an adjacent facility. In 2012, the operation moved to a facility that consolidated and increased manufacturing and administrative space. Demand across Europe led to the opening of factory-direct sales offices in Barcelona, Spain in 2015; Aschaffenburg, Germany in 2016; and the new Dijon office. Other factory-direct sales offices are located in Chile, Singapore and Indonesia.



The yeast probiotic reference


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16 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

Milling News

4B Braime launches new mobile-friendly website


B Braime Components, a world leader in material handling and electronic components for bucket elevators and conveyors, is inviting visitors to explore their new company website: The new 4B website has been designed with the user experience in mind, offering a clean fresh look, mobile-friendly design, improved navigation and functionality throughout, while allowing customers to access product information and enriched content with ease. The 4B website has become a reference for many people in the bulk handling industry. One of the most comprehensive websites in the industry, the 4B website provides a wealth of technical information, from product specific datasheets and manuals, through to technical guides and advice. The multi-lingual 4B website now offers even more languages, 16 separate language sites in total, to allow most of the worldwide customer base to access information in their own language. “Many users pick up one of our components in the field, using a mobile device, and they need to be able to identify the part and find relevant information on how to operate their product or how to find a suitable replacement”, explains 4B Braime. “We want to make sure that our customers can find the information quickly and easily and make contact with their local sales or support team, if necessary.” “We are very excited to launch our redesigned web platform. Our company motto is “Better by Design”- and our website has been designed with this in mind, to create the best user experience possible for our customers around the world.”

Stern-Wywiol Gruppe opens new production centre in Malaysia


tern-Wywiol Gruppe is adding to its production and sales network in south-east Asia by establishing a new production facility for its subsidiary, SternMaid Asia Pacific Sdn Bhd, in the Iskandar economic zone, Malaysia. This is the third food industry facility that the family enterprise has opened in Asia and its sixth outside Germany. Clients in the ASEAN region will in future benefit from more rapid deliveries, secure supply chains and applications advice from a consultant nearby. The facility is dedicated to the development and production of food

ingredient systems to improve the functional qualities of food. The facility has three completely separate production lines; initially work will focus on enzyme-based ingredients systems for bakers and millers plus micronutrient mixes to fortify a wide variety of foods and beverages. Torsten Wywiol, CEO of SternWywiol-Gruppe, says the opening of the facility is, “an important cornerstone of the firm’s growth strategy for Asia and beyond. Being so close to customers will allow us to satisfy their need for shorter deliver times and superb logistics even better than before.” Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 21

The Flour Mills of East Scotland – Part four Milling journals of the past at The Mills Archive by Mildred Cookson, The Mills Archive, UK

In 1902, East Scotland provided the location for the annual Miller’s Convention and the mills visited were described in detail in the May 31st edition of Milling, the ancestor of Milling and Grain, soon to reach its 130th anniversary. This is the fourth in a series of five articles based on that information.

The Junction Meal and Flour Mills, Leith

Last month when discussing the Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society Chancelot Mills, I mentioned that in 1901, together with their Junction Mills, they delivered 325,819 sacks of flour together with a weekly output of 550 sacks of oatmeal. The oatmeal was produced by their Junction Mills in Leith. The Society bought the mill in 1897 from John Inglis & Sons in August 1897, when it was originally known as the Midlothian Oatmeal Mill. This mill, having been purchased rather than erected by the SCWS, lacked the ornate appearance of their other buildings. Although the mill could produce 12 flour sacks-per-hour, it was initially intended just to produce oatmeal and it was soon

producing 700 bags of oatmeal weekly. By 1907, the milling plant had been expanded and it was expanded again before the First World War. By 1914 the mill was capable of producing 28,427 sacks of oatmeal; this figure had increased to 46,444 sacks in 1918. The mill was reconstructed in 1939, designed by the SCWS Architectural Department and Walter Underwood. It ceased milling and was demolished in the 1970s when the new Chancelot Mill was built. The Junction Mills were situated on the banks of the Water of Leith, adjacent to the docks. The flour plant was by Henry Simon, with 14 double 32x40-inch rolls, five dustless purifiers and 24 centrifugals. It was set up as a four-break system, and the scalping performed on reels for the first two breaks and Milling 31 May 1902 advertising Galloway Boilers

Junction Mills and rail transport

Inglis’s Junction Meal and Flour Mills, Leith

24 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

Academy Park Mills letter head 1916

horizontal double centrifugals for the third and fourth. The cleaning plant was also erected by Henry Simon. The power plant consisted of two Galloway-tubed boilers fed with a peculiar style of stoker in the form of a screw which fed the coal upon the fire all down the centre of the furnace. The new engine was made by Douglas and Grant, a popular Northern firm of the time. The flouring plant made 12 sacks-perhour and was kept working night and day on Spring wheat alone. The Society’s oat meal plant was in a separate set of buildings, and was completely equipped with modern machines. The Mill was in the hands of Mr WF Stewart, assisted by Mr S Wear, the head miller and Mr J Paisley, the foreman miller.

Academy Park Flour Mills Montrose

In 1902, Montrose could claim to be the most northerly place in the UK that possessed a roller flour mill. Previously there had only been numerous small water mills. The Montrose mill was built by John McKenzie, who in conjunction with Robert Reid, built the Academy Park Mills in 1858. The site chosen was near the docks with a railway loop line connecting the mill to both the docks and the Scottish rail system.

Douglas and Grant, Scottish engineers

As Montrose had a fine natural harbor, the mill site was well-chosen. From 1858, the mill developed a large milling business as stone millers and in 1887 they decided the time had come for the time-honored burrs to be replaced by a roller system. Henry Simon was chosen to install a complete roller plant. In 1897, following the death in 1889 of the founder of the company, his son, David McKenzie again engaged Henry Simon to re-model the process and introduce a wheat washing and conditioning plant. The mill was driven by new engines and boilers capable of producing 200hp. The engine was compound with cylinders abreast and a flywheel between. It was fitted with high speed

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The Simon Dustless Purifier

Simon double roller mill

governors and automatic cut-off gear and had a condenser. The main drive had seven ropes from the rim of the flywheel. The boiler was by Galloways of Manchester and had two furnaces and thirty-two tubes. It proved very economical as it could bear a high steam pressure. The plant was arranged with four breaks and nine reductions, and had a 34-inch break surface, eight inches of scratch, and 57 inches of smooth for each sack of flour it made. The roller floor was set out with fourteen double Simon heavy pattern mills, each being on breaks and the scratch systems, the rest on reductions. The purification was done on six Simon dustless machines in three frames and assisting them on the second floor were a double scalper and three grading sieves. The top floor provided standing room for four double, and eleven single centrifugals, and one reel. The first and second break chops were scalped on a “Manchester� double rotary sieve, and the third and fourth on double centrifugals, one machine for the two first and one each

Simon stone and washer

for the last two. McKenzie also ran a whole meal plant consisting of rolls and sifters. As well as the milling business they did a large trade in grain and shipped considerable amounts of barley to the Clyde and other western points, as well as oats to English ports. The Academy Park Mills were also fitted with a complete provender plant and did a large trade with stock keepers, especially the breeders and feeders of the celebrated Aberdeen Angus cattle. Please email me at if you would like to know more, or if you have any information, material or images that you would like to share.

Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 27

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Blue Line: FILIP offers their sieve cleaners now also in blue colour


he leading specialists in the sieve cleaning business from Germany now distribute their products also in blue plastic with blue Nylon. Filip is thus responding to the corresponding demand from internationally operating mill builders and large milling groups worldwide. Blue is the only colour that does not appear in natural grain foods. Against this background and steadily rising safety requirements, mill builders and mills worldwide are increasingly interested in sieve cleaners in the colour blue. That’s why FILIP now also offers their products out of blue plastic - of course, in terms of food compatibility, they are FDA and EU compliant. The new Blue Line product range contains sieve cleaners for plansifter sieves with and without backwire: for flour sieves, for primary sieves and the sieve pan. Mirko Filip, General Manager of FILIP Sieve Cleaners and responsible

Milling News for product development says, “Before we started to develop our Blue Line, we talked a lot with international mill builders and mills around the world and discussed the demand of blue sieve cleaners with blue trim material. During the discussions, we quickly realised that there is obviously a strong demand – at least in some markets/countries. That’s why we now offer our bestsellers in blue colour, too.” Consequently, FILIP equips their new sieve cleaning brushes with blue nylon trim material: for a complete optical detectability. Nevertheless: for those customers, which prefer a blue cleaner body and white Nylon bristles, FILIP’s Blue Line sieve cleaning brushes are also available with white Nylon. Mirko Filip adds, “To make it very clear: our cleaners do not break during a lifetime of two-to-three years - even under the hard conditions within the plansifter. We only use very highquality plastic raw material which is very resilient as equally elastic. “However, we know from discussions with customers around the world, some mills want to prove that

all potential foreign material that could enter the semolina/flour during the production process need to be optically detectable. Following from this, the blue colour is a preventive security indicator - even it is not necessary in case of sieve cleaners from FILIP. That’s why we offer the new Blue Line products additionally to our standard sieve cleaners out of white plastic.” Safety and quality take top priority when it comes down to food processing. This applies to FILIP’s products too, of course. The plastics used in the Blue Line range are made from materials that contain only substances recognised as safe in connection with food. FILIP’s Blue Line products are certified to the strict regulations in place in the USA and Europe. The Blue Line sieve cleaners are now available through Filip directly or via authorized distribution partners worldwide.

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Novus International recognises researchers at Poultry Science Association Annual Meeting 2019






32 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

ovus International, Inc presented two top researcher educators with high honours during the Poultry Science Association (PSA) Annual Meeting, held 15-18th July in Montreal,

Canada. As a global leader in health and nutrition solutions for the animal agriculture industry, Novus recognises internal and external industry professionals across the globe who are working to feed the world. On Monday, July 15, Dr Audrey McElroy was named the 2019 Novus Outstanding Scholar and on Thursday, July 18, Dr Karen Schwean-Lardner received the 2019 Novus Outstanding Teaching Award. The Novus Outstanding Scholar Award winner is selected by Novus and recognises a researcher who has helped Novus further its goal in developing science-based solutions for the agriculture industry. Dr Audrey McElroy is a professor and broiler extension specialist in the Department of Poultry Science at Texas A&M University in the US where she teaches Breeder and Hatchery Management and a Poultry Science capstone course in professional skills and career readiness. Her current research at Texas A&M includes growth performance, gut health and dietary strategies in poultry. Novus is a proud sponsor of the teaching award presented at the Annual Meeting. The winner is selected by a PSA commitee and presented to a PSA member who has demonstrated outstanding success in the classroom as well as a dedication to professional improvement. The winner, Dr Schwean-Lardner, teaches undergraduate poultry science and animal behavior, and graduate advanced animal welfare at the Department of Animal and Poultry Science in the College of Agriculture and Bioresources at the University of Saskatchewan in Canada. She also teaches poultry production at Western College of Veterinary Medicine at U of S. She joined the faculty at U of S in 2014 after completing her doctorate degree in poultry management and welfare from that university. Her focus was studying the impact of light on broiler welfare and production. She has authored or co-authored 28 journal papers, with a primary focus on bird management and well-being. She has also presented at many industry and scientific meetings in her career.

Milling News

Red flags in a project

Gustavo Sosa

Sometimes, the best you can do for your business is walking away from a project. In my years of experience, I have identified some red flags that tell me to be careful with a client. On the other side, having seen the mistakes made by clients, I can also see some red flags in a supplier. This article tries to give some advice to both users and suppliers of equipment. When to walk away from a client:

They are asking for a turn-key quotation but won’t provide soil studies

There are so many ways this can go wrong. Nobody with half a brain would invest more than one million dollars and try to save five thousand on feasibility studies. The first thing he could be trying to achieve is getting the supplier to pay for it, in exchange for the not-very-serious promise to purchase, and then use the information to get bids from everyone else. Maybe he is even expecting that you complete the project without doing the studies. Then, when the foundations fail, he will sue you and basically get you to pay for the project.

They are asking for detailed drawings and engineering information

This is called getting an engineering project for free and happens all the time. Most companies would happily pay fifty thousand dollars for a marketing research, but still will dodge paying for engineering. This is totally the responsibility of suppliers. Like campers feeding the animals, they have taught their clients to misbehave. The problem is not doing the study for free, but the fact that the client is waiting for the first fool that will do it and then pass the information to all other suppliers trying to get the lowest bid. My position with this is: if the project is simple and I can do it in less than two days, I will do it anyway; but if it is a complex problem requiring weeks of work, he has to either pay for the study or sign a commitment to purchase from me. If he won’t do either, I walk away.

The negotiation starts by asking for a discount

There are many ways one can lower the cost of a project, and

34 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

there are many different ways to consider the cost. If the project has several stages, you could minimise the initial investment (and then pay for expansions with its profit) or minimise the total investment (and that generally requires a larger initial investment) or minimise operation and maintenance cost (which maximises profit). An educated client would talk about strategy first, not about discount. The ugliest part is that he is probably trying to get advantage from you. You see, I can understand simply asking for a discount if you are buying one silo that is pretty much standard but asking for a discount in a complex project shows an unhealthy attitude. It is not bad per se, but it is a signal of other problems, like a husband who can’t name his wife’s favourite singer.

They insist on something irrational

This is something like the boss who buys some substandard non-functioning service second-hand and then demands that his maintenance people make it work, because it was a bargain. Sometimes it is fun, like when this client made me repair his 80-years old belt conveyor. Other times, it is torture, like when I had to build a concrete platform for truck unloading that didn’t have a truck pit and was never going to have it because the client’s project didn’t leave any space for it.

They reject using a letter of credit for payment

This means their credit history is so bad that no bank will take the risk. This happens even to governments, so don’t let the size of the company fool you. If he is not good enough for banks, he is not good enough for you.

They reject providing a guarantee

If a company is financially sound and behaves ethically, there is no reason for not providing a guarantee of payment through a bank. He is setting you up for something.

They insist that you provide an insurance/guarantee for a ridiculous amount of money

I saw this happen twice, by two different clients, fortunately to other companies. They will insist that, according to some company policy, all suppliers have to provide an insurance of

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one million dollars (for example) and it doesn’t matter that your whole supply is only fifty thousand. This is done expecting that the supplier fails (and, subjectively, we always fail as no project goes exactly as planned) and then sue you. He is expecting to get at least some of the money back and he really doesn’t care if you lose your company and your house. Which are the red flags for a client? Yes, all the above are, because there are plenty of suppliers who are less than stellar, too.

They provided drawings, but they are in 2D

This is 2019. Nobody should be using 2D drafting any more. 2D doesn’t let you check for interferences and doing any correction through several plants and elevations will take an eternity. If you use 2D for a single machine, it means you can’t use bill of materials (BOM) and that makes it much slower to quote and to make adaptations. If a supplier hasn’t felt the need to be more efficient, that means problems. For whole construction projects, you need Revit or Microstation, which are 3D systems too, to budget the project appropriately and schedule the works. Anyone who uses 2D, or the traditional 3D wireframe, is not up to date, by at least a decade.

The civil works project doesn’t include structural calculations

We could include steel structures here too. If you ask for the structural calculations and the supplier can’t provide them, it means they haven’t done them, ever. There is this story about Van Halen, requesting to have in the hotel a bowl of M&M’s without the brown ones. They actually had nothing against brown M&M’s, but they used them as a signal. If, after arrival at the hotel, they noticed the bowl wasn’t “clean” it meant the local agency didn’t pay attention to details and they were going to have to double check sound and lighting before the concert. In this case, you, as the final user, don’t need the structural calculations at all, but the fact that the supplier doesn’t have them at hand raises a huge red flag; huge enough to consider changing suppliers immediately.

The schedule of the project was done in Excel

MS Project is the de-facto standard software for project management. There are others, but mostly oriented to software development. Any company with experience in project management will have at least a couple of licenses for MS Project and a bunch of people experienced in using it. If your supplier gives you a schedule that is just a calc sheet with cells painted, instead of the typical MS Project Gantt chart showing the precedence relations, this is a company without experience or just too lazy to keep up to date with technology.

They insist on being paid in advance

If you are dealing with equipment manufacturers, payment

in advance is normal. Unless you want to use letters of credit. With a letter of credit, the bank will pay them only after certain conditions are met; but for small amounts of money (in the order of four zeros) it doesn’t make sense to go through the paperwork and pay the fees. This issue is of concern regarding construction companies, because you should only pay after controlling the progress done on site. Maybe you have no money problems and could pay in advance, but they sure have them, and you will regret having trusted them. This is a company without enough cash for even 30 days of operations. If anything goes wrong, they will be unable to go on with the project and will dump you, disappearing from the face of Earth.

They don’t have a quality system or quality control plans

While ISO 9000 is not the panacea, at least it means they have some kind of quality system. Other “methodologies” like TQM or Six Sigma are fine, but the supplier must show evidence of having implemented them. For a supplier of mechanical equipment or steel structures, evidence of factory controls is enough. For an installation or construction company, you need to ask them for a quality control plan on-site. For example, a silo builder should spray hose the roofs of the silos before adding walls, to detect water leaks. Don’t tell them that. Just ask for the installation/quality plan and check if they mention this issue at all. Your equipment supplier or an expert consultant can help you identify issues like this. The construction company should propose a quality control plan for the concrete, to be implemented on site. Ask a thirdparty Civil Engineer about the local regulations and the available certified testing facilities.

The team doesn’t include a surveyor

No need to have one full time (unless the project is huge) but you should see a surveyor once or twice a week to help the foremen transfer the information from the drawings to the ground, and also update the drawings according to corrections made. Many foremen and Civil Engineers have training in surveying, but the precision of the work is not the same. Any nurse can stitch a cut in your forehead, but you would always prefer a surgeon to do it.

The team doesn’t include a Safety Specialist

In any developed country it is mandatory to have one, but in many third-world countries it still isn’t. Because of the legal responsibilities involved, your own Safety Specialist shouldn’t be the one giving orders to them. Instead, he should talk only to his counterpart in the supplier’s team, unless there is immediate risk involved and operations should be stopped. The fact that the supplier’s team doesn’t have a Safety Specialist speaks volumes of a bad culture and insufficient experience. So far, these are the main red flags that I have learnt to recognise. If you know of any others, please tell me about them. I love to keep learning.

Gustavo Sosa is a Mechanical Engineer and MBA who specialises in Project Management. He is the CEO of Sosa Ingenieria, a consulting firm performing mechanical design and FEA/CFD, and the Chief of Engineering at RONTIL, a major distributor of grain handling equipment in Uruguay and Paraguay. Gustavo has two decades of experience in grain handling and milling, including engineering design and project management for projects up to 60 million USD. In the past, he worked for three years as a professor, teaching fluid power, mechatronics, conveyor design and industrial instrumentation at UDELAR, the largest university in Uruguay. He also helped build the Mechatronics Laboratory there.

Milling News

Perry of Oakley Ltd launches new range of silos, UK


erry of Oakley Ltd, an experienced UK based manufacturer of materials handling and drying equipment have announced the introduction of a brand new range of flat bottom and hopper bottom silos engineered in conjunction with SiloMaster, a newly formed company that boasts a team of engineers with over 50 years of experience in the design and manufacture of silos and bulk storage solutions. In keeping with Perry’s motto of “Engineering Excellence” the new silo range are designed using high grade S450 steel protected by galvanising to Z600 standard, giving superior strength to weight characteristics and extremely long service life. A unique new singlepiece roof design is used on silos up to 16m diameter simplifying installation and enhancing performance. Supporting the technical know-how of the new team is one of Spain’s leading industrial manufacturing groups who bring high quality manufacturing expertise. The new silos are being manufactured on new state-of-the-art equipment in a plant which operates to the highest quality and compliance standards insisted on by the automotive, oil and gas and rail industries amongst others. “We strive for the highest quality in all aspects” says David Perry, Managing Director of Perry of

Oakley Ltd, “this starts with assessment of a customer’s needs and carries through to designing a scheme, manufacturing the silos, packing, shipping and final installation along with after sales support”. Available exclusively from Perry of Oakley in the UK and Ireland markets the new Perry SiloMaster range will begin production in September this year for immediate delivery thereafter. “It is a great honour to work with Perry’s”, said Antonio Benitez, SiloMaster head of global sales. “We are very excited about developing markets together and being able to offer a full range of handling, drying and storage solutions that are available from Perry’s and SiloMaster”. The newly designed range of silos boast metric silos up to 32-metre diameter with a capacity of approximately 20,000 tonnes, 45° hopper bottom silos up to 13-metre diameter containing almost 3,000 tonnes and 60° hopper bottom silo’s up 11-metre diameter holding 1,900 Tonnes. The SiloMaster range can be specified to either EUROCODE or ANSI standards dependant on market needs and significantly can be made in a wide range of diameters both metric and imperial thus allowing an existing base to be reused in the event of replacing an end of life silo. Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 41

Milling News

Alltech awards young leaders in agricultural communications at 2019 Ag Media Summit


agricultural communications and agricultural leadership student at the University of Arkansas and she will receive a US $2,000 scholarship. “I was humbled to receive an award named in honour of such an influential person in the Livestock Publications Council. Mr Bassford clearly had a passion for agriculture communications much like I do,” said Wesson. “This award is an honour for students to receive, and I am grateful for the opportunity to represent my college.” Every year, following a competitive application process, the LPC Student Award Program provides travel scholarships for four students to attend the AMS. In addition to Wesson, this year’s travel award winners were: Natalie Ayers, University of Missouri-Columbia Sadie Lackey, University of Georgia Grace Vehige, University of Arkansas “Alltech is proud to support the future of agricultural communicators as the ambassadors and voice of

s a voice for the farmers and ranchers who work hard to feed our growing world every day, agriculture communicators help educate the public on how food is produced. Both traditional and new media channels allow for these stories to be shared and amplified beyond borders — and students and young professionals are leading the charge. During the 2019 Ag Media Summit (AMS), held in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on July 27–31st, Alltech honoured young leaders in agricultural communications with the Livestock Publications Council (LPC) Forrest Bassford Student Award and the American Agricultural Editors’ Association (AAEA) Alltech Cultivating Young Ag Journalists Awards. The LPC Forrest Bassford Student Award, sponsored by Alltech, honours excellence, professionalism and leadership among students. The 2019 LPC Forrest Bassford Student Award was presented to Jessica Wesson, an

our industry, as they share stories from farmers and ranchers in a time when the vast majority of consumers are generations removed from the farm,” said Jenn Norrie, Alltech’s communications manager for North America. +44 (0)1404 890300

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In an effort to expand the knowledge of professionals in the flour milling industry, the International Association of Operative Millers (IAOM) and the IGP Institute partnered in hosting the Introduction to Flour Milling course.

Introduction to Flour Milling Course wraps up This five-day course trained seven professionals from across the US and surrounding countries. Participants engaged in all aspects of flour mill processes including wheat selection, milling, blending and baking functionality. “The class spent the week learning about everything that goes into the operations of a flour mill,” says Shawn Thiele, Grain Processing Curriculum Manager and IGP Institute Associate Director of the IGP Institute. “They started off learning about the six wheat classes and worked through cleaning, conditioning, the milling system, blending, and baking the finished product.” Thiele adds that most of the participants had many years working in the industry but were new to the flour milling process. In particular, Kim Cooper, Manager of Government Affairs for North American Millers Association (NAMA), had never witnessed the actual process of milling. “The process is much more detailed than I ever imagined,” Cooper says. “It was very interesting to see

IAOM–KSU Introduction to Flour Milling course participants compare the different consistencies of milled fractions in the Hal Ross Flour Mill

IAOM-KSU Introduction to Flour Milling course participants work together in the Shellenberger Hall benchtop milling lab practicing milling the six classes of US wheat

Through hands-on training in the Kansas State University Hal Ross flour mill and classroom discussions at the IGP Institute, participants will learn quantitative tools and practices to influence and impact, optimal machine adjustment, milling efficiency and flour quality in the mill.

IAOM-KSU Advanced Milling Course Expanding on topics from the Basic Milling Principles course to include quantitative techniques and tools to analyse and improve the process flow; understanding the variables that impact production efficiencies and enhance the troubleshooting skills of mill personnel to optimize mill efficiency. Topics in the course include wheat kernel characteristic; The IAOM Milling Maintenance II course will be offered on October 14-16th in Wichita, Kansas.

Mill Maintenance II A very full schedule of maintenance topics are planned, including maintenance related to: filter collection, rotary airlock valves, industrial fans, rotary displacement blowers, belts and chain drives, pulley and sprocket attachment, couplings, roller mills and bearings, drive safety, corrugating and rollermill bearings, screw and belt conveyors, and bucket elevators. IAOM will bring in experts from the industry’s equipment manufacturers and suppliers to teach various parts of the course, including Creason Corrugating, Bulk Conveyors, and Kice Industries. 44 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

the details of how the flour was made all the way to the finished product.” In addition to flour milling and grain processing, the IGP Institute also offers courses in the areas of feed manufacturing and quality management, and grain marketing and risk management. To learn more about these other training opportunities, visit the IGP Institute website at

Shawn Thiele, IGP Institute associate director and flour milling and grain processing curriculum manager, demonstrates setting breaks to the IAOM–KSU Introduction to Flour Milling course participants

understand cleaning systems and equipment for optimal grain quality; processes, equipment and flow design, and steps of conditioning and tempering; in-depth analysis of mill flow sheets and design; in-depth analysis of mill balance and product distribution; in-depth study of function, design and optimal set-up for roller mills, sifters, purifiers, detachers, dusters, and other milling equipment as well as much more. The course is specifically targeted at milling engineers, operation managers, production managers, shift managers, head millers, professionals with theoretical or applied milling background. Theoretical milling background (milling school, university or other milling training) with practical work experience in a flour mill or other completed milling training is required. This course will take place November 14-18th, 2019 and the course fee is US $1800. During a day-long training in the mechatronics labs at Cowley College in Arkansas City, Kansas, participants will have the opportunity to engage in hands-on activities related to various maintenance issues. Dr Jeff Gwirtz, JAG Services, will facilitate the course and will lead the lab exercises at Cowley College. Your company has made a significant investment in the equipment in your mill. To keep it running at peak efficiency through the years it needs to be maintained and serviced properly. An effective maintenance program requires qualified, motivated and well-trained personnel. The IAOM Mill Maintenance courses provide an opportunity for your maintenance staff to gain the training, contacts and confidence they need to keep your mill operating at maximum capacity. Make an investment in your company’s future by attending IAOM’s Mill Maintenance courses.

Yenar rolls

PRODUCT FOCUS September 2019 In every edition of Milling and Grain, we take a look at the products that will save you time and money in the milling process.

Yenar offer various high-quality rolls for flour milling, Cracking rolls, biscuit and oil milling rolls for oil seed extraction plants such as soybean, canola and kernel industries are just a small selection that are available. Depending on the requirements of the application, Yenar produce different levels of hardness and varying materials for oil milling rolls (between 480-520 HB or 530580 HB) and also produce up to 820x2100mm rolls. There are two types of rolls offered by Yenar; journals as bolted and shrink fit. The surface of the oil milling rolls can be cylindrically grounded or grounded and sand blasted.

New fibre drum dumping system from Flexicon

Sioux Steel Company Edge Sweep

A new Drum Dumping System from Flexicon called TIP-TITE automatically conditions fibreboard drums containing bulk solid material, dumps the material into downstream equipment, and accumulates empty drums on a roller conveyor for removal. The system is intended for low to high volume handling of drums containing material that has solidified or agglomerated during storage or shipment, while eliminating the dust, spillage, labour cost and potential injury associated with manual drum handling. A powered roller conveyor moves each full drum into a conditioning station where hydraulic rams press and release it on opposite sides. A turntable then rotates the drum in userselected increments for subsequent press-andrelease cycles sufficient to loosen the material.

The Edge Sweep expands on the already significant added features of a paddle sweep by removing grain from the very edge of the bin and allowing for it to be moved and reclaimed by the paddle sweep. Edge Sweeps can be installed on new bin sweeps as well as existing Daay Bin Paddle Sweeps. The device significantly reduces labour for the end consumer and works with its flexible polypropylene bristle head. To move grain left along the edge to be picked up on the second pass of the sweeper.

Henry Simon Purifier HSPU

Pingle’s Horizontal Wheat Scourer

The new HSPU is available for the millers who would like to experience truly “intelligent milling” in their mills. It bonds the advantages of refined design and technology together for an efficient semolina classification and bran removal process in flour mills. The HSPU outshines with its new look, ergonomics and functionality. The design of the HSPU has been carried out in partnership with the ITALDESIGN, which has been offering development services for the automotive indsutry, as well other various industries since 1968. This striking machine is also equipped with “advanced sensor technology”, which enables users to monitor the machine’s operating conditions in real-time for precise and efficient classification of the semolina by the particle size. 46 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

The FDMW-series Horizontal Wheat Scourer was developed for the grain cleaning process in flour mills. It makes use of mechanical strike and rubbing effects to remove dust, silt, husks, worms, wheat beard, microorganisms and other foreign matters adhered to the grain surface, and it could break clods, cinders, insects, shriveled wheat kernels as well as matters whose strength is lower than that of wheat into small particles and then remove these particles away. Moreover, the remaining sterile lemmas are also separated. In this way, the ash content of the unprocessed wheat is cut down, resulting in improved colour, reduced ash and sand content of the flour.



Portable bulk grain transfer unit Walinga 3510 Agri-Vac

The 3510 Agri-Vac, Walinga’s proven, portable bulk grain transfer unit, allows users to transfer just about any dry bulk material. Thanks to its portability, the 3510 Agri-Vac is the ideal clean-up and reclamation unit for large production facilities and mills. Thanks to its compact size and built-in fork-lift pockets, the 3510 can be lift by a fork-lift and placed in the back of a pick-up truck for transportation. The 3510 Agri-Vac will clean out a pit when that grain legs decides to quit; it’s small but it’s mighty, moving corn up to 900 bu/hr (23 tonnes/hr)! The 3510 is ready, day in and day out, for making light work of the heaviest tasks. The 3510 is built to run hard and run often. When properly maintained, these units will last for generations. The 3510 AGRI-VAC, equipped with a WALINGA #510 SRT blower, can move up to 900 bu/hr (23 tonnes/hr) whilst weighing less than 1400 lbs (635 kg), it can be used in the tightest corners to perform transfer, clean-up or loading operations. The 3510 moves grain on a cushion of air which maintains grain and seed quality. The 3510 gas/electric model is mounted on a formed steel, three wheeled cart with fork-lift pockets making it very simple to move into the smallest corner of a storage area. Available in 26.5 hp EFI gasoline, 15/20 hp electric, or with a three-point hitch, it is the ideal unit for someone who needs a versatile and portable grain handling unit.

Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 47


A museum that embraces the future of feed by Roger Gilbert, Publisher of MAG “As we remember the past we must take up the challenge of the future - to a feed industry based on innovation and international cooperation that will assist the country’s development and serve the needs of its people.”

Converted from a pilot feed plant in 2015 to an international Feed Museum with historical books, industry development timelines and founders of the industry to modern-day digital displays to show of the latest developments in feed production

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That’s the stated mission of China’s Feed Museum; to speed up the continuing technological transformation of its feed industry. Milling and Grain was fortunate enough earlier this year to be invited to tour the three-year-old Feed Museum by Dr Yongxi Ma the supervisor and Executive Curator of the museum at located at China’s Agricultural University’s West Campus off Malianwa North Road in Beijing. The museum is a converted pilot feedmill that had belonged to the Ministry of Agriculture’s ‘Feed Industry Centre’ and covers some 3280 square metres. It has become a dedicated symbol of the role feed manufacturing is now playing in feeding a country with a population which exceeds of 1.3 billion. From its Grand Hall visitors can learn about the past and the present of the Chinese feed industry from animal feeding, to industry developments and the operation and social status of the industry itself. The Grand Hall functions as a public access facility for academic meetings and special exhibitions. While the museum is destined to become an international meeting point, currently most of the displays are in Chinese. Regular audiences are industry visitors, students and technicians learning about every aspect of feed manufacturer and the important role it plays in terms of providing protein foodstuffs to consumers. In 1906 the Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce was located


at the Sanbezi Park where the first trial work was carried on animal rearing and feeding. Liu Chunin was its first director. Seven years later the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce started the first animal testing in Zhangiakou. By 1941 a livestock group had been established called ‘The Central Animal Husbandry Experimental’ group under the directorship of Cai Wuji from the Nutritional Laboratory and Feed Crop Research Laboratory. This is considered the formation of what has now become modern-day compound feed manufacturing in China. However, while chicken and dairy feeds took hold from 1949, real progress was not made until the mid- to late-1970s, some 10 years after more developed countries. Hungary provided the first set of compound feed equipment in 1976 although locally-made feed equipment had been used in 1974 in Shanghai and the Beijing Nanyuan Compound Feed Factory. In 1983 Deng Xiaoping, the paramount leader of the People’s Republic of China from 1978 until his





Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 49


retirement in 1989, proposed that the feed committee should be establish as an industry. By the early 1990s the development and use of compound feeds was well established with China becoming the second largest producer of feed in tonnage terms. A position it maintained for 20 years. In 2011 its output resulted in it coming the world’s number one producer. During that time the Chinese Feed Association had been formed and it took up an international role by joining the International Feed Industry Federation in 2004. The Chinese feed industry reflects unique characteristics with a network of local feed associations operating throughout the country with clear governmental support for the industry.

A tour of the museum

Several halls make up the museum: The Grand Hall, the Education and Technology Hall, the Feed Ingredients Hall, the Feed Machinery Hall and demonstration areas for feed additives, premixes and complete feed used for teaching. The Feed Museum seeks to present the successes of the past, record the present and encourage new innovation for the future using real objects, interactive 50 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

panels, video and virtual reality to demonstrate all aspects of the industry to the visitor, to university students and feed industry professional both within the centre and via the internet outside Beijing. For example, in the Science and Education Hall, visitors can learn about the role education has played in the initialising and the guidance of feed industry developments and how the industry has grown as a result of scientific and technological developments. This area is also used for long-distance teaching. In the Feed Ingredients Hall there are maps and sample jars showing the wide variety of local and foreign produced raw materials and where they are produced. All are QR-coded and when scanned highlight their production location along with their manufacturing techniques and utilisation within feedstuffs itself. This is a major site for popular science teaching. And of course there are several rooms housing historic memorabilia related to the development of the industry from the early 20th Century. A visit to the China Feed Museum is a must for visiting feed professionals. It’s both friendly and informative and is capable of interesting the feed novice, those interested in the history of feed production and everyone in-between.


Quick viscosity measurements for production: Universal compact solution for quality control


by Brabender, Germany

nd consumers have certain quality expectations for products which producers need to live up to. Viscosity measurements for raw materials and end products are analyses which need to be performed rapidly and reliably in the production process.

Which factors influence viscosity and, hence, the processing chain? UI: Natural products such as starch are subject to natural fluctuations, which depend on their type and variety, as well as their cultivation and weather conditions. Depending on their individual properties, they have a differing level of suitability for certain uses. Further on in the processing chain, temperature, quantity, heating and cooling rates, as well as shear forces acting on them, play a big role. By determining product-specific viscosity curves, the properties can be controlled and processes optimised. Jessica Wiertz (JW): In order to determine the best possible use of a raw material and analyse its quality, the

For this purpose, the laboratory equipment manufacturer Brabender from Duisburg has developed the new ViscoQuick. Jessica Wiertz and Ulrike Ito from the Application Lab Food introduced the device in an interview. Viscosity measurements are of key importance in many sectors, such as the food industry in the case of starch and starch-containing products. Why are they so important? Ulrike Ito (UI): Measuring viscosity is necessary in order to control the quality of raw materials, to optimise and monitor the production process, and of course also for the final inspection of the finished product. This ensures that only the best raw materials are used and that complaints are minimised. Malfunctions and the resulting losses in production also need to be avoided. In addition, they are also used to develop products and Image 2: Within approx. 15 minutes, the ViscoQuick’s web-based MetaBridge production processes. software records a complete picture of the gelatinization process of a raw material.

52 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

F gelatinisation properties of starches and starch-containing materials are examined. When processing flours, the effect of raw material-specific enzyme activity on the gelatinisation process is also analysed. It is also decisive for the processing properties of the flour and has a huge impact on the result after baking. Which challenges do companies face overall, and in particular for the quality control of viscosity measurements? UI: Viscosity measurements are necessary in many industry sectors. Among other things, this also includes needing to inspect various materials within a single company. Hence, it is above all important that a device for viscosity measurement can be used flexibly enough to live up to the various requirements. JW: The speed of the viscosity measurement and a reliable result are particularly important during production quality control. Because all raw materials need to be checked and the end products also need to be inspected, this means comprehensive analysis requirements which need to be fulfilled by laboratories, where they take up processing capacity. In this case, the reproducibility of the results also plays a role. The better the reproducibility, the less frequently measurements need to be repeated for confirmation. The factor of speed affects the entire production process. Because approvals for the use of raw materials or end products can only be issued after quality inspection by the laboratory, the entire production operation depends on the analyses. In a worst-case scenario, this results in disruptions and

losses in production, or the quality of the end product does not adhere to requirements and entire production batches are unusable. Of course, this also costs companies money. Brabender has now brought the ViscoQuick to the market, which promises to deliver rapid and straightforward measurements. How is it different from existing systems? JW: First of all, the ViscoQuick is a device that can be used for various purposes. It can analyse starches, as well as viscous and paste-like masses. This means that the ViscoQuick is a device with a wide range of possible applications which covers many industry requirements. The ViscoQuick offers companies multiple advantages over existing systems, which range from measurement options to savings in terms of space, time, and costs, as well as in terms of the collection of measurement data. UI: The ViscoQuick is a compact device which is also user-friendly. It is fitted with an integrated heating and cooling system, so that an external thermostat is not necessary. There is also the intelligent MetaBridge software from Brabender, which allows all measurement data to be evaluated, diagrams to be displayed, and applications to be saved. This makes the ViscoQuick a stand-alone device which not only saves space, but which can also be used independently of other devices. What advantages does the system offer for viscosity measurements in practical applications? JW: The greatest advantage afforded by the ViscoQuick is the enormous amount of time saved during measurements. Compared to classic measurements for starch gelatinisation, a measurement procedure is possible in

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F approximately 15 minutes with the ViscoQuick. With the ViscoQuick, a heating rate of up to 20 째C/ minute is possible, and a cooling rate of up to 15 째C/ minute. Furthermore, the integrated heating/cooling feature also reduces any error sources in the measurements. The ViscoQuick also offers improved reproducibility with the new patented dynamic taring and calibration method and the new, precise heating/cooling system. This not only delivers reliable results, but also saves clients time, as repeated measurements are reduced. Another advantage is that, depending on the sample material, only small sample sizes of between 5 and 10 grams are required and that temperature ranges between + 10 째C and 98 째C can be achieved. Furthermore, the reusable sample containers and paddles are made of stainless steel, meaning that they can be cleaned easily and also be used for applications with bases and acids. This means that additional sample containers do not need to be bought, thereby providing a sustainable solution and saving on follow-up costs. Which parameters can be measured with the device and which materials and/or applications is the device suitable for? JW: With the ViscoQuick, it is possible to determine the viscosity behavior of samples. During this process, the viscosity of a suspension is recorded via the rotating paddle during the entire measurement procedure. The MetaBridge software records a complete picture and supplies information on viscosity increases and the maximum viscosity. The ViscoQuick enables the analysis of starch gelatinization properties, qualitative determination of alpha-amylase activity in flours, and measurement of the absolute viscosity of Newtonian fluids. UI: This makes the ViscoQuick suitable for a wide range of uses. It can be used to measure hot and cold viscosities and to check the stability of thickening and binding agents. It is equally suitable for testing the acid resistance of starches as well as for investigating alkaline gelatinisation. In which companies can the ViscoQuick be used, and for which materials? UI: Due to its wide range of possible applications, the ViscoQuick is not limited to certain industry sectors. It can be used for inspecting incoming and outgoing goods, production monitoring, and also for the development of formulation and manufacturing processes. JW: It can be used to test flours and starches, as well as

Ulrike Ito, Product Manager Food

Jessica Wiertz, Head of Application Lab Food

54 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

Image 1: New quick measurement device for viscosity measurements: The Brabender ViscoQuick

raw materials for baked goods, noodles, confectionery, and gourmet foods, for paper, textiles, and even chemical and cosmetic products. The ViscoQuick is a compact measurement device for universal use and a wide range of possible applications, which delivers rapid and straightforward measurements of viscosity and gelatinisation properties. What happens if clients need assistance? How is support provided if there are problems on site? After all, this is a particularly important factor in production monitoring and incoming and outgoing inspections. UI: First of all, the system is a robust one that has been designed for longevity. Secondly, the ViscoQuick is equipped with MetaBridge software. On the one hand, the software offers optimal laboratory management with the option of recording all data. Because it is a web-based solution, it can be accessed independent of location. Furthermore, the MetaBridge software is also equipped with remote access. This means that in the case of a malfunction, service technicians can access the device remotely. This often allows an on-site appointment to be avoided, thus saving time and money. JW: Our mission is to assist our clients with their measurements. Hence, we provide more than just service technicians for resolving malfunctions: Our application laboratory also provides options for tests and helpful information for various applications. This allows clients to benefit from our experience, in that we search jointly for solutions in order to enable rapid, straightforward analyses.


Reduce Ambrosia contamination to zero with customised grain cleaning solutions


by Dr Heike Knörzer, Head of Petkus Academy / D-99848 Wutha-Farnroda

mbrosia free, is not only a quality label for bird food. It is an insurance policy against a weed that is in most countries an alien invasive species threatening both health and crop production. When experts talk about an integrated systems approach to limit and prevent the spread of Ambrosia artemisiifolia, also known as common ragweed, they tend to disregard a major pillar.

Apart from quarantine arrangements, plant protection measures and crop cultivation practices, proper - and sometimes sophisticated – seed and grain cleaning processes are also immensely important. In most cases indeed, the species was accidentally introduced into other countries with contaminated seed. Every single Ambrosia seed can produce a plant that produces 3,000-to-32,000 seeds in return. The achenes are globose to pyriform with a length of two-to-three millimetres and can survive in a dormant state for 40 years. It demonstrates the importance of post-harvest seed and

56 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

grain hygienisation measures such as mechanical and optical cleaning. “Yes, the aim is to reduce the Ambrosia contamination to zero, which is possible with aggressive and rigorous machine adjustment. But you have to keep the balance for the processor as well. Therefore, the grain loss or the good seed recovery as economical aspect has also to be taken into account”, says Jan R Hartmann, Petkus Head of Sales. Excellence in grain cleaning is characterised by a grain cleaning line that consists of different technologies where each individual machine is precise and highly efficient in its sorting task, allows for high throughput and minimises good grain loss. Machines that can operate from Far East Russia to South Ural to Egypt and South Africa as well as in Europe, Asia and Australia, where Ambrosia is already present. Technological solutions instead of lining up machines A major aspect in sorting Ambrosia is using an air screen cleaner in combination with a gravity table and an optical sorter. All processing machines must have excellent sorting efficiencies and seed recovery solutions. Thus, the experts from Petkus Technologie GmbH tend

F Ambrosia threat on human health and crop production Ambrosia is susceptible to frost and prefers warm temperatures. With a growth cycle of 115-to-183 days, the species fails to produce mature seeds under cooler conditions. Risk assessments predict an increase of its distribution under climate change conditions. In addition, a study of Wayne et al. (2002) assume a stimulated Ambrosia pollen production by 61 percent under a scenario of a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The weed is associated with significant yield loss particularly in sunflower, maize, soybean and cereals. Studies from the USA report about yield decrease in maize of about 74 percent. Hungary reported of a maize yield decrease of 69 – 73 percent at a weed density of 26 plants per m². Yield reductions were also studied in beans, peas, cotton and sugar beet. It also inhibits germination and growth of tomato by more than 50 percent and reduces lettuce and peanut growth. Reinhardt et al. (2003) estimated the costs related to invasion of the weed in 2003 for Germany to be about EUR €32 million. The CABI Invasive Species Compendium lists Ambrosia also as host plant for crop diseases such as Plasmopara halstedii, Puccinia xanthi, Cucumber mosaic Virus, Septoria sp., Phoma sp. and Sclerotiorum of sunflower. Due to its phenolic compounds and terpenes, extracts from Ambrosia leaves can show a negative effect on the germination of several crops. The tiny pollen grains are about 20 µm in diameter and can travel long distances of more than 600 km. The atmospheric Ambrosia pollen load is a severe source of seasonal aeroallergens. In the USA and Canada, it is the second most important cause of seasonal allergies. A study by Cakmak et al. (2002) found that an increase of 72 ragweedplants-grains-per-m³ was associated with an increase of about 10 percent in patient visits to a children’s hospital in eastern Ontario for conjunctivitis and rhinitis. In Europe, the clinical relevance is increasing (CABI Invasive Species Compendium) with allergic rhinitis, fever or dermatitis. Cattles digesting Ambrosia can suffer from nausea. to speak from technological solutions instead of just lining up machines. Practical examples from inter alia maize and soybean lots analysed by the Petkus seed laboratory demonstrated that 100 percent of Ambrosia can be eliminated with a seed recovery rate between 83 and 96 percent, depending on cleaning stage. “With an optimised process evaluation we could show in addition that good seed loss could be below one percent”, says Michaela Gegler, Laboratory Technician at ROEBER Institut GmbH. With Petkus solutions, an “Ambrosia free” quality label can be achieved. For both crops, three processing steps were conducted to separate Aambrosia, which were mechanical cleaning by the Petkus V Cleaner followed by the Petkus G Gravity Table and finally optical sorting by the Petkus/ROEBER OS 901. The Petkus V Cleaner series is usually dedicated to high capacity pre-cleaning. But furthermore, “our V Cleaner


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series is known as a pre-cleaner that shows a precise cleaning accuracy above the average due to its outstanding screen efficiency” says Hartmann. The reject fraction from mechanical cleaning was processed with a gravity table. The heavy fraction from the gravity table was sorted with an optical sorter. This solution resulted in a minimum seed loss with high recovery rates. “This solution only works if your pre-cleaner can do an excellent job”, says Hartmann. Cleaned to zero Ambrosia For mechanical cleaning or pre-cleaning, two different machine set-ups were tested for their efficiency to eliminate Ambrosia: high capacity pre-cleaning at industrial rates with 120 t/h and a more restrictive,

commodity cleaning process with 60 – 65 t/h. For maize, 81 percent of Ambrosia could be removed at high capacity ranges with a negligible seed loss rate. With reduced throughput rates, 100 percent of Ambrosia could be removed. Subsequent cleaning procedures aimed at recovering good seed and to minimise good seed loss to below one percent. “For such tasks, your gravity table must be tough and efficient”, says Hartmann, “as we evaluated a material concentration of 88 Ambrosia grains/kg in the reject fraction of the screen cleaner.” For soybean, 21 percent of Ambrosia could be removed at high capacity ranges with negligible seed loss rate as well. With reduced throughput rates, 100 percent of Ambrosia could be removed.



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The fortification of industrially-milled cereal grains by Milan Shah, Henry Simon Milling

s supplier of cereal-based foods products, flour millers have a responsibility to help feeding the world in healthy and enriched ways. In addition, they can have a role in prevention of chronic diseases such as iron deficiency anemia and birth deficits. Despite this, according to the Food Fortification Initiative currently globally only 82 countries have legislation to mandate fortification of at least one industrially milled cereal grain, while there are about 195 countries in the world today. In addition, eight countries fortify more than half of their industrially milled wheat flour through voluntary efforts and these countries include Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gambia, Lesotho, Namibia, Çatar, Swaziland, and the United Arab Emirates. Most of these countries mandate fortification of wheat and maize flour with iron and folic acid. Very recently, The National Fortification Alliance of Pakistan (NFA) is partnering with the United Nations World Food Program (WFP) and the government of Australia to launch a pilot project to fight malnutrition by fortifying wheat flour in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC; Iron deficiency anemia is the most widespread nutritional deficiency in the world and has important consequences for child development and enormous economic costs. Likewise, according to WHO, CDC and the International Clearing House for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR), neural tube defects are among the most common structural congenital anomalies worldwide, with an estimated 300,000 cases-per-year. Obviously, the best way of preventing micronutrient malnutrition is to ensure consumption of a balanced diet that is adequate in every nutrient. Unfortunately, this is far from being achievable everywhere since it requires universal access to adequate food and appropriate dietary habits. From this standpoint, food fortification has the dual

60 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

advantage of being able to deliver nutrients to large segments of the population without requiring radical changes in food consumption patterns. Definitions of food fortification and flour fortification There always has been confusion between enrichment and fortification terms and most of the times, they are used interchangeably. Pyler and Gorton describe “enrichment” as the practice of adding back vitamins and minerals lost during processing, while “fortification” as supplementation involves with nutrients not previously present in the food or not naturally occurring at such high levels. They also indicated that enrichment describes the addition of the B-vitamins and iron to flour because losses in these materials range from 60-to-800 in flours with an extraction rate of 7/0-to759h. WHO/FAO defines food fortification as “the addition of one or more essential nutrients to a food, whether or not it is normally contained in the food, for the purpose of preventing or correcting a demonstrated deficiency of one or more nutrients in the general population or specific population groups”. This process usually takes place during the processing of staple foods at a central level so that it reaches a considerable proportion of the at-risk populations without requiring their active participation.

Flour fortification adds nutrients to flour to help people thrive throughout their lives

Food fortification is one of the leading public health interventions recommended to prevent and control micronutrient deficiencies. Staple foods and condiments are among the foods most commonly fortified with vitamins and minerals. Wheat flour was the first cereal grain product to be widely fortified, and the first cereal grain recommendations issued by the WHO pertained to maize and wheat flour. Fortification of industrially processed flour, when appropriately implemented, is an efficient, simple and inexpensive strategy for supplying vitamins and minerals to the diets of large segments of the population. Adding iron to flour during the milling process helps reduce the risk of iron-deficiency anemia and wheat flour is the staple most commonly fortified with iron in large-scale fortification programmes. The mandatory fortification of wheat flour with iron significantly furthers the reduction in the prevalence of inadequate iron intake, except among women of reproductive age. Therefore, monitoring of iron fortification in flour is essential to assess compliance to the fortified flour policy and to guarantee a safe iron intake for all the population. Iron, zinc, folic acid (B9), thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), B12, vitamin A and vitamin D are minerals and vitamins commonly used in flour fortification. The most common practice is to add multiple vitamins and minerals using a single ingredient called a premix and premix includes: fortificants (powdered vitamins and minerals), excipients (carriers, fillers), and free-flow agents.


"In Africa, 26 countries have mandates to fortify wheat flour. Nine of these countries also require fortification of maize flour. Six countries in this region fortify more than half of their industrially milled wheat flour even though it is not mandatory."

Premix manufacturers usually include nutrients at levels approximately 290 to 59p higher than listed on the label. This accounts for potential nutrient loss and ensures that the premix meets the label claims. During fortification process in the mill, use of micro-dosing and proper mixing mechanism are important for correct amount and uniform distribution of fortification agents in flour. The most common way to fortify flour is to use the equipment called feeders or in practice as micro-doser machines, which is used at the flour blending stage just before packaging operation. This adds premix to flour precisely at pre-determined rates in the process of flour production. The micro-doser device is easily reachable, in that it is supplied by Alapala, Henry Simon and other leading milling equipment manufacturers. Three types of feeders are available: screw, revolving disk and drum or roller. Mills generally need one feeder for each type


of flour or meal line to be fortified, and the size and number of feeders needed depends on the amount of flour produced-perhour. The operating principle of the micro-doser unit is basically the pre-mixing of product and ingredients with a steel palette mixer, then adding in flour delicately in increments with a discharge mechanism. The unit is also electronically controlled for sensitive adjustment of feeding speed and amount according to the process required and used.

An example of the global grain fortification progress: Africa

In Africa, 26 countries have mandates to fortify wheat flour. Nine of these countries also require fortification of maize flour. Six countries in this region fortify more than half of their industrially milled wheat flour even though it is not mandatory. In early 2011, FFI conducted an exhaustive analysis of flour fortification opportunities in Africa and found that seven countries were fortifying at least 759 of their industrially milled wheat flours. FFI believes that currently 19 countries are fortifying at least 759 of their industrially milled wheat flours with at least iron and folic acid at levels that are expected to make a healthy impact. In Africa, South Africa and Nigeria were the first two countries to fortify flour.

Future strategies

Wheat flour fortification is a preventive food-based approach to improve micronutrient status of populations overtime that can be integrated with other interventions in the efforts to reduce vitamin and mineral deficiencies when identified as public health problems. Wheat flour fortification programmes could be expected to be most effective in achieving a public health impact if mandated at the national level and can help achieve international public health goals. Decisions about which nutrients to add and the appropriate amounts to add to fortify flour should be based on a series of factors including the nutritional needs and deficiencies of the population; the usual consumption profile of “fortifiable� flour (i.e. the total estimated amount of flour milled by industrial roller mills, produced domestically or imported, which could, in principle, be fortified); sensory and physical effects of microingredients on flour and flour products; fortification of other food varieties; population consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements; and costs. Flour fortification programmes should include appropriate Quality Assurance and Quality Control (OA/0C) programmes at mills as well as regulatory and public health monitoring of the nutrient content of fortified foods and assessment of the nutritional/health impacts of the fortification strategies. In conclusion, as flour millers we have a responsibility to feed billions of people throughout the world, not only satiate them but also make healthier. Fortified foods have health and nutrition value added so they will significantly increase the competitiveness of the industry.

Peter Marriot, Henry Simon Milling Sales Manager 62 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain







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Technological recommendations when using methionine sources in the feed mill by Adisseo

ethiopedia 2, the technical reference guide for methionine edited by Adisseo at the end of 2018 has a full part dedicated on the application of methionine sources in feed. In this article, we will investigate these technological aspects for an accurate and safe use of methionine sources in feed production. Indeed, liquid and powder methionine products (liquid OHMethionine, DL-Methionine or L-Methionine) require proper equipment and use in the process. To obtain an optimum feed quality, main process stages need to be managed regarding this methionine addition.

Main vigilance points at the feed production when adding methionine sources

Specific equipment is available for the distribution of powder and liquid methionine sources in feed. This addition is performed in the mixer, but the transfer from the storage point till the mixer and the supplementation in the right quantity need to be mastered to achieve the expected quality of the feed. Indeed, methionine products have to be added at the quantity defined by the formulator and this, for every single batch. Three main process steps require a right equipment implementation and settings, and a regular monitoring: storage, dosing and distribution. Safety comes first when speaking about the use of additives or raw material in process. For powder and liquid methionine sources, the safety data sheets have to be accessible easily and quickly in the plant in case of any accident. Before any maintenance intervention, everyone from the plant staff or any external company - maintenance contractor for instance - should be aware of the risks and wear the appropriate PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) such as mask, goggles, plastic gloves, covering suit, etc. During regular control visits, the presence of these PPE, of risks labelling and spill kits will be verified. One will also check the proper functioning of the shower and eye wash station if any, for the liquid installations.


Powder sources of methionine (L-Methionine or DLMethionine) can also be packed in bags or big-bags, that will be stored inside the warehouse protected from humidity and weather. These forms are directly used by the feed mill or come through the premixes. Liquid OH-Methionine (OH-Met) is packaged in drums or IBCs 64 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

that can be stored outside to save internal space in the feed mill. The product is also delivered in bulk for a storage in tanks before use. According to the local regulation, a containment pool may be needed. Preferred tank materials are: - Poly Ester reinforced by fiberglass - PEHD Poly Ethylene High Density - Stainless steel 316L Tanks can be insulated according to the temperature conditions and wind exposure. Heating the product by a coil inside the tank is not preferred, and a double-jacket heating system (thermal oil) at the daily-tank is far better.


A pump allows to bring the methionine product to the dosing step. Pumps used for liquid OH-Methionine are volumetric gear pumps or screw pumps designed for viscous liquids. For powders, the most common dosage device is the screw, generally equipped with a speed variator for better accuracy. Dosing slides is a very fast and accurate interesting alternative. For the dosage itself, a weighing scale can be used. The scale has the same principle for solid and liquid methionine forms except for emptying: simple gravity cannot ensure a proper pressure in the case of liquid. For liquid methionine, the working principle involves the continuous automatic filling of the product in a weigher hopper to pre-set volume. Using ‘loss in weight’ methodology, the dosing pump will draw a precise amount of liquid OH-Met from the weigher hopper to be sprayed onto the feed in mixer. General dosing accuracy can be achieved around (+/-) one percentage error tolerances against set point for these applicators. As an example: at 2kg/tonne, the error is (+/-) 20 g. Another option to achieve dosage of liquid OH-Met is by flowmetering. For flowmeters, three types are possible: mechanical flowmeter, mass flowmeter and electromagnetic flowmeter. The water content of OH-met gives a high conductivity, which allows the use of an electromagnetic flowmeter. These systems have the advantage of working without a pressure drop and do not need any maintenance. Dosing accuracy is made by the chain of measurement from pulse control to valve closing, and flowmeter accuracy. It is important that the entire chain is built consistently to obtain the highest precision, with a high reliability of the entire dosing operation. The precision of the dosing system is commonly 0.5 percent. As an example, at 2kg per tonne, a dosing error is (+/-) 10 g. The flowmeter, whatever its type, is placed between the pump and the injection point. If the plant is using a scale, its metrology will be included in the global program, with the other scales. It mainly consists on a

F verification with calibration masses, calibration of the zero and span adjustment if needed. Concerning the flowmeters, the principle is to run the pump in standard working conditions and to collect the product before the mixer thanks to a calibration valve, in a bucket. The accuracy of the dosage is assessed by comparing the value measured by the flowmeter and the quantity that is weighed in the bucket. In case of a slight deviation, parameters such as number of pulses per litre or density have to be rectified. The suitable frequency for these controls is one-to-two times per year.

Example of a liquid methionine distribution system, Source: Mangra


Apart from the efficiency of the mixer to mix solid ingredients and the specific maintenance program of this key machine in the feed plant, the most important feature is the way (where? when? how?) that the methionine sources are applied to the macro-ingredients. A collector or manifold feeds the mixer through different nozzles, which are key points for application systems for liquid methionine. The right type is a calibrated flat-bed spray nozzle in stainless steel with different sizes and numbers. It allows liquid methionine to be sprayed in small droplets without mist emission, which avoids build-up inside the mixer. Nozzle specifications are defined according to the size and the shape of the mixer. Generally, three-to-five nozzles are used to spray liquid OH-Met. Mixability depends on droplet size. This right droplet size (250 Îźm) is obtained by taking care of some parameters of the spraying equipment itself and liquid methionine characteristics: - Liquid methionine viscosity M&G_maggio_ESP.pdf 1 08/05/19 19:26

- Working pressure in pump - Nozzle selection and positioning Nozzle positioning is defined according to the size and the shape of the mixer and added quantity. Spraying must be done on the moving surface of feed, and liquid must be absorbed before reaching the wall of the mixer to avoid any build-up. The quantity of feed within the mixer should never cover the mixer’s ribbons (i.e. the working capacity of the mixer). If the ribbons are covered, then a quasi-motionless dead space forms over the ribbons; this in turn does not allow dry or liquid methionine sources to homogeneously mix throughout the feed. Formation of lumps can occur if there are issues with the system settings: nozzles not of the right size, leakage in the mixer, pump not of the right size or a defect in the heating system of liquid methionine leading to a too low temperature and a too high viscosity. Plus, liquid methionine is added in a low amount compared to









Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 65

F some other liquids (oils for example) in formula, so there is no risk of agglomeration. Working pressure in the nozzles is the second key factor to monitor, as it will influence the spray angle and the droplets size and, ultimately, the contact between the liquid and the solid phases. This pressure can be altered by the abnormal wear of the pump or by some leakages in the liquid system. Therefore, it is important to check it regularly and react in case of any deviation. In most cases, it should be between two-to-five bars. The methionine sources, like other additives must be added to the right place and at the right time in the mixer. The powder methionine should be added from the beginning of the mixing time, preferably in the center of the mixer, and after or in the middle of the macro ingredients. For the liquid methionine, the arrangement of nozzles must be such that the liquid hits the feed in an area where mixing is vigorous. Liquid OH-Met can be sprayed from the beginning of the mixing time. The addition of liquid methionine does not require any increase in mixing time.

Optimal feed quality: mixability and homogeneity:

If done properly, the distribution of the methionine sources leads to a satisfying mixability in feed. For example, for a DLM incorporation rate of 2kg/t, 12.2g of feed should be eaten by the animal to have 95 percent probability to find the expected level of methionine +/-10 percent. When mixing powder, the main issue is segregation between the fines and the big particles. When working on very heterogeneous feed in terms of particle size, like coarse ground layer feed for example, it is very difficult to mix everything intimately, and segregation can occur after mixing. The risk of particle segregation is much lower with liquid methionine because it will be adsorbed on the feed particles. Homogeneity (dispersion of methionine in feed) is independent of the nature and inclusion rate of methionine source when equal conditions are applied, as assessed on the field. Both forms of methionine will give equivalent mixing performances. Even at a rather low incorporation rate (<0.1%), liquid and powder methionine are generally well dosed (recoveries between 90 and 110%) and evenly spread (coefficient of variation below 10%). With respect to the general requirements for an accurate dosing, a full transfer to the mixer and an appropriate spraying, most of the equipment is suitable for low quantities. In general, liquid and powder methionine sources lead to same quality of feed. Equipment for the distribution of these forms are well-designed to have targeted mixability and homogeneity of the product in feed. These installations have to be monitored through time. There is no heavy maintenance operation linked to liquids but mainly inspections. With liquid methionine, there is no dust, which means no risk explosion, no particles breathed by workers and a better hygiene in the plant. The liquid packaging … because that’s what we do, too. On every single is also convenient as it does FILIP cleaner, we monitor every detail throughout the not need to be stored inside the entire manufacturing process. We know that our warehouse and can be recycled proven quality will guarantee effective sieve cleaning or sold. within your plansifters. And that, in turn, will ensure For a same feed quality, a high yield from your passages. powder methionine is suitable for plants using an annual low Efficient. Quality. Cleaning. volume of methionine, as this product in bags or big-bags offers flexibility. On the other hand, liquid methionine is convenient for medium and large feed mills because this product can FILIP GmbH • Müllereibürsten • Anemonenweg 4 • D-33335 Gütersloh be transferred from the tank, Telephone: +49 (0)5241 29330 • Telefax: +49 (0)5241 20321 dosed and distributed in the feed SIEVE CLEANERS E-mail: • automatically.

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It´s all about protein, isn’t it?

by Thierry Aubert, and Elisabeth Rohrer, Delacon, Austria

uminants such as dairy cows accomplish true wonders, as they can transform inedible, low-quality protein in roughage and concentrates into the high-quality protein found in milk and meat. But which role does nitrogen (N) play here and, in fact, how does urea get into milk? And how do natural, plant-based feed additives make a substantial contribution in this context? Like proteins, the rumen ecosystem is very complex in its structure and function. Proteins are made up of 50 amino acids and more, delivering the material for the building and renewal of cells and tissues. This function cannot be performed by any other food. Cows require specific amounts of amino acids to maintain the body, including muscles and bones, the unfolding of a calf, and the milk production. There are two main sources that contribute to the amino acid pool available at the ruminants’ duodenum: First, the microbial protein, synthesised in the rumen by microbes and with 50-75 percent representing the most important amount of cows’ total protein supply. With the energy supply through carbohydrates, the microbes build up their own precious body protein out of nitrogen and amino acids, before they are being washed down to the cow’s duodenum where they are digested. Though the microbial protein production is only ensured by simultaneous availability of ammonia, produced by hydrolysis of degradable protein (or N) sources and carbon skeletons from fermentable carbohydrates. In case of energy deficiency and protein surplus, the microbes use protein for energy production, resulting in a waste of N. A waste that will be excreted in the cow´s urine and that will be reflected in higher levels of urea nitrogen in blood and milk as well. Second, the undegradable protein (UDP), the part of feed protein that withstands the processes in the rumen, hence being available for the cow directly at the small intestine. Regarding the UDP, it is important to make sure that the amino acid balancing of the raw materials of the ration is adjusted to the cows’ requirement. Though high yielding cows require more UDP to meet the cows needs of protein, it is always the microbial protein that remains the most important protein source.

It depends on the right dose

This explains the necessity to feed high-performance dairy cows need-based and in the most optimal way possible. Beside 68 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

adequate crude fibre and feed structure supply, energy and further nutrients, sufficient nitrogen (N) is the most important prerequisite for a high protein synthesis in ruminants. In return, inefficient N use therefore inevitably leads to higher feed costs and environmental problems. But it’s not only the economical and environmental aspects that militate for an optimised N use, also animal welfare seems to be an important aspect in this context. A balanced N supply reduces the risk of energy shortfalls and positively affects the cow’s fertility. Besides, an oversupply of N burdens the liver as the main metabolic organ and should, therefore, be avoided if possible. Finally, as N excretion also affects barn climate, it is obvious to keep concentrations low, hence contributing to animals’ wellbeing.

Protein metabolism in ruminants

In the feeding of dairy cows, a high protein synthesis in the rumen (microbial) and in the udder with at the same time low NH3 losses from the rumen is desirable, hence as little urea as possible is excreted by the cows per kilogram of milk produced. To understand the N metabolism and to improve N utilisation in ruminants, understanding the processes in the rumen and in the splanchnic tissues is crucial (See figure 1). In ruminants, ingested protein is degraded, and the contained nitrogen used to synthesise valuable edible products (milk or carcass), next to covering the maintenance requirements, yet partially (30-50%) is excreted through faeces and urine. Excess of ammonia in the rumen, that is converted into urea and excreted in urine, constitutes only one part of it. Indigestible protein, relating to the fibre content of the ration (Neutral Detergent Insoluble Nitrogen = NDIN, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen = ADIN) and being analysed via faeces, compose another amount. Though also endogenous protein excretion (from digestive enzymes excretion, mucus, desquamation of the wall of the digestive tract) that is verifiable in the faeces and the urine, should also be considered as part of the whole. Finally, there is also inefficient utilisation of absorbed protein for the metabolism (maintenance, milk production, growing) that contributes to the total protein loss via excretion. This metabolism efficacy is dependent on the quality of the amino acid balancing of absorbed protein.

Ruminohepatic circle and milk urea

The ruminohepatic circle describes the circulation between

F rumen and liver in ruminants, leading to better utilisation of feed N. In the rumen, NH3 is produced via deamination of amino acids or non-protein compounds (eg urea and amides). The ammonia may be used for microbial growth, providing that energy is available. The ammonia released in the proventriculus is directly absorbed, reaches the liver directly (via blood), where it is converted into urea and thus detoxified. The urea formed in the liver returns to the rumen via the salivary glands and through direct back diffusion via the rumen wall, where it is split into ammonia (NH3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) with the help of a bacterial urease. This makes it available again for amino acid synthesis by the bacteria living in the rumen. Urea that is not recirculated is excreted via the kidneys. Though part of the urea is released via the milk. The milk urea content in milk production describes the urea content in milligrams per liter (mg/l) of milk. The milk urea content (or the blood urea) represents a helping tool to monitor the nutritional condition of the cow. As a waste product of the amino acid metabolism, it allows conclusions about the protein and energy supply of the animals.

Feeding - the lock, nature – the key

There is no doubt that feed management represents a crucial tool when it comes to protein losses and how to avoid them. Next to high quality provided roughage, optimised need-based rations that support the rumen balance, while at the same time supply the cow with required nutrients and protein amounts in the duodenum, are of upmost importance. Just when it comes to environmental burden due to oversupply of animals with nitrogen, Mother Nature comes into play. Phytogenic (plant-based) feed additives (PFA) have been able to substantially up-value ruminant rations for years.

Well-formulated formulations, aligned to the animal’s needs, are able to support protein efficiency hence helping to keep protein losses low. Delacon, a leading expert in phytogenics, has enormous know-how in selecting, combining and formulating plant-based compounds into effective solutions, tailored to challenges in livestock production. There is evidence that these natural, holistic solutions, made of essential oils, saponins, pungent substances and condensed tannins unfold their impact on three levels and in various sections of the digestive tract: First, in the rumen. Improved rumen function leads to improved energy and protein efficiency ratio, increasing the proportion of metabolisable bypass protein and microbial protein (the latter shows a very good amino acid balancing to build up milk casein). Consequently, this will lead to lower ammonia losses from the rumen, via the liver (where it is transformed to urea) into the urine. Second, a reduction of the protein degradation in the rumen will increase the level of bypass protein, and thus, lowering protein losses. Moreover, and third, the natural ingredients of selected PFAs positively influence the protein digestibility and absorption in the small intestine. By increasing the proportion of metabolisable bypass protein and microbial protein, the share of indigestible protein is minimised. This will reduce protein in faeces and lower ammonia concentrations. The positive performance effects of well-formulated phytogenic feed additives are illustrated (See figure 2). Phytogenic substances have shown to reduce both protein losses in the urine and in the faeces. This means that the intestinal digestibility could be improved, and less ammonia was transformed into urea. The more efficient use of


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F nitrogen for milk production, maintenance and growing led to an improved protein efficiency by 2.7 percent. Optimising protein and feed efficiency in ruminants improves the milk quality by raising its protein content whilst simultaneously decreasing urea concentration. Milk urea nitrogen was decreased from 261mg/l in control animals to 219 mg/l in cows fed the PFA (data not shown).


Worldwide, ruminants, especially dairy, supply us with their â&#x20AC;&#x153;white goldâ&#x20AC;?, day by day. They transform inedible, low-quality protein in roughage and concentrates into the high-quality protein found in milk. A sophisticated system that requires optimal feeding management to avoid protein or nitrogen losses has not only economic but also environmental consequences. Feed additives, including phytogenic products, have been able to substantially up-value ruminant rations for years. With the active synergism of well-selected, high-quality phytogenic substances, challenges can be met in support of nature. Phytogenic feed additives have shown promising effects like increasing the level of rumen degradable protein hence improving the metabolisable protein level, improving the microbial protein synthesis and the general protein metabolism, reducing NH3 losses and, last but not least, improving protein digestibility in the small intestine. Plant-derived products are foreseen to have a promising future in the feed sector, as they support the environmental thought and are highly accepted by consumers, meeting the growing demand for livestock being kept and fed appropriate to their requirements, and though allowing profitable farming on the other side.

70 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

Figure 1: Energy and N metabolism in ruminants (according to Flachovsky and Lebzien, 2006)

Figure 2: Effect of phytogenic substances on protein efficiency





by Frank Byers, MBA | PMP, President/CEO AgriSphere, USA

griSphere, LLC, industry leader in management software, training systems, and compliance programmes, recently released its new agVR virtual reality (VR) training application. agVR uses the latest mobile virtual reality technology to create interactive environments in a portable and cost-effective package. The app can be operated from smartphones and low-cost virtual reality headsets, such as units from Lenovo and Google. agVR comes standard with a typical grain elevator environment that places users in a familiar agricultural facility. The virtual facility includes a scale house with truck scale, motor control centre with controls, tool crib, bucket elevator leg with head service platform and ladder, and grain bins among other agricultural equipment or elements. AgriSphere can also custom design and build virtual reality environments for customers enabling employees to perform VR tasks within the very facility in which they work. The app is designed to provide employees with a training experience that traditional classroom training cannot provide while eliminating the hazards and logistical challenges of certain on-the-job training methods. Employees can move through the VR environment to

72 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

perform maintenance tasks, perform lock-out/tag-out procedures and other safety activities, and complete programmatic documentation (forms, permits, etc.) without stepping foot into the facility. This helps employees identify and understand procedural requirements and process steps, as well as critical safety hazards they may encounter while working. This type of hazard-free exposure is especially important for new employees who may not have experience or familiarity with agricultural facilities or their associated hazards. Employee performance can be evaluated on critical tasks and activities by using tests, quizzes, and actionable choices that can be incorporated into each training module or script. This enables active coaching by instructors overseeing the training activities. This level of engagement between new employees and instructors/experienced employee can be difficult to achieve in real operating spaces and work areas of a facility. In the basic implementation, participants follow visual cues scattered throughout the environment. Moving from one point to another within the application is accomplished by visually staring at each checkpoint until they are transported to that location. This type of navigation is particularly efficient and allows participants to transition through the course. Certain VR headset systems include a controller (or two). Incorporating controller use allows personnel to interact with the VR environment directly, such as opening a door, lifting a panel, or using a hand-tool.


The agVR system is integrated into AgriSphere’s enterprise Learning Management System (LMS), the AgriSphere Training Centre. Courses taken in virtual reality are registered and scored in the participant’s official training profile, just like other videobased courses that the Training Center provides. Certain topics, such as grain bin entry and lock-out/tag-out, are capable of integrating the video-based training that the LMS provides, virtual reality scenarios and situations in which employees participate, and live, hands-on training to effectively satisfy various compliance requirements. agVR is an excellent tool for onboarding new employees, especially temporary employees who may be onboarded in a seasonal fashion. Additionally, agVR blends well with other standard onboarding safety, operations, and human resources training course requirements. VR courses can uniquely incorporate elements of a company’s safety, maintenance, and food safety programs in order to provide realistic scenarios, compliance requirements, and tasks and activities. For example, AgriSphere’s lock-out/tag-out safety course uses a maintenance activity of changing a drive belt on a bucket elevator leg as the reason for performing the lock out. Participants complete a maintenance work order for replacing the belt, which requires them to follow all lock-out safety and maintenance steps and activities during the training evolution. Moving beyond training, AgriSphere plans to offer agVR in an engineering capacity to customers investigating new construction at their facility. By using engineering blueprints and schematics, AgriSphere can model equipment, buildings, and facility layout elements in virtual reality providing stakeholders with a firstperson view of the project. Process flow and layout issues that would otherwise be identified after construction has begun may be identified by initial reviews in virtual reality. Scope, scale, fit, and even aesthetics can be evaluated by exploring the virtual facility to review the project. Building on agVR, AgriSphere intends to expand its virtual technology into the realm of augmented reality in the future. Augmented reality (AR) can project virtual components, diagrams, documents, and even videos into the user’s line of vision.

This means that they can see an explosion component diagram of the machine or equipment on which they are working just to the side of the actual machine. This projection puts the augmented content into the space around the use, as if it was actually suspended in front of them.

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maize mill Satake maize milling has achieved another milestone with the installation of its latest mill in India


by Rajinder K Bajaj, Director, Satake India Engineering PVT Ltd

atake India Engineering PVT Ltd (SIE) is now proudly commissioning its pioneer maize factory for the customer M/s Aarna Foods in eastern India, state of Bihar. Bihar is one of the prominent states for maize production in India. About 10 percent of the total Indian maize production, which is approximately two million tonnes, is grown in the state alone. Aarna Foods is now aiming at milling local maize into mainly grits and flour for the Indian domestic market. M/s Aarna Foods has been a leading rice miller in this region, operating a Satake rice milling plant of five tonnes-per-hour since 2009. They have been successful in promoting their rice and lentils in Bihar and neighbouring states. The cultivation of rice paddy in India is now being considered as an expensive crop due to water availability. India is being hit with water shortage in many areas as infrastructure for irrigation is yet to be in place for efficient farming. As a result, farmers are depending on ground water which is also receding now due to over usage. The government, as well as farmers, are now switching to maize cultivation instead of rice paddy since maize requires much less water. It is anticipated that in Punjab alone, one of the most prominent agriculture region of Northern India, in 2019 rice paddy will be reduced by 10-15

76 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

percent and maize cultivation will grow by at least 20 percent. This makes the future for maize millers looks promising and ensures availability of maize throughout the year for maize processing plants. The maize milling products and by-products are typically used in various industries like food processing, pharmaceuticals, brewery, starch extraction, etc. The final product, maize grits is used, not only as a raw ingredient for food products but also for other industries, such as, medicines, chemicals, etc. The Indian food Industry has also recognised the market potential for maize products. More and more branded maize flour is now reaching shelves in the market place. Corn Flakes happens to be the preferred cereal for breakfast in many Indian families, for example. Realising this trend proactively, in 2016, Satake India introduced Satakeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s time-proven dry de-germing and maize milling technology to the Indian market. Satake has years of experience in maize milling and has delivered many successful installations globally. In like manner, Satake India has acquired valuable experience of milling Indian maize in the south of India with 2 installations running successfully. Satake continues to develop its leading edge technology for maize de-germing aiming also at designing a very compact system. The new mill introduced to Aarna Foods is a stateof-the-art mill with latest design and innovation incorporated

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Naturally ahead

F in all equipment, including de-germers, gravity separators, grit polishers and even plansifters. The successful bid for a five tonnes-perhour maize milling project was submitted by Satake in 2017. The project was awarded to Satake due to its unique design and knowhow of maize milling. The project was designed and supplied by Satake Japan in 2018. It was installed by customer under the supervision of SIE and completed in 8 months, including the civil construction. The unique design of this maize mill includes dry de-germination of maize with almost no in-process inventory. The moistening, conditioning, de-germination and milling are all done in a continuous process with minimal time loss for storage during the process. This enables a quick change-over of material and specifications, as desired, from the mill flow with a cost-effective operation. The design also enabled a low installation cost and reduced the initial capital expenditure. Another special feature of this plant has been its layout wherein space utilisation has provided a competitive edge to the process control. The plant design is very compact and all products are collected at the lowermost level for ease of operation. The mill design is flexible enough to produce grits of required size, flour and even extract high quality germ without breaking, during the milling process. Aarna Foods Maize Mill is aiming at producing high quality flaking grits, brewery grits, fine grits and maize flour for snack foods industry.

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SIE was incorporated in March, 2006, succeeding its business of Satake New Delhi Representative Office established in 1995. The establishment of SIE has been providing the grain milling and food industries in India with the essential resources and skilled local presence to offer professional engineering and extensive after sale services. With its regional offices in Chennai, Kolkata, and a branch office in Bangladesh, SIE is responsible for the sales and support of grain processing equipment and complete plants for rice, wheat, maize, lentils and specialty products in India as well as other South Asian countries including Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka etc. The most recent Aarna Foods Maize Mill project is a pioneer project for this region and Satake India expects the need for high quality grits and maize flour to grow in the near future.

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24-6-2019 12:57:26 Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 79


FEEDING SYSTEMS for hammer mills


Good grinding starts with the feeding ammer mills are among the most common mill types for many applications in the grinding of grain or other biomass raw materials; for example, in the production of animal feed or in the

food industry. Good grinding depends, on the one hand, on the technical design of the hammer mill itself (sieve surface, impact surface, motorisation, speed and sieve perforation) and, on the other hand, on the aspiration of the mill (air volume flow, air velocity, filter type, filter surface). In addition, the feeding of the hammer mill also plays an important role. The grinding plant can only be operated efficiently with optimum feeding and the appropriate dosing of the input material.

Tietjen feeding systems

Founded in 1959, the German company Tietjen Verfahrenstechnik specialises in the design and manufacture of customer-specific grinding systems. The heart of every plant is of course the hammer mill, of which Tietjen now manufactures 48 different types, from the simple self-conveying mill for small businesses to the computer-controlled large capacity mill with automatic screen change for 24-hour operation with reduced personnel. It goes without saying that Tietjen has also intensively dealt with the optimal product feed for 80 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

Tasks of the feeding system

The feeding system for a hammer mill essentially has four important tasks to fulfil: Distribution of the feed material: The distributed feed of the product over the entire width of the hammer mill has a significant influence on the grinding process, because only in this way can the existing impact and screen surface of a hammer mill be fully utilised. In addition, wear is reduced because the screens and beaters are worn more evenly. An even distribution also leads to an energy-efficient use of the millâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s drive power. Adaptation to product properties: Particularly in product mixtures (eg in the post-grinding of animal feed), products that are heavier and easier to grind (eg barley and corn) may be present as individual layers in the premix. The feeding system has the task of adjusting the throughput capacity of the mill to the product present in the mixture, so that the mill is always operated at its optimum operating point. For this purpose, the load of the mill motor is monitored and the conveying capacity of the feeding device is controlled on the basis of the motor current (load-dependent dosing). Separation of impurities: Due to harvesting, handling, storage, etc, the raw material may contain impurities such as metal parts or stones, which can lead to considerable damage if they get into the mill (eg sieve breakage). Contact of foreign matters with the rapidly rotating components of the mill can also lead to sparking and, associated with this, to a risk of fires and explosions. The feeding equipment therefore has the task of reliably separating foreign parts in front of the mill. Aspiration air intake: In addition to charging the mill with the material to be ground, feeding systems are usually also used to supply the aspiration air required for the grinding process. According to European ATEX guidelines, in the event of an explosion, this air intake opening must be designed in such a way that there is no risk of human life being endangered by escaping pressure shocks and/or flames. In addition, whirled up dust could lead to secondary explosions.

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F hammer mills and provides several feeding devices (See Picture 1). As early as the 1960s, Tietjen was one of the first manufacturers to launch a vibratory feeder with magnetic drive and load-dependent dosing via a thyristor control system. Later, an electronically adjustable slide was added to the vibratory feeder, which adapts the layer height to the different products to be ground. A magnet at the The Air-Gravity Separator AGS is also suitable for free flowing, end of the trough separates but especially for floury and oily/fatty bulk materials such as pet ferromagnetic foreign bodies (See Picture 2). food or fish feed. This device is a foreign body separator with the The vibratory feeder type R is still part of the product range already mentioned magnets cascade and air separation through today and, due to its design with large cross-sections, is the aspiration air. The material to be ground is usually dosed via a mainly used for coarse feed material such as wood. It has the speed-controlled screw conveyor, in some cases also via a rotary disadvantage that there is only one magnet and non-magnetic valve (See Picture 4). foreign matters such as stones are not separated which makes it The use of a dosing screw conveyor in combination with the not state of the art anymore for grain applications. Air-Gravity-Separator allows placing of the pre-bin separately Therefore, Tietjen has developed two further feeding systems, from the mill. This makes this solution particularly interesting both of which have a cascade with two magnets for improved when space in the plant is limited or when existing feeders need separation of magnetic foreign particles and a separation of to be replaced. Old, no longer ATEX-compliant vibrating feeders, non-magnetic impurities through air separation by means of the are often replaced by AGS Separators and screw conveyors in aspiration air sucked in: The drum feeder type DA and the Airexisting installations. Gravity-Separator type AGS. 10 | TIETJEN FOR THE FEED MILLING INDUSTRY AND ETHANOL PRODUCTION With the drum feeder DA, the feed material is dosed by a slowly rotating drum –which speed isTECHNOLOGY controlled load-dependently by a Explosion protection TIETJEN GRINDING frequency converter. As an option, an electronically controlled Explosion protection has always been a focal point at Tietjen— slide is also available, which adapts the layer height individually and also with regards to the feeding equipment. All feeding according to the different raw products (See Picture 3). systems are 0.4 bar pressure shock resistant and flame penetration The drum feeder is ideal for free-flowing products such proof. They are also optionally available for installation in ATEX as compound feed or grain at high throughput rates. It is Zone 22 (II 3 D) and with a special valve developed by Tietjen, Only with the optimum feed, and with the right dosage of feed, the grinding system can characterised by its compact design and enables the hopper to the A-Vent, be operated efficiently. The distribution of the feed material across the whole width ofwhich the securely closes the aspiration air intake in the hammer mill has a significant influence on the grinding lower wear be placed directly above the mill. An integrated empty process detectorand ensures eventa of an explosion to protect the surrounding plant. operation. All feeders alsoatserve to supply thegrinding aspirationprocess air for the automatically locks a flap the end of the sogrinding process. The pneumatically locked flap inside the drum feeder also that no shut-off theappropriate pre-bin is feeding required. serves to insulate the grinding system from the upstream process Tietjen offersofthe technology, tailored to the product characteristics in case of an explosion. For the other and the structural situation in the plant! two feeding devices (vibratory feeder and AGS-Separator), appropriate Pre-bin Air gravity separator (AGS) protective systems such as the Tietjen 1 with dosing screw safety slide or rotary valves must be 2 Drum feeder (DA) provided.



Vibration feeder (R)





Hammer mill for grinding the product

When planning grinding systems with hammer mills, it is also important to have a suitable feeding system in order to make the best possible use of the mill’s power resources in an energy-efficient manner. In addition to the process engineering aspects and the product properties, the choice of a suitable feeder must also take into consideration the available space in the plant and the applicable regulations for explosion protection. Tietjen offers tailor-made solutions that take all these aspects into account. Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 83


#4 Dosing


by Marco Prati, PLP Liquid Systems, Italy

he use of liquids in feed mills must be implemented using innovation, precision and cost effectiveness whilst maintaining traceability throughout every stage of the application and avoiding cross contamination. Liquids are a fundamental ingredient and effect the success of the quality of the finished product. Nutrition involves chemical reactions and physiological processes, which transform food into body tissues and energy. For many years, the addition of liquids for the feed industry was considered as a second matter and not an important way of making good feed. Molasses and fats were introduced into the mixer just through a pipe. The distribution into the feed was poor, creating problems inside the mixer on pelletising and finally, because of a bad homogeneity, the feed did not perform well for animals. Today, animal feed industries use a large quantity of different types of liquids. Feed production requires more advanced and technological systems. PLP Systems can offer different solutions for the handling of the liquids, but what are the main stages that are fundamental for a good finished product? First is certainly how the liquids are introduced into the mixer.

Perfect dosage, homogeneity and spraying of the


With our DOSAMIX systems, all the liquids are dosed by accurate weighing scales and the premix of the liquids is handled by the homogeniser machine which creates a homogenous solution even when combining together both water and oil-based products. The spraying, by the Smog Atomiser, guarantees small droplets and a perfect distribution into the mixer. Our solution allows the introduction of all the liquids (fats, oil, molasses, lecithin, creams, acids, amino acids, solvents, and with different viscosity) in the mixer, as if they were a single liquid achieving a huge amount of benefits. These advantages include an excellent homogenisation, a perfect distribution of liquids inside the mash during the mixing phase and reduction of lumps and particles, The “Coefficient of Variation” (CV) improves, together with the quality of the final product. There is a great improvement in the colour quality of the compound, a reduction of variation of production and consumption of the pelletising or extruder machine which saves humidity in the final feed, as the water will become englobed into the oil particles.  When liquids are sprayed separately into the mixer, water-based liquids and oil/fat react against each other (immiscible) by forming a layer on top of the feed particles. The product will be non-homogeneous and will create lumps and fines.  The DOSAMIX system is complemented by PLP Liquid Systems’ Smog Atomiser, that is able to break down into fine particles the liquids, thereby creating a fog effect. In this way, a perfect distribution of the product is guaranteed. With the introduction of this technology, the feed mill factory will notice: • Production capacity increase • An increase in moisture retention • Longer life of dies, pumps and dosing lines • Reduced cleaning time • Reduction of lumps and fines and a better feed quality 84 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

Feed industry professionals, academics and business people learned about inner workings of a feed mill at the Build my FeedMill Conference on March 13 at VIV Asia. In conjunction with Milling and Grain, VIV Asia hosted 12 speakers who presented information about their feed mill and storage products. Those in attendance were led through the entire milling process, from intake and conveying to weighing, grinding, pelleting, drying and cooling and storage.

F in the mixer and instead adds them to the finished product at the end of the line. The goal is to dose the correct number of additives and to avoid cross contamination. Some of PLP’s most advanced dosing systems include:

Post-pelleting of the liquid

Another important phase is certainly the post-pelleting of the liquids. Fats, molasses, liquid enzymes, vitamin and medicines are important ingredients which determine the health of the animal. Fats and molasses are good energy ingredients, a lower addition results in deficiency in weight gain and over-application can result in a financial loss for the mill. Enzymes and vitamins are sensitive to temperature, and can rapidly degrade at just 80°C.  A low inclusion can cause growing problems and an overdosage will cause a financial loss.  PLP has developed various systems for this application, in particular, a newly-advanced technology that permits the handling of these difficult products. This technology stops the introduction of sensitive additives

Mass Spin Coater For the addition of micro-liquids with a maximum capacity of one percent, the Mass Spin Coater would be the machine to handle this type of coating. It’s an online machine that can be easily fitted in any existing plant. Through an integrated torsion transducer and a processor of Coriolis force data, the MSC is capable of identifying the mass delivery rate of solid products (pellets, flours, kibbles…). This permits a proportional control for adding doses of additives for the process such as oils, enzymes and antibiotics Drum Coater Suitable also for the addition of liquid additives such as enzymes, fat, digests, spices, oil, olive oils, antibiotics, vitamins, colours, chocolate, caramel, sugars, etc. The drum has a system valve on the outlet, allowing small batches of product to be mixed with a longer retention time. This ensures an excellent coating over the entire surface of the product, even with a small percentage of additives. MT Paddler Coater The coating system MT is a complete machine able to mix inline pellets, kibbles, and other granulated products with additives such as liquid enzymes, fat, digests, aromas, oils, medicines and vitamins.

Extrusion and expansion technology you can trust Almex extruders are used for : » Pet Food extrusion » (floating) Aquafeed extrusion » Animal Feed extrusion » Oil seed extraction

» Cereal processing extrusion » Compacting » Pre-conditioning prior to other processes Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 85



Join us for the next

Two-hour event

September 20th, 2019 Part of VIV Qingdao Room 210 - 09:30-12:00 - 09:30-09:40 – Welcome and Introductions- Mr Roger Gilbert, Perendale Publishers Ltd - 09:40-09:50- Expanders- Famsun - 09:50-10:00- Pelleting- Famsun - 10:00-10:10- Extruders- Mr Zhuang Di, Bühler - 0:10-10:20- Weighing Systems- Mr Stefan Mauer, KSE - 10:20-10:30- Expanders- Mr Zhang Fuping, Changzhou Honghuan Machinery Co Ltd - 10:30-10:40- Drying and Cooling- Yangzhou Kerunde Machinery Co Ltd - 10:40-10:50- Combi-zone Dryer- Mr Xia Kebin, Andritz - 10:50-11:00- Dosing- Mr Xia Kebin, Andritz - 11:00-11:10- Liquid Dosing- Mr Marco Prati, PLP Liquid Systems - 11:10-11:20- Micro-powder Dosing- Mr Marco Prati, PLP Liquid Systems - 11:20-11:30- Post-pellet Coating- Mr Marco Prati, PLP Liquid Systems - 11:30-11:40- Feed Formulation- Mr Tai Han Cheng, Adifo Software - 11:40-11:50- Control Systems for Die and Roller Gaps- Ms Jenny Huo, CPM Machinery (Wuxi) Co Ltd - 11:50-12:00- Panel Discussion and Closing- Mr Roger Gilbert, Perendale Publishers Ltd

The machine is used in combination with the powerful sprayer MicroSMOG and guarantees a perfect coating of the product. Paddles are tiltable for a better performance of the machine. Tribo Electric Technology Medicines can be added and fixed onto the pellet surface by use of PLP ‘Tribo Technology‘. The fixation of the powder additive is done by electric forces with the help of a natural binder (Seal4Feed). Coating medicine at the end of the line will avoid dosing a higher percentage of additives, due to the loss caused by the thermal and mechanical stress during the production phases and will avoid cross contamination in the production line. All these applications can be also used for applying powder products on to the finished products. PLP systems has also developed a new system defined as Post Stress Powder Application (PSPA). This new system can be used for the application of liquids and powders on the finished product without necessarily creating a blend before the injection. Powder products are very important for the good realisation of the finished product and dosage and weighing are important because they have to be very accurate.  Most of the micro ingredients utilised in animal feed mills are added into the main mixer to produce a finished feed or in a premix to facilitate uniform dispersion of the smaller elements into a large mix. Incorrect usage might have a major influence on animal growth as well as an unexpected contamination of all the feed.

MDP System

PLP Systems can provide different solutions but their flagship model is certainly the Micro Powder Dosing (MPD system). MDP is a system with a standard concept but the size, capacities and logical function can be designed and adapted to suit individual customer’s needs.



No build-up

The batch dosing can range from a few grams up to 1000kg and different ranges of products can be handled such as granulometry size and physical/chemical characteristics. The system is normally used as a batch dosing scale, dosing each powder individually into the weighing hopper.  Other types of configuration are possible such as loss in weight, continuous dosing and volumetric dosing. All parts in contact with the product are constructed in stainless steel and the MDP has been designed in order to achieve a smooth operational work process and a simple system maintenance. Resolution of the dosing for each additive can start from less than one-gram resolution;  Regarding the speed of each batch, the feeders are able to reach up to a 500kg batch in less than three minutes. The MDP is compact in size, in only four-square metres wide and a carousel of 12 feeders can be housed within. Special products can be handled with different concept feeders (vibrating units) such as filaments, flakes, pastes for fragile products. For easy maintenance, the MDP station contains simple but robust elements that can be easily be replaced on site. Cleaning is easy thanks to the fast clamps connections on the body of the feeders. PLP offers complete and customised solutions for the dosing, coating and weighing of both powders and liquids. We attach great importance to being open to new ideas, and unique solutions, this being an integral part of our culture at PLP as well as innovation, precision and reliability. In our main office, we have built for customers a test area where our valued clients can come and experiment with our machinery, bringing their products to test thoroughly (pellets, extruded products, additives and more). We are happy to invite you all, our goal is to become a reliable partner with whom to develop the technology of the future and overcome more and more challenges with together!


2100 dm3 = 100%

Due to the unique “Tulip body” the Wynveen Vacuum Coater is very hygienic, no residue build-up to the sides walls will occur. The double shaft principle ensures an ideal fluid zone for optimum addition of liquids to the main product.

Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 87



Ringneck ethanol plant a ‘showcase’ of Sukup equipment


by Sukup Manufacturing Co.

ingneck Energy’s shiny new 80- to 100-million-gallon/year ethanol plant was hailed at its grand opening June 25th as the most efficient in the United States and as a showcase of Sukup Manufacturing Co. material handling and grain storage equipment. It is the largest single-site deployment of Sukup equipment both in number of pieces and in dollar value, said Steve Sukup, Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Sukup Manufacturing and a member of the Ringneck Energy Board of Directors. “As a company we’ve been expanding our commercial-scale material handling equipment offerings for the past several years,” he said. “This project really pulls it all together in a way that shows we can equip big commercial projects with the grain storage and handling equipment they need.” Sukup equipment at Ringneck includes two 105’ diameter, 25-ring grain storage bins and a 21’ diameter, 17-ring hopper bin; several bucket elevators and conveyors; several catwalks and support towers, including an 18’ x 18’ x 160’ tower; two zeroentry bin sweeps, each with a 12” diameter auger; two buildings, including a 125’ x 250’ x 40’ warehouse for dried distillers grains and a 65’ x 100’ x 40’ unloading and loading building. “We wanted to be a Sukup showplace, and hopefully we’ve 88|September2019-MillingandGrain

accomplished that,” said Walt Wendland, Chief Executive Officer of Ringneck Energy. Construction of the US $130 million Ringneck project began in 2017 and ended near the end of 2018. Production began in April. The plant was designed to produce 80 million-to-100 million gallons-per-year of ethanol. It can load a 96-car train of tanker cars in about one week. “This plant is awesome. It can do really great things,” Danci Baker, Chief Financial Officer, told Ringneck shareholders at their first annual meeting prior to the grand opening of the plant. South Dakota Governor Kristi Noem and Lt Governor Larry Rhoden both attended the event and praised the project. “We’ve been following this for quite some time,” Noem said, adding that she personally is an investor in the facility and is pushing to expand the use of ethanol blends in state vehicles. She and Rhoden said they would like to see South Dakota be a leader in the ethanol industry and encouraged the roughly 100 people attending the grand opening to encourage their friends and relatives to use ethanol products. As well, they should discourage federal officials from granting waivers to companies that do not want to blend their fuels with ethanol. Waivers have cost the ethanol industry billions of gallons, Noem said. Ron Fagen, Chairman of Fagen Inc, general contractor for the Ringneck plant, has had a hand in construction of more than 100 of the roughly 250 ethanol plants in the United States. He said the Sukup equipment, company leaders and

Grain care, our commitment

In Symaga Silos we are passionate about storage and always look forward to the next grain care challenge. Consolidated as one of the main manufacturers of industrial silos, Symaga is currently involved in the biggest storage projects around the world. Our commitment is to offer better, all-technical, global, and tailored services to each project. We account for over 7,000 projects, with more than 28 million m³, in more than 140 countries.

Higher galvanization for our roofs: ZM310 In a move to lengthen the service life of our silo solutions, Symaga increases the zinc magnesium galvanization of roofs, from ZM250 to ZM310. We improve roof sectors protection, which is the part of the silo that is most directly exposed to corrosion.

Visit us


30 Sep., Aug. - 01 Sep., 19 GRAIN TECH INDIA Bangalore, India Can Tho, Vietnam

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STORAGE service personnel are wonderful to work with. “We’ve never been disappointed with the Sukup products,” he said, adding that the bins go together remarkably well. He said his first was nearly 20 years ago in Denison, Iowa, and last year built two 156’ diameter Sukup bins at Elite Octane near Atlantic, Iowa. “Sukup is high-class,” he said, adding that he recently purchased a Sukup Steel Building for his headquarters in Granite Falls, Minn. Sukup Manufacturing Co. has provided equipment for about 40 ethanol plants since 2004, with the vast majority since 2010, according to Matt Koch, senior electrical engineer at Sukup Manufacturing. “In the past 10 years we’ve been the name of the game in ethanol plant grain storage.” Sukup’s 156’ diameter clear-span bins are the largest in the industry. Its commercial bin sweeps, mixed-flow grain dryer and advanced control systems are among 14 products that have won ag engineering innovation awards since 2012 from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. Sukup began offering commercial bucket elevators in 2013 and now has the capability to lift 60,000 bushels-per-hour, said Randy Marcks, Director of Material Handling Equipment Sales. The company’s commercial drag conveyors debuted in 2015. While the largest to date conveys 40,000 bph, there is capacity for 60,000 bph, Marcks said. Expanding into commercial grain handling and storage markets was a natural progression for Sukup Manufacturing. Since its founding by Eugene Sukup in 1963 with his invention of a grain stirring machine, the company’s focus for nearly three decades was on making farm-level grain handling and storage more safe, profitable and efficient. The company developed a reputation for having top-notch stirring machines, fans, unload systems and other equipment. Its launch of

automatic continuous-flow grain dryers in 1998 and a line of grain bins in 2000 helped position the company for larger markets. Sales of commercial equipment have grown steadily, said company President Charles Sukup. “Some people look at grain bins as tin cans – all the same. But that’s not the case when you look closely at Sukup bins,” he said. He cited two innovations in grain bin design that have set Sukup bins apart from those of other manufacturers – sidewall splice plates and double-ended stud bolts. The splice plates allow laminated sidewall sheets to be connected end-to-end instead of overlapped. The plates simplify construction and provide for a more watertight bin than using the traditional method of overlapping sheets. The double-ended stud bolts provide a tight seal between bin stiffeners and sidewall sheets, solving the issue of moisture leaking into the bin through gaps between stiffeners and laps of laminated sidewall sheets. “Our people are always looking at issues and developing solutions,” Charles Sukup said, for both on-farm and commercial equipment. “We’re definitely a continuous-improvement company.” Providing equipment that allows ethanol producers to build bigger and more efficient plants is gratifying work, he said. Ethanol has “been a tremendous benefit to the country, especially in the Midwest.” Helping to build an industry that produces clean-burning fuel from a renewable source, that improves energy security and helps support grain markets for farmers … It’s an honor to be a part of it all, he said, and it drives the entire company to work on solutions for any challenges that arise.

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Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 91






by OPIsystems, Canada

etting the best return for your harvested crop is all about managing moisture content and delivering optimum quality grain. Advanced Grain Management maximises the return on your most precious grain asset by optimising grain quality and value, while minimising storage costs.

The starting point is bin management: Sanitation:

• Remove all debris inside the bin and on the underside of the aeration floor • Clean the bin walls and spray if needed to remove all insect “safe harbors” • Cut away all vegetation and maintain the area around the bin • Seal all possible entry points for moisture or insects


• Fill the bin with clean grain that has <2 percent foreign material (FM) • Core the bin, or level the grain, using a spreader if necessary. This will result in even airflow distribution throughout the bin, which is extremely important for good conditioning results • Filling the bin to the peak with high FM grain will result in little or no air through the dense core – a recipe for disaster

Figure 1

Think of stored grain as an ecosystem. If quality grain is stored at low, uniform moisture content and temperature, it can have an extremely long “shelf life”. Elevated moisture content and temperature renders the grain susceptible to infestation by internal-boring and non-boring insects, reducing value through weight and grade loss (Internal Damaged Kernels/IDK). A high moisture/condensing environment can lead to other microbial activity, such as moulds and mycotoxins. Sprouting becomes more likely in a high-moisture environment. The kernel can also respire over time, whereby the consumption of mass leads to a reduction in test weight. Loss can occur at the hands of birds and rodents. Weight loss can be expressed in general terms as Dry Matter Loss (DML), with Safe Storage Chart recommendations based on the length of time grain can be stored before a 0.5 percent dry matter loss. Being cumulative over the entire storage period, it’s important to know how old the grain is coming into storage. Figure 1 shows the amount of time that oilseeds can be safely stored at a given temperature and moisture content. For example, soybeans stored at 75°F and 14 percent moisture content can be safely stored for 63 days. This assumes clean grain of sound quality. It’s also based on the length of time before experiencing a 0.5 percent DML. It doesn’t mean that grain can’t be stored longer, but rather it questions the viability of storage once the DML exceeds 0.5 percent. Here is the corresponding safe storage chart for corn and cereals (See Figure 2). In this example, we’re calculating “storeability” for more than one set of conditions as we go through a conditioning process. For example, when going through an initial conditioning cycle, with corn at 85°F and 16 percent moisture content for 18 days, 50 percent of the 36 safe store days have been used up (18/36). After conditioning the corn down to 60°F and 15 percent moisture content, the safe storage is then 50 percent of 278, which equals 139 days, for a combined total of 15 safe storage days (18+139).

Early detection

Heating typically starts as a result of microbial activity in a pocket of higher moisture grain. Because grain is such a good insulator, by week three the heating will have started to move vertically up through the bin (by convection) more readily than across the bin (by conduction). By week four, significant spoilage has taken place less than 10’ from the cable, without sensors registering a discernable change. 92 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain


Figure 3

Figure 2

In week six we are only now starting to see a noticeable rise in temperature at sensor four, with less impact on the sensors above and below (See Figure 1). By week eight, wide-scale loss has occurred, with temperatures registering upwards of 65°F. This wouldn’t be of terrible concern, unless noticing the sensor-to-sensor change over time. By week ten, the hotspot has abated, but the temperature has continued to grow. For this reason, readings need to be taken on a regular basis, with this information used to proactively manage grain for safe storage. In that temperatures don’t move readily across the grain mass, it’s best to have cables on 20’ centers for early detection of heating, wherever it may originate in the bin (See Figures 2 and 3). It’s also important to have a system which can detect small changes over time and send out alarms. Although not as proactive, a high temperature alarm will limit spoilage.

Equilibrium Moisture Content

Equilibrium Moisture Content, referred to as EMC, is the

moisture content that grain will become if exposed to air of a specific relative humidity (RH) and temperature for a long enough time period. Given enough time, the kernel will equalise to the air that surrounds it. EMC is important because the EMC of the air being pumped through grain will dictate whether the grain will lose moisture, such as desired when drying with natural air drying (NAD), or gain moisture, such as desired with re-hydration, or remain the same, such as desired in aeration, whereby grain is cooled with the least amount of profit-robbing shrink (See Figures 4 and 5). The challenge is that outside air conditions are constantly changing. First, temperature swings from nighttime lows to daytime highs. Relative humidity is a mirror image of temperature, peaking in the night, and at its lowest in the heat of day. Every combination of temperature and relative humidity equates to a specific EMC value. Those EMC values can be charted over time. To condition grain to the desired moisture target, fans should only run when the EMC is in the right range that will drive to target.

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Phone +41 898 57 00 Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 93




Figure 4

Based on the published ASABE curves, 60 percent RH and 80°F corresponds to 12.5 percent Corn. OPI systems generates a broad range of grain type and variety-specific curves which are input into the StorMax monitor, IntegrisPro or OPI Blue platform for more accurate moisture control. OPI grain curves are also calibrated to specific moisture meters, further increasing the accuracy. The OPI EMC Calculator generates grain-type specific EMC curves based on the ASABE standard. These EMC curves are derived from ASABE standards. OPI customers have access to higher accuracy curves developed specifically for OPI monitoring solutions.

Figure 5

In-bin conditioning as a function of airflow

Table 1 shows the amount of airflow recommended for various grain conditioning strategies. For example, to remove up to six percent moisture content using the natural air-drying method, 1.01.5 cfm/bushel of airflow is required. This assumes even airflow across the bin, so be sure to load the bin with clean, level grain. It’s also important to be careful with airflow assumptions, as fan curves show maximum values, assuming no leaks or blockages, or insufficient venting (1 ft2/1,000 CFM is recommended). To achieve 0.75 cfm/bushel, such as for low-level NAD, in a 20’ depth, wheat produces 7.5” static pressure. The best fan to produce 0.75 cfm/bushel in 20’ of wheat is a 50 HP Centrifugal, with a low-speed fan preferred for this application. On the other hand, if you’re only looking to design for aeration at 0.1cfm/bushel at 70’ grain depth, any number of fans will do, with the 10-horsepower axial providing the most cost-effective solution in terms of both purchase and operating cost. Avoid over-aerating – run fans only to reduce temperature and control moisture. Do not aerate to keep grain “fresh”. Overrunning fans will not increase results – only utility bills. Simply put: Air Quality (EMC) x Air Quantity (CFM/Bushel) = Results!

Table 1

The cost of shrink

In financial terms, “shrink” is the cost of selling grain below the allowable moisture limit. Using a soybean rehydration example, if beans are sold at 10 percent moisture content, rather than the 12.5 percent average that could be achieved with a re-hydration strategy; for 100,000 bushels of soybeans at a market price of US $9.00/bushel, the opportunity cost can be expressed as: 100 – initial MC X bushels - bushels = Gained bushels 100 – final MC Gained bushels x Grain price = Gross benefit Gross benefit – Operating cost = Net benefit Soybean rehydration example: 100 – 10.0 X 100,000 bushels bushels 100 – 12.5

- 100,000 bushels = 2,857

2,857 bushels x $9.00/bushel = $25,713 gross benefit $25,713 gross benefit – (100,000 * $0.10/bushel electrical cost) = $15,713 net benefit

Advanced grain management

OPI’s advanced grain management technology helps optimise the quality and profitability of stored grain assets by: • Optimising moisture content 94 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

• Minimising shrink and spoilage of stored assets • Reducing operating costs – achieve reduced fan run time by up to 80 percent • Managing inventory • As a market-enabling technology, helping to achieve maximum market value

Grain monitoring

An OPI grain storage management system with moisture cables can help optimise returns, giving a better understanding of storage conditions and helping manage your aeration and conditioning systems at the right time for the best results. Having moisture sensors every four feet up the length of the moisture cables enables the user to see how moisture is changing up through the grain mass, well before over-drying takes place. OPI is proud of the contribution we’ve made to the agricultural industry around the world in our 35-year history. Our on-going commitment to advancing grain storage management has yielded numerous innovations to help farmers and agribusiness protect and optimise the value of their stored grain assets.



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Storage technology of the Tang Dynasty in China


by Dr Wu Wenbin, Henan University of Technology, China

oday, every country needs to stock up on large amounts of food to meet the daily needs of the people, to cope with unforeseeable problems such as sudden disasters and changes in the market. The amount of food produced each year is quite large, which poses a huge challenge; the safe, efficient storage of food. In the long term this poses great challenges to warehousing technology. China, having had a lot of experience in this area over centuries, has formed a complete set of construction systems and management systems. The technical means for food preservation are quite mature today. The Tang Dynasty was the heyday of China’s feudal society, and underground warehousing was extremely common during this period. Taking the granary site excavated in Luoyang City, Henan Province, China as an example, it can be seen that the technology of grain preservation in the Tang Dynasty of China was quite developed. After more than 1300 years of food preserved in its 160th warehouse, the grain granules were 48 percent less carbonised and 52 percent organic. The Tang Dynasty’s economy was prosperous, and its grain output was huge. They not only used the construction of granaries in the Sui Dynasty, but also built a large number themselves. Although underground and overground storage methods coexisted during this period, large-scale national granaries almost exclusively adopted underground storage. 96 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

The underground granary has also developed to a relatively complete level, and the planning layout, scale form, technical means and management system have been established. The most prestigious is a granary in Luoyang. When the amount of grain storage was at its highest, it reached 48 percent of the total grain reserves of the Tang Dynasty. It is known as the “first granary in the world”. Luoyang and Changan in the Tang Dynasty were the political and economic centres of the time. Due to the surge in population and the frequent occurrence of natural disasters, these important areas need to store more food to meet demand. The construction of the granary is very necessary, and its geographical location is set according to the current transportation route. The grain transportation process of the Tang Dynasty adopted a segmented transportation method. The grain transported by water from the south of the country is imported into the granary of Xiangyang, and then used to enter Luoshui through the Yellow River. The glutinous rice is stored in the granary of Gong County, and thus it is divided into two routes to the west. One is a granary that is transported by land or from a land to Luoyang and Sanmenxia. The other is to pass the Yellow River and then land to the granary of Sanmenxia. Finally, it will be transported to the granary in Chang’an. This formed a complete system of transportation that is centered on Luoyang and delivered to Chang’an. The Tang Dynasty’s warehousing technology was very advanced for the time. First of all, the site is located in a high-lying place, which is dry and has a low water level, which is conducive to grain storage. The largest granary in the

F Tang Dynasty is densely distributed, neatly arranged, and laid out in neat rows. The line spacing is generally six-to-eight metres, the spacing is generally three-to-five metres, and the entire warehouse should have more than 400 warehouses. From the size of the single warehouse, the body is round cylinder shape, the ratio of the bottom of the granary is 2:1, and the angle between the wall and the bottom is 120°. The general diameter is 6-18 metres and the depth is 5-12 metres. The granary consists of a granary top and a granary bottom. A roof is built above the top of the granary to protect the underground warehouse. At that time, it was covered with a soil-covered structure, and it was necessary to cover three layers of straw mats on the grain. The first layer of straw mat is in direct contact with the grain and a layer of gluten is laid on top. The second layer of straw covers the gluten, sealed with a loess into a conical shape, and then placed with a layer of wood for compaction. The third layer of straw mat is covered on the wooden board, and the top of the mat is covered with a layer of straw. Finally, the grass is mixed with mud to form a conical granary top. The use of a soil-filled structure on the roof allows for material savings, simple construction, ease of operation and drainage. Moisture protection is the focus of granary design. The method used in the Tang Dynasty to prevent moisture is to first strengthen the bottom of the granary. In order to avoid sinking at the bottom of the granary, the bottom of the granary was made with a hard-

braised soil, which served as a moisture barrier at the bottom of the granary and the wall near the bottom of the raft. The moisture barrier is made of braised clods, burnt ash, crushed slag and binder. Finally, the wooden boards and straw are laid, and the grass or the wooden boards are covered with a layer of gluten, and the gluten is covered. In the Tang Dynasty, the moisture-proof treatment of the wall of the large granary was roughly inlaid with planks, wood foil and mats. Food is a strategic resource. Food reserves play a particularly important role in the development of world history. The storage technology of large underground granaries has reached unprecedented heights. The location, storage techniques and methods of the granary at that time are still relevant to the study of modern grain storage.

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Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 97

Industry Profile

Habasit AG


Trusted transmission and conveying belts in over 70 countries worldwide

ased in Reinach, Switzerland, Habasit AG specialise in transmission and conveying belts for a variety of industries, including bakery and meat production. The family-owned company have grown from a small collection of people to a massive organisation that operate in over 70 countries worldwide and are only continuing to expand their presence in the conveying industry. Founded in 1946, Habasit was formed by husband and wife duo Alice Fluck and Fernand Habegger at a small workshop focussing upon power transmission belts. The company quickly expanded, moving into new factories in 1950, 1959 and 1966 as they grew to be recognised for their professional and efficient solutions. Their catalogue soon began to expand and, by 2008, the company were also specialising in positive-drive conveyor belts, timing belts, slat and conveyor chains and plastic modular belts. Habasit also won the prestigious International FoodTech Award in 2012 for their HyCLEAN plastic modular belt type M5060 and M5065 with sprocket and CIP system. Habasitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Saniclip

98 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

Just last year, Habasit successfully acquired NGI Holding A/S and so their presence in the market will no doubt grow more influential as they continue to grow. Habasit provide a variety of belts to help service the flour and bakery industries, with features that make every process easier for the baker. Frayless fabric belts are available to avoid risks of contamination and improve product safety, as well as moisture-absorbing and humidity-resistant belts. To optimise hygienic processes, bright blue belts are also available to emphasise visibility as a key focus for workers. Belts are also available from the Swiss company for poultry and meat, which boast improved durability, automatic belt cleaning, waste reduction, reduced water consumption and an advanced hygienic design. One unique value Habasit clearly showcase on their official website is a dedication to environmental sustainability, and this has been showcased in a variety of ways. On the Habasit website users can use energy-saving calculators to calculate how energy-efficient their belts are and can, therefore, work out whether they wish to adopt more energy-efficient models in the future. The company also established their own Habasit Green Concept in 2011, with a renewed focus on utilising and creating eco-friendly products, production processes and operations. Recently at IFFA 2019 Habasit showcased their new hygienic technology for belt installations and repairs; the Habasit Saniclip. Able to work with Habasitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s HabasitLINK range of plastic modular belts, the device enables for easy joining and separating of belts without any need for tools.

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CITIC-Belarus Feed Project


The world-class CITIC-Belarus Feed Project has officially started

n December 17, 2018, Mr Bo Hao, Chairman of Zheng Chang Group and CITIC successfully signed a contract for the feed production line of the Belt and Road Belarusian agroindustrial complex project. The CITIC-Belarus project is a milestone for the development of Zheng Chang and the international market and the new project will be the largest and most advanced agro-industrial complex project in the Belt and Road. Recently, Vice General Manager Jianqiang Yang of CITIC Construction and Vice Prime Minister Kuhalev of Belarus attended the commencement ceremony of the Belarus agro-industrial complex project, and jointly poured the concrete for the feed plant built by Zheng Chang and other large-scale feed machinery processing equipment and engineering service providers, marking the formal start of the civil construction of the project. Kuhalev highly praised the excellent achievements of CITIC Construction in Belarus. He believed that CITIC Construction would be able to complete this project successfully. Jianqiang Yang said that this was the seventh project constructed by CITIC Construction in Belarus. CITIC Construction is not only the general contractor of this project, but also the shareholder of the project company. Zheng Chang is responsible for comprehensive equipment supply and construction of a high-grade feed (pig, chicken, cattle and sheep) production line with an annual output of 600,000 tonnes and a 450,000-tonne steel silo project. This is the unanimous decision of Belarus National Biological Group and CITIC Group after nearly two years of research and investigation of numerous types of feed equipment and storage equipment. 100 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

Why choose Zheng Chang?

Field investigation 1: Shuanghui high-grade chicken feed project Leaders of Belarus and CITIC Group carefully considered which company to partner with on this project. During their investigations they visited a 400,000-tonne poultry feed project constructed by Zheng Chang. It consists of four 558E pelleting lines, one premix line, six sets of 3000-tonne screw silos for maize, three sets of 3000-tonne screw silos for wheat, six sets of 250-tonne screw silos for soybean meal and 20 units of screw bins for finished products. The whole project covers an area of 2500 cubes. Field investigation 2: Kingsino high-grade pig feed project They expressed their satisfaction with Zheng Chang’s professional, systematic, stable and reliable products and services through on-the-spot investigation on the Kingsino high-grade piglet feed production line. Up to now, ZhengChang has built six high-quality pig feed production lines for Kingsino, which not only helps dealers and farmers to improve feed quality, creates benefits for customers, but also helps Kingsino meet the requirements of listing and expand the market competitiveness. Field investigation 3: Kashi TMR cattle and sheep feed project They visited the first TMR cattle and sheep feed demonstration factory in Kashi, Xinjiang, constructed by Zheng Chang. The factory can produce TMR cattle and sheep ruminant feed, pure straw, forage pellets, various biomass pellets, fine cattle and sheep feed, fine powder feed. It has won the unanimous praise of the local government and herdsmen, and the trust of CITIC Group. Field investigation 4: Alashankou project As an important part of the Silk Road Economic Belt, Alashankou, Xinjiang is famous for its harsh construction conditions. However, in such an area, Zheng Chang has completed the new warehousing project for Aiju Qinjiang Food Company on schedule and obtained the unanimous approval of the company’s leaders with its good air tightness, strong corrosion resistance, small occupied space and beautiful appearance. In August 2018, Zheng Chang once again undertook the warehousing project of Jinshahe in Alashankou, which highlighted Zheng Chang’s professional and perfect warehousing capacity, and won the trust of delegation leaders. For the Belarus agro-industrial complex project, Zheng Chang will make full use of its comprehensive industrial advantages in machinery manufacturing, technological innovation, feed formula design, feed production and warehousing capacity, so as to provide stable and reliable products, projects and services for the strategic construction of “the Belt and Road”.


Mehmet Ugur Gürkaynak, Milling and Grain Official Name: Republic of Uzbekistan Polity: Republic Official Language: Uzbek Capital: Tashkent Ethnic Groups: Uzbek (80%), Russians (5.5%), Tajik (5%), Other (8.5%) (2013) Area: 447,400 km² Population: 32.39 million (2017) Currency: Som Gross Domestic Product: US $48.72 billion (2017)

Fickle weather raising input costs Located in the centre of the Central Asian Region, Uzbekistan’s neighbors are Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. Its surface area is 447.400 km2 and it is located on the soils between Ceyhun, Amuderya in the southwest and Seyhun, Sırderya rivers in the northeast. The north and south ends of the country are 925km apart and the east and west ends are 1,400km apart. The total length of the country borders are 6,221km. Established in 1936, with the Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakistan, Uzbekistan is divided into 13 regions. These regions: Andijan, Bukhara, Jizzah, Kashkaderya, Namangan, Samarkand, Surhanderya, Sirderya, Tashkent, Fergana, Khwarezm and Nevai regions. 46% of the land consists of plateaus and steppes, 41% consisting of desert and other land types. 3% of the country’s total land area is forest and groves whilst 10% is suitable for agriculture. Due to the fact that 95% of arable land can be irrigated, it is the best irrigable country among the Central Asian republics.

Climate As in other Central Asian countries, Uzbekistan is subjected to hot and dry summers and a cold continental climate in winter. To the east and northeast are the God and Pamir Mountains. In the central part is one of the largest deserts; the Kizilkum Desert. Uzbekistan has a strong continental climate and no seaside. In Uzbekistan, there is a very dry continental climate. The southern part of the country has a warm climate, while the northern part is colder. Political situation After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan declared its independence in 1991. The Republic of Karakalpakistan, which has an administrative structure consisting of 12 provinces and Tashkent Metropolitan Municipality, is governed by the presidential system. The members of the parliament and president are elected every five years. The Senate and the legislature consist of a two-wing parliament. The Legislative Assembly consists of 150 seats and 15 seats are reserved for the Uzbekistan Ecological Movement. A total of 84 senators take part in the vote in the provincial councils in the Senate, the upper wing of the parliament and 16 senators are appointed by the President. Economy Uzbekistan’s economy is based on agriculture and industry. The country is the third-largest cotton producer in the world and sericulture is widespread. The climate and vegetation are suitable for cattle and sheep fattening. According to the estimates of international financial institutions, the country will be among the fastest growing countries in the world in the next 10 years. Uzbekistan, which has rich natural resources and a young labour force, has achieved an average annual growth of 8% in the last 10 years. Uzbekistan’s gross domestic product in 2016 reached US $67.22 billion. In the country which ranks 71st in terms of economic power, the national income per capita is $2,220 dollars. Major trading partners for Uzbekistan include China, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkey and South Korea. Uzbekistan are currently trying to switch to a free-market economy. The agricultural and manufacturing industry accounts for about a quarter of GDP. The country is a major cotton producer and exporter and is also a major gold producer. Agriculture sector Due to water shortages in the region, cotton production has been reduced and cereals and other products were prioritised. For this purpose, cotton-cultivated areas have been narrowed in favour of cereal, fruit and vegetable production in recent years. Very little of the country’s land is suitable for agriculture. However, as part of its policy, the government aims to make Uzbekistan a self-sufficient grain producer. To this end, investments in agriculture and agro-industries are expected to increase over the coming years. Approximately six million tonnes of fruit and vegetables are produced annually in Uzbekistan. This amount exceeds the needs of the domestic market. However, fruit and vegetable processing facilities cannot be processed to the desired level due to insufficient fruit and vegetable processing facilities and old technology. In the early 1990s, agricultural production was carried out by state enterprises and cooperatives. In 1999, the privatisation of largescale state enterprises began. 102|September2019-MillingandGrain

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Agricultural studies are managed in the country with the central planning system. The amounts of the products to be grown in agricultural areas are determined by the State Planning Committee, the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Affairs and the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and Investment and Trade. According to this, the competent authorities in the provinces and districts determine which crops should be grown and in what amount. This plan specifies the minimum amounts to be delivered to the state. Family companies and farmers are obliged to produce the amounts in this plan. For the part above the amount he is obliged to give to the state, the farmer may make any savings. Cotton is not included. However, it can sell within the province where it lives. Cotton trade is prohibited and all is bought by the state. The country attaches great importance to scientific studies in order to increase productivity in agriculture. For this purpose, an institution was established under the name of the Uzbek Agriculture Scientific Productivity Centre. It works in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture and other organisations. Its main task is to conduct scientific research on agriculture and to find solutions to the problems in this field in order to maximise the productivity of agricultural production. On the other hand, the banking system is being worked on to solve financial issues. Thanks to the banks being established, agricultural projects will be successfully and prfessionally financed and enterprises and farmers operating in the agricultural sector will be given the opportunity to receive loans. The milling industry in Uzbekistan Uzdonmahsulot, which is a government agency and a jointstock company, is responsible for the purchase, classification and storage of cereals and seeds required by the country. In addition, the companies which are under the umbrella of this company, produce cattle feed, wheat flour, bakery products and pasta. Milling in the region dates back to ancient times. There are mills that were active in the 19th century and are active even today. However, over time, water and steam mills have been developed with modern high-efficiency equipments. For example, the mill called “Tashkent Sharri” was built in 1885. It was the largest and best mill at the time, producing 25 tonnes of flour-perday for 25 years (until 1910). The first steam mill in Tashkent was built in 1910. The modernisation and technological advancement of the milling sector in Uzbekistan began in 1961 when the government made a crucial decision on the reconstruction and modernisation of the state’s purchasing organisation for agricultural products. According to this decision, the purchase of grain would be made only through signing contracts. In line with this decision, the Ministry of Bread Products was abolished on March 24, 1961, and the Ministry of Preparedness was established, including offices for regional inspections. The Ministry of Bread Products and Feed Industry was established in May 1965 with a new arrangement. This new ministry has placed great emphasis on the reconstruction of existing initiatives and the finalisation of works initiated in the transition to automation.

In some plants, flour was stored and sold without packaging. Special tanks were built for this purpose. The storage, sale and transportation of the flour became easier. From 1965-1969, feed produced was enriched with antibiotics, vitamins and microelements. In 1970, the relevant Ministry was abolished again and established on the basis of the Ministry of Grain Procurement. The technological production level and production volume of the factories were increased. Flour production increased 3.3 times over until 1980, grain production increased 18.1 times over and feed production increased 11.6 times over compared to 1969. The specific gravity of the best flour production was increased from 49.2% (1970) to 83.7%. % (1980). Between 1981 and 1985, new facilities were opened in Kuva, Navoi, Fergana and Uchkurgan, producing a total of 1300 tonnesper-day. In addition, new elevators with a total capacity of 240.2 thousand tonnes were commissioned. In the same period, 11 factories were modernised and partially renovated. Technical modernisation was carried out in 13 other mill mills and 5 rice mills with a capacity increase of up to 300 tonnes-per-day. Between 1986-1990, a new restructuring was made in the field of agricultural industry. The Ministry of Grain Storage was abolished on October 14, 1985 and the Union-Republic Bread Products Ministry was established in its place. 6 months later, the Ministry reorganised and merged the bread, pasta and pastry sectors (“Uzkhlebprom”) with 22 bakery operations under its roof. Production capacity continued to increase rapidly in the period between 1987-1990. New initiatives were also launched. 12 mills were technically modernised and old equipment replaced with new high-efficiency equipment. As a result, the total capacity was increased to 573 tonnes-per-day. The new mills were the last step of development of the bread industry with its large mill facilities, which started operations between 1987 and 1990. In the same period, the Ministry of Bread Products was reorganised. The Presidential Decree of 22 April 1994 played an important role in improving the industrial activities. According to this decree, “Uzkhlebprodukt” was reorganised as the State Joint Stock Company. Thus, the Decree of the President initiated the process of privatisation of industrial enterprises. The State Joint Stock Company “Uzdonmahsulot” was reorganised as JSC Uzdonmahsulot in accordance with the decision of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan on 6 August 2004. As before JSC, don Uzdonmahsulot deals with the procurement, storage and processing of cereals for state reserves. According to the decision, currently the joint stock company Uzdonmahsulot has 44 businesses and 25 branches. There are also 58 flour factories, 114 bread manufacturing factories and 46 pasta factories. In the period of 2010-2017, 20 modern pasta producers started to operate. As a result, pasta production increased by 15-17 times over. In addition, a pasta packaging line was formed for small packages. Today, still new facilities are being opened under the umbrella of private companies.

105 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain




2-3 Poultry Africa 2019 Kigali, Rwanda

3-6 IAOM MEA 2019 Dubai, UAE

Poultry Africa 2019 According to the organisers, more than 100 companies are exhibiting at the 2019 edition of Poultry Africa. With an increase of 30 percent in number of exhibiting companies, the event aims at presenting an even wider selection of Feed-to-Food suppliers in poultry and eggs covering feed, crop-tech and feed-tech, feed ingredients and additives, animal health, breeding & hatching, farm production and equipment, poultry and eggs processing and handling. Among the African exhibitors that already signed for the event, Poultry Africa will showcase Abusol Ltd, AGCO South Africa (Pty) Ltd, Agrotech Ltd, Avipro East Africa Ltd, Urban Farmer, Essential Drugs Ltd, ME VAC, Vetcare Africa. 50 percent of the exhibitors come from Europe, including key suppliers especially in the animal health, farm production and feed ingredients and additives sectors. India, Turkey, China and Southeast Asia will also be exhibiting at Poultry Africa 2019. Visitors will not only be able to meet professionals at their booths, but also attend the experts’ Technical Best Practice Seminars. Some of the interesting topics addressed by these sessions are “Heat stress, sustainability, and AGP free food, “Poultry health – the way to productivity and profits” and “Women in poultry business”. Both Expo and Seminars are held on 2-3rd October, 2019 free of charge upon registration: a unique opportunity and 360º experience for African professionals to expend the network internationally and learn about practical solutions tailor-made for the African poultry industry. 16-17 JTIC 2019 Lille, France

17-20 NAMA Annual Meeting 2019 Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA



29-30 Organic & Non-GMO Forum 2019 Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA


6-8 AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conference 2019 Florida, USA

10-16 Agritechnica 2019 Hanover, Germany

GEAPS Exchange 2020 GEAPS Exchange is a great place to make new connections in the grain industry, find operations solutions and learn about new technologies and best practices from across the industry. With over 400 exhibitors in the Expo, more than 40 hours of education and a number of social events, the Exchange is the best place to make connections and advance your career. GEAPS Exchange 2020 will be held March 21-24 at the Minneapolis Convention Centre in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Expo Hall will feature approximately 280,000 square feet of exhibit space. Meet peers from other regions and learn how they handle the challenges you face. Interact with grain industry executives and open doors for future opportunities. Attend education sessions to learn about the latest trends and technologies in the industry. Meet with your existing vendors and make new connections while you browse the latest equipment. Make sure your facility is meeting the latest industry standards and best practices. Meet with suppliers to make sure your company is using the best safety equipment. Attend education sessions to learn about the most recent regulations. The Exchange is also a great way to launch your career in the grain industry! Participate in Student Day to learn more about different career paths in the industry, and then explore the Expo Hall and meet with companies.

December 8-10 48th Annual Country Elevator Conference and Tradeshow Indianapolis, Indiana, USA


21-24 GEAPS Exchange 2020 Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

IAOM MEA 2019 The International Exhibition and Convention Centre at Dubai World Trade Centre (DWTC) is centrally located within the business hub of Dubai amidst city’s iconic landmarks and will be paying host to IAOM MEA. The 30th IAOM-MEA Expo will be conducted in the Sheikh Rashid Hall of Dubai International Exhibition and Convention Centre at Dubai World Trade Centre in the Dubai City of United Arab Emirates. The Sheikh Rashid Hall is dedicated for Conference, Expo, Coffee & Lunch Breaks and it promotes a spirit of fellowship and cooperation among its members and advances their interest in the industry activities. A variety of exhibitors have been confirmed at the event, including 4B Braime Components, ASM Automation, Henry Simon, Balaguer Rolls, Brabender, Petkus and many more influential companies in the world of flour milling.


24-26 VICTAM Asia 2020 Bangkok, Thailand

24-26 VIV Health and Nutrition 2020 Bangkok, Thailand

January 28-30 IPPE 2020 Atlanta, Georgia, USA


April 1-2 Solids Dortmund 2020 Dortmund, Germany 7-9 124th IAOM Annual Conference and Expo Portland, Oregon, USA 7-9 Livestock Malaysia 2020 Malacca, Malaysia

31-2 Livestock Taiwan Expo & Forum Taipei, Taiwan

☑ = Meet the Milling and Grain team at this event 106 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

27-1 Agrishow 2020 Ribeirão Preto - SP, Brazil






16 & 17 OCT. 2019



Improving the milling quality of wheat: technical and economic evaluation of cleaning Profile of the 2018 wheat harvest Partner: ARVALIS – Institut du végétal

Quality of 2019 malting barley Partner: IFBM


108 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

Baking: what challenges for tomorrow? Artificial intelligence to boost the cereal industries How to make the most of the variability of raw materials? Partner: Inra





DJAMAL DJOUHRI CEO Al Ghurair Resources International

BAS VAN HOORN Global Trading Manager Grains Department, Glencore Agriculture

GIOVANNI RAVANO Senior Vice President Global Trade, Bunge

DON CAMPBELL General Manager, International GrainCorp

W W W. I A O M - M E A . C O M


DAN BASSE President & Founder AgResource Co. (USA)

MICHEL MEYER Middle East & Africa Manager Grains & Oilseeds, Cargill

PEDRO NONAY VELA Head, Europe, Middle East & Africa (EMEA) Region and Regional Head of Grains for EMEA Louis Dreyfus Company




The second China Food Trade Conference


New opportunities, greater integration, gathering strengths and seeking win-win results: The second China Food Trade Conference highlights by Dr Wu Wenbin, Henan University of Technology, China

he first China Grain Trade Conference, directed by the State Grain And Material Reserve Bureau, was held in Harbin in 2018. The second China Grain Trade Conference was held in Zhengzhou, hosted by the grain industry branch of the Chinese Council for the promotion of international trade, the State Grain Trade Centre, Henan Grain and Material Reserve Bureau and Zhengzhou Municipal People’s Government. The second session of China’s Grain Trade Conference from 21-23rd June, 2019, in Henan province, Zhengzhou proved to be especially successful, with a renewed focus upon assembling towards achieving “new opportunities, integration advantages, seeking win-win situations, innovation transformations to increase vitality, promoting industries and promoting development”. The theme also aimed to further implement the strategy of enhancing China’s national food security, strengthening the cooperation of the food production and marketing industries, setting up national grain production and marketing cooperation platforms and promoting the development of the food industry to an even higher standard. This session of the congress also implemented various new areas, dedicated to a variety of topics such as the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, poverty alleviation and recent improvements in this area, financial services in relation to food, going global with food production, food science and technology achievements, nutrition and consumption and other

110 |September2019-MillingandGrain

featured exhibition areas. With the advance of the structural reform of agricultural supply and the steady implementation of the “high-quality grain project”, the number of famous, characteristic and high-quality grain and oil products exhibited by provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities across the country has increased again. In addition to grain and oil production, processing and circulation enterprises, machinery and equipment, grain science and technology, finance and other enterprises and institutions that play an important role in enhancing the value chain of grain industry, a variety of other companies also participated in the exhibition. To discuss poverty alleviation and food safety, importna t individuals were specially invited from the UN coordinator’s office in China and the UN’s World Food Programme (WFP), as well as the African Union and other international institutions and organisations. The goal of this crucial meeting was to strengthen the communication with international organisations and to promote deeper cooperation in the field of business.

THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTION More than 1.400 exhibitors in 11 halls and 250 booths outdoors.

More than 100.000 trade visitors, including 14.000 international from 121 countries.

An exhibit area of 16 Ha.

100 conferences over 4 days.

Free farm visits program.

Obtain your free pass on :

10 - 13 SEPT. 2019 RENNES - FRANCE +33 2 23 48 28 90





Organizing Organization Office

Milling Machinery Manufacturers Association desmud2019


+90 312 441 0700

Tornum AB +46 512 29100 Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133

To be included into the Market Place, please contact Tom Blacker +44 1242 267700 -

Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400

Analysis R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310

Amino acids Evonik Nutrition & Care GmbH +49 618 1596785

Bag closing

Sukup +1 641 892 4222 TSC Silos +31 543 473979

Bin dischargers

Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11

Lambton Conveyor +1 519 627 8228 Petkus +49 36921 980 Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128 Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165

114 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

4B Braime +44 113 246 1800 Henry Simon +44 0161 804 2800

Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66

Lambton Conveyor +1 519 627 8228

Coolers & driers

Petkus +49 36921 980

A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651

Consergra s.l +34 938 772207

Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119

Elevator & conveyor components


Morillon +33 2 41 56 50 14

Chief +1 308 237 3186

Yemtar Feed Mill Machines +90 266 733 8550

Adifo NV +32 50 303 211

Chief +1 308 237 3186

Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828

Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191

Computer software

Denis +33 2 37 97 66 11

Bulk storage

Sweet Manufacturing Company +1 937 325 1511

A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651

Satake +81 82 420 8560

Mühlenchemie GmbH & Co KG +49 4102 202 001

STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80

Colour sorters

Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00

Bakery improvers

Elevator buckets

GMP+ International +31703074120

Petkus +49 36921 980

TMI +34 973 25 70 98

Yemtar Feed Mill Machines +90 266 733 8550


Fischbein SA +32 2 555 11 70

Imeco +39 0372 496826

Yemmak +90 266 7338363

FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0 Geelen Counterflow +31 475 592315

Sweet Manufacturing Company +1 937 325 1511 Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 Yemtar Feed Mill Machines +90 266 733 8550

Enzymes AB Vista +44 1672 517 650

FAMSUN +86 514 87848880 Manzoni +55 19 3765 9331 Petkus +49 36921 980 Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 9901815 Sukup +1 641 892 4222 Suncue Company Ltd

JEFO +1 450 799 2000

Extruders Almex +31 575 572666 Andritz +45 72 160300 Extru-Tech Inc. +1 785 284 2153 Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260

Manzoni +55 19 3765 9331 Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 Yemmak +90 266 7338363 Yemtar Feed Mill Machines +90 266 733 8550

Feed nutrition AB Vista +44 1672 517 650 Adisseo + 33 1 46 74 70 00 Biomin +43 2782 8030 Delacon +43 732 6405310 DSM +41 61 815 7777 Evonik Nutrition & Care GmbH +49 618 1596785 JEFO +1 450 799 2000 Novus +1 314 576 8886 Nutriad +32 52 40 98 24 PHIBRO +1 201 329 7300

Grain handling systems Cargotec Sweden Bulk Handling +46 42 85802 Chief +1 308 237 3186 Cimbria A/S +45 96 17 90 00 Lambton Conveyor +1 519 627 8228 Petkus +49 36921 980 Sukup Europe +45 75685311 Sweet Manufacturing Company +1 937 325 1511

Laboratory equipment Bastak +90 312 395 67 87 Brabender +49 203 7788 0 CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045 ERKAYA +90 312 395 2986 Next Instruments +612 9771 5444 Perten Instruments +46 8 505 80 900 Petkus +49 36921 980

Level measurement

Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191

BinMaster Level Controls +1 402 434 9102

Yemtar Feed Mill Machines +90 266 733 8550

FineTek Co., Ltd +886 2226 96789

Hammermills Alapala +90 212 465 60 40 Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Christy Turner Ltd +44 1473 742325 Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555

Loading/un-loading equipment Golfetto Sangati +39 0422 476 700 Neuero Industrietechnik +49 5422 95030 Vigan Engineering +32 67 89 50 41

Mill design & installation Alapala +90 212 465 60 40

Ottevanger Milling Engineers +31 79 593 22 21

Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11

Selis +90 222 236 12 33

Christy Turner Ltd +44 1473 742325

Christy Turner Ltd +44 1473 742325

Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 9901815

Genç Degirmen +90 444 0894

Kay Jay Rolls +91 9878 000 859

Viteral +90 332 2390 141

Ottevanger Milling Engineers +31 79 593 22 21

Van Aarsen International +31 475 579 444

Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699

Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699

Van Aarsen International +31 475 579 444

Yemmak +90 266 7338363

Viteral +90 332 2390 141

Yemtar Feed Mill Machines +90 266 733 8550

Yemmak +90 266 7338363

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200

Phileo +33 320 14 80 97 www.

Feed milling

Golfetto Sangati +39 0422 476 700 Henry Simon +44 0161 804 2800 IMAS - Milleral +90 332 2390141 Ocrim +39 0372 4011 Omas +39 049 9330297 Ottevanger Milling Engineers +31 79 593 22 21

115 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

Petkus +49 36921 980

Yemmak +90 266 7338363

Kay Jay Rolls +91 9878 000 859

Sangati Berga +85 4008 5000

Yemtar Feed Mill Machines +90 266 733 8550

Leonhard Breitenbach +49 271 3758 0

Satake +81 82 420 8560

Palletisers A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651

Selis +90 222 236 12 33

Pelleting Technology Netherlands (PTN) +3 73 54 984 72

Rentokil Pest Control +44 0800 917 1987

Yemtar Feed Mill Machines +90 266 733 8550

Pingle +86 311 88268111

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200

Selis +90 222 236 12 33

Process control

Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 9901815

DSL Systems Ltd +44 115 9813700 Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66

Tanis +90342337222

Ottevanger Milling Engineers +31 79 593 22 21

FAWEMA +49 22 63 716 0

Unormak +90 332 2391016

Safe Milling +44 844 583 2134

Imeco +39 0372 496826

116 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

Petkus +49 36921 980


Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00

TMI +34 973 25 70 98

Pelleting Technology Netherlands (PTN) +3 73 54 984 72

Pest control


Peter Marsh Group +44 151 9221971

Ocrim +39 0372 4011

Yemmak +90 266 7338363

Nutriad +32 52 40 98 24

Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917

Kay Jay Rolls +91 9878 000 859

Yemtar Feed Mill Machines +90 266 733 8550

CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045

Next Instruments +612 9771 5444

Henry Simon +44 0161 804 2800

Viteral +90 332 239 01 41

Brabender +49 203 7788 0

NIR systems

IMAS - Milleral +90 332 2390141

Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 9901815

Moisture measurement

Biomin +43 2782 8030

Genç Degirmen +90 444 0894

Pellet Press

Zaccaria +55 19 3404 5700

Adisseo + 33 1 46 74 70 00

Christy Turner Ltd +44 1473 742325

TMI +34 973 25 70 98

Yemtar Feed Mill Machines +90 266 733 8550

Mycotoxin management

Alapala +90 212 465 60 40

Imeco +39 0372 496826

Tanis +90342337222

Hydronix +44 1483 468900

Roller mills

Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00

Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128

Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699

Tanis +90342337222

Yemmak +90 266 7338363

Rolls Entil +90 222 237 57 46 Fundiciones Balaguer, S.A. +34 965564075

Yemtar Feed Mill Machines +90 266 733 8550

Roll fluting Christy Turner Ltd +44 1473 742325 Fundiciones Balaguer, S.A. +34 965564075

Top Silo Constructions (TSC) +31 543 473 979

Kay Jay Rolls +91 9878 000 859

Reclaim System

Temperature monitoring Agromatic +41 55 2562100

Vibrafloor +33 3 85 44 06 78

CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045

Sifters Filip GmbH +49 5241 29330

Dol Sensors +45 721 755 55 Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66

Gazel +90 364 2549630

Supertech Agroline +45 6481 2000

Petkus +49 36921 980 Selis +90 222 236 12 33

Tanis +90342337222

Training Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11

Silos Behlen Grain Systems +1 900 553 5520

IAOM +1 913 338 3377

Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828

Kansas State University +1 785 532 6161

CSI +90 322 428 3350

nabim +44 2074 932521

MYSILO +90 382 266 2245 Obial +90 382 2662120 Petkus +49 36921 980 Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128 Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 9901815 Sukup +1 641 892 4222 Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 Tanis +90342337222

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Our directory, now in its 27th incarnation, has continued to provide those in the food and feed industries with the best source for contacts from around the globe. Every year, our directory only continues to expand, and new companies are joining all the time. The International Milling Directory reaches a massive group of industry experts and customers, as we regularly distribute copies worldwide at trade shows and various events.

Ocrim +39 0372 4011

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Member news

This month, we have had five new companies join our database: • ATO Brushless DC Motor- USA • Bluesmart Solar PV Co Ltd – China Leiber Animal Nutition have recently announced their new international partnerships with Azelis Spain, Barentz South Africa and Maeho Trading Alapala have agreed to build the Sangstha flour mill, a 300-tonne capacity mill in Bangladesh for Sena Kalyan Sangstha Satake have officially completed construction on the Chen Yi riceprocessing plant for Chen Yi Agventures Inc Adisseo have officially announced a partnership with Elles Bougent to encourage women to join the industry, break down stereotypes and support young women

The International Milling Directory is free to join. List your company, products and services today at:

Phileo +33 320 14 80 97 www.


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Advertised products in this issue

104 4B > 7 107

Company info


Advertised products in this issue



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66 PLP >






















124 BUHLER >



28 55
















101 CSI >


































65 FILIP > 13


118 GAZEL > 51


103 IMECO >

















17 OBIAL > 30 OCRIM >









myMAG is a short link system published in our print versions (and carried in our digital editions) that take you directly to the most relevant additional information about a company, a product or service, a video, or any other relevant content you might be interested in. On this page you will find direct links to more product information - as well as a company info link that will take to you the company information page on our website. Whether that content is a web page, a downloadable pdf, or a video - simply type the short link into your browser (or use the QR code on your smart phone) to be taken directly to the information you want to find! Often the information you need - such as the person to contact, a messaging service to reach them, telephone and other contact details along with a host of related product information - is already on our website so please to be sure to go there first.

Milling and Grain - September 2019 | 119

the interview

Dr Christoph Kobler, Vice President, Head of PL Sustainable Healthy Nutrition, Evonik Animal Nutrition

Christoph Kobler joined Evonik Industries AG (formerly Degussa AG) in 2005 after earning a Ph.D in organic chemistry at the University of Stuttgart, Germany. At Evonik, he started as Research Manager, and invented the second-generation methionine source AQUAVI® Met-Met before he moved to the marketing department in 2010. Since 2016, Christoph has headed the product line ‘Sustainable Healthy Nutrition’. This covers sustainable aquaculture solutions, precision livestock farming, gut health solutions, livestock performance enhancement and ruminant products. In 2018, he became an additional member of the Evonik Animal Nutrition Management Team. How many years have you been working at Evonik? 14 years. I’m an organic chemist by training and became a laboratory manager after postdoctoral research. After four-and-a-half years I moved to marketing and was then responsible for the global aquaculture market segment.

This was actually the beginning of my career in aquaculture and the first time I was involved in feed and the production of feed. After two years in our sales group responsible for global accounts, I became responsible for overall business within a product line.

In terms of your work in animal health and nutrition, what has been your proudest achievement? This is not really a personal achievement, but an important aspect of my work is the way we try to link products with services. Evonik not only brings new and innovative products to the market, but also connects them to services to offer a solution that creates real value for the customers.

In the past 10 years, we’ve developed a lot of useful services for our customers. Many of these are amino acid recommendation tools, which made a lot of sense because people weren’t aware of which amino acids in which amounts were really needed for ideal or optimised performance and how important precision is in mixing a homogenous final feed. Overall, we are following a holistic approach for sustainable protein solutions and consequently we will also connect modern nutrition feeding concepts and animal health promoting solutions over the upcoming years.

What would you say is more important for young people coming into the industry: academia or hands-on training? Basically, you need a broad scientific basis, and you get that from academia. Already in academia you learn to focus on a certain thesis, but you find the best solutions, if you are able to work in an interdisciplinary manner, which is key for your success in industry as well. At the beginning, I was not an animal nutritionist nor aquaculture expert, but I spent a lot of time studying on my own and trying to listen and learn from our experienced nutritionists, species experts and product managers. In the first few years, I visited farms and feed producers in Asia, Europe and Latin America and learned directly from the field. Looking back, it was essential to develop a deep understanding of the market, the value chain and of course customers’ needs from the beginning. Additionally, I think you need practical experience in the market to really understand customers and their operational challenges on site. On the other hand, it’s essential to have a good understanding of the theoretical framework and scientific background, especially when talking about nutrition and health. And that can be achieved best by having access to an academic network. To get credibility it’s important to be on eyelevel with all your stakeholders and have a solid understanding of the overall picture, so you should have the knowledge and understanding to talk with nutritionists, feed-mill managers, procurement people and farm owners. This ability is key when it comes to converting the needs of the market or customers into innovative products and service solutions. Ultimately there is one important key to success:

120 | September 2019 - Milling and Grain

communication and team building skills. You should be capable of building, motivating and communicating with your team – which is very diverse within Evonik, including nutritionists, chemists and chemical engineers – and bring all their knowledge and capabilities together.

How does Evonik address sustainability in its additives and solutions?

A sustainable food chain requires an economically efficient, ecologically benign and societally responsible solution. Our goal is to deliver the products and services that allow our partners to produce accessible and affordable meat, fish, shrimp, eggs and milk in line with the highest food safety and animal standards considering our planetary boundaries.+ Our holistic concept links modern nutritional feed concepts with innovative functional feed additives. There are numerous scientific evidences that improvement of gut health of an animal requires lowering of the crude protein content by supplementing limiting amino acids. Optimised diets are the prerequisite to add the right gut health product, such as scientifically proven probiotics to ensure that the animal is prepared for any gut health challenge. Probiotics are living bacteria showing multiple mode of action. They are capable of producing versatile secondary metabolites and enzymes. The consistent application requires an understanding of the mode of action of the secondary metabolites and how to influence the gut health of an animal species. Ultimately, it’s all about optimising feed formulation, and for that it’s important to understand the nutritional requirements of an animal so you can improve its growth and the feed conversion rate (FCR). FCR is a key topic in terms of sustainability and reducing nitrogen. But this is only the first step – the second is to make sure that your amino acids are well balanced and distributed within the feed. The handling, dosing and mixing processes are important. Otherwise you formulate the right diet, but the final feed is not produced accordingly. Batches should be regularly checked.

In your role you are responsible for ‘precision livestock farming.’ What is that?

Precision livestock farming is our holistic approach to livestock management, which we officially launched at this year’s VIV Asia in Bangkok, Thailand. It combines science-based knowhow with proven amino services, and innovative nutritional and health concepts, all embedded into specific digital solutions. This system house approach offers livestock producers the ability to monitor and optimise the status of their animals and take appropriate action, including early preventative measures. While 70 percent of the genetic growth potential in poultry can be reached by current practices, the elusive 30 percent can only be achieved with new technologies. With our solutions, customers get improved livestock performance, increased uniformity, higher efficiency and – to top it off – food chain transparency. Our approach is part of our ‘Sciencing the global food challenge’ mission. These five words sum up our commitment to contribute to the worldwide drive to feed 10 billion people sustainably by 2050 – by delivering affordable animal protein worldwide and supporting animal health.



he American Feed Industry Association (AFIA) honoured two individuals in the animal science field last week at the American Society of Animal Science (ASAS)–Canadian Society of Animal Science annual meeting in Austin, Texas.

The recipient of the Non-Ruminant Animal Nutrition Research Award was Dr Goodband, a swine nutritionist at KSU who has played an important role in developing an intensive on-farm research program, which has conducted numerous on-farm trials across the United States. Dr Swanson received the Ruminant Animal Nutrition Research Award. He is a professor in NDSU’s Department of Animal Sciences. His research has focused on nutritional influences on performance, nutrient balance, post-ruminal starch digestion, pancreatic function, and energy and nitrogen metabolism in beef cattle.

Nathalie Dubé appointed Chairperson for IGC 2019/20


ollowing on from Canada’s Chairmanship of the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS), the International Grains Council has appointed Ms Nathalie Dubé, Minister-Counsellor, High Commission of Canada as its Chair for 2019/20.

On her appointment, Ms Dubé said, “I would like to thank the Council for supporting my candidacy as Chair of the IGC for 2019/20. In the current global trade climate, Canada strongly supports the IGC’s work, particularly as it relates to furthering work on pulse market information. I look forward to promoting the organisation’s role to foster cooperation in international trade to secure the freest possible trade in grains and oilseeds”.

Rainer Schulz elected unanimously to Bühler Board of Directors


t Bühler’s extraordinary general shareholders’ meeting, Rainer Schulz was elected to Bühler Group’s Board of Directors in a unanimous decision. He will assume his position with immediate effect.

With his appointment, the Board of Directors has won an experienced business expert with an impressive industrial track record who will ensure continuity in the further development of Bühler.

Rainer Schulz is a Swiss national, married, and lives with his family in the region of Emmental in Switzerland. After obtaining a degree in production technology, for which he was awarded the promotion prize of the Association of German Engineers VDI, Rainer Schulz first held various materials management and production supply chain positions in the electronics and mechanical engineering industries.

AFIA honours animal scientists with nutrition research awards


obert Goodband, PhD, of Kansas State University (KSU), received the AFIA-ASAS Non-Ruminant Animal Nutrition Research Award, and Kendall Swanson, PhD, of North Dakota State University (NDSU), received the AFIA-ASAS Ruminant Animal Nutrition Research Award.

“These gentlemen have invested years and years of time and research into the livestock industry, and the industry is better for it,” said Paul Davis, PhD, AFIA’s Director Of Quality, Animal Food Safety and Education. “AFIA is honoured to present them with these awards.”

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