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THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO BUILDING MUSCLE, LOSING FAT FAT, T, AND ENHANCING PERFORMANCE EA AN ND STAYING HEALTHY

YOUR ULTIMATE PRESCRIPTION FOR THE PERFECT BODY

HELL WEEK

TRAIN INSANE!

ARE YOU TOUGH ENOUGH?

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VOLUME 12, NUMBER 4

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FitRxInsideEDGE ● BY

STEVE BLECHMAN, EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

FITNESSRx

YOUR ULTIMATE PRESCRIPTION FOR THE PERFECT BODY

Publishers Steve & Elyse Blechman

TRAIN INSANE! Blast Fat, Boost Performance and Get Ripped!

The summer may be coming to an end, but that doesn’t mean you should slow down on your training. To keep your workouts going strong throughout the fall, we’ve packed this issue with some of the most hardcore, performance-enhancing and fat-blasting workouts yet! So don’t take a break from your training when the summer closes— blast fat and get ripped with FitnessRx! In “Hell Week With Mr. Intensity Joe Donnelly: 7 Maximum Performance, Fat-Incinerating Killer Workouts!” with our cover model Joe Donnelly on page 48, get ready for the ultimate hardcore program. These workouts are not for the faint of heart. It’s all about stepping outside your comfort zone, because that’s what will lead to results. Oftentimes, training for mental strength is just as important as physical strength in order to make gains in the gym. With Joe’s “Hell Week” program, you’ll be stronger, faster and increase your endurance like never before. Get ready to train hard! We have been told for decades to avoid saturated fat found in meat, dairy and processed foods. And although the consumption of saturated fats did decline in the U.S., the rates of diabetes and heart disease continued to climb. And now, a recent study in the Annals of Internal Medicine concluded that saturated fat may not directly cause heart disease. In “The Big Fat Lie?” on page 58, Dr. Victor Prisk takes a look at all the science in order to reveal the truth behind saturated fat and its role in cardiovascular health. A huge pair of guns tells the world you mean business and are often the first thing that people notice about a well-developed physique. In “The 12 Best Lifts for Bigger, Stronger Arms” on page 62, we looked at the latest science on building muscle in order to come up with the best lifts. It’s all about electromyography, a tool used by scientists to measure the electrical activity of muscles that reveals how those muscles work during specific exercises. Using this knowledge, we created a workout with the best lifts to get bigger and stronger arms in the least amount of time. Men’s Physique champion Sadik Hadzovic trains hardcore, and his impressive contest placement history is a testament to that hard work. In “Get Ripped To Shreds: The Ultimate V-Taper Workout With IFBB Men’s Physique Pro Sadik Hadzovic” on page 70, see how Sadik trains hard to get in ripped shape. It’s all about going “heavy and hard” when it comes to working abs, said Sadik, and not just relying on bodyweight movements. “To create dense abs, you need to use heavy weight,” Sadik says. “And as far as people saying that using heavy weight will make them appear blockier, I really don’t believe that the abs respond that much.” This month we are proud to introduce a brand-new CrossFit column by journalist and author J.C. Herz on page 84. J.C.’s most recently published book, Learning to Breathe Fire: The Rise of CrossFit and the Primal Future of Fitness, explores the science of why CrossFit works by going behind the scenes with CrossFit’s founders, stars and everyday enthusiasts. J.C.’s column will provide a unique look at CrossFit, offering advice on how to make the most out of this training. The rest of the issue is packed with the latest cutting-edge scientifically backed research on training, nutrition and fat loss to help you get in your best shape. And for more, don’t forget to check out our website, www.fitnessrxformen.com.

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Editor-In-Chief Steve Blechman Online Editor-in-Chief Joe Pietaro Creative Director Alan Dittrich, Jr. Digital Creative Director/ Design Consultant Chris Hobrecker Managing Editor Lisa Steuer Associate Editor Alan Golnick Associate Art Director Stephen Kolbasuk Contributing Editors Dan Gwartney, MD Thomas Fahey, EdD Victor Prisk, MD Stephen E. Alway, Ph.D., F.A.C.S.M Contributing Illustrator William P. Hamilton, CMI Chief Photographer Gregory James Media Producer Jessica Colley Advertising Director Angela Theresa Frizalone (239) 495-6899 Director of New Business Development Todd Hughes 416-346-3456 Administrative Assistant Fernanda Machado Circulation Consultants Irwin Billman and Ralph Pericelli

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www.fitnessrxformen.com FITNESS RX for Men (ISSN 1543-8406) is published six times a year by Advanced Research Media, 21 Bennetts Road, Suite 101, Setauket, New York, 11733. Copyright ©2008 by Advanced Research Media. All rights reserved. Copyright under the Universal Copyright Convention and the International Copyright Convention. Copyright reserved under the Pan Am Copyright. Rate: $20.95 per year (USA); $38.95 per two years (USA); foreign: $28.99 per year. Nothing appearing in FITNESS RX may be reprinted, either wholly or in part, without the written consent of the publisher. Send editorial submissions to: FITNESS RX, 21 Bennetts Road, Suite 101, Setauket, New York, 11733. Stamped, self-addressed envelope must accompany all submissions, and no responsibility can be assumed for unsolicited submissions. All letters, photos, manuscripts, etc. sent to FITNESS RX will be considered as intended for publication, and FITNESS RX reserves the right to edit and/or comment. Periodical postage paid at Setauket P.O., Setauket, NY 11733 and at Glasgow, KY 42141. Postmaster: Send address changes to FITNESS RX 21 Bennetts Rd., Suite 101 Setauket, NY 11733. Advertising Office Phone: (800) 653-1151. PRINTED IN USA

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FOR MEN

THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO BUILDING MUSCLE, LOSING FAT, ENHANCING PERFORMANCE AND STAYING HEALTHY TM

YOUR ULTIMATE ATE PRESC PRESCRIPTION CRIPTION FFOR OR T THE HE P PERFECT ERFECT B BODY ODY VOL. 12 | NUMBER 5 | SEPT. 2014

FEATURES ES

58 THE BIG FAT LIE? New study finds that saturated fat is not linked to heart disease, but is it just shaky haky science? By By Victor R. Prisk, M.D.

62 12 BEST LIFTS! TS! High-Intensity Workout! Build ld Stronger, More Powerful Legs with Steve teve Cook By Team FitRx

70 GET RIPPED TO SHREDS The Ultimate V-Taper Workout With IFBB Men’s Physique Pro Sadik Hadzovic adzovic By Joe Pietaro

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48 “H “HE “HELL ELL WEEK” WITH MR. IN MR. INT INTENSITY TENSITY JOE DONNELLY 7 Maximum M Performance, Fat-Incinerating Killer Workouts! By Joe Donnelly

www.fitnessrxformen.com


48

HELL WEEK! 7 MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE FAT-INCINERATING WORKOUTS!

62

70

GET RIPPED TO SHREDS! THE ULTIMATE V-TAPER WORKOUT

12 BEST LIFTS FOR BIGGER, STRONGER ARMS

COOL DOWN

IN THIS ISSUE 8

PUBLISHER’S LETTER By Steve Blechman

14 MAIL ROOM Keep Those Letters Coming

16 STREET PHYSIQUE By Joe Pietaro

17 ONLINE NOW! At Fitnessrxformen.com

20 XTREME RADIO By Gregg Valentino and Joe Pietaro

22 TRAINING: CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH

84 CROSSFIT

WARM UP

REVOLUTION

CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, Ed.D.

22 26 30 34 36 40 www.fitnessrxformen.com

TRAINING FAT LOSS SUPPLEMENTS NUTRITION HEALTH SEX

44 SUPPLEMENT EDGE AML Preworkout, The Ultimate Performance Enhancer By Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D.

82 CARDIO BURN Training with Olympic Medalist Ryan Bailey By Lisa Steuer

84 CROSSFIT REVOLUTION NEW! By J.C. Herz 86 FAT ATTACK Evolved Muscle Growth with Intermittent Fasting By Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D.

88 HARD ‘CORE’ TRAINING Complete Core Training: The Core 4! By Nick Tumminello

92 MUSCLE FORM+FUNCTION

96 SHARPER THAN EVER By Shannon Sharpe

98 GET FIT WITH PLITT By Greg Plitt 102 ULTIMATE IN NUTRITION Do You Need Post-Workout Carbs to Maximize Muscle Growth? By Victor R. Prisk, M.D.

104 MEN’S HEALTH Rocky Mountain High: Lose Fat at Altitude By Daniel Gwartney, M.D.

110 TRAIN WITH THE PRES By Cory Gregory

ON THE COVER: JOE DONNELLY BY GREGORY JAMES

Ascending Mount Biceps with Incline Cable Curls By Stephen E. Alway, Ph.D., F.A.C.S.M. Illustrations by William P. Hamilton, CMI

94 OBSTACLE RACING Q+A By Joe De Sena

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FitRxMAILRoom Send us your comments! editor@fitnessrxmag.com or Advanced Research Media 21 Bennetts Road, Suite 101 East Setauket, NY 11733

SEPTEMBER 2014

CARDIO OR STRENGTH TRAINING FIRST?

STEEL WHEELS Thank you for that intense leg-training workout in the newest issue [“Steel Wheels High-Intensity Workout! Build Stronger, More Powerful Legs with Steve Cook,” July 2014]. It seems like most guys tend to focus on getting ripped arms, but it’s definitely true that strong legs are the foundation of that muscular physique. What’s great about the Steel Wheels workout is that it really utilizes the science behind muscle building for the ultimate, hardcore workout. Thank you for the great workout and tips. ANDREW SENESE EMAIL

Thanks for helping me to understand how to determine whether to do cardio or weightlifting first in my training [“Cardio or Strength Training: Which Should I do First?” Cardio Burn, July 2014]. In all honesty, I never knew that it made much of a difference, and maybe that’s why I haven’t been seeing the gains that I thought I should be seeing. I now see that it relates to your individual training goal. I’m going to use this information in order to make my workouts better and more efficient. Thank you, as always, for the great advice. JOE ROBY EMAIL

POLARIZED TRAINING I never knew about polarized training until I picked up the July issue of FitnessRx for Men [“Polarized Training for Fat Loss Without Breakdown,” Fat Attack, July 2014]. I’m the kind of guy who actually enjoys doing cardio— I just notice that I feel a lot better when I make it an important part of my training. However, my concern, of course, is always that my cardio training will affect my muscle gains. It’s good to know that I can still do cardio without worrying about muscle loss. JIM KINGSTON EMAIL

SUMMER BURN Joe Donnelly is truly “Mr. Intensity.” I like his no-nonsense approach to fitness so I was eager to try his workout in the July issue [“Summer Burn: FatIncinerating Workout and Diet with Mr. Intensity Joe Donnelly,” July 2014.] This is a guy who doesn’t hold back in his training, and I regularly follow his fitness advice online, so it’s always cool to see the type of training he does. Even if I can’t do everything in that workout (car push!) it’s still something to look up to and be inspired by. Thanks, Joe! Looking forward to even more intense, extreme workouts that really challenge and push the limits— like this one. ROBERT BROOKES EMAIL

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OBSTACLE RACING Q&A I’ve been a big fan of FitnessRx for years, and I was happy to see the new Obstacle Racing Q+A in the July issue. I’ve done a few obstacle races, including Spartan, and I admire Joe De Sena a lot. I’m really interested to see the kind of advice that he’ll give in each issue, as I’m always looking to improve in my obstacle racing as well as my regular training. Even though I know what to expect from these races, I found Joe’s recommended training program for beginners to obstacle races to be extremely helpful. One day, maybe I’ll even build up enough courage to do the Spartan Death Race… JULIAN LEMKE EMAIL

www.fitnessrxformen.com


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FitRx

STREET PHYSIQUE ● BY

GREGG VALENTINO AND JOE PIETARO

This is what it’s all about— putting a face to the name and rewarding our loyal fan base. You guys— and girls— have been great with this column and the response has been terrific. If you didn’t make it this time, we will be posting the question for the November issue in the same forum thread.

THIS ISSUE’S QUESTION: ONCE THE SUMMER ENDS AND THE TEMPERATURE DROPS, WHAT IS YOUR INCENTIVE TO STAY FIT? TOM BELL – 26, GOLDSBORO, NC “Just because summer has ended and I’m not walking around shirtless on the beach doesn’t mean that I’m not going to stay lean, as being shredded is not a ‘season,’ but rather a lifestyle.”

DAVE GILKS – 49, NANAIMO, BRITISH COLUMBIA

MELANIE HUBERT – 27, TORONTO, ON

“As I head towards my 50th year on the planet, I find it more important to stay strong, lean and healthy all year long.”

“Having already lost 30 pounds and two pants sizes, I have no intention of letting fitness fall by the wayside, especially being an actress. (You don’t want a couple of pounds keeping you from getting that dream role!)”

RICHARD KING – 38, WILDOMAR, CA “The NPC competition season is a full calendar year, so you must be ready to hit the stage every month. (Eat and train; never diet and exercise.)”

REGIE SIMMONS – 37, PLAINVILLE, CT “My incentive to stay fit isn’t dependent upon outside variables like weather and the temperature, but rather by an internal desire to mold and shape my physique through diet and exercise.”

JARED GROFF – 28, DALLAS, TX ADAM MILOSER – 21 21, PITTSBURGH, PA “I push myself to live a fit lifestyle 365 days a year and when I see changes in my physique, I know that all of my hard work (training and nutritionwise) is paying off.”

LAURENCE CODD – 48, CALGARY, ALBERTA “I train year round and while summer isn’t my focus, it is a great time to show off my hard work while enjoying the outdoors.”

CHRISTOPHER “STACKS” STACY – 28, SHAFTSBURY, VT

“I always like to be only a few days away from photo shootready, as you never know when you might get that call and I like to practice what I preach to my clients as a trainer.”

“I currently reside in Deerfield Beach, Florida, so I don’t have to fret about the temperature dropping too much but I aim to stay fit year round, anyway, because I have learned it helps keep my asthma under control.”

ROBERT MILLER – 28, WEST ISLIP, NY “My incentive to stay fit once summer is over is because there’s always going to be a ‘next’ summer and this isn’t just a threemonth program; this is a lifestyle.” TWITTER: @FitnessRXforMen

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FACEBOOK: FitnessRXforMen

www.fitnessrxformen.com


FITNESSRx

OnlineNOW

MEEN FORR MEN

TM

YOUR ULTIMATE PRESCRIPTION FOR THE PERFECT BODY

● BY

formen.com

JOE PIETARO, ONLINE EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Being a journalist, I never take writing an article for granted.

Each one is my chance to paint a picture for the reader, and creating material for the online side of FitnessRx for Men gives me an endless easel that goes on forever. Concerns in the print industry— such as page counts and having to wait for the following issue— are not present with our website and that is an advantage that we always look to make the most of.

MPD COMPETITOR OF THE ISSUE We knew that greatness was ahead for Jason Poston when we did an online feature on the IFBB MPD pro back in March of 2013. The Texan has dealt with a myriad of illnesses— most notably type 1 diabetes. But that hasn’t held him back and the Fitness Management Group athlete has already won three shows this year (Europa Show of Champions, Europa Super Show, New York Pro) and finished as the runner-up at the Pittsburgh Pro.

Photos: Dan Ray (Poston), Dave Laus (Azzopardi), Gregory James (Maslow)

BONUS EXCLUSIVE ONLINE CONTENT When we conduct the interviews with our cover subjects, there’s always extra quotes and information that we hang on to and save for a rainy day, if you know what we mean. So besides the feature in the print magazine with that celebrity or pro athlete, you also will receive extra bonus content that’s exclusive to our website.

MS. FRX4MEN –SEPTEMBER

Our fans had the pleasure of seeing the curvaceous Bunny Azzopardi in another steamy video by Pouyan Fard and accompanying sizzling photos by Dave Laus. With that in mind, we figured we wouldn’t beat around the bush and instead ask the lovely lady a direct question: A guy can instantly get in the mood for sex at any time under any circumstances. But the vast majority of women need things to be perfectly lined up to get there. Are there th any shortcuts? a “Sometimes you don’t ask; you just throw down! Nothing like a little surprise for a change of pace. (Of course, that would only be good if you’re already in a relationship with her.)”

FORUM-BASED CONTESTS We love running contests for our readers to win free swag and the perfect place to do so is through our forum. We have given away some really cool products like a fitness package worth $500, NoiseHush Bluetooth headphones and a bunch of copies of our July issue with James Maslow a week before the on-sale date. This is also where to submit your photos for “Street Physique.”

GOING VIRAL James Maslow’s huge following was exposed to us firsthand when word of his cover shoot hit the Internet. As the weeks followed, our Twitter and Facebook pages were literally overflowing with @ and # mentions into a crescendo when the issue finally hit the newsstands. All of the media outlets such as People, Huffington Post, Perez Hilton and more joined in, and it was Maslow Mania!

Be sure to visit www.fitnessrxformen.com every day and also our four social media sites: TWITTER: @FitnessRXforMen

www.fitnessrxformen.com

FACEBOOK: FitnessRXforMen

INSTAGRAM: @FitnessRXForMen

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Photos: Illumination PR (Raiola), Katrina Benzova/Art by Savanas Art (Thal), Courtesy of Susan Sykes, Ricer Enterprises, LLC (Banks), Gregory James (Maslow/Murgatroyd), Courtesy of Eddie Money, Courtesy of Pulse PR (Florentine), Courtesy of Johnny Potenza

People frequently ask us about our show and what it’s all about. That’s kind of a loaded question because there is no easy answer to it. You see, Xtreme Radio Presented By FitnessRx For Men Magazine may be a more straightforward interview in one segment (such as we had with the UFC’s Dan Hardy) and then in the blink of an eye, take a complete left turn into a dark, dead end alley the next (like our chat with female bodybuilder Angela Salvagno). You never know what you’re going to get with Gregg and Joe, and that’s part of the attraction here. “Expect the unexpected” is appropriate advice to the listeners every Monday night from 8 to 9 p.m. EST on the Voice America Network’s Variety channel. And if you can’t listen live, it’s also available via a free download on iTunes, Spreaker, Stitcher and every other podcast destination. Let yourself be entertained, offended— or both. Here’s what our guests have been saying on our show:

Big Ang Raiola from VH1's "Mob Wives" spoke about her interaction with the other adults when she goes to pick up her 5-year-old grandson at school: “They all say to me that I look so beautiful in person so I must look ugly on the show.” (5/12/14 episode)

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Ron “Bumblefoot” Thal, co-lead guitarist for Guns n’ Roses, on the potential pitfalls of being a rock star: “Once anything good happens to you in life, you can stop trusting the rest of humanity. Because they’re just going to fuck you sideways with sandpaper.” (5/19/14 episode) Las Vegas/TV performer Susan Sykes, aka Busty Heart, recalling a past incident that made the newspapers when reminded by a caller to the show: “I was working at this club in Hartford, Connecticut, came out on the stage and took my top off (exposing her 46H-sized breasts). This guy was sitting right (there), he fell over and died of a massive heart attack.” (5/19/14 episode)

When asked about his partner Peta Murgatroyd on Season 18 of “Dancing With the Stars,” singer/actor James Maslow replied: “Hey, I’m not complaining. It’s a pretty good gig to have an awesome, sexy Australian teaching you how to dance.” (4/21/14 episode)

Singer Eddie Money when asked about when he started out in the music business: “I was the first rock artist to get a record deal (1977) off a VHS tape. We did ‘Two Tickets (To Paradise)’ and ‘Baby Hold On’… and that was like three rehabs ago. C’mon, guys.” (4/28/14 episode)

Baseball Hall-of-Famer Ernie Banks is known as “Mr. Cub,” but revealed to us just how close he was to becoming a member of the Brooklyn Dodgers. “During a barnstorming tour, I had the opportunity to play against (a team that included) Jackie Robinson, Roy Campanella and Larry Doby. After the game, Jackie came up to me and said, ‘You’re going to play in the major leagues and I’m going to recommend you to the Dodgers.’ But then I went into the Army and later played with the Kansas City Monarchs of the Negro Leagues.” (5/5/14 episode)

S E P T E MB E R

2014

On how the NFL’s attempts to appeal to the mainstream are becoming its downfall, comedian Jim Florentine said, “When you put Britney Spears, Madonna, Beyonce and whoever’s playing (at halftime in Super Bowl XLVIII) … Bruno Sammartino— I don’t even know the fuckin’ guy’s name— that’s when everyone’s going to be talking about the bullying shit.” (12/9/13 episode) Gregg and Joe recently had the pleasure of being guests on the “Late Night With Johnny P” television talk show and were interviewed by host Johnny Potenza and special guest co-host Artie Pasquale from “The Sopranos.” Visit www. JohnnyPTV.com for details.

www.fitnessrxformen.com


WARM UP FitRx

● THE LATEST NEWS AND RESEARCH FROM THE WORLD OF FITNESS

IN THIS SECTION

22-24

TRAINING

>HEAVY LIFTING DECREASES BLOOD PRESSURE AFTER EXERCISE; THE ROLE OF KETTLEBELLS IN STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING<

26-28 FAT LOSS

>HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING DOES NOT AFFECT APPETITE; OBESITY LINKED TO LIVER DISEASE<

30-33

SUPPLEMENTS

>ANTIOXIDANTS MIGHT PREVENT MELANOMA; WHEY PROTEIN BUILDS MUSCLE— WITH OR WITHOUT WEIGHT TRAINING<

34-35

NUTRITION

>DIETARY PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS INCREASE DURING WEIGHT LOSS; VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IMPAIRS MUSCLE PERFORMANCE<

36-38 HEALTH

HEAVY LIFTING

>SLEEP APNEA LINKED TO CARDIAC SUDDEN DEATH; LIFELONG EXERCISE PREVENTS MUSCLE WASTING IN OLD AGE<

40-42

DECREASES D ECREASES B BLOOD L PRESSURE AFTER EXERCISE SEE PAGE 24

www.fitnessrxformen.com

SEX

>CHOLESTEROL-LOWERING DRUG IMPROVES ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION; SEX SCIENTISTS PRESENT NEW STUDIES<

S E P T E M B E R 2014

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FitRxWarmUP

TRAINING

CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH ● BY

STEVE BLECHMAN AND THOMAS FAHEY, EdD

GLUTE-HAM RAISE AND ROMANIAN DEADLIFTS

BEST HAMSTRING EXERCISES

The hamstrings are made up of three muscles on the back of the thigh that flex the knee and extend the hip. Injuries to these muscles are extremely common and can end sports careers. The leg curl, involving knee flexion, is the most common and popular hamstring exercise. However, hamstrings are more heavily used as hip extensors in sport. Also, hamstring injuries commonly occur during hip extension. A study from the University of Memphis, led by Brian Schilling and

Matt McAllister, showed that the glute-ham raise and Romanian deadlift were the best exercises for activating the hamstring muscles. These exercises are relatively uncommon, but essential for building hamstring strength and power and preventing injury. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 28: 1573-1580, 2014)

LOWER BODY AEROBICS DO NOT AFFECT UPPER BODY TRAINING PERFORMANCE Most people interested in recreational fitness combine aerobics with weight training. Aerobics are important for fat burning and metabolic health. Aerobics and weights interfere with each other because they activate competing metabolic pathways in muscle. Also, each form of exercise fatigues muscle, which makes subsequent exercises more difficult. Jeremy Tan, Jared Coburn and co-workers from California State University, Fullerton found that lower body aerobics interfered with back

squat performance but did not hamper subsequent performance on the bench press. This is important information for exercise program design. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 28: 1236-1240, 2014)

NORDIC HAMSTRING EXERCISE: THE POOR MAN'S GLUTE-HAM MACHINE The hamstring muscles are critical for powerful hip extension used during sprinting, jumping, squatting and Olympic lifts. Hamstring injuries are common in sports and are extremely difficult to rehabilitate. This month, we reported a study showing that the glute-ham raise is the most effective hamstring exercise. Unfortunately, most gyms don’t have a glute-ham machine and few people know about the exercise. The Nordic hamstring exercise is a cheap but effective alternative. This exercise is simple but intimidating: kneel on the ground with your body in an upright position. Have a spotter hold your ankles. Slowly lower your erect torso toward the ground, and break your fall with your hands. Pull your torso back to the starting position using your hamstring muscles. (The New York Times, June 8, 2014)

CAFFEINE ENHANCES

Neural Activation of Muscles Caffeine increases performance in high-power movements. Martin Behrens and colleagues from the University of Rostock in Germany showed how it works. They studied the effects of caffeine (seven milligrams of caffeine per kilogram of bodyweight) on muscle activation rates and strength of the calf muscles. They determined the muscle responses by electromyography, which measures the changes in electrical activation rates during exercise. Caffeine

enhances the activation rates of muscles at the onset of contraction but did not alter the absolute activation of the muscles or maximum strength. This is important because activation rates are often more critical in sports than the total force. A football lineman, for example, has an advantage if he can explode off the line faster than his opponents. Caffeine enhances explosive strength but does not increase absolute strength. (Scandinavian Journal Medicine Science in Sports, published online May 6, 2014)

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FitRxWarmUP

TRAINING

CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH

THE ROLE OF Kettlebells IN STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING A kettlebell is a large iron ball connected to a handle. On the surface, kettlebells don’t look much different than standard dumbbells. They have a handle connected to a weight just like dumbbells and they come in a variety of sizes, but that’s where the similarity ends. The kettlebell weight is located at the end of the handle instead of on either side of it. Also, the design of the kettlebell allows you to do high-speed ballistic exercises with a pendulum-like action. Many kettlebell exercises, such as

swings, snatches and cleans, require high-speed eccentric muscle contractions, which produce surprisingly high muscle forces. Chris Beardsley and Bret

HIGH-VOLUME TRAINING TO FATIGUE

Contreras, in a review of literature, concluded that we need more information to assess the usefulness of kettlebell training in athletics. Kettlebells improve sprint speed and prevent injury, but we don’t fully understand the set and rep structure of kettlebell training. (Strength and Conditioning Journal, 36 (3): 64-70, 2014)

DOES NOT INCREASE MUSCLE ACTIVATION Many popular boot camp and cross-training methods employ high repetitions to exhaustion. One theory is that with fatigue, the nervous system will activate additional motor units and muscle fibers to allow continued exercise. Researchers from the University of Western Sydney in Australia, led by Paul Marshall and Harrison Finn, found that test subjects performing eight sets of Bulgarian split

squats showed no increase in muscle activation after achieving a fatigue plateau. Athletes must weigh the benefits of exhaustive training with no additional muscle activation with the risk of injury imposed by deteriorating technique, triggered by fatigue. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 28: 1226-1234, 2014)

LOW-OXYGEN WEIGHT TRAINING INCREASES MUSCLE ENDURANCE Weight training in a chamber with reduced oxygen at a simulated altitude of 10,000 feet increased muscle blood supply and vascular endothelial growth factor (stimulates blood vessel growth) more than weight training at sea level— according to a study from the Japan Institute of Sports Sciences in Tokyo. Test subjects weight-trained for eight weeks either at sea level or in a chamber with 14.4 percent oxygen (the percentage of oxygen at sea level is 20.93). Gains in strength and muscle mass were equal between the groups, but the high-altitude group made greater gains in muscle endurance and muscle blood flow. Strength training in a low-oxygen chamber might have significant health benefits, particularly in older adults. (Physiological Reports, 2(6), 2014, e12033)

HEAVY LIFTING DECREASES BLOOD PRESSURE AFTER EXERCISE

Performing heavy bench presses, squats and deadlifts at 80 percent of maximum effort triggered a marked increase in heart rate and a reduction in blood pressure (hypotension) after exercise— according to a study led by Michael Duncan from Coventry University in the U.K. Training at 40 percent of maximum effort

had no effect on blood pressure or heart rate at 40 to 60 minutes of recovery. The researchers suggested that this post-exercise hypotension might provide health benefits. This is unlikely. Heavy lifting causes long-term increases in arterial stiffness, which could result in increased stress on the heart. However, we don’t know very much about the long-term risks or benefits of intense weightlifting. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 29: 1706-1713, 2014)

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FAT LOSS

CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH ● BY

STEVE BLECHMAN AND THOMAS FAHEY, EdD

World Obesity Rate at All-Time High

An international study funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation determined that worldwide obesity rates increased by 33 percent between 1980 and 2013. Thirty-seven percent of

men and 38 percent of women have body mass indexes (BMI) above 25. BMI is an index of the proportion of weight to height and is the most common technique for assessing obesity rates in large populations. The increase has been particularly alarming in children and adolescents in developing countries. No country has decreased its obesity rate in the last 30 years. Obesity is linked to an increased risk of heart attack, stroke and cancer, and is an international epidemic. (The Lancet, published online May 29, 2014)

HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING Does Not Affect Appetite High-intensity interval training (HIIT) involves repetitions of high-intensity exercise H inter interrupted by rest. HIIT is a demanding training method, but it triggers rapid incre increases in aerobic capacity, endurance, muscle and liver glycogen (carbohydrate stora storage), and mitochondria (powerhouses of the cell). People experience significant training gains by performing HIIT less than 20 minutes per week. Most train recre recreationally active people exercise in part to control body fat. A study by resea researchers from Saudi Arabia and Australia found that HIIT had no effect on appe appetite. They measured hunger and food preferences immediately following either a high- or moderate-intensity workout. We need studies on the effects of HIIT on longterm appetite control. (Asia Pacific Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 23: 232-238, 2014)

CAPSAICIN Makes You Feel Full

Capsaicin is a chemical found in red chili pepper used to make paprika, which is a spice used in chili and Mexican food. It reduces appetite and calorie intake and helps promote weight loss by releasing serotonin, a hunger-suppressing hormone, in the gut. A study from Maastricht University in the Netherlands

OBESITY Linked to Liver Disease

found that supplementing capsaicin increased satiety and fullness and prevented overeating in people in energy balance (balance between calories in and calories out). Capsaicin also decreased the desire to eat after dinner during caloric restriction. While we have little information about the longterm effects of capsaicin, it appears to decrease appetite, reduce caloric intake and increase metabolic rate. (Appetite, 77: 46-51, 2014)

The high prevalence of obesity in America has led to an epidemic of fatty liver disease, which affects 10 percent of children and 20 percent of adults. This can eventually lead to liver failure that requires a liver transplant. Obesity-linked liver disease is almost identical to liver damage seen in alcoholics. Liver damage is a direct

result of poor diet, excess weight and lack of physical activity. This is a serious problem that can lead to poor health and premature death. (New York Times, June 14, 2014)

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FAT LOSS

CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH

THE FUTURE OF ANTI-OBESITY DRUGS

Ninety-five percent of people who lose weight will gain it back again within 12 months. Consistent weight loss only requires a caloric deficit of 300 calories per day. That requires a small increase in exercise and a small decrease in caloric intake. That doesn’t seem like much, but people can’t sustain it. Anti-obesity drugs combined with lifestyle changes might be

the answer to combating the obesity epidemic. However, the medical landscape is riddled with failed drugs. For example, dinitrophenol, which increases metabolic rate, was banned in 1938 because it caused nerve damage and death. Amphetamines, which suppress appetite and increase metabolic rate, were banned in 1971 because they are addictive and cause heart damage. More recently, sibutramine, which increases metabolic rate, was banned because it increased the risk of heart attack and cardiac arrest. New drugs, such as lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate, work on bodyweight control centers in the brain. Combining these drugs with lifestyle modification might help people lose weight. (Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease, 5:135-148, 2014)

ALTITUDE

Promotes Weight Loss Living at altitude prevents obesity— according to a study led by Jameson Voss of the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. Obesity was 41 percent less likely in

people stationed at high altitudes above 6,400 feet compared to people stationed below 3,200 feet. Obesity rates decreased with increasing altitudes, which means that altitudes of 9,000 feet (Aspen, Colorado) would be more effective for preventing obesity than 6,400 feet (Squaw Valley, California). Studies conducted at a laboratory on Pikes Peak, Colorado (14,110 feet) by George Brooks from the University of California, Berkeley showed that altitude decreases appetite and slows nutrient absorption in the gut. (PLOS ONE, 9(4): e93493, 2014)

HIIT Reduces Food Intake

Exercise usually increases appetite and food intake. That’s not true of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). A study on obese men from the University of Western Australia showed that HIIT reduced post-exercise food intake for 38 hours compared to a moderate-intensity (60 percent of maximum effort) workout. Following HIIT, test subjects had lower levels of ghrelin, a gut hormone that increases appetite. The men tolerated HIIT well. This type of training might be appropriate for people with limited time for exercise or those who want the workouts to end sooner. However, HIIT is not for everyone because it is extremely strenuous. (International Journal Obesity, published online July 9, 2013)

HARNESSING BROWN FAT

The human body contains small amounts of a calorie-burning tissue called brown fat (brown adipose tissue, BAT) that converts food energy directly into heat. White fat does the opposite— it stores energy. BAT is an important heat-generating tissue in hibernating animals. BAT promotes non-shivering thermogenesis, which generates heat and helps animals and humans adapt to the cold. Individual differences in BAT content and activity play important roles in human obesity. BAT is turned on by the sympathetic nervous system, which is the body’s fight-or-flight system for coping with stress and emergencies. Increasing brown fat activation helps people expend more calories and burn more fat. Scientists have discovered a new variety of brown fat called beige brown adipose. Cold exposure and spices such as ginger and capsaicin can increase the conversion of white fat to beige fat. (Nature, 510: 76-83, 2014)

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SUPPLEMENTS ● BY

GREEN TEA EXTRACT

STEVE BLECHMAN AND THOMAS FAHEY, EdD

CREATINE PLUS RESISTANCE TRAINING PREVENTS MUSCLE LOSS WITH AGE

Triggers Hepatitis Green tea extract is an extremely popular supplement for athletes and people trying to lose weight. This supplement is linked to liver toxicity. The American College of Gastroenterology’s clinical guidelines for diagnosing and treating drug-inducing liver injury, published in 2014, lists green tea extract as one of the most common dietary supplements linked to liver injury. Unfortunately, a new study from University Hospital in Münster, Germany reported the case of a 63-year-old woman who developed hepatitis (inflammation of the liver) from consuming green tea extract. Because of genetic differences, people react differently to drugs, supplements, exercise programs and weight-loss diets. A supplement that is healthy for most people might have severe side effects in others. Scientists have been slow to study individual differences in reactions to supplements. (Journal of Ethnopharmacology, published online May 15, 2014)

CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH

People lose 20 percent of their muscle mass between ages 40 and 60— a process called sarcopenia. Muscle loss decreases quality of life, decreases bone mass and increases the risk of deadly falls. Muscle loss also harms metabolic health by impairing blood sugar regulation. Creatine monohydrate supplements, particularly when accompanied by resistance training, prevents age-related muscle mass loss and boosts strength. A review of literature and a meta-analysis by Michaela Devries

and Stuart Phillips from McMaster University in Canada concluded that creatine monohydrate supplements increase strength and muscle mass in older adults, which has significant implications for preventing the physiological effects of aging. Creatine supplements promote metabolic health and slow the aging process. (Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 46:1194-1203, 2014)

BETA-ALANINE SUPPLEMENTS IMPROVE ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE

Alanine is an amino acid that provides energy during exercise and prevents neuromuscular fatigue by increasing tissue carnosine levels. Carnosine is an important antioxidant that protects cells from destruction and buffers acids that cause fatigue. A review of literature by scientists from the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College in Toronto, Canada concluded that beta-alanine might

improve performance by increasing power output and reducing the sensation of fatigue during exercise. Side effects include numbness in the hands or feet and flushing. Another recent review of literature concluded the opposite— beta-alanine is an ineffective supplement for military personnel. (Nutr Rev, 72:217, 2014; International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 24: 14-27, 2014)

CAFFEINE

IMPROVES PERFORMANCE BETTER DURING MORNING WORKOUTS Consuming 200 to 400 milligrams of caffeine before training or sports competitions improves performance in endurance and high-intensity exercise. Caffeine is legal in Olympic sports but restricted in sports regulated by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Spanish researchers from the University of Castilla-La

Mancha in Toledo found that caffeine improved performance in the bench press and squat when taken in the morning but not the afternoon. Caffeine is an important supplement for improving training intensity. It is more effective for morning than afternoon workouts. Consuming caffeine supplements in the afternoon was less effective and produced more side effects. (Journal of Science and Medicine Sport, published online April 26, 2014)

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FitRxWarmUP ● SUPPLEMENTS CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH

WHEY PROTEIN BUILDS MUSCLE— With or Without Weight Training Whey protein increases protein synthesis in muscle and is an important supplement for people trying to lose weight without losing muscle. A metaanalysis of 14 studies involving 626 adults by Paige Miller from the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and colleagues showed weight gains of about five pounds when combining whey supplements with weight training. Whey also prevented loss of lean body mass during weight loss. Most studies show that consuming 25 grams of whey with meals promotes muscle growth, particularly when weight training. (Journal of the American College of Nutrition 33, published online April 14, 2014)

CAPSAICIN ACTIVATES GENES INVLOVED IN APPETITE AND CALORIE BURNING Capsaicin is a chemical found in red chili pepper used to make paprika, which is a spice used in chili and Mexican food. It reduces appetite and calorie intake and helps promote weight loss by releasing serotonin, a hunger-suppressing hormone, in the gut. An Indian

study on mice found that supplementing with capsaicin reduced appetite by altering gene activity in the appetite control center in the brain, and increasing metabolic rate by stimulating brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT loses energy as heat instead of storing it as fat, a process called thermogenesis. Capsaicin increased thermogenesis in white fat by making the cells more like BAT. Capsaicin also altered the microbes in the gut so that they metabolized more fat. Capsaicin is an effective component in weight-loss supplements. (The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, published online May 2, 2014)

HMB Plus High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Aerobic Capacity Three grams of HMB (beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate) per day plus high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increased aerobic power in college-age men and women more than HIIT alone— according to a four-week study led by Edward Robinson from the University of Central Florida in Orlando. HIIT consisted of 12 sessions of six sets of two-minute sprints on a stationary bike. HIIT is a highly effective way to improve fitness

rapidly. HMB triggers protein synthesis and prevents muscle breakdown. HMB enhances the benefits of HIIT. Combining the two is a good way to get in shape fast. (Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11: 16, 2014)

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FitRxWarmUP

NUTRITION

CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH

● BY

STEVE BLECHMAN AND THOMAS FAHEY, EdD

REGULAR PROTEIN INTAKE

Can Prevent Muscle Loss In Older Adults People lose 20 percent of their muscle mass between ages 40 and 60— a condition called sarcopenia. Muscle loss contributes to decreases in bone mass, loss of strength, deadly falls and poor blood sugar metabolism. Protein meals containing 25 to 30 grams of

protein stimulate muscle protein synthesis, even without performing exercises such as weight training. Leucine, a key signaling amino acid, turns on the mTOR pathway in muscle, which promotes protein synthesis and muscle hypertrophy. Scores of new studies have found that older adults could better maintain muscle mass if they consumed highquality protein throughout the day. (The Journal of Nutrition, published online April 17, 2014)

OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS Might Prevent Melanoma Melanoma is a deadly form of skin cancer that strikes 160,000 people every year and kills more than 48,000 people worldwide. The rate of melanoma has increased during the past two decades, largely because of increased sun exposure and use of tanning beds. A review of literature by sci-

entists from Catholic University in Rome, Italy concluded that omega-3 fatty acids, contained in fatty fish, might prevent this deadly form of skin cancer. These fatty acids can prevent can-

VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY

cer cell growth, speed the death and reduce the spread of the cancer cells, and prevent blood vessel development around the cells. We need well-controlled studies to determine if increased fish consumption or fish oil supplements could be useful in preventing melanoma. (Nutrition Reviews, 72: 255-266, 2014)

IMPAIRS MUSCLE PERFORMANCE Vitamin D is produced naturally via a reaction involving ultraviolet rays from the sun. The vitamin is also available in natural food sources such as salmon, sardines, fortified milk and orange juice. People living at higher latitudes are often vitamin D deficient because of inadequate sun exposure during the winter months. Athletes in these areas should take vitamin D supplements. Stella Volpe from Drexel University in Philadelphia summarized some of the benefits of vitamin D supplements for athletes who are deficient. Vitamin D-deficient ath-

letes and dancers experience fewer injuries following vitamin D supplementation. Professional athletes in England, where they don’t get much sun for much of the year, reported gains in explosive strength and power after taking vitamin D supplements. Large doses of vitamin D supplements can cause health problems in people with normal levels. (ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, 18(3): 28-30, 2014)

MEDITERRANEAN DIET Helps Moderate

Abdominal Fat Deposition Abdominal fat deposition is linked to heart attack, stroke and some types of cancer. It is so common in men and women that it is considered an inevitable part of getting older. Spanish researchers

found that people who followed a Mediterranean diet showed less abdominal fat gain during a 10-year study. The Mediterranean diet is high in fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fish, poultry and lean meats. The study examined metabolic changes in more than 3,000 men and women between 2000 and 2009. People who followed the diet most had the lowest increases in abdominal fat. (British Journal of Nutrition, 111:1481-1487, 2014)

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CONFUSING SCIENTIFIC

STUDIES

The American educational system is failing our citizens because it doesn’t educate students in basic scientific method and understanding research. We are a technologically driven society, yet most Americans are in the dark about science. To make matters worse, the media misrepresents many studies, which contributes to our national ignorance about science. For example, the media inferred from a recent meta-analysis on fat and cardiovascular disease that consuming unsaturated fats in the diet had no effect on cardiovascular health and disease. In fact, other studies found that substituting unsaturated fats such as olive oil for saturated and trans fats had a beneficial effect on health. Several large nutritional studies found a link between high consumption of dairy foods and lower body fat. Naturally, the media jumped on these studies and recommended that people drink more milk and eat more cheese. In fact, other studies found that increasing dairy consumption had no effect on body composition or heart disease risk factors. We should not base health recommendations on isolated studies, particularly when they are only based on relationships and small populations. Rather, health practices should be based on the aggregate of scientific information and on evidence-based research. (Nutrition Action Health Letter, June 2014)

CARBS:

THE HIGH-OCTANE FUEL FOR EXERCISE

The body uses carbohydrates for fuel almost exclusively at exercise intensities above 65 percent of maximum effort. Some misguided ideas about the importance of high-protein diets for athletes don’t fly in the face of more than 50 years of research. Asker Jeukendrup from the Gatorade Sports Science Institute in Barrington, Illinois summarized the latest information for harnessing carbohydrates during exercise. A carbohydrate mouth rinse or small amounts of carbs can boost performance during exercise lasting about one hour. During more prolonged bouts of exercise, the body uses about 60 grams of carbohydrates per hour, which must be replenished during the activity. During exercise lasting three hours or more, carbohydrate use increases to 90 grams per hour. It is important to use different carbohydrate sources such as glucose, fructose and

lactate to maximize carbohydrate availability during extended bouts of exercise. Replenishing glycogen stores in the liver and muscles is essential for recovery and long-term adaptation to training. (Sports Medicine, 44 (supplement 1): S25 -S33, 2014)

DIETARY PROTEIN REQUIREMENTS INCREASE DURING WEIGHT LOSS People lose muscle mass when they lose bodyweight through low-calorie diets. Weight-class sports, such as wrestling, weightlifting, boxing and mixed martial arts, typically require stringent dietary regimens to make weight. Bodybuilders also work hard to cut fat before contests. Researchers from New Zealand led by Eric Helms showed that athletes lost lean mass as they lost body fat. Athletes

who consumed 2.5 to 2.6 grams of protein per kilogram of bodyweight per day were able to maintain muscle mass during a six-month period of restricted caloric intake plus weight training. Protein requirements increase in athletes during sustained dieting. (International Journal Sports Nutrition Exercise Metabolism, 24: 127-138, 2014)

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EAT PROTEIN THROUGHOUT THE DAY The recommended daily allowance for protein is 0.8 to 1.5 grams per kilogram of bodyweight. Most people consume more protein at night than during the day. This is a mistake— according to a study led by Douglas Paddon-Jones and Madonna Mamerow from the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. They found that 24-hour protein synthesis was higher when protein was consumed evenly throughout the day than when it was consumed more at night. This study used sophisticated radioactive tracer methods to measure protein synthesis. Strive to consume protein throughout the day and not just in the evening. (Journal of Nutrition, 144: 876-880, 2014)


FitRxWarmUP

HEALTH

CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH ● BY

STEVE BLECHMAN AND THOMAS FAHEY, EdD

CASUAL POT USE Causes Brain Damage in Kids

Marijuana has been legalized in two states, and medical marijuana is legal in 21 states and Washington, D.C. Proponents of legalization claim that the drug has no serious side effects, and that any problems are less than those that come from consuming alcohol. Marijuana is not harmless, particularly in young people. A study from the Northwestern

University School of Medicine found that casual use in growing kids physically alters critical brain structures. Using the drug fewer than four times per week triggered changes in the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala, which are involved in emotion, motivation and the development of schizophrenia. The Office of National Drug Control Policy funded the study, so it would be desirable to get additional research from a less biased agency. (The Journal of Neuroscience, 34: 5529-5538, 2014)

SLEEP APNEA Linked to Cardiac Sudden Death Sleep is critical for learning, focus, reaction time, metabolic control and bodyweight management. Lack of sleep triggered by sleep apnea can kill you. Sleep apnea is caused by airway obstruction during sleep, which disturbs sleep patterns and prevents deep sleep. Sleep apnea is linked to chronic

inflammation and high blood pressure, both of which increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Weight loss and the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduce blood pressure and C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation. Large neck muscles increase the risk of sleep apnea, so most bodybuilders are at risk. You might have sleep apnea if you snore or are chronically tired and fatigued during the day. See your physician if you suspect you might have sleep apnea— it might save your life. (New England Journal of Medicine, 370: 2339-2340, 2014)

LIFELONG EXERCISE PREVENTS MUSCLE WASTING IN OLD AGE People lose about 20 percent of their muscle mass between ages 40 and 60. By age 70, muscle mass decreases by 40 percent and strength by 30 percent. Loss of muscle mass is called sarcopenia, which can result in diabetes, falls and injuries, muscle and joint pain, bone loss and decreased quality of life. Lifelong exercise can prevent this. Scientists from New Zealand and Australia, in a study on mice, showed that a lifetime of physical activity in animals produced higher levels of the anabolic hormone IGF-1, and the animals had more muscle mass throughout life. Exercise could be the Fountain of Youth. (Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science In Sports, published online March 20, 2014)

Men Are the

WEAKER SEX

Women have traditionally been considered the weaker sex, but that notion is incorrect if you consider the evidence. Women live longer than men in every society on earth. One reason is that men are more violent than women, and much of the violence is directed toward other men. Women also have better cellular health than men. A University of Sydney, Australia study led by

Madeleine Beekman speculated that women have stronger mitochondria than men. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cells and also contain their own DNA that is separate from the cell chromosomes. This DNA is passed down through the maternal line. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA are more common in men than women, which leads to more disease and earlier death. Many recent studies have shown that mitochondrial health determines longevity and overall health. (Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 369: 1471-2970, 2014)

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YOU CAN’T FAKE STRONG

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For more information visit www.metrx.com Use in conjunction with an intense daily exercise program and a balanced diet including an adequate caloric intake. *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

©2014 MET-Rx® USA, Inc.

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FitRxWarmUP

HEALTH

CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH

Vitamin D

PROTECTS AGAINST SUN DAMAGE The body produces vitamin D naturally in the skin in a reaction involving sunlight. Vitamin D is critical for maintaining bone density. Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation can damage the skin and increase the risk of various forms of skin cancer, particularly deadly melanoma. Michael Holick from Boston University Medical

Center noted that sun exposure is the most important way that humans get adequate amounts of vitamin D. Sensible sun exposure triggers vitamin D production, which promotes bone health and protects the skin from cancer. Fear of skin cancer has triggered a national epidemic of vitamin D deficiency. Other studies have shown that sun exposure, to a point, is healthy because it increases secretion of the hormone melanocortin, which promotes tanning, weight control and sexuality. (Experimental Dermatology, 23: 391-392, 2014)

Platelet-Rich Plasma Treatment

Improves Knee Arthritis Osteoarthritis involves the deterioration of joint cartilage and bone, formation of fibrous tissue in the joints, and abnormal joint lubrication. Knee arthritis is extremely common, particularly in aging athletes. Treatments include hyaluronic acid injections and arthroscopic surgery to clean up the joint. Platelet-rich plasma (PLP) is a promising

technique for decreasing arthritis knee pain— according to a systematic literature review by researchers from Ohio State University. This method involves withdrawing blood, concentrating blood platelets, and then re-infusing them back into the patient. Platelets help clot blood and decrease inflammation. The researchers concluded that PLP is effective for reducing pain in knee arthritis, but their assessment was based on small studies involving few observations. (The Physician and Sports Medicine, 42 (2): 27-37, 2014)

WASHINGTON, D.C. IS THE FITTEST CITY

The American College of Sports Medicine rated Washington, D.C. as the fittest city in America. Their ranking was based on an assessment of chronic health problems such as diabetes and asthma; health behaviors such as cigarette smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption; healthy environment such as parks and farmers

markets; and recreational facilities such as swimming pools and playgrounds. Other healthy cities included Minneapolis-St. Paul, Portland, Denver and San Francisco. The five least fit metropolitan areas included Memphis, Louisville, Oklahoma City, Indianapolis and Nashville. (USA Today, May 28, 2014)

ROTATOR CUFF TEAR IN ONE SHOULDER INCREASES THE RISK OF INJURY TO THE OTHER SHOULDER

The shoulder rotator cuff is responsible for internal and external rotation of the shoulder and for shoulder stability. Rotator cuff tears are extremely common in athletes. Bad bench press technique, for example, is a common cause of rotator cuff injuries. A study from University

Hospital in Münster, Germany showed that people who injure the rotator cuff in one arm have an 68 percent higher risk of injuring the rotator cuff in the other arm. Shoulder function in the uninjured arm is diminished, even if the rotator cuff is not injured. People recovering from a rotator cuff injury in one arm should have their uninjured shoulder evaluated thoroughly. (The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 42: 826-830, 2014)

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FitRxWarmUP

SEX

CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH ● BY

STEVE BLECHMAN AND THOMAS FAHEY, EdD

SEX SCIENTISTS PRESENT NEW STUDIES

Scientists presented new research at the annual meeting of the Sexual Medicine Society of North America. • Adenosine is the signaling chemical that promotes erections. Adenosine is also critical for increasing muscle blood flow during exercise. This new information could lead to more effective drugs for treating impotence. • Enclomid, a drug that acts on the estrogen receptors, increases testosterone levels. It is doubtful that this drug would improve athletic performance. • Free testosterone, when measured directly or predicted, differed greatly, showing the importance of measuring it both ways. • Luteinizing hormone increased in obese men, which shows that obesity does not disrupt normal hormone controls. Obesity might directly affect the health of the testes rather than influencing its hormone controls. • Blocking the conversion of testosterone to estrogen with an aromatase inhibitor prolonged the time between testosterone treatments. • Sex experts disagree about the existence of sexual addiction. The nature of high sex drives has to be better defined before the problem can be successfully treated. • Google searchers for “low T” increased 269 percent between 2004 and 2013. Many websites discuss the benefits of testosterone treatment but few discuss the side effects. • Testosterone pellets resulted in higher blood levels of testosterone compared to testosterone gels. (Journal Sexual Medicine, 11(supplement 3):138-204, 2014)

LOW TESTOSTERONE INCREASES THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

WOMEN WITH WIDE HIPS HAVE MORE ONE-NIGHT STANDS Even in these sexually-enlightened times, men and women are still prisoners of their biology. Researchers

Low testosterone (T) levels are linked to poor sexual performance, premature death, decreased muscle and bone mass, poor blood sugar regulation, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Spanish researchers,

from the University of Leeds in the United Kingdom found that women with larger hips had more sex partners and were more likely to have one-night stands. Wide hips were defined as greater than 14

in a study of nearly 1,300 older men (average age 58), found that 33 percent had low tes-

inches across. Researchers speculated that childbirth was more dangerous in women with narrower hips. Narrow-hipped women subconsciously limited their chances of pregnancy by having less sex. Critics of the study say that there is no relationship between hip width and the size of the birth canal, which is an important factor in determining the ease of childbirth. (Archives of Sexual Behavior, published online April 22, 2014)

tosterone levels. These men showed a higher risk of cardiovascular disease as indicated by high blood fats, high blood pressure, erectile dysfunction and obesity. The researchers concluded that obesity and severe erectile dysfunction were the best predictors of testosterone-related cardiovascular disease. They concluded that T levels below 12 nanomoles per liter increased the risk of disease. (Journal Sexual Medicine, published online June 5, 2014)

VIAGRA INCREASES TESTOSTERONE LEVELS

Shalender Bhasin and colleagues from Boston University found that Viagra (sildenafil) increased testosterone levels by 20 to 30 percent. Testosterone might be at the heart of erectile dysfunction. Viagra suppressed levels of the

hormone LH, which showed that the drug influences the control mechanisms of testosterone metabolism. Viagra also caused increases in estrogen and DHEA. The researchers suggested that low testosterone output from the testes is centrally related to erection problems in men. (Journal Sexual Medicine, 11: 616-623, 2014)

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FitRxWarmUP

SEX

Economic Hard Times

FOR HOOKERS

CUTTING-EDGE RESEARCH Prostitution was more lucrative in 1911 than it is today— according to an analysis in The Economist. Expressed

in 2007 dollars, street prostitutes made $25,000 per year in 1911 but only 18,000 per year in 2007. High-

end escorts made $430,000 in 1911 but only $200,000 in 2007. The root of the problem is supply and demand. In 1911, 69 percent of men paid for sex, but only 15 percent did so in 2007. The Internet or the hook-up culture didn’t exist 100 years ago. Most men prefer girlfriends, which are a lot easier to get in modern times. Working girls commanded more money in years past because of the negative stigma attached to the profession— they had to get paid for the social disgrace. On a positive note, prostitution is more business-like than before because escorts can set up dates and negotiate prices. (The Economist, March 22, 2014)

VIAGRA INCREASES THE RISK OF MELANOMA Melanoma is a deadly form of skin cancer that develops in the melanocytes— cells that give color to the skin. In 2014, about 76,100 people will be diagnosed with melanoma and 9,710 people will die from the disease. Nearly 1,000,000 people in the United States have melanoma. Previous severe sunburn and excessive use of tanning beds are leading risk factors of the disease. A Harvard Medical School study showed an 84 percent increased risk of melanoma in men who used of sildenafil (Viagra). In contrast, sildenafil was not related to the development of squamous cell cancer (a less dangerous type of skin cancer). (Journal American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 174: 964·970, 2014)

CHOLESTEROL-LOWERING DRUG IMPROVES ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects 30 million Americans and 150 million men worldwide. ED is typically caused by abnormalities in the blood vessels supplying the penis. Drugs like Viagra and Cialis are the first line of defense for treating ED. The problem is closely related to coronary artery disease and is an early predictor of heart attack. Statins are drugs used to lower cholesterol and treat primary risk factors of coronary artery disease. A study by researchers from Capital Medical University in Beijing, China found that cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins improved ED compared to a placebo. Statins may reduce blood vessel disease, which could have a positive effect on the erectile capacity of the penis. (Journal of Sexual Medicine, 11: 1367-1375, 2014)

THE PENIS IS THE WINDOW TO THE HEART

Erectile dysfunction is an early warning sign of coronary artery disease. Problems with the small blood vessels in the penis show up earlier than problems with the larger blood vessels in the heart. Chinese researchers found that young men who had difficulty maintaining erections during masturbation had a higher risk of coronary artery disease than men with normal erections. Previously, scientists speculated that erection problems during masturbation were linked to psychological disturbances. Erectile dysfunction during masturbation was linked to problems with the cells lining the arteries (endothelial cells), insulin resistance, and other markers of blood sugar regulation problems. The penis is indeed a window to the heart. (Journal Sexual Medicine, 11: 1519-1526, 2014)

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FitRxCoolDOWN

SUPPLEMENT EDGE ● BY

MICHAEL J. RUDOLPH, PH.D.

PREWORKOUT THE ULTIMATE

PERFORMANCE ENHANCER

AML PREWORKOUT IS THE ULTIMATE PREWORKOUT FORMULA THAT WILL COMPLETELY PREPARE YOU FOR YOUR NEXT WORKOUT BY PACKING YOUR MUSCLE CELLS WITH ENERGY, AND BY INCREASING EXERCISE ENDURANCE SO YOU CAN PUSH YOUR BODY TO THE LIMIT FOR LONGER PERIODS OF TIME.

AML PREWORKOUT SUPPORTS NEUROTRANSMITTER PRODUCTION, INTENSIFYING ENERGY AND MOTIVATION One of the most important aspects of a pre-workout supplement is the ability to increase focus in the gym. So when you feel like going to sleep instead of the weight room, your pre-workout supplement should be able to get you moving. A primary contributor

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to pre-workout fatigue is a weary central nervous system (CNS) that requires more than just energy from food to get you going. Fortunately, AML has discovered a unique blend of compounds that conquers CNS fatigue by reestablishing the required levels of the correct neurotransmitters to restore focus and motivation needed for intense training.

INCREASED DOPAMINE INCREASES DRIVE TO EXERCISE Although there have been a number of mechanisms proposed that explain the apparent increase in CNS fatigue, the “central fatigue hypothesis” states that an increase in the ratio of serotonin to dopamine within the CNS is associated with feelings of tiredness and lack of motivation, accelerating the onset of fatigue during prolonged exercise, whereas a low serotonin to dopamine ratio favors improved performance through the maintenance of motivation and arousal.1 Since serotonin is a neurotransmitter that has been linked to fatigue because of its well-known influence on sleep and drowsiness, it was originally thought that the serotonin to dopamine ratio was

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GREGORY JAMES PHOTO

The eminent scientist and inventor Alexander Graham Bell once said, “Before anything else, preparation is the key to success.” Well, Advanced Molecular Labs (AML) and its CEO, Steve Blechman, absolutely agree. That is why they’ve created the most scientifically advanced pre-workout formula that will completely PREPARE you for your next workout by packing your muscle cells with energy, by increasing exercise endurance so you can push your body to the limit for longer periods of time, and by generating the perfect blend of neurotransmitters that improve your mood and motivation to get into the gym and start pounding the weights with the utmost intensity and resilience!


SUPPLEMENT EDGE increasing because of greater serotonin production within the brain. However, it turns out that the serotonin to dopamine ratio was increasing primarily because of the degradation of dopamine associated with neuronal activity within the CNS associated with exercise or other stressful stimuli.2 This new insight makes sense based on dopamine’s well-defined influence on motivation, arousal and attention. Consequently, increasing dopamine levels should improve CNS function and overall exercise performance.

AML PREWORKOUT IS LOADED WITH THE MOST POTENT DOPAMINE ENHANCERS Since reduced dopamine levels within the CNS decreases motivation and performance while inducing fatigue3, novel ways to increase dopamine production before your workout should boost exercise performance. The consumption of the dopamine precursor tyrosine was recently shown to provide this benefit, where subjects performed an exercise test while consuming either a placebo or tyrosine in a double-blind manner, one hour before cycling to exhaustion in 86 degrees Fahrenheit.4 The results showed the tyrosineconsuming group exercised for 16 percent longer compared to the placebo group, while also showing no increase in rate of perceived exertion despite a longer exercise time. This confirms that tyrosine consumption influences the ability to tolerate prolonged exercise, conceivably by increasing dopamine levels. AML Preworkout combines tyrosine with folic acid, which may further increase dopamine by increasing tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) levels. As a co-factor for tyrosine hydroxylase, BH4 facilitates the conversion of tyrosine to L-dopa, which is a precursor to dopamine. The tropical plant mucuna pruriens is also found in AML Preworkout. This ingredient is loaded with the dopamine precursor L-dopa5, which has been shown to effectively increase diminished dopamine levels in patients with Parkinson’s disease.6 Interestingly, an additional clinical trial also indicated that mucuna pruriens was just as effective as some pharmaceuticals in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, illustrating potent ability of mucuna pruriens to boost dopamine levels in the brain.7

SIMULTANEOUSLY INCREASE DOPAMINE AND ADRENALINE FOR AN EXTRA BOOST Adrenaline is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that is well known for supporting the “fight-or-flight” response that occurs when we get scared, or deal with different forms of stress. Adrenaline activates several biochemical pathways that increase

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glucose and fatty acid levels in the blood, which provides energy for the muscle cell. The remarkable ability of AML Preworkout to simultaneously increase adrenaline and dopamine provides an even more robust neurochemical environment in the brain for even greater mental focus that bolsters performance in the gym.

THE ENERGETIC BUZZ FROM CAFFEINE Caffeine is widely consumed as an ergogenic aid to improve exercise performance. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain caffeine’s performanceenhancing influence, including enhanced muscular contraction force, increased cellular energy production within muscle and stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS). While increased contractile forces and energy production within muscle from caffeine consumption preferentially influence highintensity weight training, caffeine’s ability to

AML PREWORKOUT GENERATES THE PERFECT BLEND OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS THAT IMPROVE YOUR MOOD AND MOTIVATION TO GET INTO THE GYM AND START POUNDING THE WEIGHTS WITH THE UTMOST INTENSITY AND RESILIENCE!

gastrointestinal absorption and systematic utilization of nutrients in AML Preworkout.

IMPROVED MUSCULAR ENDURANCE Another important feature of a pre-workout supplement is the ability to improve muscular endurance for extended levels of intensity while you work out. AML Preworkout is loaded with the amino acid beta-alanine, which has many positive effects on health and exercise performance. Within muscle cells, betaalanine functions as a key building block for carnosine, the primary buffer within muscle tissue that counters the negative impact of lactic acid on exercise capacity. Several independent studies have clearly illustrated the positive influence of beta-alanine on carnosine production in muscle. In these studies, a significant increase in muscle carnosine of approximately 40 to 50 percent was measured after beta-alanine ingestion over a four- to eight-week time frame.10,11 In addition to beta-alanine supporting carnosine synthesis, it has also been shown to reduce muscle acidosis. In one study, subjects consuming beta-alanine for four weeks showed a much slower rise in acidity during high-intensity exercise.12 Moreover, the muscle-buffering function associated with beta-alanine intake has also been shown to improve endurance, as illustrated in a study where subjects ingesting beta-alanine demonstrated major improvements while performing a medium-intensity, high-repetition squat workout, compared to a placebo group.13

HEIGHTENED VASODILATION FOR ENHANCED BLOOD FLOW AND STAMINA

stimulate the CNS has a greater impact on the mental aspect of training. The ability of caffeine to stimulate the CNS is due, in part, to its capacity to inhibit the adenosine receptor in the brain, which triggers the release of dopamine and adrenaline.8 The surge of dopamine and adrenaline from caffeine consumption will amp-up your neurochemistry for greater concentration and intensity while training in the gym.

PIPERINE (BIOPERINE) PROVIDES ADDITIONAL ADRENALINE RELEASE Another neurotransmitter-enhancing compound found in AML Preworkout is the compound piperine, which is naturally found in black pepper. Piperine has been reported to trigger adrenaline release by activating the TRPV receptor in the brain, which stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, resulting in adrenaline release.9 It also improves the

The signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) enhances performance by increasing blood flow caused by improved vasodilation. NO induces vasodilation by activating several cellular signaling cascades that relax the smooth muscle within the arterial wall, causing the arteries to dilate or open up. The increased blood flow from vasodilation delivers more essential nutrients and oxygen to laboring muscles while simultaneously removing metabolic waste, which collectively enhances muscular performance. NO is biosynthesized from the amino acid arginine, meaning increased consumption of arginine ought to boost greater production of NO. However, arginine is poorly absorbed by the intestine14 and is quickly broken down by the liver15, significantly reducing its bioavailability and capacity to increase NO production. On the other hand, the amino acid citrulline, which is quickly converted in the body into arginine, is more effectively absorbed by the intestines and avoids breakdown by the liver.16 Consequently, taking AML Preworkout, which contains copious

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FitRxCoolDOWN amounts of citrulline, represents a fantastic way to vigorously increase endogenous arginine levels and drive NO production for considerably improved stamina.17

ADDITIONAL NO BOOSTERS In addition to the potent NO-booster citrulline, AML Preworkout also possesses watermelon, beetroot, and grape skin extracts, which are rich in compounds that have also been shown to powerfully stimulate NO production18-20 for an added influence on vasodilation and performance enhancement.

ENHANCED CIRCULATION WITH POTASSIUM AND MAGNESIUM CITRATE Increased potassium and magnesium intake promotes vasodilation, leading to reduced blood pressure. Numerous studies have shown higher potassium intake reduces the risk of stroke and many other cardiovascular diseases, likely due to their capacity to increase vasodilation, which reduces blood pressure.21,22 Although it is not well understood how these two elements enhance vasodilation, the incorporation of these two elements into AML Preworkout fortifies its capacity to bolster cardiovascular performance for improved endurance. Furthermore, potassium and magnesium complex with citrate in AML Preworkout. Citrate has also been shown to improve exercise performance by buffering lactic acid buildup in the muscle, further upgrading performance.23

AML PREWORKOUT CONTAINS THE NO-GENERATING FOLIC ACID Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) has many different roles in the body, with one function being a catalyst that accelerates NO production. In fact, BH4 deficiency significantly contributes to many different circulatory diseases due to insufficient NO-driven vasodilation.24 Consequently, oral BH4 ingestion should conceivably boost NO production. Yet, studies have demonstrated that BH4 intake failed to show any significant improvement in vasodilation due to poor bioavailability.25,26 However, the biosynthesis of BH4 in the body can also be enhanced by consuming folic acid, which functions as a co-factor for the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which synthesizes BH4. In fact, oral consumption of folic acid was shown to improve NO production as well as vasodilation.27

ERADICATE LACTIC ACID FOR IMPROVED ENDURANCE WITH AML PREWORKOUT Exercise-induced muscle fatigue is due to many different factors, including the

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SUPPLEMENT EDGE accumulation of certain metabolites within the muscle cell such as ammonia.28,29 During intense exercise, the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine monophosphate (AMP) provides the necessary energy for muscular contraction, while also increasing AMP levels. The greater amount of AMP from muscular contraction results in higher ammonia levels because the body breaks down AMP into ammonia, which increases ammonia levels. The accumulation of ammonia inhibits the metabolism of pyruvate in the muscle cell30, reducing energy production while also increasing lactic acid production, which consequently has a negative influence on exercise performance. Citrulline reduces the accumulation of ammonia by triggering the urea cycle, the biochemical pathway that reduces ammonia

AML PREWORKOUT IS LOADED WITH AN ASSORTMENT OF THE MOST EFFECTIVE MUSCLE-BUILDING COMPOUNDS AVAILABLE. levels by converting it into urea. This, of course, subsequently reduces lactic acid accumulation as well. Furthermore, citrulline has been found to reduce lactic acid levels during high-intensity exercise and significantly improve exercise performance.31

AMLâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S UNIQUE PERFORMANCEENHANCING BLEND AUGMENTS MUSCULAR POWER The final element absolutely required of a pre-workout supplement is the capacity to increase strength and power output. AML Preworkout is loaded with an assortment of the most effective muscle-building and performance-enhancing compounds available. The first strength-promoting compound in AML Preworkout is creatine monohydrate, which is the most studied form of creatine on the market. In addition, creatine monohydrate is also one of the most heavily used supplements32, primarily because its effectiveness at improving strength and size. Many studies over the years have clearly shown that short-term creatine monohydrate supplementation increases power output during intense exercise. Furthermore, creatine supplementation with heavy weight training has the potential to stimulate muscle hypertrophy.33 These unique capabilities stem from creatineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to function as a primary energy storage molecule that rapidly

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reverses the depletion of muscle cell energy (ATP) during muscular contraction, ultimately recharging energy levels within the muscle cell, prolonging muscular contraction for superior workouts and muscle growth.34 Also, creatine monohydrate potently drives muscle growth utilizing several different cellular mechanisms, including the stimulation of muscle cell formation35, increased muscle protein synthesis36 and inhibition of the muscle-depleting molecule myostatin.37

AML PREWORKOUT POWERS YOUR MUSCLES WITH ATP Although the oral intake of ATP likely results in its rapid breakdown within the digestive tract, precluding its function as an energy source for the body, studies have shown that long-term oral administration of ATP still produces gains in muscle size and strength.38,39 This effect likely comes from the extensive extracellular functions of ATP that are primarily mediated through the adenosine receptors. Adenosine receptors are embedded in the plasma membrane of the cell. ATP acts as a signaling molecule directly upon these receptors, where it controls numerous functions, including increased muscular contraction by boosting muscle-cell calcium levels and decreased pain reception. The ability of ATP to mitigate pain reception likely supports a higher training intensity with a lower pain perception, for an enhanced training effect.

AML PREWORKOUT IMPROVES FLUID BALANCE IN THE MUSCLE FOR GREATER STRENGTH GAINS Natural osmolytes like betaine, found in many different foods such as whole grains, spinach, and shellfish, act as osmoprotectants by maintaining cell volume and fluid balance during stressful situations such as dehydration. Because of this, betaine plays a key role in many aspects of human health, as studies have shown that diets high in betaine decrease the risk for certain diseases.40,41 In addition to its function as an osmolyte, betaine also supplies the methyl group required for production of the anabolic creatine molecule.42 Accordingly, it has been shown that betaine significantly increases anaerobic power in the bench press and squat. Interestingly, additional studies have also shown that betaine increased muscle protein synthesis and lean body mass, while also reducing abdominal fat.43,44

PRE-WORKOUT LEUCINE CONSUMPTION IS DETRIMENTAL TO MUSCLE GROWTH Despite the fact that leucine consumption during and after resistance exercise promotes muscle growth45, the consumption

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SUPPLEMENT EDGE of leucine before training seems to diminish muscular performance. One reason being that pre-workout consumption of leucine mitigates the conversion of glycogen into glucose within the muscle cell, effectively diminishing energy availability for muscle function.46 Another issue with pre-workout leucine consumption involves the increased potential for insulin-signaling desensitization— especially if leucine is also being ingested, as it should be, during and after weight training. Studies have shown that insulin resistance can occur with increased amino acid consumption, especially the branched-chain amino acid leucine.47,48 Of course, insulin resistance from the additional pre-workout leucine would reduce insulin’s anabolic properties, meaning a decrease in muscle growth. The final negative impact of pre-workout leucine comes from leucine’s ability to competitively inhibit dopamine production by preventing the uptake of the dopamineprecursor tyrosine into the brain.49 This effect

would increase the rate of CNS fatigue and overall sluggishness, ultimately hindering exercise performance. As a result of the negative effects associated with pre-workout leucine intake, AML Preworkout is absolutely leucine-free.

does not contain compounds that principally function as antioxidants (such as vitamins C, E and the amino acids N-acetylcysteine and taurine), allowing for the sufficient natural generation of ROS from training for better muscle growth and recovery.

AML PREWORKOUT SUPPORTS ROS EXPOSURE FOR GREATER MUSCLE GROWTH AND RECOVERY

For more information on AML PREWORKOUT, visit www.advancedmolecularlabs.com

Intense weightlifting or exercise puts stress on the muscle cell, producing muscle damage that requires a recovery process to regenerate muscle function and increase muscle size. There is emerging evidence to suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during intense training assists the recovery process. Moreover, it’s been shown that consumption of the powerful antioxidant vitamin C, which chemically negates ROS function, can attenuate the recovery of damaged muscle50 implying that antioxidants, in general, mitigate muscle repair and hypertrophy. For that reason, AML Preworkout

For most of Michael Rudolph’s career he has been engrossed in the exercise world as either an athlete (he played college football at Hofstra University), personal trainer or as a Research Scientist (he earned a B.Sc. in Exercise Science at Hofstra University and a Ph.D. in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from Stony Brook University). After earning his Ph.D., Michael investigated the molecular biology of exercise as a fellow at Harvard Medical School and Columbia University for over eight years. That research contributed seminally to understanding the function of the incredibly important cellular energy sensor AMPK— leading to numerous publications in peer-reviewed journals including the journal Nature. Michael is currently a scientist working at the New York Structural Biology Center doing contract work for the Department of Defense on a project involving national security.

REFERENCES 1. Acworth I, Nicholass J, et al. Effect of sustained exercise on concentrations of plasma aromatic and branched-chain amino acids and brain amines. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1986;137, 149-153. 2. Davis JM and Bailey SP. Possible mechanisms of central nervous system fatigue during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29, 45-57. 3. Roelands B, Watson P, et al. A dopamine/ noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor improves performance in the heat, but only at the maximum therapeutic dose. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2012;22, e93-98. 4. Tumilty L, Davison G, et al. Oral tyrosine supplementation improves exercise capacity in the heat. Eur J Appl Physiol 2011;111, 2941-2950. 5. Alleman RJ Jr, Canale RE, et al. A blend of chlorophytum borivilianum and velvet bean increases serum growth hormone in exercise-trained men. Nutr Metab Insights 2011;4, 55-63. 6. Tharakan B, Dhanasekaran M, et al. Anti-Parkinson botanical Mucuna pruriens prevents levodopa induced plasmid and genomic DNA damage. Phytother Res 2007;21, 1124-1126. 7. Katzenschlager R, Evans A, et al. Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson’s disease: a double blind clinical and pharmacological study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004;75, 1672-1677. 8. Zheng X, Takatsu S, et al. Acute intraperitoneal injection of caffeine improves endurance exercise performance in association with increasing brain dopamine release during exercise. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2014;122, 136-143. 9. McNamara FN, Randall A and Gunthorpe MJ. Effects of piperine, the pungent component of black pepper, at the human vanilloid receptor (TRPV1). Br J Pharmacol 2005;144, 781-790. 10. Harris RC, Tallon MJ, et al. The absorption of orally supplied beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids 2006;30, 279-289. 11. Stellingwerff T, Anwander H, et al. Effect of two beta-alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout. Amino Acids 2010;42, 2461-2472. 12. Baguet A, Koppo K, et al. Beta-alanine supplementation reduces acidosis but not oxygen uptake response during high-intensity cycling exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 2010;108, 495-503. 13. Hoffman J, Ratamess NA, et al. Beta-alanine and the hormonal response to exercise. Int J Sports Med 2008;29, 952-958. 14. Grimble GK. Adverse gastrointestinal effects of arginine and related amino acids. J Nutr 2007;137, 1693S-1701S. 15. Heyland DK, Dhaliwal R, et al. Canadian clinical practice guidelines for nutrition support in mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2003;27, 355-373. 16. Cynober L. Pharmacokinetics of arginine and related amino acids. J Nutr 2007;137, 1646S-1649S. 17. Schwedhelm E, Maas R, et al. Pharmacokinetic and

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pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2008;65, 51-59. 18. Resende AC, Emiliano AF, et al. Grape skin extract protects against programmed changes in the adult rat offspring caused by maternal high-fat diet during lactation. J Nutr Biochem 2014;24, 2119-2126. 19. Breese BC, McNarry MA. Beetroot juice supplementation speeds O2 uptake kinetics and improves exercise tolerance during severe-intensity exercise initiated from an elevated metabolic rate. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2013;305, R1441-1450. 20. Muggeridge DJ, Howe CC, et al. A single dose of beetroot juice enhances cycling performance in simulated altitude. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2013;46, 143-150. 21. Blanch N, Clifton PM, et al. Effect of high potassium diet on endothelial function. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2014. 22. D’Elia L, Iannotta C, et al. Potassium-rich diet and risk of stroke: Updated meta-analysis. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2014;24, 585-587. 23. Russell C, Papadopoulos E, et al. Acute versus chronic supplementation of sodium citrate on 200 m performance in adolescent swimmers. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2014;2014, 11:26 11, 1028-1037. 24. Gaede P, Vedel P, et al. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2003;348, 383-393. 25. Moens AL, Kietadisorn R, et al. Targeting endothelial and myocardial dysfunction with tetrahydrobiopterin. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2011;51, 559-563. 26. Alkaitis MS and Crabtree MJ. Recoupling the cardiac nitric oxide synthases: tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis and recycling. Curr Heart Fail Rep 2012;9, 200-210. 27. Youn JY, Gao L and Cai H. The p47phox- and NADPH oxidase organiser 1 (NOXO1)-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1) mediates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and endothelial dysfunction in a streptozotocin-induced murine model of diabetes. Diabetologia 2012;55, 2069-2079. 28. Barnes RH, Labadan BA, et al. Effects of Exercise and Administration of Aspartic Acid on Blood Ammonia in the Rat. Am J Physiol 1964;207, 1242-1246. 29. Wilkerson JE, Batterton DL and Horvath SM. Ammonia production following maximal exercise: treadmill vs. bicycle testing. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1975;34, 169-172. 30. Lowenstein JM. Ammonia production in muscle and other tissues: the purine nucleotide cycle. Physiol Rev 1972;52, 382-414. 31. Takeda K, Machida M, et al. Effects of citrulline supplementation on fatigue and exercise performance in mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2011;57, 246-250. 32. Buford TW, Kreider RB, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2007;4, 6. 33. Harris RC, Soderlund K and Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal

subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci (Lond) 1992;83, 367-374. 34. Bemben MG and Lamont HS. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: recent findings. Sports Med 2005;35, 107-125. 35. Willoughby DS and Rosene JM. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myogenic regulatory factor expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35, 923-929. 36. Willoughby DS and Rosene J. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myosin heavy chain expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33, 1674-1681. 37. Volek JS, Duncan ND, et al. Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31, 1147-1156. 38. Wilson JM, Joy JM, et al. Effects of oral adenosine5’-triphosphate supplementation on athletic performance, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery in resistancetrained men. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2013;10, 57. 39. Jordan AN, Jurca R, et al. Effects of oral ATP supplementation on anaerobic power and muscular strength. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36, 983-990. 40. Craig SA. Betaine in human nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80, 539-549. 41. Konstantinova SV, Tell GS, et al. Divergent associations of plasma choline and betaine with components of metabolic syndrome in middle age and elderly men and women. J Nutr 2008;138, 914-920. 42. Byerrum RU, Sato CS and Ball CD. Utilization of Betaine as a Methyl Group Donor in Tobacco. Plant Physiol 1956;31, 374-377. 43. Brigotti M, Petronini PG, et al. Effects of osmolarity, ions and compatible osmolytes on cell-free protein synthesis. Biochem J 2003;369, 369-374. 44. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, et al. Effect of 15 days of betaine ingestion on concentric and eccentric force outputs during isokinetic exercise. J Strength Cond Res 2011;25, 2235-2241. 45. Pasiakos SM, McClung HL, et al. Leucine-enriched essential amino acid supplementation during moderate steady state exercise enhances postexercise muscle protein synthesis. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94, 809-818. 46. Blomstrand E, Eliasson J, et al. Branched-chain amino acids activate key enzymes in protein synthesis after physical exercise. J Nutr 2006;136, 269S-273S. 47. Tremblay F, Lavigne C, et al. Role of dietary proteins and amino acids in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Annu Rev Nutr 2007;27, 293-310. 48. Newgard CB, An J, et al. A branched-chain amino acid-related metabolic signature that differentiates obese and lean humans and contributes to insulin resistance. Cell Metab 2009;9, 311-326. 49. Choi S, Disilvio B, et al. Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines. Amino Acids 2013. 50. Ristow M, Zarse K, et al. Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009;106, 8665-8670.

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FitRx TRAINING

LY L E N N O D E JO Y IT S N E T IN . WITH MR

7 MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE, FAT-INCINERATING KILLER WORKOUTS! EVERYTHING YOU WANT IN LIFE IS ON THE OTHER SIDE OF FEAR. Fear is the most powerful and dominating of all our emotions. Fear will drive us in one of two directions: it will either drive us to our knees in crippling submission, or it will drive us to endure against all odds. In our moments of greatest peril, it will reveal a strength and indomitable will that we had no idea we possessed— a revelation that will forever alter the course of our lives. Fear is something that is unique to each individual. It is not tangible and lives solely within our minds. Fear is self-imposed. Thusly, fear can be controlled. Fear, like pain, is not a true state but rather one of implication. When one’s fear is recognized, it needs to immediately be addressed and driven to its surrender.

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BY JOE DONNELLY PHOTOGRAPHY BY GREGORY JAMES

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FitRx TRAINING Fear is like a small fire, and time is like dry wood. If you turn your back on fear and let it fester with time, that fire will grow into an inferno, and before long that fear will blaze with such an intense burning rage it will be uncontrollable. Our fear of pain, our fear of discomfort, is what drives us to quit long before the body has waved its white flag. Our weak mental state places these pathetic subjective limits upon ourselves, allowing us to go through life treading water far below our actual potential. I invite you to step outside of your comfort zone and get comfortable being uncomfortable. I urge you to turn a deaf ear to the voices in your mind screaming for you to yield as fatigue and pain do their very best to place feeble limitations on your willing and able body. Do not let fatigue make you into a coward; do not let a lack of will define your existence. You want to be successful in life? Well, it’s show time, it’s examination time, it’s time to get tested, to test your will, your endurance. It’s time to test your heart, to test your limits. Let me first say that this is no joke. This isn’t for the faint of heart. This is grueling just to write let alone shoot and perform. Personally I believe if you are going to do anything, you overdo it— which is exactly what Advanced Molecular Labs (Steve Blechman’s supplement company for which I am a spokesman for) is all about— overdo the science and technology. From 1974-2001, Steve was head of product development at Twinlab. In a 27-year period, he helped the company introduce a long and impressive list of nutritional and performance breakthroughs, including being the first to come out with creatine (as Creatine Fuel in 1997), ATP Fuel and Ripped Fuel, etc. The list is a mile long! Many people may not know that many of the supplements they are taking today were first brought to the market by Twinlab and designed by Steve! Steve and AML have the highest quality standards and develop products based on the latest cutting-edge scientific research. AML is determined to develop new and innovative products— blazing new trails for others to follow. I respect that and believe in AML and feel so proud to endorse their products! Training and developing indomitable mental strength and will goes hand in hand. With the release of the world’s most revolutionary pre-workout supplement, the AML Pre-Workout: The Ultimate Performance Enhancer, you will have the tools to do this workout by raising the bar and one’s own personal expectations. With my training style, the duration and intensity, it was important to have a product that wouldn’t leave me hanging after 60,

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75 or even 90 minutes of exercise like the majority of the pre-training supplements do. To quote the legendary Steve Prefontaine, “Do not let fatigue make a coward of you.” The idea was to include the most safe and efficacious dosages of each ingredient to elicit maximum performance based on the latest cutting-edge science! Plus, introduce delivery mechanisms that no one else had utilized and thusly bring to market the best product to date. In a time where companies are cutting back on necessary dosages of key ingredients, forcing the consumer to take two to three servings at once to reach efficiency, it was AML’s goal with this product that one serving would more than suffice for even a person as large as myself at 245 pounds. Consumers are educated on the science of key ingredients in that they can compare the label of the leading pre-workout to AML’s and the result is as clear as day. I beta-tested this product until no end. I wanted to see how far I could push myself to find the limits of the product and give the feedback to Steve Blechman and Dr. Michael Rudolph. Fifty- and 60set workouts, hours of sprinting in the scorching heat, pushing my cars up and down the street, redefining the limits of my body and mind. The result? I am stronger, faster and have more endurance than what I then thought was my peak of performance some 10 years ago while playing NCAA and NFL football. (For even more on the science behind the AML Pre-Workout, turn to “Supplement Edge” in this issue).

HELL WEEK, AKA THE 500 SERIES In our summer strength and conditioning program, we used to start off with what is called the 500 series (500 reps per workout). The idea behind this program is to increase the athletes VO2 max through the high-volume training and then slowly reduce the rep range, increasing the strength of each lift, then adding in isometric exercises to maximize the three areas of focus, which are muscular and cardiovascular endurance, strength and lean muscle mass. In this feature, we will focus on the first part of the 500 series. For the entire 10-week program, every two weeks the rep range drops by five reps and you add in one set for each exercise. So by Week 10, you are squatting eight sets of five reps with maximum conditioning both muscular and cardiovascular while building lean mass and increasing strength. So without further delay, I give you Week 1 of my 10-week body, mind- and lifechanging program, aka HELL WEEK. It is time to REDEFINE YOUR LIMITS…

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DAY 1: CHEST AM AND PM CONDITIONING The idea is to pick a weight that you can hit the rep range for every set without having to reduce weight at the end because you are gassed. For example, on bench press we start off with 4 sets of 25 reps. Now I can easily do 225 pounds for 25 reps, however by the third set I would be so gassed I might only get 15. Knowing that, I would probably do 185 pounds for 4 sets of 25 reps with 90 seconds between sets. Morning bench press: 4 x 25 (90 seconds between sets) Incline bench press: 4 x 25 (90 seconds rest) Plyo clap push-ups: 4 x 25 (90 seconds between sets) Cable chest ďŹ&#x201A;ies: 4 x 25, superset 25 push-ups between each set Total 500 reps EVENING CONDITIONING SESSION: 40-yard sprints: 15 reps at 85% of max (30 seconds rest between each sprint)

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FitRx TRAINING DAY 2: LEGS Leg extensions: 4 x 25 Squats: 4 x 25 Leg press: 4 x 25 Barbell lunges: 4 x 25 Leg curls: 4 x 25

DAY 3: ARMS AM AND PM CONDITIONING Straight-bar curls: 4 x 25 Spider curls: 4 x 25 Rope curls: 4 x 25 Reverse curls: 4 x 25 Close grip bench press: 4 x 25 Skull-crushers: 4 x 25 Dips: 4 x 25 Overhead rope extension: 4 x 25 EVENING CONDITIONING SESSION: 30-yard shuttle runs: Sprint 10 yards, touch line, sprint back to start touch line, sprint 10 yards through finish. (30 seconds rest, 10 reps) 400-yard gassers: Sprint length of football field (100 yards), touch line and return to start, touch line and sprint back, touch line and sprint back to start (400 yards total)

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DAY 4: BACK AND EVENING CONDITIONING SESSION: Deadlifts: 10 x 10 Chin-ups: Assisted if needed 4 x 25 Wide-grip cable row: 4 x 25 Wide-grip pulldown: 4 x 25 Single-arm dumbbell row: 4 x 25 Evening conditioning session: Sled pull or push: Max intensity for 12-15 seconds (45 seconds rest, 10 reps) 40-yard hill sprints or stairs: 10 reps at max intensity

DAY 5: SHOULDERS AND EVENING CONDITIONING: Dumbbell lateral raise: 4 x 25 Military press: 4 x 25 Dumbbell press: 4 x 25 Prone position straight-bar front raise: 4 x 25 Rear delt flies: 4 x 25 EVENING CONDITIONING SESSION: Car push, release and sprint: Good power stance behind a car in neutral. Using good flat back and leg drive for push car at max intensity for 15 seconds. When timer says GO, you release from behind the car and sprint all out for 40 yards. 2 minutes rest, 10 reps.

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FitRx TRAINING For more information on AML PREWORKOUT, visit www.advancedmolecularlabs.com

DAY 6: CORE WORKOUT AND HIIT SESSION Decline bench sit-ups: 4 x 25 Incline bench reverse crunch: 4 x 25 Inverted wipers (obliques) 4 x 25 High knees on dip bars: 4 sets, 60 seconds Deadmill sprints on treadmill: Max intensity for 15 seconds, 45 seconds rest (15 reps)

DAY 7: NFL CONDITIONING TEST 16 x 110 test: This is basically the standard conditioning test for division 1 and NFL football players. 16 x 110 yard sprints in sub 15 seconds, with 40 seconds between each sprint. It is brutal.

SHOT ON LOCATION AT STONY BROOK UNIVERSITY, STONY BROOK, LONG ISLAND, NY AND BEV FRANCIS POWERHOUSE GYM, SYOSSET, NY 56

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CUTTING-EDGE

BY VICTOR R. PRISK, M.D.

NEW STUDY FINDS THAT SATURATED FAT IS NOT LINKED TO HEART DISEASE, BUT IS IT JUST SHAKY SCIENCE?

THE BIG For decades, we have been told to avoid the saturated fat found in meat, dairy and processed foods. In the 1980s, all fats were viliďŹ ed for causing the high rates of heart disease in the western world. Politics and public policy led to campaigns to reduce the fat content of our foods. Consumption of saturated fats did in fact decline in the US, but did the rates of heart disease plummet? Did we become healthier? The answer is no. The rates of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and heart disease continued to rise almost exponentially. But, why? What went wrong?

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FAT SHUTTERSTOCK

NEW FINDINGS ON FAT

Recent studies have begun to shed some light on how the public policies, politics and manufacturing agendas led to this failure. Much of the politics and scientific bias has recently been exposed in an article in the Wall Street Journal titled, “Fat Reconsidered: The Questionable Link Between Saturated Fat and Heart Disease.”1 The origination of the “no-fat fad” of the 1980s was a study performed by Dr. Ancel Keys called the Seven Countries Study.2 This study demonstrated that death rates from coronary artery disease in 16 different cohorts were

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directly associated with higher levels of dietary saturated fat intake. This study poured a flame on research, exploring the role of dietary fats and cholesterol in heart disease. It also shaped public policy, leading to a reduction in the saturated fat content of processed foods. Unfortunately, Keys’ study had many confounding variables and should not have been interpreted as anything more than a hypothesis-gathering exercise.3 A recent study in the Annals of Internal Medicine concluded that saturated fat in our diet may not directly cause heart disease.4 The study involved a systematic review and metaanalysis of prospective observational

studies and randomized, controlled trials that explored the role of dietary intake and blood levels of various fats in the risk of coronary artery disease. The study made a number of conclusions: 1. Replacing saturated fats with omega-6 polyunsaturated fats like those found in corn oil did not significantly reduce the risk of heart disease. 2. Long-chain omega-3 (EPA and DHA; fish oils) and omega-6 (arachidonic acid) polyunsaturated fatty acids in the blood may provide a protective effect against heart disease. 3. Supplemental long-chain omega3s and omega-6s do not necessarily correlate with reduced risk of heart

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CUTTING-EDGE A RECENT STUDY IN THE ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE CONCLUDED THAT SATURATED FAT IN OUR DIET MAY NOT DIRECTLY CAUSE HEART DISEASE.

heart disease problem. This is so clear that public policy has already changed to basically outlaw the addition of trans fats to processed foods. However, we have been slow to realize the consequence of replacing fat with sugar. During the “nofat fad” of the 1980s, the sugar content of foods increased exponentially. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and other cheap forms of processed sugars rapidly made their way into our foodstuffs and we stuffed our faces with sugar. Since the 1980s, the rates of metabolic syndrome have been on the rise. Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a number of conditions5: 1. Accumulation of fat in the abdomen. “Visceral fat,” as this is called, correlates with high rates of heart disease and mortality. 2. Dyslipidemias. This is having more bad cholesterol (LDL), less good cholesterol (HDL) and higher triglycerides in your blood. Elevated LDL and triglycerides directly correlate to increased heart disease risk. 3. Hypertension. High blood pressure correlates well to cardiovascular disease risk. 4. Insulin resistance. Elevated fasting blood glucose levels that lead to “caramelization” of proteins (glycation) with damaging increases in inflammation. The so-called toxicity of sugar. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. These are conditions that are largely due to lifestyle. Sedentary lifestyles, high-calorie diets and chronic stress all lead to the pathophysiologic changes of metabolic syndrome. We all know that we need to exercise more and reduce our daily stress, but why hasn’t reducing fats in our diets reduced the rates of metabolic syndrome? In a majority of studies on the detrimental effects of disease (recognized need for ongoing research). saturated fats, scientists failed to control for the one factor that 4. Studies looking into the correlations between dietary affects your physiology the most: sugar! Interestingly, when saturated fat intake and blood markers of saturated fats did not subjects in a study consumed a low-carbohydrate diet (<50g show a direct correlation with heart disease risk. of carbs) with higher than normal intake of saturated fats, their 5. The type of circulating saturated fat matters in risk of saturated fat levels in their blood did not increase6! heart disease (we will expand on this). 6. Monounsaturated fatty acids such as those found in nuts, VARYING EFFECTS This brings us to some very interesting data about various avocados and olive oil did not correlate with any significant types of saturated fats. All fats are not created equal. This has reductions or elevations of heart disease risk. been abundantly clear with regards to trans fats and omega-3 7. Dietary trans fatty acid intake (hydrogenated vegetable fats, but many people do not realize that there are different oils) does correlate with increased risk of heart disease. types of saturated fat that can affect our physiology in different As you can guess, this study has turned the nutrition ways. policy establishment upside down. If this study is right, why When we consume sugars like high fructose corn is it that so many studies in the past have shown mechanistic syrup or even alcohol, our livers convert the excess into a correlation of dietary saturated fat with heart disease? For instance, many studies of heart disease in animals have shown saturated fat called palmitic acid, which further converts to a direct correlation of saturated fat and cholesterol intake with palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7). Palmitoleic acid in the blood is largely due to synthesis by the liver, as it is rarely found in heart disease. In fact, many other studies have correlated the our food. Elevated levels of palmitoleic acid in the blood have intake of saturated fat rich meats and increased risk of heart correlated well to a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome disease. in adults.7 Interestingly, a glucose bolus can produce an 8 Are we missing the forest for the trees? percent increase in liver synthesis of fats after fasting, but if 50

TRANS FATS ARE NOT THE ANSWER By focusing so much on saturated fats, we may be missing the big picture. When health policy changed to recommend reductions in saturated fat content of our foods, what did we replace these scrumptious fats with? Since fat gives flavor and palatability to food, we replaced that saturated fat with equally flavorsome partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (trans fats) and sugar. As the previously mentioned study showed, it is very clear that trans fats were the wrong solution to our

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CUTTING-EDGE DURING THE “NO-FAT FAD” OF THE 1980S, THE SUGAR CONTENT OF FOODS INCREASED EXPONENTIALLY.

sodium content leading to increases in blood pressure and high sugar content leading to insulin resistance both contribute to metabolic syndrome after consumption of processed meats. When it comes to meats, two compounds may be more detrimental than the saturated fat content of the meat: carnitine and heterocyclic amines (HCAs). Recent studies have demonstrated that carnitine from meat can be converted to a substance called TMAO (Trimethylamine-N-oxide). Carnitine in meat can be converted to trimethylamine in the gut by bacteria that are specifically found in the guts of those who eat meat. TMAO is produced from trimethylamine in the liver and its levels in the blood have been positively correlated to increased risk of cardiovascular disease regardless of saturated fat content.11 Furthermore, high temperature cooking of meat, as in grilling, leads to the production of HCAs that are considered carcinogenic (cancer causing).12

FACTORING IN FAT Classically, saturated fats in the diet have been correlated to higher rates of heart disease. Only recently has the scientific literature begun an assault on these assertions. Some of this assault may even be meat and dairy lobby driven. The American Heart Association currently recommends limiting your dietary intake of saturated fats to less than 7 percent of your daily calories.13 Until the jury is out, it would probably be best to focus on limiting your saturated fat intake and focus on including healthy polyunsaturated fats like those percent of that glucose is fructose instead, the liver increases found in fish and monounsaturated fats found in virgin olive fat synthesis by 17 percent; that is more than double the fat oil and nuts. Take your probiotics to keep your gut filled with production8! HFCS makes you fatter. happy bugs that process your food into healthy short-chain Studies are showing that polyunsaturated fat content in your fatty acids instead of TMAO. Lastly, by limiting your sugar and cell membranes and circulating triglycerides may actually carbohydrate intake, you may find that your triglyceride levels be beneficial in limiting inflammation, especially in a lowand cardiac risk factors decrease regardless of your saturated carbohydrate diet.6 It is still true that even in low-carbohydrate fat intake. diets polyunsaturated fatty acids may be more beneficial than a carbohydrate-restricted diet high in saturated fats.

FATS FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS Another type of saturated fat that appears to have a counterintuitive effect is the saturated fats obtained from dairy products. The CARDIA study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2002 showed that consumption of at least 35 servings per week of dairy decreased the odds of developing metabolic syndrome by 72 percent over those consuming less than 10 servings per week.9 Although this effect may be in part due to the calcium, vitamin D or amino acid components of dairy, the fats found in dairy seem to be a little special. In the study by Chowdhury et al., they noted that there was an inverse association to circulating levels of margaric acid (a saturated fat, 17:0) and coronary artery disease.4 Margaric acid is a saturated fatty acid that is moderately correlated with consumption of dairy products, as is the fatty acid pentadecanoic acid (15:0). These two odd chain saturated fatty acids actually seem to be beneficial in limiting cardiovascular disease. As you can see, it is probably not just the saturated fat in itself that leads to the increased risk of heart disease observed in some studies. Foods that contain carbohydrates or other chemical byproducts of manufacturing may be more problematic. Recent studies of high-protein diets suggest that they may be cancer causing or life-shortening, but they fail to recognize the byproducts of food manufacturing and processed sugars in the development of disease.10 High

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References: 1. Teicholz N. Fat Reconsidered. WSJ May 3-4 2014. 2. Kromhout D, et al. Dietary saturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: the Seven Countries Study. Prev Med. 1995 May;24(3):308–15. 3. Astrup A, et al. The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010? Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Apr;93(4):684-8 4. Chowdhury R, et al. Association of dietary, circulating, and supplement fatty acids with coronary risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Mar 18;160(6):398-406. 5. Grundy SM. Metabolic syndrome: a multiplex cardiovascular risk factor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007:92(2):399-404. 6. Forsythe CE, et al. Limited effect of dietary saturated fat on plasma saturated fat in the context of a low carbohydrate diet. Lipids. 2010 Oct;45(10):947-62 7. Warensjö E, et al. Fatty acid composition of serum lipids predicts the development of the metabolic syndrome in men. Diabetologia. 2005 Oct;48(10):1999-2005 8. Parks Ej, et al. Dietary sugars stimulate fatty acid synthesis in adults. J Nutr. 2008 Jun;138(6):1039-46. 9. Pereira MA, et al. Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA Study. JAMA. 2002 Apr 24;287(16):2081-9. 10. Levine ME, et al. Low protein intake is associated with a major reduction in IGF-1, cancer, and overall mortality in the 65 and younger but not older population. Cell Metab. 2014 Mar 4;19(3):407-17 11. Koeth RA, et al. Intestinal microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine, a nutrient in red meat, promotes atherosclerosis. Nat Med. 2013 May;19(5):576-85. 12. Abid Z, et al. Meat, dairy, and cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 May 21 13. www.heart.org

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BIGGER, STRONGER ARMS

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Big and powerful-looking arms are the first things most people notice about a well-developed physique. A huge pair of guns tells the world you mean business. When your pumped biceps and carved triceps explode out of a T-shirt or flow like rivers of boulders from a tank top, it makes a statement about the hard work and dedication one puts into the gym. And let’s face it— you can dress lightly and always look good.

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Big, muscular arms are a coveted asset, but a lot of guys fail to get the results they want. Guys want some serious “pipes” oozing from their upper body, not twigs or bony biceps. That’s why FitnessRx for Men examined the science behind what it really takes to get big guns. The result? We put together a workout featuring the 12 best lifts for bigger, stronger arms so you can finally achieve the results you want.

THE SCIENCE ON BIGGER ARMS Science suggests that high-speed eccentric training is the way to go to produce rapid results. Fast eccentrics create more muscle tension, and negatives or eccentric muscle contractions create more muscle tension than any other form of exercise. To build big guns, it’s essential to incorporate exercises that use concentric, eccentric and static muscle contractions in a training program, as this will result in the greatest training adaptation. Conventional weight-training moves like curls allow you to lower more weight than you can push while lifting. More muscle tension is created

SEATED ALTERNATE INCLINE DUMBBELL CURLS. While seated on an incline bench, grasp the dumbbells using a supine grip (palms up). Begin with arms extended, bend your arm until the weight approaches your shoulders, then return to the starting position and repeat with the other arm. Swinging the weights or bending your back while doing dumbbell curls will make the exercise less effective.

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by contracting the muscle eccentrically (lowering the weight) than contracting them concentrically (pushing the weight). Since concentric exercises produce the greatest changes in concentric strength, and eccentric exercises produce the greatest changes in eccentric strength, the best and most effective weight-training program incorporates exercises that use concentric and eccentric muscle contractions, because this will cause the greatest training adaptation. Measureable changes in muscle sizes can take weeks. After weight training, muscle cells go into overdrive repairing the damage caused by weight training and make new proteins so that the muscle is strengthened and able to withstand additional stress. Muscle growth can take weeks because muscle size reflects the balance between making new protein and breaking down old protein. The breakdown of muscle is increased after a heavy workout, often exceeding the rate of protein synthesis. Catabolic hormones and anti-growth factors, such as myostatin, speed the rate of muscle breakdown following exercise. In order to build muscle, you want to speed the rate of muscle hypertrophy while slowing the rate of muscle breakdown. This is where fast-speed eccentrics comes into play. This type of training works because it produces high muscle tension during the workout. But it’s important to remember that rest and nutrition are also essential for growth. In order to get the most out of your arm training, an understanding of the difference between fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibers is important. Muscle fibers are defined as either fast-twitch

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or slow-twitch depending on their strength, speed of contraction and endurance. Slow-twitch fibers have good endurance, but are slow and weak, while fast-twitch fibers are able to contract rapidly and forcefully, but fatigue quickly. Your nervous system will select muscle fibers depending on the intensity and speed of the movement task. Small, low-force endurance movements will call on slow fibers (like jogging slowly) and fast fibers are needed for

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FitRx TRAINING ELECTROMYOGRAPHY (EMG) IS A TOOL USED BY SCIENTISTS WHICH MEASURES THE ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE MUSCLES AND SHOWS HOW MUCH THE MUSCLES WORK DURING SPECIFIC EXERCISES.

quick forceful movements (like high-intensity weighttraining exercises). In weight training, the number of sets and reps in your program will determine which fiber types you use during training. Most studies on weight training have shown that the typical program that involves three sets of four to 10 reps will build mainly fast-twitch fibers. On the other hand, exercising while extremely tired or doing more than eight reps focuses on slowtwitch fibers. You can build both fast- and slow-twitch fibers by including both high-resistance (high muscle tension) and high-endurance sets in your training program. For maximum growth, it should be your goal to stress all motor units— and that means including high-intensity and high-rep sets.

STANDING CABLE TRICEPS PUSHDOWNS. With an overhand grip, grasp cable attachment with elbows at your side. Initiate the movement with elbows at your sides and your hands just about at chest level. Push down until triceps are fully contracted.

USE CAUTION High-speed eccentric training is an effective way to encourage results, but as with all advanced training methods, it’s important to use caution in order to avoid injury. It’s best to progress slowly and start off with lighter weights, especially if you are a beginner. Limit high-speed eccentric training to once a week and be sure to include all elements in your program that will help promote muscle hypertrophy, include dietary protein timing and quantity, caloric intake, rest and avoid overtraining.

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SURPRISING BENEFITS OF WEIGHT TRAINING Here’s an overview of a few studies that show that weight training has other benefits besides just building big arms. Reduces Ab Fat and Inflammation. A review of literature by Harvard University researchers concluded that weight training reduces abdominal fat and inflammation and increases muscle mass. Although weight training may not burn as many calories as a cardio workout, muscle mass is an important measure of blood sugar control. In middle-aged and older adults, weight training has been shown to preserve muscle mass, prevent abdominal fat accumulation and decrease inflammation. (Obesity Reviews, published online March 2, 2012) Decreases Blood Cell Oxidative Stress. Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals linked to DNA damage, depressed immunity, muscle damage and fatigue. Antioxidants help to neutralize these destructive chemicals. Iranian scientists found that an eightweek weight-training program increased antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase), which means that weight training can help protect blood cells against free radical damage and improve metabolic health. (International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 23: 230-236, 2013) Prolongs Muscle Protein Synthesis. British scientists, in a review of literature, found that weight training may prolong protein synthesis for 24 hours or more. In comparison, consuming a high-protein meal turns on protein synthesis for just about 1.5 hours, after which protein synthesis stalls. (Journal of Physiology, 590: 1049-1057, 2012) Weight Training Is Medicine. Wayne Wescott from Quincy College in Massachusetts, in a review of literature, concluded that weight training increases lean mass and metabolic rate, and decreases body fat in middleaged and older adults. It has also been shown to improve physical performance, walking speed,

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quality of life, mental function and self-esteem. (Current Sports Medicine Reports, 11: 209-216, 2012) Improved Blood Sugar Control. Muscle accounts for 42 percent or more of the total body mass in men, so it is an important tissue for regulating blood sugar. Arizona State University researchers studied the effects of weight training intensity and volume on blood sugar control in adult men and women (average age about 30) with slightly elevated resting blood sugar levels (100-125 mg/ dL). The researchers found that high-intensity, multiple-set weight training controlled resting blood sugar better than single-set, lowintensity workouts. Blood sugar was lower without affecting blood insulin, which showed that weight training may be an important and effective way to help control blood sugar. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 24: 11091116, 2010)

SKULL-CRUSHERS. Lie on a bench, grasping an EZ bar using a pronated grip (palms down), hands six to 12 inches apart. Push the weight above your chest until your arms are extended (starting position). Keeping your elbows in a fixed position, carefully lower the weight until it touches your forehead, then push the weight back to the starting position. Use a spotter for this exercise.

TRAINING METHODS In order to achieve results fast, consider implementing a few common training methods that are effective for building muscle. • Unilateral Training. This means working one side of the body at a time, which can help to isolate the muscle better than training both sides of the body at once (known as bilateral training). In fact, muscle during unilateral training can be at least 50 to 100 percent greater than in bilateral training, and this helps to promote protein synthesis and muscle growth, improve muscle symmetry, and correct strength or mass differences between arms. • Supersets. This means combining two or more exercises in succession. When using this method you can do complementary exercises, such as dumbbell and barbell biceps curls, or exercises that are opposite, such as standing cable triceps pushdowns and reversegrip triceps pushdowns like you’ll see in this workout. Rest intervals between exercises should not be more than 30 seconds.

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FitRx TRAINING WEIGHTED BENCH DIPS. Place two flat benches parallel to each other, spaced three to four feet apart (depending on your leg length). Have a spotter put a weight on your lap. Place your hands shoulder-width apart on the edge of one of the benches, and your feet on the other bench. Face toward the ceiling with your elbows and legs fully extended. Lower yourself by slowly bending your elbows, then push up until you reach the starting position.

REVERSE-GRIP TRICEPS PUSHDOWNS. With a reverse grip (palm facing up) on a high cable pulley, extend the arm all the way down to lockout. SINGLE-ARM CABLE TRICEPS PUSHDOWNS. Grasping the dumbbell cable attachment with an underhand grip, extend the arm down, and return so that your forearm is close to your upper arm. Repeat.

• Paused Reps. This involves resting for 15 seconds, with the muscles loaded, once or twice in the middle of the set. This method allows your muscles to recover rapidly by replenishing high-energy chemicals adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP), which provide energy during intense muscle contractions. As a result, your muscles will be able to do more reps, work harder and grow faster. • Drop Sets. This means doing as many reps as you can, then immediately decreasing the weight by 10 to percent and doing a few more reps. After that, you use even less weight and do as many reps as you can. It is best to use this method during the last set of an exercise, and to keep going until you can’t do anymore reps. This is a difficult but effective method for building muscle.

THE BEST LIFTS WORKOUT We selected 12 best lifts exercises based on their ability to isolate and build specific muscles. Electromyography (EMG) is a tool used by scientists which measures the electrical activity of the muscles and shows how much the muscles work during specific exercises. Scientists record EMG by placing electrodes over a muscle belly, and the harder the muscle works, the greater the electricity measured on the EMG. Using EMG on key muscle groups, scientists can determine which exercises are best for activating muscles and building size, strength and definition. Using this knowledge, we created a workout with the 12 best lifts to get bigger, stronger arms. In record time, this workout will help you build muscle like you never have before as you maximize the release of anabolic hormones such as testosterone, IGF-1 and growth hormone.

BICEPS

TRICEPS

• 12 to 15 sets of 8 to 15 reps

• 12 to 15 sets of 8 to 15 reps

BARBELL CURLS

SKULL-CRUSHERS

SEATED CLOSE-GRIP EZ BAR PREACHER CURLS

STANDING CABLE TRICEPS PUSHDOWNS Superset with reverse-grip triceps pushdowns

SEATED ALTERNATE INCLINE DUMBBELL CURLS Then choose either (can vary each workout session): ONE-ARM PREACHER CURLS ONE-ARM CABLE CURLS STANDING TWO-ARM OVERHEAD BICEPS CABLE Curls can be done either at the beginning or as a finisher.

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WEIGHTED BENCH DIPS STANDING CABLE TRICEPS PUSHDOWNS Superset with reverse-grip pushdowns OVERHEAD ROPE TRICEPS EXTENSIONS SINGLE-ARM CABLE TRICEPS PUSHDOWNS

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OVERHEAD ROPE TRICEPS EXTENSIONS. Attach a rope to the bottom of the pulley machine. With your back toward the pulley machine, hold the rope with a neutral grip. Stretch your arms straight above your head, keeping elbows near your head. Lower the rope slowly behind your head and the upper arms stay still, and repeat.

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FitRx TRAINING

Get Ripped To Shreds

THE ULTIMATE V-TAPER WORKOUT WITH IFBB MEN’S PHYSIQUE PRO SADIK HADZOVIC BY JOE PIETARO PHOTOGRAPHY BY GREGORY JAMES

The humming of the car engine is the only sound to be heard, and even that seems to fade into the background as he straps on the seatbelt. The audible clicking noise also passes without notice, as the driver slips the car into gear and is off to his destination. A quick glance at the clock illuminating from the dashboard shows the same time that it did the previous day and will do so tomorrow, as well: 6:00 a.m., and the commute is filled with deep thought and concentration on what needs to be done once arriving. No radio playing, no cell phone glancing … nothing but him and what is going on in his head. As Sadik Hadzovic pulls into an available spot in the parking lot, he shuts the car off, grabs his bag and closes the door on what was his mobile meditation machine. He is mentally prepared to take care of what needs to be taken care of, and enters the location— Powerhouse Gym in Syosset, New York. The place is not known as the East Coast Mecca for nothing, and owners Steve Weinberger and Bev Francis may have given their members the tools, but it is up to them to utilize those tools individually for success. The locker room and its unforgiving mirrors tell the

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complete story and Hadzovic quickly surveys himself as FBB Men’s he changes into his workout attire. One of the IFBB r, and he Physique Division pro’s attributes is his V-taper, anel while angles himself in order to be his own judge’s panel ed glass. monitoring the reflection given off by the buffed y means Yes, he may like what he sees. But that hardly that it is time to rest on one’s laurels. Quite the opposite— ly ritual, Hadzovic is here for merely Part One of his daily dio session which consists of a fasted 35- to 40-minute cardio ur weightbefore going to his day job, and then a two-hour training marathon in the evening. So in order to keep one of his strengths an advantage ee over the competition, Hadzovic uses one of three nd machines— StepMill, SHREDmill or Cybex— and alternates between them. “By the time that I’m done, I’m completely drenched (in perspiration) and so is the machine,” he says. After putting in an eight-hour day at a real estate office e and the in Park Slope, Brooklyn, it’s back to Powerhouse as been second stanza. To get the V-taper look that he has als, back and able to obtain, that means hitting his abdominals, shoulders takes on added value.

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FitRx TRAINING ABS

Hadzovic subscribes to the theory that it’s better to “go heavy and hard” when it comes to working your abs, and not performing just bodyweight movements for an endless amount of repetitions. “To create dense abs, you need to use heavy weight,” the Flushing, New York native says. “And as far as people saying that using heavy weight will make them appear blockier, I really don’t believe that the abs respond that much.” Although he does vary his exercises from time to time, Hadzovic spoke about some staple movements that have improved his overall abdominal development over the years.

EXERCISE 1 – HANGING LEG RAISES (3 sets, 10 reps) “This is an exercise that a lot of people do wrong by swinging and using their momentum,” he explains. “I try to do 10 perfect reps by controlling my core and inhaling on the way down and exhaling on the way up.”

When asked about others saying that the only way to engage the lower abs with this exercise is by going toes to bar, Hadzovic didn’t hesitate by responding, “Bullshit … you feel it (by going only 90 degrees with your legs). The proof is in the pudding. If your lower abs are not sore, that’s when you’re not doing them properly. Want proof? Come see me in the gym and watch me do them. “When you go toes to bar, you’re actually focusing more on your forearms and (upper) arms to move the abs,” he continues. “Science says it doesn’t work? Well, fuck science; if it works, you’ll feel it. I see guys all of the time in the gym using shitty form and they are jacked.”

EXERCISE 2 – ROPE CRUNCHES (3 sets, 10-15 reps) “The amount of weight that I usually start off with is 90 pounds and go up 10 more each set,” says Hadzovic. “But as soon as I feel my lower back or arms activated, I know it’s too heavy and will go down.” By taking in a deep breath before his first rep, Hadzovic stretches out his entire rib cage and that goes a long way for a pronounced V-taper. He exhales on the way down and is sure to use the mindmuscle connection here. Years ago, he hadn’t adopted that so very important principle yet and felt it more in his secondary muscles. “If I don’t feel it in my abs with the first two reps, I stop and readjust.”

HADZOVIC SUBSCRIBES TO THE THEORY THAT IT’S BETTER TO “GO HEAVY AND HARD” WHEN IT COMES TO WORKING YOUR ABS, AND NOT PERFORMING JUST BODYWEIGHT MOVEMENTS FOR AN ENDLESS AMOUNT OF REPETITIONS. 72

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EXERCISE 3 – SINGLE ROPE CRUNCHES (3-4 sets, 10-15 reps) This is a movement that Hadzovic uses to isolate his oblique muscles and does a very concentrated, short (two to three inches) range of motion with 40 pounds in his first set. “I know that I’m doing them correctly when I get this almost weird feeling in my obliques, like they’re shifting and touching,” the 2012 New York Pro winner says.

SADIK HADZOVIC WORKOUT EXERCISE 4 – V-UPS (3-4 sets, 25 reps) His medial abs are the target here and Hadzovic uses a higher rep range since he is only using his bodyweight.

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DAY 1 – Legs Day 2 – Chest, Abs Day 3 – Back Day 4 – Shoulders

Hadzovic trains seven days a week, 365 days a year and does not miss a day in the gym unless there is a dire emergency. He repeats this four-day plan and will train his arms only once a month, if at all. When he began hitting the gym seriously, his guns were out of proportion with the rest of his body for a reason fairly common with people when they first discover weight training. “When I was a kid, the only exercise that I knew was bicep curls,” he recalls with a laugh. As far as cardio goes, Hadzovic will perform it for 45 minutes six times a week heading into a contest and three times (for 30 minutes) during the off-season.

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FitRx TRAINING EXERCISE 5 – DRAGON FLAGS (3 sets, varying reps) Used on occasion as a finishing movement, Hadzovic is more concerned with time under tension and performing the reps strictly than a sloppy high rep count. This is the exercise made famous by Sylvester Stallone in “Rocky IV” and is a difficult one, indeed.

BACK EXERCISE 1 – PULL-UPS (2-3 sets, 10 reps) This is the perfect exercise to do as a warmup for a brutal lat routine, and Hadzovic always kicks things off by doing these with perfect form, never allowing his body to swing. He also uses a full range of motion and allows himself to hang all the way at the bottom, stretching out his entire body.

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EXERCISE 2 – LAT PULLDOWNS (4 sets, 14-16 reps) With so many options available, Hadzovic takes advantage of the multiple handles and grips to use with this exercise and rotates a number of them. “I always keep my body guessing,” he says. “As a pro, you have to try to target muscles that are uncommon to hit.” He starts off with 100 pounds, goes up to 190, then 240 before dropping it back down to 190. But the key detail here is that while performing each rep, Hadzovic simulates his back pose onstage, again utilizing the mind-muscle connection and flaring out his lats.

“I ALWAYS KEEP MY BODY GUESSING. AS A PRO, YOU HAVE TO TRY TO TARGET MUSCLES THAT ARE UNCOMMON TO HIT.”

EXERCISE 3 – BENT-OVER BARBELL ROWS (2-3 sets of each, 12 reps) With this staple exercise, Hadzovic starts out with an overhand grip to build the overall width in his back and get a good stretch. Then he’ll switch to the underhand grip and uses the same weight for both versions— 135, 225 and finally 275 pounds.

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FitRx TRAINING SHOULDERS EXERCISE 1 – SIDE LATERAL RAISES (4 sets, 6-12 reps) Every delt workout begins and ends with the same movement and Hadzovic alternates between doing them seated and standing. As a warm-up, he will use 30-pound dumbbells for 12 reps and move up 10 pounds each set, finishing up with 60s for six reps. And then at the end of the day, he will do the opposite— start off heavier and work his way down the dumbbell rack. “When you do them seated, it’s more isolated. So if it’s efficiency you’re looking for, that’s the way to go,” he adds.

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FitRx TRAINING EXERCISE 2 – SEATED DUMBBELL PRESSES (4 sets, 8-12 reps) Since he trains without a partner, Hadzovic prefers using dumbbells over a barbell for this movement, one in which he uses 45s, 70s, 90s and then back to the 70s. “By using the dumbbells, I can still do a set to failure and have the option to drop them to the ground one by one,” the Fitness Management Group sponsored athlete says with a smile. “Going to failure with a barbell is a little trickier.”

EXERCISE 3 – SIDE CABLE RAISES (3-4 sets, 12-15 reps) This isolation movement can be done two different ways and Hadzovic takes advantage of both. He prefers to do them with the cable behind his body, which gives him a longer range of motion and is a more natural position to activate the medial deltoid. By switching the cable position and doing them in front of your body, you will hit the front delt more.

Preferring to perform this movement on the reverse pec dec machine, Hadzovic also chooses to lean into it on an angle as opposed to sitting. “I always do drop down sets for these,” he tells us. “The same weight for all four sets, too. I start out with 100 pounds for 15 reps, then drop it to 40 pounds and do 15 more.”

Getting a V-taper like Hadzovic will not happen overnight and he wasn’t born with his, either. It takes a lot of hard work in the gym and doing the types of exercises that will enhance it, giving your body the appearance that all of us long for. Hadzovic has proven that he has what it takes— physically and mentally— to get there. Now it’s your turn…

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GYM LOCATION: BEV FRANCIS POWERHOUSE GYM CLOTHING: SHIRT- NPC, SHORTS- MONSTA

EXERCISE 4 – REAR DELTS (4 drop down sets, 30 total reps)

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SADIK HADZOVIC CONTEST HISTORY 2014 New York Pro – 2nd 2013 Olympia – 4th 2013 New York Pro – 1st 2013 Pittsburgh Pro – 4th 2013 Europa Show of Champions – 2nd 2012 Houston Pro – 4th 2012 Valenti Gold Cup – 1st 2012 Orange County Muscle Classic – 2nd 2012 Greater Gulf States Pro – 2nd

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FitRxCoolDOWN

CARDIO BURN ● BY LISA STEUER

TRAINING WITH OLYMPIC MEDALIST RYAN BAILEY

Ryan Bailey’s story could have ended up quite differently. Just seven years ago, the 25-year-old Olympic athlete was living out of a car with his mom and making friends with the wrong crowd. “I kinda grew up in a rough neighborhood; gangs were pretty normal for kids my age,” said Ryan, an EPIQ-sponsored athlete who earned a silver medal in the 4x100-meter relay at the 2012 London Olympics. “As I got older and things started happening to me, I realized that wasn’t the life that I wanted to live. Football and track helped me distance myself from the people I was hanging out with.” And now, with one of the world’s fastest times in the 100-meter sprint (9.88 seconds), the Oregon native is viewed as one of the future stars of USA track and field, and despite some recent injuries is determined to reach even bigger goals.

LIVING A DREAM Of course, just getting to the Olympics in 2012 was a dream come true for Ryan, who added that it was just a stepping to his ultimate dream of winning a gold medal. “To actually make the Olympic team, it was huge for me. I had a lot of injuries that year… so expectations going into the Olympic trials weren’t too high for myself. And actually competing and getting the silver medal in the relay, it was just amazing, I can’t even describe it in words; it was something I’ve dreamt of and then finally living out that dream was

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just absolutely amazing.” And despite some injuries in recent years, Ryan continues on towards his goals. In fact, Ryan was running on a fractured heal bone during the 2012 Olympics. Then in 2013, Ryan pulled a hamstring while training for the USA Outdoor Track & Field Championships in June, missing a chance to qualify for the IAAF World Championships in Moscow, which were held in August. “I pretty much had to take five weeks off of doing almost nothing. And so that set me back quite a bit. I lost almost all my fitness and the speed work we were doing, so I had to start from scratch and start over,” said Ryan. “There’s really nothing you can do on the track [when you pull a hamstring]. You can do jogging or something like that maybe. It’s best to just rest it and then give it the time to heal.”

SPRINTS AND WEIGHT TRAINING As far as Ryan’s training goes, it involves both sprints and weights. Weight training is important for sprinters because it’s an intense and explosive activity that requires physical strength. “Everything you do in the weight room has to translate to the track. So if you’re doing power cleans, that’s a real explosive lift so that’s going to help you in your block starts,” Ryan explained. “Pretty much everything you do has to relate to explosiveness, strength and intensity, so it’s best to work the weights around that.” Some of the exercises Ryan does in his training include power cleans, snatches, squats and a variety of upper body lifts. Another move is holding dumbbells in each hand and swinging your arms around like you are racing, and varying the duration and intensity of the move. “A week before the Olympics we were still lifting; we were still in the weight room.” Of course, a lot of his speed training revolves around sprints. “It’s really all about the workouts that you do,” said Ryan. “With my coach now, we do a lot of speed work, we do a lot of 60-meter sprints, 40-meter sprints, 30-meter sprints, just working on leg speed.” Ryan’s workout routine will also change depending on what time of the year it is. “Early in the year we LOOKING FORWARD do a lot of longer stuff,” he explained. “We’ll do park Ryan’s story is inspirational not just for athletes, but for anyone who wants workouts— running almost a mile or we’ll run long to reach their dreams despite life’s circumstance. “Stick to what you’re hills or different stuff and we’ll go to the beach and do doing,” said Ryan, when asked about motivational advice he might have for different beach workouts on the sand.” others. “Don’t give up when people tell you that you can’t do things. I’ve had Once he gets back to the track, “we start doing people tell me I can’t do anything… you just can’t listen to haters. Haters are 400s, 450s, 350s, a lot of longer stuff that we wouldn’t always going to be there no matter what. You just have to prove them wrong.” normally do while we’re about to race in two weeks. So once you get close to the season, that’s when you SPRINTING WORKOUTS shorten everything down to get your nervous system Sprinting is a great way to burn fat fast. Here are two great ideas for firing.” incorporating sprints and running into your workout routine. And if it was a championship year, like an Olympics year for instance, the athlete obviously wants to peak SIMPLE INTERVAL RUN: Run at 90 percent effort for two minutes followed at a certain time to make the team and also at the by one minute of slow walking. Repeat this sequence 10 times, totaling games. But this year, with no major championships, 30 minutes of interval running. it’s about remaining consistent, said Ryan. “You’re just trying to run a good, consistent time and pretty FAT-BURNING INTERVAL WORKOUT: If you are interested in building muscle much stay healthy and just take it as a learning year— power and losing fat, it is a good idea to stick to interval ranges between learning your body, learning new things. If you’re 100 and 400 meters (this means running 400 meters, resting, running going to change something in training, this would be another 400 meters, etc.). For this workout, run the straightaways (400 the year to do it.” meters each) on the track, and walk the turns (so your sprints will total RYAN’S SUPPLEMENT STACK 800 meters with one time around the track). Build up gradually until • EPIQ SHRED Non-stimulant Weight Loss you can do eight laps (equal to 16 straightaways). Eventually, you can • EPIQ POWER Pre-Training Amplifier progress to sprinting the straightaways at full speed, and then finally • EPIQ ISOLATE Rapid & Sustained-Release sprinting the straightaways and jogging around the turns. ■ Protein Isolate • EPIQ AMINO Clean Silk Amino & BCAA Matrix For more information on EPIQ supplements, visit www.epiqresults.com.

“You just can’t listen to haters. Haters are always going to be there no matter what. You just have to prove them wrong.”

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FitRxCoolDOWN

CROSSFIT REVOLUTION ● BY

J.C. HERZ

CHOOSING A

CROSSFIT BOX FitnessRx is proud to introduce a new CrossFit column by journalist and author J.C. Herz. J.C.’s most recently published book, Learning to Breathe Fire: The Rise of CrossFit and the Primal Future of Fitness, goes behind the scenes with CrossFit’s founders, stars and everyday enthusiasts to explore the science of why CrossFit works— which mirrors what her column will focus on right here in FitnessRx for Men. We hope you enjoy it!

BIOGRAPHY J.C. Herz (@jcherz) is the author of Learning to Breathe Fire: The Rise of CrossFit and the Primal Future of Fitness (Crown Books), a book about the science and the psychology of physical intensity, and the link between CrossFit’s ritual intensity and the genesis of sport in ancient human society. Learning to Breathe Fire is a proud supporter of TeamRWB.org, a nonprofit dedicated to improving the lives of returning veterans through fitness. JC has also assembled a spirited tribe of CrossFit firebreathers on Learning to Breathe Fire’s Facebook page.

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Ten years ago, if you discovered CrossFit (usually online) and wanted to embrace “constantly varied functional movement, executed at high intensity,” you probably had to cobble together your own garage gym and check the Workout of the Day online. Five years ago, there were CrossFit boxes in converted auto body workshops and warehouses across the country, but it was still an underground phenomenon. Fast forward to 2014, when CrossFit’s worldwide competition attracts more than 200,000 participants and boxes are popping up like mushrooms after a rain. Now the question isn’t “Where can I find a CrossFit gym?” but rather, “There are five CrossFit gyms within three miles of my house— which one should I choose?” The answer to this question is complicated by the variation in CrossFit gyms. Each box is independent and has its own tribal culture, depending on the leadership and coaching style of the owner, the size and location of the facility, and the makeup of the neighborhood. The suburban gym where grade-schoolers cheer on their superfit moms and dads has a very different vibe from the warehouse mega-box that caters to competitive athletes, or the urban CrossFit storefront where 20-somethings hit the local microbrewery after an evening WOD. That said, there are some things to look for, and some red flags to avoid: 1. Look at the online profiles of the coaches and note how long they’ve been coaching— experience isn’t everything, but it matters. Certifications and prior experience can indicate a special interest in barbell training, gymnastics or sports-specific training. 2. Good CrossFit gyms have a beginner’s on-ramp class called “Elements,” “Fundamentals” or something similar. This is where newbies learn the correct form for lifts, barbell swings and other movements that might otherwise injure a rank beginner with no idea of how to safely perform them. If a CrossFit gym lets someone with no experience jump into a WOD, run don’t walk. 3. Visit a class and notice whether the coach gives every athlete feedback during the WOD. Good coaches are always watching the whole group and will give each person at least a couple of cues during a WOD. Mediocre coaches yell “3-2-1 go!” at the beginning, give “atta-boys” to the strongest athletes and only correct the most egregious lapses in form. 4. If the box participates in veterans’ or charity workouts, it’s a good sign that the owners want to foster a sense of belonging and play a positive role in their community. 5. In CrossFit’s early years, it was flamboyantly hardcore— its mascot was “Pukie the Clown.” There were coaches who made a point of displaying their gym’s puke bucket. There are still a few of those dudes rattling around. They’re in the extreme minority. Leave them to wallow in their bro pit— unless you’re into that. 6. Size matters. Large boxes have the space and staff to coach competitive athletes and run seminars on Olympic lifting, gymnastics and nutrition. But no matter how amazing the coaches are and how fantastic the owners are, a hangar-sized mega-box with 600 members will feel less personal and tightly knit than the 3000-square-foot neighborhood box with 200 members. There’s a “Cheers” factor to smaller boxes that’s almost impossible for large training facilities to match. Sometimes you want to go where everybody knows your name— and will cheer as you set a personal record on a front squat.

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FitRxCoolDOWN

FAT ATTACK ●

BY MICHAEL J. RUDOLPH, PH.D.

EVOLVED MUSCLE GROWTH

with Intermittent Fasting The great 20th century geneticist T.G. Dobzhansky once wrote an essay titled “Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution.”1 Without a doubt, the prescient Dr. Dobzhansky was absolutely correct as the concept of evolution by natural selection has tremendously enhanced the field of biology while facilitating some of the most important discoveries in biomedicine. Not surprisingly, the farreaching impact of evolutionary theory doesn’t end there. It also imparts a deeper insight into many divergent aspects of life including the process of muscular growth where, like many revelations uncovered from evolutionary insight, the novel viewpoint gained from looking at muscle growth through the lens of evolution also elucidates unexpected observations. Interestingly, this unexpected insight supports the use of a nutritional protocol once thought to only accelerate weight loss. Yet, evolutionary theory suggests this nutritional strategy also promotes considerable gains in muscularity. So, while I’m sure you’re wondering what this nutritional plan is, let me first explain how the evolutionary analysis of muscle growth supports the use of this nutritional strategy for gaining muscle size. Early humans, living around 100,000 years ago, expended a lot of energy hunting for food. The complexities associated with capturing their food normally led to periods of low food supply. The limited amount of food combined with the high-energy costs from hunting put evolutionary pressure on the genomes of early humans that placed a premium on energy. Because hunting was an effective way to obtain food as an energy source, the muscular system was preferentially supplied energy over many other energyconsuming processes within the body. This continual energy supply to muscle

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AN EXTREMELY EFFECTIVE WAY TO REDUCE LEPTIN, AND BOOST TESTOSTERONE, IS TO REDUCE BODY FAT BY WAY OF INTERMITTENT FASTING. would maintain function of the muscular system and therefore the ability to hunt. The muscular system also responded to this evolutionary pressure from shortterm food scarcity by increasing the anabolic response within muscle tissue especially when food was consumed immediately after the hunt. This enhanced anabolic response would provide the evolutionary benefit of increasing muscle size for improved function of the muscular system and a greater capacity for future hunting. Of course, this would increase the likelihood of capturing food for energy, which improved the chance of survival and the ability to pass these muscleenhancing genes on to the next generation. Seeing that evolution occurs at a very slow rate, modern humans have not changed very much genetically

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relative to early humans. Consequently, just like early humans, modern human genomes also preferentially supply energy to muscle tissue during periodic food shortages while also improving the anabolic response to feeding. Altogether, this unique evolutionary viewpoint claims that the periodic reduction in caloric intake followed by feeding triggers an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that drives greater muscle function and hypertrophy. As a result, modern humans should be able to exploit this nutritional approach, known as intermittent fasting, to heighten muscle size and strength. Interestingly, the consumption of roughly 600 calories per day for two or three days per week followed by normal caloric intake during intermittent fasting has gained in popularity likely because

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it mimics the aforementioned cycling of caloric consumption. Furthermore, several lines of evidence have recently indicated that intermittent fasting triggers weight loss while also improving muscle size and performance2,3 reinforcing the use of this novel weight-loss approach as a way to also gain muscle mass and power.

INTERMITTENT FASTING TRIGGERS AMPK-DRIVEN ENERGY PRODUCTION WITHIN MUSCLE The primary energy-regulating molecule in the body, AMPK, is also the prototypical example of a gene that has been heavily influenced by evolutionary pressure to increase the energy supply within muscle for enhanced function when whole-body energy levels are cyclically low. Again, while it may seem counterproductive to supply energy to muscle tissue when overall energy is low, from an evolutionary perspective it makes perfect sense as muscle tissue enabled early humans the ability to acquire food. Studies have shown that intermittent fasting activates AMPK,4 which then manages to directly increase muscle cell energy by activating energy producing processes such as glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, which supply the muscle with energy. In addition, in response to low energy, AMPK stimulates the translocation of glucose transporters to the muscle-cell membrane, which increases the influx of glucose into the muscle cell where it is converted into energy to sustain muscular function.

ACCENTUATE THE MUSCLE-BUILDING RESPONSE TO INSULIN As previously mentioned, intermittent fasting is an effective way to burn body fat. However, another advantage of intermittent fasting, not usually associated with caloric restriction, is improved muscle growth. This is because intermittent fasting reduces caloric consumption for a brief time, which triggers the evolutionarily-conserved response of muscle anabolism. This muscle-enhancing response occurs, in part, because intermittent fasting, especially when combined with exercise, potently decreases intramuscular fat stores.5 The decrease of fat within muscle tissue has been shown to enhance the muscle cell’s response to the potently anabolic hormone insulin,6 which drastically increases muscle protein synthesis supporting greater muscle growth.7

BOOST TESTOSTERONE TOO! In addition to intermittent fasting promoting the anabolic response to insulin, intermittent fasting also indirectly regulates testosterone levels by modulating the hormone leptin.8 Leptin is a hormone secreted by fat cells that normally functions as a signal to the brain to decrease appetite especially after eating. In addition, recent studies have shown that leptin also has the ability to reduce testosterone production.9,10 In one of these For most of Michael Rudolph’s career he has been engrossed in the exercise world as either an athlete (he played college football at Hofstra University), personal trainer or as a Research Scientist (he earned a B.Sc. in Exercise Science at Hofstra University and a Ph.D. in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from Stony Brook University). After earning his Ph.D., Michael investigated the molecular biology of exercise as a fellow at Harvard Medical School and Columbia University for over eight years. That research contributed seminally to understanding the function of the incredibly important cellular energy sensor AMPK— leading to numerous publications in peer-reviewed journals including the journal Nature. Michael is currently a scientist working at the New York Structural Biology Center doing contract work for the Department of Defense on a project involving national security.

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studies1 it was demonstrated that rats treated with leptin had a diminished testosterone production in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Because hCG mimics the function of the natural testosterone-stimulating substance known as luteinizing hormone (LH), this result implies that leptin inhibits the ability of LH to stimulate testosterone production. Individuals with greater body fat typically have greater levels of circulating leptin.11 An extremely effective way to reduce leptin, and boost testosterone, is to reduce body fat by way of intermittent fasting. This effect was clearly demonstrated in a study12 where intermittent fasting caused a rapid decrease in body fat and circulating leptin levels, which should conceivably boost the production of testosterone for a more anabolic environment that supports superior muscle growth. In conclusion, from an evolutionary perspective intermittent fasting resembles the food-consumption patterns of early humans. This similarity triggers muscle-enhancing mechanisms that have been conserved from early to modern human. Moreover, without the use of evolutionary analysis, the connection between intermittent fasting and muscle growth may never have been so deeply understood. Based on the extraordinary capacity to make this connection I can’t help but wonder if the great T.G. Dobzhansky would agree that perhaps “nothing in bodybuilding makes sense either except in the light of evolution!”

REFERENCES 1. Ayala, F.J. (1977). “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”: Theodosius Dobzhansky: 1900-1975. J Hered 68, 3-10. 2.Harvie, M.N., Pegington, M., Mattson, M.P., Frystyk, J., Dillon, B., Evans, G., Cuzick, J., Jebb, S.A., Martin, B., Cutler, R.G., Son, T.G., Maudsley, S., Carlson, O.D., Egan, J.M., Flyvbjerg, A., and Howell, A. (2011). The effects of intermittent or continuous energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers: a randomized trial in young overweight women. Int J Obes (Lond) 35, 714-727. 3. Rodriguez-Bies, E., Santa-Cruz Calvo, S., Fontan-Lozano, A., Pena Amaro, J., Berral de la Rosa, F.J., Carrion, A.M., Navas, P., and Lopez-Lluch, G. (2010). Muscle physiology changes induced by every other day feeding and endurance exercise in mice: effects on physical performance. PLoS One 5, e13900. 4. Tai, S., Yokota, Y., Tsurumi, Y., Hasegawa, H., Masuhara, M., and Okamura, K. (2010). Effects of short-term refeeding after rapid or slow body mass reduction on body composition in adult rats. Obes Res Clin Pract 4, e163-246. 5. van Loon, L.J., Koopman, R., Stegen, J.H., Wagenmakers, A.J., Keizer, H.A., and Saris, W.H. (2003). Intramyocellular lipids form an important substrate source during moderate intensity exercise in endurance-trained males in a fasted state. J Physiol 553, 611-625. 6. Larson-Meyer, D.E., Newcomer, B.R., and Hunter, G.R. (2002). Influence of endurance running and recovery diet on intramyocellular lipid content in women: a 1H NMR study. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282, E95-E106. 7. Hillier, T.A., Fryburg, D.A., Jahn, L.A., and Barrett, E.J. (1998). Extreme hyperinsulinemia unmasks insulin’s effect to stimulate protein synthesis in the human forearm. Am J Physiol 274, E1067-1074. 8. Northcott, J.M., Yeganeh, A., Taylor, C.G., Zahradka, P., and Wigle, J.T. (2012). Adipokines and the cardiovascular system: mechanisms mediating health and disease. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 90, 1029-1059. 9. Caprio, M., Isidori, A.M., Carta, A.R., Moretti, C., Dufau, M.L., and Fabbri, A. (1999). Expression of functional leptin receptors in rodent Leydig cells. Endocrinology 140, 4939-4947. 10. Caprio, M., Fabbrini, E., Isidori, A.M., Aversa, A., and Fabbri, A. (2001). Leptin in reproduction. Trends Endocrinol Metab 12, 65-72. 11. Kornmann, B., Nieschlag, E., Zitzmann, M., Gromoll, J., Simoni, M., and von Eckardstein, S. (2009). Body fat content and testosterone pharmacokinetics determine gonadotropin suppression after intramuscular injections of testosterone preparations in normal men. J Androl 30, 602-613. 12. Kroeger, C.M., Klempel, M.C., Bhutani, S., Trepanowski, J.F., Tangney, C.C., and Varady, K.A. (2012). Improvement in coronary heart disease risk factors during an intermittent fasting/calorie restriction regimen: Relationship to adipokine modulations. Nutr Metab (Lond) 9, 98.

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HARD CORE TRAINING ● BY NICK TUMMINELLO

COMPLETE CORE TRAINING:

4!

Although just about everyone uses the term “core,” most are unaware that the term was coined in 1982 to describe the muscles of the center of the body.1 So, contrary to popular misconception, your core isn’t just your abs and lower back; the core is your entire torso. In other words, your core is made up of all of the muscles that make up your torso: your glutes, lower back, mid-back, lats, shoulders, pecs, serratus, abs and obliques. That means, if you want a strong core, you’ve got to strengthen each aspect of your torso. Now, since your upper body pushing day is already giving you plenty of work on your pecs and shoulders, and since your upper body pulling day is already giving you plenty of work on lats and mid-back musculature, my focus for this article is to help you maximize the strength of your abdominals, obliques and low-back muscles. And, to do that I’m showing you how to use the Core 4 training formula in order to make sure you’ve got a core that’s strong in all directions.

ANTERIOR (FRONT) CORE

THE CORE 4 FORMULA As the name implies, the Core 4 includes four categories of abdominal, obliques and lower-back strengthening exercises:

POSTERIOR (BACK) CORE

• Anterior (front) core exercises • Lateral core exercises • Rotational core exercises • Posterior (back) core exercises Put simply, in order to have a fully comprehensive core training routine, it must hit each of four aspects described above, as doing so covers each of the major movements your torso performs, as well as all of the muscle that make those movements possible.

HOW TO USE THE CORE 4 In order to make sure you’ve hit each aspect of your core, you’ll include at least one exercise from each of the four categories of the Core 4. To help you understand which exercise fits into each category, the following chart provides a list of my top three exercise choices that fit into each category, along with general set and rep recommendations for each movement.

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Ab Wheel, 3-4 sets x 8-15 reps Stability Ball Plate Crunch, 3-4 sets x 8-15 reps Stability Ball Pike Rollout, 3-4 sets x 8-12 reps

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Barbell Romanian Deadlift, 4-5 sets x 8-12 reps Barbell Squat (Front or Back), 4-5 sets x 6-10 reps Barbell Good Morning, 3-4 sets x 8-15 reps

ANGLED BARBELL TIGHT RAINBOW

LATERAL CORE One-Arm Farmer’s Carry, 2-3 sets x 30-45 seconds per side Side Elbow Plank, 2-3 sets x 15-30 seconds per side Angled Barbell Tight Rainbow, 2-3 sets x 10-12 reps per side

ROTARY CORE Tight Rotations with Cable or Band, 2-3 sets x 15-20 reps per side Dumbbell Plank Row, 2-3 sets x 6-8 reps per side Low to High Chops with Cable or Band, 2-3 sets x 15-20 reps per side

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STABILITY-BALL PIKE ROLLOUT

EXERCISE DESCRIPTIONS

ONE-ARM FARMER’S CARRY

Out of the 12 exercises provided on the previous list, squats, Romanian deadlifts, good mornings, ab wheel rollouts and side elbows planks are basic, foundational exercises that you’re surely already familiar with. So, there’s no need to describe how to do those in detail. However, since you may not be familiar with the seven other exercises on the list— as they’re not so basic moves— the following are detailed descriptions for each exercise in order to make sure you know how to perform them safety and effectively.

With your feet hip-width apart, hold a fairly heavy dumbbell on one side of your body at your hip (or at your shoulder) with your palm facing your body. Walk up and down the room, keeping the dumbbell in this position while maintaining a strong upright posture. Then switch hands and repeat by holding the dumbbell on the other side.

STABILITY-BALL PLATE CRUNCH Lie down with a fitness ball in the arch of your lower back and hold a weight-plate directly above your chest with your arms outstretched. Perform a crunch, reaching the weight-plate toward the sky. Slowly reverse the motion, allowing your abdominal muscles to stretch over the ball. When performing this exercise, be sure that the ball does not roll at any point. Also, do not sit all the way up so that your torso is perpendicular to the floor, because this takes the tension off your abs.

STABILITY-BALL PIKE ROLLOUT This exercise combines the ball pike in the ball rollout into one comprehensive abdominal exercise. Hold yourself in a push-up position with your feet on a Swiss ball that’s between 55 and 65 centimeters in size (to make the exercise easier, move the Swiss ball toward your belly button). With your body in a plank position, keep your legs straight and push your hips toward the ceiling while keeping your back flat. After straightening your hips and coming back to the start position, push your body backward on the ball until your arms are fully extended in front of you and your legs are fully extended behind you. Reverse the motion and repeat.

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ANGLED BARBELL TIGHT RAINBOW Place one end of a barbell in a corner or into a Sorinex LandMine device and hold the other end of the barbell with both hands while you stand tall with your feet roughly shoulder-width apart. Move the barbell from side to side in a rainbow-like arc from one shoulder level to another without allowing any rotation at your torso and maintain a straight spine. As you move the barbell from side to side, your torso should always remain facing the end of the barbell that is anchored.

TIGHT ROTATIONS WITH CABLE OR RESISTANCE BAND Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart with the handles of a resistance band or cable on your right side at shoulder level. Hold the handle on your right side with your elbows slightly bent and pull the handles across your body to the left until both arms are just outside your left shoulder. Move your arms horizontally in the opposite direction (toward the origin of the cable) until they reach just outside your right shoulder. The range of motion in this exercise is small, roughly the same as the width of your shoulders. Be sure that you remain tall and do not allow your hips to rotate— they should remain perpendicular to origin of the band/cable.

DUMBBELL PLANK ROW In a push-up position with your feet shoulder-width apart, hold a dumbbell in

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HARD CORE TRAINING

DUMBBELL PLANK ROW

each hand directly under your shoulders. Row one dumbbell up into your body until it touches your ribs. Slowly lower the dumbbell to the floor and row the other dumbbell in the same manner. Be sure that your torso remains as stable as possible and you do not allow your hips to rotate at any time.

LOW TO HIGH CHOPS WITH CABLE OR RESISTANCE BAND Stand with your feet slightly wider than shoulder-width apart and perpendicular to a cable column that is on one side, holding the handle with both hands— the handle should be attached to the lowest position. Squat down while simultaneously shifting most of your weight to the leg closest to the column while your arms are at a downward angle reaching toward the origin of the cable. Stand up while simultaneously shifting your weight toward the other leg as you also drive the cable at a diagonally upward angle across your body. Finish at the top with your arms above your head on your side. Reverse the motion to the starting position and repeat. Be sure to keep your spine in a neutral position throughout the exercise and to set your hips back at the bottom position. Your torso should remain fairly perpendicular to the cable column. Do not rotate your torso away from the cable column as you reach the top of the range of motion of the exercise. Doing so greatly reduces the tension on your torso muscles. Perform this exercise both eccentrically and concentrically in a smooth and coordinated fashion.

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THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE RECOMMENDED CORE EXERCISES The exercises included in the program aren’t just arbitrary, they’re founded in the research investigating the maximizing of core muscle activation. For example, all of the exercises recommended here integrate the shoulders and/or hips because a 2013 study published in the Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research found that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. The researchers of this study concluded that, “An integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury.”2 Also, in the posterior core category, squats, Romanian deadlifts and good mornings are recommeded over stability-ball exercises that focus on those same muscles because a 2008 study, also published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research compared posterior trunk muscle activity during stability ball and free weight exercises and found that activity of the lower-posterior trunk muscles during squats and deadlifts is greater or equal to that which is produced during the stability ball exercises that emphasize those same muscles. The researchers concluded, “Squats and deadlifts are recommended for increasing strength and hypertrophy of the back extensors.”3

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LOW TO HIGH CHOPS WITH CABLE RESISTANCE BAND

And, finally, if you’re worried about the recommended exercises somehow neglecting the deep (local) core stabilizing muscles like the transverse abdominis and the lumbar multifidus, there’s no need to be, as a 2013 paper, also published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research systematically reviewed the literature on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of three core muscles (lumbar multifidus, transverse abdominis, quadratus lumborum) during physical fitness exercises in healthy adults. The reviewers concluded that the available evidence suggests that training efforts “should focus on implementing multijoint free weight exercises to adequately train the lumbar multifidus, transverse abdominis, quadratus lumborum muscles.”4 References: 1. Dominguez, R, and Gadja, R. Total Body Training. New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons; 7-12, 1982. 2. Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises. Gottschall JS, Mills J, Hastings B. J Strength Cond Res. 2013 Mar;27(3):590-6. 3. Nuzzo JL, et al. Trunk muscle activity during stability ball and free weight exercises. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Jan;22(1):95-102. 4. Martuscello JM, et al. Systematic review of core muscle activity during physical fitness exercises. J Strength Cond Res. 2013 Jun;27(6):1684-98.

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FitRxCoolDOWN

MUSCLE FORM & FUNCTION ● BY

STEPHEN E. ALWAY, Ph.D. | ILLUSTRATIONS BY WILLIAM P. HAMILTON, CMI

It might seem misplaced to take time at the end of the summer to assess your upper arm strength and development. After all, if your arms were a bit soft at the end of the winter, would they have had the time over the summer to come up to speed, especially given your busy schedule? However, even if it is at the end of a vacation-thick summer, where outdoor fun— not hard arm training— may have been a priority, it really is not a bad time to reflect on your arm training goals for the next few months. If you are happy with the hardness, shape and thickness of your upper arms, then keep up what you have already been doing. On the other hand, if you feel like one or more areas of your biceps could use some improvement, then incline cable curls may be just the stimulus that your fibers need to activate the signaling pathways that will reshape your arms.

ASCENDING

MOUNT BICEPS WITH INCLINE CABLE CURLS MUSCLES ACTIVATED BY INCLINE CABLE CURLS Incline cable curls activate both heads of the biceps brachii muscle. The long head begins on the scapula and it crosses the front part of the shoulder joint.1 It has a very long tendon, but a shorter muscle belly than the short head of the biceps brachii. The belly of the long head of the biceps sits on the lateral part of the arm, and its fibers combine with the short head as both sets of muscle fibers extend towards the elbow. The short head of the biceps begins on the coracoid process on the anterior part of the scapula (shoulder blade).1 It extends down the inner part of the humerus bone and joins with the long head of

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the biceps, to form the bicipital tendon. This tendon crosses the anterior part of the elbow joint to anchor on the radius bone of the forearm. Both the long and the short heads of the biceps strongly flex the forearm.1 However, because the bicipital tendon inserts on the laterally positioned radius bone of the forearm, the biceps also acts to supinate the hand (turns the palm towards the ceiling), when it contracts. The brachialis muscle lies deep to the biceps brachii. It begins on the distal half of the humerus and it inserts on the coronoid process of the medially placed ulna bone of the forearm.1 Although it has no supination function, it is a very strong flexor of the elbow joint.

INCLINE CABLE CURLS 1. Adjust the incline bench to about 60 degrees.2 Place the bench in the middle of a pulley station that has two low pulley attachments. 2. Attach the single handle to the low pulley and take one handle in each hand. Choose a medium light weight (one you can do for 15 reps) to start with until you get the feel of the movement. Sit on the bench and press your back firmly against the bench. 3. Turn your palms so they are supinated (palms facing forward). Keep the hands supinated throughout the exercise. In the starting position, your arms should be stretched out to the sides and you should feel a good stretch across the

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MUSCLE FORM & FUNCTION

shoulder. This position ensures that the origins of both heads of the biceps are in a stretched position, and this will increase the activation of the fibers in the biceps. 4. Keep your upper arm (humerus bone) in this position, then flex the elbow of both arms so the hands move up to the shoulder. This will provide a better activation than if you did the exercise one at a time.3 Remember that only the forearm and hands should move as you contract the biceps and brachialis muscles to pull the cable handles upwards as far as possible. Exhale as the handles are moved upwards. 5. Slowly lower the cable handles until the elbow is almost straight (extended). Inhale as the hands are going down. At the bottom position immediately move upwards for the next repetition. Work up to 12 repetitions with a medium weight. Rest about 60 seconds between sets.4 It is important to keep the elbows and upper arms fixed in the same position so only your forearms and hands move throughout the exercise.5 The incline bench angle, and also the outstretched arms, stretches the long head and short head of the biceps from start to finish, and this increases the activation of this two-headed muscle. If you want a little different feel to the exercise that will

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focus a bit more on the short head of the biceps, you can try to lower the bench to 30 degrees.2 The brachialis does not cross the shoulder joint, so it is not affected by the shoulder position or bench angle and works pretty much the same in any arm curl exercise. If you want to feel an inferno-like burn in the upper arms, you can add an isometric contraction at the top of each curl. To do this, simply squeeze/contract the biceps (and brachialis) muscles when they are in the shortened position at the top of the lift. This extra contraction will turn up the intensity dial, and you will fatigue more rapidly with this addition.5 The different muscle fiber activation patterns that are in place with incline cable curls will initiate new muscle hardness and shape to your upper arms. Part of this change will come because the cable exercise does not allow the muscle to fully relax between contractions, and part will result from the new shoulder position in this exercise. It might not seem intuitive that such a simple change with a bench and a set of pulleys should impact your biceps so profoundly. However, after a few months of training, I am convinced that your thinking towards this will be revolutionized when you see your own transformation to

outstanding peaked and hard arms. Sure it’s fall, but why not get a jump on next summer with incline cable curls, as this could be the catalyst for your ascension to “Mount Biceps.” ■ References: 1. Moore, KL and AF Dalley. Clinically oriented Anatomy. Fourth edition. Baltimore, Lippincott Williams & Williams, 1999; 665-669; 720-733. 2. Moon J, Shin I, Kang M et al: The Effect of Shoulder Flexion Angles on the Recruitment of Upper-extremity Muscles during Isometric Contraction. J Phys Ther Sci 2013;25:1299-1301. 3. Serrau V, Driss T, Vandewalle H et al: Muscle activation of the elbow flexor and extensor muscles during self-resistance exercises: comparison of unilateral maximal cocontraction and bilateral self-resistance. J Strength Cond Res 2012;26:2468-2477. 4. Oliveira AS, Goncalves M: Neuromuscular recovery of the biceps brachii muscle after resistance exercise. Res Sports Med 2008;16:244256. 5. Linnamo V, Strojnik V and Komi PV. Maximal force during eccentric and isometric actions at different elbow angles. Eur J Appl Physiol 96: 672678, 2006. 6. Oliveira AS, Cardozo AC, Barbosa FS et al: Electromyographic fatigue threshold of the biceps brachii: the effect of endurance time. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 2007;47:37-42.

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OBSTACLE RACING Q&A ● BY

JOE DE SENA

CAN YOU GIVE SOME “DAY OF THE RACE” ADVICE AND TIPS? Stretching is most important, and if you’re new to the variety of movements a Spartan race requires, stopping and stretching during the event can make the difference between smooth sailing and calf cramps or lower back issues. Warm weather requires intake of electrolytes, if you are on course for over an hour. Consuming some form of electrolyte supplement can help reduce the chance of cramping, and help shorten recovery time. A first-time mistake is thinking gloves will give them better grip, but, while it is nice to wear them crawling on the ground, bare hands will always be better for grip when wet for obstacles like climbing rope, or gripping monkey bars.

WHAT ARE THE BEST SUPPLEMENTS/FOODS TO HAVE BEFORE THE RACE TO PREPARE AND ACHIEVE MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY, AND THEN WHAT SHOULD YOU HAVE AFTER RACING FOR RECOVERY? Elite level athletes eat very little the morning of an event as they focus on hydration and easily digestible simple foods. A lot of athletes must stop eating two hours before the start of a race to prevent “side stitch” cramping. Non-competitive athletes who are not going to be racing at their peak heart rate and respiration can and should eat a bit closer to start time, and if they are going to be on the course for a longer time, should consume solid foods and electrolytes during the event itself. Recovery is about food and bringing your hydration and electrolytes levels back to normal. It can’t be done all at once, so keep drinking and eating little amounts for a few hours after the event.

I’M HAVING A HARD TIME CHOOSING THE OBSTACLE COURSE RACE I’D LIKE TO DO. WHAT SETS SPARTAN APART FROM OTHERS?

HAVE A QUESTION FOR JOE DE SENA? EMAIL IT TO EDITOR@FITNESSRXMAG.COM.

Unlike most events, Spartan Race is a timed race with obstacles that are either skill- or strength-based. Fear-based, daredevil obstacles are not found in a Spartan race. It is officiated with the signature burpee penalty for not completing a obstacle. Spartan has done a good job of creating the challenge and fun of obstacle racing for the masses, getting them off the couch and doing what the human body was designed to do. Also unique to Spartan is the first wave of the day where the best obstacle racers in the world compete at every event. It is aimed at professional and serious athletes looking to win prize money, increase their ranking, or to post their personal best times.

WHAT ARE SOME THINGS ABOUT THE RACE THAT SURPRISE FIRST-TIMERS DURING AND AFTER IT’S ALL OVER? DO YOU NOTICE IF A LOT OF PEOPLE HAVE CERTAIN PRECONCEIVED NOTIONS OF SPARTAN THAT ARE TOTALLY CHANGED ONCE THEY ACTUALLY PARTICIPATE IN A RACE? People are genuinely surprised by what they were able to accomplish. The camaraderie and assistance of the person next to them while making their way through the course leaves people with greater faith in the human spirit. It’s the most life-changing sport there is, and it’s accessible to anyone at all levels of fitness.

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BIOGRAPHY JOE DE SENA the co-founder of Spartan Race and author of the New York Times best-selling SPARTAN UP! A Take-No-Prisoners Guide to Overcoming Obstacles and Achieving Peak Performance in Life. Spartan Race began as an obstacle race based on the extreme spirit of the legendary Death Race, and has become a multi-million dollar global lifestyle company in less than 10 years. It was voted Outside magazine’s Best Obstacle Race. In one year’s time he competed in the Raid International Ukatak in Canada; the IditaSport in Alaska; the Odyssey Adventure Race and the OAR Beast of the East, both in Virginia; the Raid the North Extreme in Newfoundland, the Adrenaline Rush in Ireland and the Discovery Channel World Championships in Switzerland. He resides in Vermont with his family. For more information, please visit www.spartanupthebook.com.

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FitRxCoolDOWN

SHARPER THAN EVER ● BY

ARPE SHANNON SHARPE

GETTING IN FOOTBALL SHAPE ROUND 1 • SEESAW KETTLEBELL PRESSES (35 pounds) – 100 reps (50 per arm) • FRONT BARBELL RAISES (30 pounds) – 100 reps • SIDE DUMBBELL LATERAL RAISES (5 pounds) p – 75 reps p

ROUND 2 • SEESAW KETTLEBELL PRESSES (35 pounds) – 130 reps (65 per arm) • FRONT BARBELL RAISES (30 pounds) p – 115 reps p • SIDE DUMBBELL LATERAL RAISES (5 pounds) – 100 reps

ROUND 3 • SEESAW KETTLEBELL PRESSES (35 pounds) – 150 reps (75 per arm) • FRONT BARBELL RAISES (30 pounds) – 125 reps • SIDE DUMBBELL LATERAL RAISES (5 pounds) p – 115 reps p

THE NFL PRESEASON & THE OPENING MONTH

MY EXERCISE OF THE ISSUE When it comes to working my shoulders, I like to do a tri-set concentrating on higher reps. So you’re getting three for the price of one here! This is usually done in a group of two or three of us and when done right, it’s like a well-oiled machine. We start out with standing overhead seesaw kettlebell presses, go right to standing front lateral raises with a barbell and then finish off with standing side lateral raises. We do three rounds and up the reps each time, with the first guy starting when the one after him hits his 50th rep in the first exercise. Here’s how it looks:

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The good thing about the NFL preseason is that the starters are on a “pitch count,” if you will, meaning that they will get in for about 10 to 15 plays in the first game and gradually increase the number up until the third game, where you may see action into the third quarter. The fourth game? You’re not going to play at all in that one. So you’ll go two weeks without playing until the opening week of the regular season. Mike (former Denver Broncos head coach Shanahan) always used to tell us to make sure that we played enough to be in football shape. There’s a big difference with that

because even if you reported to training camp in good shape, you still have to take some hits. My whole thing was to work on technique but my main focus was to come out of the game healthy. You’re always going to get some bumps and bruises, though. And you want to make sure that you also work on your timing with the quarterback. Being a starter, I only worked with John (Elway) in the preseason games. The biggest difference between being a starter and a newcomer during the preseason is that when I was younger, I was the guy playing in the fourth quarter. If I was lucky, I may get a rep or two with the starters or second stringers but I was also playing on special teams then, too. So back then, I always wanted to be one of those guys wearing flip flops and a visor on the sideline during the fourth quarter of the preseason games.

COLOGNE, SHOWER GEL AND DEODORANT I’m not a cologne guy and haven’t worn any in about 25 years. I can still remember the last bottle that I bought— Calvin Klein Obsession during my freshman year in college. To me, a lot of that stuff is overpowering and I don’t want people to smell what I’m wearing when I merely walk by them. Shower gel is my thing. And I use all different kinds, too. Tone, Dove, Nivea… I buy a whole bunch of them when I go to the store and switch it up. But I have always used the same deodorant— Mitchum. There’s a trick that I’ve learned over the years, especially living in the south where it gets so hot. After taking a shower, I sit and relax for a while to cool off before getting dressed. If you go right from one to the other, you’ll sweat right out of your clothes. ■

BIOGRAPHY Shannon Sharpe is an NFL Hall-of-Famer. Visit him on Facebook (Shannon Sharpe NFL) and Twitter (@ShannonSharpe) and be sure to read Shannon Sharpe’s column in every issue and also on our website for exclusive online material.

2014

www.fitnessrxformen.com


FitRxCoolDOWN

GET FIT WITH PLITT ● BY

GREG PLITT

I EAT CLEAN AND HAVE A SET PLAN, WORKING OUT FIVE TO SIX TIMES A WEEK INCLUDING LIFTING AND CARDIO, BUT I STILL CANNOT SEEM TO LOSE WEIGHT— WHICH IS MY MAIN GOAL. DO YOU HAVE ANY ADVICE? I get this question a lot: “I’m doing everything right, but not seeing results,” as if being in shape and having a body of desire is some God-given right. If only it were that simple. In order to grow the body, one must first grow the mind and know why you physically do what you do in terms of body biochemistry. Don’t walk through the normality of life unless you want to be normal. Challenge all you hear and then apply what you’ve learned to a physical action. If you don’t understand the means to your actions, your actions will never have a result. It is impossible to answer this question without knowing what you are doing in the five to six times a week— your intensity, your goals, your time in the gym— but I will give an answer to what I feel most do wrong, especially since you said weight loss is your primary goal. Body fat is burned by your heart rate. If you spike your heart rate, your body will go into a state of requiring immediate energy to sustain your current activity. The only thing your body can break down fast enough to a high heart rate activity is carbohydrates (which will be burned in the first 15 to 20 minutes) and then your body will attack your muscle mass while bypassing your body fat because your body cannot break down fat fast enough to a high heart rate activity. Slowing your workout down where your heart rate is moderate to around 65 percent of your MHR will cause a fatburning routine. Even better than that— STOP doing the cardio that everyone does! Cardio is a waste of time unless you know why you are doing it … hence, you must exercise your brain and be a student of the game before you ever engage in a program. It is a proven fact that a lifting

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session for an hour where you lift high reps with limited rest between sets burns 10 times the amount of calories in a 24-hour period than doing the normal treadmill while talking to your friend on the phone for an hour. Why? Because when you lift and elevate your heart rate you not only burn calories, you also cause a healthy micro tear in your muscles, which causes calories to be burned to repair after the workout— as opposed the treadmill, which once you’re finished with the workout, calorie burning is also finished. The repair process of lifting for an hour in the 24-hour spectrum will burn 10 times the calories as a hour treadmill session. But also, the lift will help to decrease your body fat while increasing your lean mass on your body’s BMI. When you increase your lean mass and decrease your body fat, you burn more calories in any given activity because body fat is a stored energy source that requires a very little caloric intake to move, whereas lean mass requires a tremendous amount of caloric intake to move. This means that you can have two twins, one at a 5 percent body fat and the other with a 30 percent body fat, running a mile, and the lean person will burn exponentially more calories than the twin who is doing the same exercise because he or she is moving predominantly lean mass as opposed to body fat. Be a student of the game. Most just go through the motions, but some study the system— and those who do are the ones who have the most effective workouts with the greatest results. Don’t walk though life blindly; people far less than you with less potential and genetics have achieved far greater than you because they have a greater desire and perseverance to see it through.

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weight-loss plateau

BIOGRAPHY Greg Plitt, a Met-Rx sponsored athlete, is America’s #1 male fitness model, and has appeared on the cover of more than 100 fitness magazines in the last few years and has also appeared on TV in Bravo’s “Work Out,” HGTV’s “Designed to Sell” and NBC’s “Days of Our Lives." Before taking on acting and modeling, Greg graduated from West Point U.S. Military Academy and served as an Army Ranger as well as a captain and company commander of 184 U.S. soldiers. For more information, visit www.gregplitt.com.

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FitRxCoolDOWN

ULTIMATE IN NUTRITION ● BY VICTOR R. PRISK., M.D

Do You Need

MUSCLE GROWTH? The role of carbohydrates in sports training, health and longevity is a hot topic of debate in gyms and laboratories. Many bodybuilders utilize very low-carbohydrate diets to get ripped for shows. These diets often provoke anxiety in the athlete over the idea that this will result in loss of muscle. Let’s be clear from the start— any significant dietary energy restriction will result in the loss of hard-earned muscle. However, lowcarbohydrate does not necessarily mean low energy intake. Fat and protein can make up for the lack of carbohydrate. Multiple studies have demonstrated the benefit of very low-carbohydrate diets on markers of heart disease and metabolic syndrome. Dr. Jeff Volek and his lab at the University of Connecticut have published numerous articles on the benefits of ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets, including benefits for performance athletes.1 These diets involve consumption of carbohydrate less than 50 grams per day in most instances. Dr. Volek has demonstrated greater retention of lean body mass and improvements in fat metabolism over low-fat diets.2 He has also shown that “keto-adaptation” leads to improved handling of energy substrates during endurance exercise such that more fat is burned. When your body is “keto or fat-adapted,” meaning your brain and muscle have adapted to using ketones derived from fat for energy over carbohydrate, you are at less risk of “bonking” when your glycogen stores are depleted by intense training. This suggests that even endurance athletes could benefit from lowcarbohydrate training. However, there is always the argument that carbohydrates are needed to maintain muscle and recover after exercise. I often hear from bodybuilding gurus and trainers that, “You have to have your fast-acting carbohydrates immediately after exercise to boost insulin and muscle growth.” But does the science really support this assertion?

GLYCOGEN STORES ARE DEPLETED AFTER EXERCISE Let’s look at the basic science first. Cell

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culture studies and animal research has suggested that insulin is required to get the maximal amount of muscle protein synthesis from the amino acid leucine.3 However, leucine itself has the ability to increase insulin secretion two- to three-fold over baseline.4 So if you consume whey protein, which is rich in leucine, do you even need carbs after your training? The assertion that you need post-workout carbs likely started with literature looking into glycogen repletion after endurance exercise. After a long endurance training session, such as a long run, your glycogen

EVEN THOUGH THERE ARE CONFLICTING STUDIES ABOUT POSTWORKOUT PROTEIN AND CARBOHYDRATE TIMING, THE STUDIES THAT SHOWED NO EFFECT DIDN’T NECESSARILY SHOW A NEGATIVE EFFECT. stores (stored glucose) can be significantly depleted. Studies demonstrate that consumption of carbohydrate immediately after such a training session improves repletion of glycogen.5 Conversely, high-intensity resistance training bouts typically don’t cause such significant reductions in muscle glycogen— 40 percent at most. Unless you’re training again in under eight hours, that glycogen content of your muscle will be restored easily from subsequent meals before your next training bout.

GOALS AND NUTRITION This brings us to another question. What are your goals in training? Is your goal to be stronger and bigger? Or is your goal to be as lean and ripped with as much muscle as possible? If your goal is to build as much muscle as

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possible, you need calories. Carbohydrates, especially fast-acting carbohydrates, cause large rises in insulin levels. When insulin levels rise, glucose and amino acids are rapidly shuttled into muscle cells and the muscle-building machines are turned on. However, the storage machinery in fat is also turned on so any excess energy intake that isn’t incorporated into muscle will be incorporated into fat. Combining protein, carbohydrate and creatine in a pre/post-workout supplement has been shown to be beneficial to building muscle over consuming it at other times in the day.6 If your goal is to just build, why wait to eat your post-workout meal? Eat and grow. Alternatively, in order to maintain fat burning, it is best to be in a low-insulin, lowcirculating carbohydrate state. If your insulin levels are significantly elevated and there’s plenty of glycogen in your muscle, a few things happen. First, the insulin shuts down the enzymes that mobilize fats. Second, the insulin turns on enzymes that store fats. Third, your muscle prefers to use glycogen (glucose) for energy when it is available. Therefore, it will burn more energy from glycogen than any other substrate. If you want to burn fat, you need to force your muscle to need fat. This requires depletion of glycogen. Again this brings us to the question as to whether we need glucose and insulin to perform in the gym and prevent the breakdown of muscle when dieting. It is true that heavy and intense resistance training can reduce performance in a same-day second training session.7 However, studies show that when consuming a low-carbohydrate diet, your muscle can become adapted to using intramuscular triglycerides during heavy resistance exercise.8 Studies also show that performance in the gym may suffer to a small extent from glycogen depletion during energy restriction.9 If your goal is to improve the strength of your lifts AND build muscle, you are dealing with opposing forces and you’ll probably need to reassess your goals. For those who like their carbs, one study did show that if you replace dietary fat

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ULTIMATE IN NUTRITION with protein and maintain carbohydrate intake during caloric restriction, resistancetrained individuals can maintain nearly all of their muscle.10 But was it really the maintenance of carbohydrate or the added protein that spared the muscle? One might suggest that glucose and insulin prevent the breakdown of muscle during training. One study by Børsheim et al. did demonstrate that 100 grams of carbohydrate post-workout does cause increases in insulin and reductions in muscle degradation.11 However, studies also demonstrate that adequate consumption of essential amino acids after training causes an increase in insulin that can also limit protein degradation.12 Even in the highly catabolic fasted training state, with adequate post-exercise carbohydrate, protein and leucine anabolic supercompensation can occur.13 But is it the carbohydrate or the protein that is most important?

PROTEIN OR CARBS Studies that have evaluated the postexercise anabolic response to a combined protein and carbohydrate supplement have failed to show benefit over adequate protein alone.14 When high-quality protein like whey hydrolysate is consumed, muscle protein synthesis can be maximized without additional carbohydrate. Only small elevations in circulating insulin are required to maximize muscle anabolism and amino acids can stimulate this level of insulin release without carbohydrate present.14 It has been suggested that the leucine content of a protein can determine its ability to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis.15 The leucine breakdown product HMB can also prevent muscle catabolism in times of energy restriction. One study on waxy maize starch and maltodextrin is worth mentioning here. Roberts and colleagues at the University of Oklahoma examined the effect of consuming a waxy maize starch versus maltodextrin prior to an intense and exhausting cycling bout.16 What they found was quite interesting. Maltodextrin caused a higher spike in blood glucose and insulin than the waxy maize. Although waxy maize might be of benefit to endurance cycling as it allows for more fat-burning efficiency over maltodextrin (less insulin response), it may not be best for getting an insulinotropic response for muscle anabolism. Further supporting the importance of protein quality over carbohydrate is a study comparing soy and casein. When a soy supplement with rapidly absorbed maltodextrin was compared to a casein supplement containing similar amounts of slowly absorbed lactose, the casein group

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References:

still demonstrated higher protein synthesis rates. Once again, the insulin response after exercise is less important than the availability of leucine.15,18 It takes pharmacological doses to see an effect from insulin beyond what occurs with consumption of protein.19

1. Noakes T, Volek JS, Phinney SD. Low-carbohydrate diets for athletes: what evidence? Br J Sports Med. 2014 May 26. 2. Volek JS, et al. Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet. Lipids. 2009 Apr;44(4):297-309. 3. Anthony JC, et al. Contribution of insulin to the

FACTORS TO CONSIDER

translational control of protein synthesis in skeletal

In summary, deciding whether to consume carbohydrates after your training session depends on a number of factors:

muscle by leucine. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002 May;282(5):E1092-101. 4. Morifuji M, et al. Comparison of different sources and degrees of hydrolysis of dietary protein: effect on plasma

1. YOUR MAIN OBJECTIVE:

amino acids, dipeptides, and insulin responses in human

If you are looking to build muscle without concerns about your fat burning, by all means, get your carbs, protein and creatine after your training. With all the added blood flow to your muscles and upregulated glucose/amino acid transport mechanisms, why not saturate your muscle immediately after your training. However, if your goal is to burn fat and you are utilizing a glycogen-depleted state to burn more of the fat, why spike insulin right after your training session? Let the fat-burning machinery run for a while after your training with a more moderate rise in insulin obtained from post-workout protein. If you want to build muscle without gaining much fat, get as much of your added calories from whey protein as you can tolerate.17 If your goal is to perform your best over two-per-day training sessions less than eight hours apart, utilize carbohydrate immediately after your training to restore glycogen levels before your next training session. That is, if your goal is to perform your best in the second session.

subjects. J Agric Food Chem 2010, 58(15):8788–8797.

2. YOUR TOTAL MACRONUTRIENT GOALS FOR THE DAY:

tion during intake of a protein-carbohydrate drink following

If you are trying to maintain a low-carbohydrate diet for ketogenesis, it is likely that your carbohydrate will be evenly distributed into your veggies for the day and having a bolus of carbs after your training won’t be feasible. Data shows that you don’t need the added carbs to maximize muscle protein synthesis post-workout. If you are consuming carbohydrates in your meals, plan to have one of your meals immediately after your training. Even though there are conflicting studies about post-workout protein and carbohydrate timing, the studies that showed no effect didn’t necessarily show a negative effect. Thus since some studies show no effect and others show a positive effect of immediate protein and carbohydrate supplementation, what do you have to lose by trying? ■

5. Ivy JL, et al. Muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise: effect of time of carbohydrate ingestion. J Appl Physiol 1988, 64:1480–1485. 6. Cribb PJ, Hayes A. Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006, 38:1918–1925. 7. Campbell BI, et al. Nutrient Timing for Resistance Exercise. Strength Cond J. August 2012, 34(4): 2–10 8. Essen-Gustavsson B, Tesch PA. Glycogen and triglyceride utilization in relation to muscle metabolic characteristics in men performing heavy-resistance exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1990, 61:5–10. 9. Walberg JL, et al. Macronutrient content of a hypoenergy diet affects nitrogen retention and muscle function in weight lifters. Int J Sports Med 1988, 9:261–266. 10. Mettler S, Mitchell N, Tipton KD. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010, 42:326–337. 11. Børsheim E, et al. Effect of carbohydrate intake on net muscle protein synthesis during recovery from resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol 2004, 96(2):674–678. 12. Staples AW, et al. Carbohydrate does not augment exercise-induced protein accretion versus protein alone. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011, 43(7):1154–1161. 13. Deldicque L, et al. Increased p70s6k phosphorylaresistance exercise in the fasted state. Eur J Appl Physiol 2010, 108:791–800. 14. Koopman R, et al. Coingestion of carbohydrate with protein does not further augment postexercise muscle protein synthesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2007, 293:E833–E842. 15. Norton LE, Wilson GJ: Optimal protein intake to maximize muscle protein synthesis: examinations of optimal meal protein intake. Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 2009, 20:54–57. 16. Roberts MD, et al. Ingestion of a high-molecularweight hydrothermally modified waxy maize starch alters metabolic responses to prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Nutrition. 2011 Jun;27(6):659-65 17. Antonio J, et al. The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistancetrained individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 May 12;11:19 18. Hartman JW, et al. Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. Am J Clin Nutr 2007, 86(2):373–381. 19. Hillier TA, et al. Extreme hyperinsulinemia unmasks insulin’s effect to stimulate protein synthesis in the human forearm. Am J Physiol 1998, 274(6 Pt 1):E1067–1074.

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FitRxCoolDOWN

MEN'S HEALTH ● BY

DANIEL GWARTNEY, M.D.

ROCKY MOUNTAIN HIGH:

LOSE FAT AT ALTITUDE From time to time, a new study or review will reignite interest in an area recently ignored; it is natural to forget or fail to appreciate “not-in-your-face” findings after a few weeks. Altitude training, even simply living at higher elevation, such as Denver, Colorado— known as the “Mile High City”— appears to confer protection against becoming overweight or obese. Certainly, there are many other factors besides the altitude that make Colorado a more healthy and prosperous state, but altitude certainly contributes. Visiting the Rocky Mountains during any season is almost a spiritual experience, more so during the warm seasons than the touristy ski season. This is the setting singer John Denver referred to in his song “Rocky Mountain High.” Of course, with the legalization of recreational marijuana sales in Colorado, the meaning has changed. (Marijuana smokers also tend to have lower BMI.) Nonetheless, for those motivated to reduce body fat and bodyweight, the Rockies may hold a solution that is free and uplifting. For people living in the flatlands or lower altitudes, artificial environments to simulate high altitude exist. Many competitive cyclists sleep in enclosed beds that maintain an oxygen level consistent with high altitude. These can be made relatively inexpensively, and in time, a retail version is sure to be produced if results in weight loss can be demonstrated.

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LOWER RATE OF OBESITY PROGRESSION A pretty compelling observational study was recently published.1 An observational study means researchers just looked at people in different conditions and compared them. They didn’t direct their diet and exercise routines, or give them drugs/supplements versus a placebo. The group of nearly 100,000 subjects was composed of service members in the U.S. military (Army and Air Force branches) during active duty. They were followed over a six-year period and evaluated for progression from overweight to obese (defined by body mass index or BMI)— in other words, if they got fatter. The subjects included only members with at least two years active duty, who were overweight but not obese. Other factors such as age, income, race, etc., were factored in to provide as “clean” a result as possible. Only data from U.S. bases were used, those serving overseas were not included. It was previously reported by these researchers that U.S. residents in low-altitude counties had four times the prevalence of obesity as those living at high altitude.2 Despite the strong difference, this cannot be considered definitive for a cause-and-effect relationship, just an association. It should be noted this difference was after correcting for other factors, such as diet, physical activity, smoking, etc. As the military has a mandate to maintain an operationally ready force at all times, and obesity is affecting active duty members, as well as potential recruits, factors affecting weight management are relevant and crucial. Thus, given the structure and documentation available, as well as fairly regimented lifestyle and expectations of military life, this provides as controlled a group as can be obtained for an observational

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study. The results of this six-year examination revealed that the members living above 1.96 kilometers (roughly 6,400 ft above sea level, a little higher than Colorado Springs) had a 41 percent lower hazard rate of progressing to obesity than those living below 0.98 kilometers (or 3,200 feet).1 Even taking away all the statistical wizardry that has often resulted in false findings, the result was unchanged. Perhaps, given the uniformity of the military personnel, this should not be overly surprising. The researchers looked at the data another way, using the altitude as a continuous rather than a segmented variable. In other words, all bases from 0 to 0.98 kilometers were considered individually rather than as groups. This was done for the entire data set. When viewed in this manner, the protective value of altitude against the progression to obesity (predominantly men) was a 6 percent lower “risk” for every kilometer of altitude. However, looking at the raw data, one can see that living at or above 3,200 feet compared to sea level confers a great advantage, and that the difference between an elevation similar to Denver (5,200 feet above sea level) and higher elevations is visually insignificant. In fact, some extreme altitude bases (above 6,400 feet) had a relative increase in the obesity “risk” compared to Denver-like elevations. The authors noted that the hazard ratios were reflective of civilian rates of obesity and smoking. It stands to reason that social and environmental conditions present shape the population somewhat, so those living at higher altitude as civilians benefit similarly to the military. Further, smoking— for all its ills— is protective against weight gain. Thus, the findings that for every 1 percent increase in civilian obesity, there was a 10 percent

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to “heart attacks.” Given the increase in training adaptations noted with veno-occlusive or vascular restriction, there appears to be some merit to this as a systemic “ischemic conditioning.”4,5 It is postulated that metabolites produced during this low-oxygen stress circulate and provide benefits to the entire body. The value of “ischemic conditioning” to weight loss has not been studied, but it has been noted that people with lung disease and low blood oxygen suffer weight loss.1 This is more than fat loss in such cases though, as there is also a loss of lean mass, a state known as cachexia. Even well-conditioned athletes tend to lose muscle mass when training at altitude, requiring close attention to protein and calorie intake.

HORMONAL CHANGES

The protective value of altitude against the progression to obesity was a 6 percent lower “risk” for every kilometer of altitude. greater risk of military members becoming obese; and for every 1 percent increase in civilian smoking prevalence, a 4 percent lesser risk of future obesity.1

HYPOXIA BENEFITS SIMILAR TO HIIT In discussing the results, the authors assigned the findings to lower oxygen availability at higher elevations, resulting in a state called “hypoxia.” This means that there is less oxygen available in the blood to meet metabolic demands. If you live near sea level and have visited the mountains, you may have noticed that you become short of breath quickly when hiking or skiing, whatever you enjoy. At extreme altitudes, people can develop headaches and other symptoms; this is referred to as “altitude sickness.” Caffeine can exacerbate this as it is primarily a vascular phenomenon, but people tend to adjust within a day or two. Even experienced mountain climbers are careful not to attempt climbs without taking time to adapt to the higher and higher altitudes. A manageable state of hypoxia has been shown to have metabolic benefits, and if you examine them, it is similar to the findings from high-intensity interval training. The body becomes more efficient at using glucose (sugar) as a metabolic fuel, as it can be “burned” for energy (or ATP) in the relative absence of oxygen.3 Of course, there is always oxygen, but if the anaerobic (meaning “without oxygen”) component is not affected, and the aerobic (meaning “oxygen requiring”) component is hindered, the body makes changes to rely more on anaerobic glycolysis— or burning sugar for calories in the presence of insufficient oxygen. To do this, the metabolically active tissues (e.g., skeletal muscle) become more insulin sensitive, allowing these tissues to draw more sugar from the circulation (bloodstream). A more extreme form of hypoxia conditioning is being investigated as a cardioprotective technique.4 It involves a blood pressure cuff to greatly reduce blood flow to an arm or leg for five-minute intervals, separated by five minutes without the cuff. This has been shown to reduce damage to the heart in animals subjected

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In addition to metabolic changes, “living high” also induces hormonal changes that result in a loss of appetite and increased metabolism (i.e., calorie burning).1 The hormone leptin is derived from fat cells, and in people sensitive to its effects, reduces the appetite and revs up the metabolism. Leptin production increases at altitude, and the leptin receptor concentration is also increased. This means that the body is more receptive to leptin and there tends to be more of it. Unfortunately, people who are already obese tend to be leptin-resistant, so the effect may be delayed, blunted or absent in the ones who need it most. Two other appetite-suppressing hormones have been noted to be increased with altitude, namely CCK and norepinephrine. More interesting to those who wear lab coats is the effect of the red blood cell producing hormone erythropoietin (EPO) on body fat. EPO is most familiar as a drug abused by cyclists to increase red blood cells. However, it also has an effect on the precursor cells to adipocytes (fat cells), preventing them from becoming mature fat cells.

PASSIVE WEIGHT LOSS This is a fascinating area, as with the used of enclosed “altitude chambers” people could nap, sleep or work in low-oxygen environments similar to those common to Denver and enjoy passive weight loss and appetite suppression. Exercising in such conditions could increase the metabolic benefits seen with cardiovascular training in a manner similar to high-intensity interval training. Higher elevations, real or simulated, may result in lesser benefits or even performance decrements due to the “low oxygen stress.” Considering the epidemic prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in the U.S., this has very practical applications. This does increase the risk of ischemia in those with pre-existing conditions (e.g., atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease), so it is important to ensure that you are healthy enough to accept the challenge of the relatively low-oxygen conditions.

REFERENCES 1. Voss JD, Allison DB, et al. Lower Obesity Rate during Residence at High Altitude among a Military Population with Frequent Migration: A Quasi Experimental Model for Investigating Spatial Causation. PLoS One 2014 Apr 16;9(4):e93493. 2. Voss JD, Masuoka P, et al. Association of elevation, urbanization and ambient temperature with obesity prevalence in the United States. Int J Obes 2013;37:1407-12. 3. Chen SM, Lin HY, et al. Altitude training improves glycemic control. Chin J Physiol 2013;56:193-8. 4. Davidson SM, Selvaraj P, et al. Remote ischaemic preconditioning involves signalling through the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signalling axis. Basic Res Cardiol 2013;108:377(10 pp). 5. Abe T, Loenneke JP, et al. Exercise intensity and muscle hypertrophy in blood flow-restricted limbs and non-restricted muscles: a brief review. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2012;32:247-52.

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FitRxCoolDOWN

TRAIN WITH THE PRES ● BY

CORY GREGORY

A NEW ANGLE ON YOUR BENCH PRESS Whenever I need to get a particular lift going in the right direction, I almost always go back and look for some old-school advice. I enjoyed the mindset of that era where the emphasis was on small variations and tremendous work ethic. I love getting in the trenches, grinding out reps and pushing my body to the extreme, so that’s where I was at when I inspected where my bench press was. It certainly wasn’t in an awful place, but it needed a bit of an overhaul and I was ready to jumpstart it. So, in the quest to take my bench press to new levels, I simply looked back. I also didn’t have to look far for the solution.

INSPIRATION I grew up watching my stepdad, Randy Thompson, pounding away at the weights in our basement. At 5 foot 8, 185 pounds, he would unrack 300-plus pounds with no spotter and go to work on his bench press. The catch? He did it all with his feet in the air and he looked as smooth as can be. If there’s an equivalent to watching someone glide through the air for a dunk, watching Randy cruise through 300-pound bench presses with his feet in the air was it for me. The amazing thing was that Randy would work 16-hour days underground as a coal miner, come home and immediately head to the basement where he would routinely hit these numbers on the bench press. Thinking back on that, I figured this method— keeping the legs up and bent at a 90-degree angle— had some merit. If you have ever seen anyone in the gym benching in this manner, you can usually bet it’s a strong and stacked older lifter. So I began to experiment and quickly found that benching this way had tremendous value. The reason I became such a fan of lifting this way to increase my strength

Feet-Up Bench Press Three-Week Wave – Go up in weight on each set (Repeat after three weeks and increase the weight) Week 1: 30 reps, 12 reps 10 reps, 8, 6, 4 Week 2: 30 reps, 8, 6, 4, 2, 1 Week 3: 6 sets of 5 reps

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is, quite simply, you can’t cheat the system because there is literally no leverage. You don’t incorporate leg drive and you don’t get that extra boost you can usually rely on when your feet are firmly planted on the ground. To make up for it, you simply have to get stronger.

BENEFITS This way of benching is beneficial in a number of ways, and the carryover to your regular bench press can be immense. With your feet up, it makes you learn how to grind weight out while also teaching you to really incorporate your lats, shoulders and triceps into the lift. With that comes an ability to push yourself when it comes to handling heavier weight, an important aspect if you ever want to bench big numbers. And let’s be honest— we all want that. I have adapted this feet-up type of lifting

again on the bench press as I also started to take a wider grip in my training. I had been utilizing a closer grip in my training, but switching to this approach has revived my bench press. I am back to benching 300 with my feet up, repping out 225 with ease. At the same time, my chest is growing again and the size gains have been impressive. Getting stronger and getting bigger was good enough for me, but it also had a major impact when I got back in my bench shirt and put my feet back on the ground. My weights have gone up steadily there, too, and my competition bench feels flat-out awesome. I’m able to push through weights and grind out some serious improvements and I owe it all to the feet-up bench press. If you need a new movement for your bench try this out it awesome variation. After all, you can’t go wrong with old school.

BIOGRAPHY Cory Gregory co-founded MusclePharm with Brad Pyatt in 2008 and serves as Executive Vice President. A former underground coal miner, Gregory worked diligently to save money to realize his dream of opening his own gym by the age of 20. In the last 15 years, he has gained extensive experience and has received a number of accolades within several aspects of the fitness industry. Obtaining an Exercise Specialist certificate from Columbus State, Gregory is also NESTA nutrition coach certified and Westside Barbell certified. In addition to his in-depth knowledge of bodybuilding and nutrition, he is a CrossFit Level-1 trainer further helping MusclePharm’s athletes and ambassadors achieve their fitness goals. Gregory prides himself on embodying the Musclepharm culture, as he has been featured on the cover of top fitness magazines, including FitnessRx. Weighing just 208 pounds, he has achieved a powerlifting total of 1,755 pounds, culminating in a career-best 700-pound squat. Most recently, Gregory was added to the Arnold Schwarzenegger Fitness Advisory Board.

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Fitness Rx August 2014  
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