Page 1

Eiszeitalter

u.

Gegenwart

43

53 — 66

Hannover

9 fig., 1 tab., 1 pi.

1993

The Wartanian Siedlec Sandur (Zedlitzer Sander) southwards the Trzebnica Hills, Silesian Lowland, Southwestern Poland: re-examination after fifty years DARIUSZ KRZYSZKOWSKI*)

P u s h m o r a i n e , stratigraphic c o r r e l a t i o n , s a n d u r deposit, s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , classical s e c t i o n s , W a r t a n i a n i c e - s h e e t , S i e d l e c Sandur, S o u t h w e s t e r n P o l a n d

A b s t r a c t : T h e S i e d l e c S a n d u r ( Z e d l i t z e r S a n d e r ) in Silesia,

f ä c h e r n s e m i a r i d e r K l i m a t e v o r k o m m e n . D a s glaziofluviati-

S o u t h w e s t Poland, w a s at first d e s c r i b e d b y M. SCHWARZ­

le Material d e s S c h w e m m f ä c h e r s legt n a h e , d a ß seine Sedi­

BACH in 1 9 4 2 . It w a s i n t e r p r e t e d a s t h e W a r t a n i a n proglacial

mentation

outwash,

S c h l u ß spricht für SCHWARZBACHS D e u t u n g u n d nicht für d i e

formed

at t h e s o u t h e r n

margin o f ice-pushed

in e i n e r

kalten

Polarwüste

erfolgte.

Dieser

ridge ( T r z e b n i c a Hills, T r e b n i t z e r K a t z e n g e b i r g e ) . S o m e

seiner Opponenten,

r e c e n t investigations r e j e c t this interpretation

w a r t h e z e i t l i c h e n E i s e s in S c h l e s i e n . Im v o r l i e g e n d e n

and denay

u n d e r b e l e g t indirekt d a s Auftreten Bei­

t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e W a r t a n i a n i c e - s h e e t in S o u t h w e s t e r n

trag ward a u ß e r d e m d i e m ö g l i c h e A u s d e h n u n g d e s Eises in

P o l a n d . T h e p a p e r p r e s e n t s n e w s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l investi­

d a s T r e b n i t z e r K a t z e n g e b i r g e diskutiert.

g a t i o n s from d e p o s i t s o f t h e S i e d l e c Sandur. T h e m a i n result o f this study is d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f s o m e classical, d e s c r i b e d b y SCHWARZBACH, a n d s o m e n e w s e c t i o n s . F r o m t h e m , it w a s c o n c l u d e d that t h e S i e d l e c S a n d u r r e p r e s e n t s

1 Introduction

t h e p r o g l a c i a l alluvial fan with s e d i m e n t a r y structures typi­ cal for fans d e p o s i t e d in semi-arid c l i m a t e s . In turn, t h e g l a ciofluvial material o f t h e fan s u g g e s t s that

sedimentation

MARTIN

SCHWARZBACH

in

his w o r k

"Das

Diluvium

t o o k p l a c e in p o l a r d e s e r t c o n d i t i o n s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n c o n ­

S c h l e s i e n s " ( 1 9 4 2 ) d i s c u s s e d broadly t h e p r o b l e m o f

firms rather SCHWARZBACH'S v i e w , t h a n v i e w s o f his o p p o ­

e x t e n t and s e d i m e n t stratigraphy o f t h e Wartanian

n e n t s , a n d confirms indirectly a n o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e W a r t a ­

(Warthe)

n i a n i c e - s h e e t in Silesia. T h e p a p e r d i s c u s s also a p o s s i b l e

c a m e from the T r z e b n i c a Hills ( T r e b n i t z e r K a t z e n g e ­

e x t e n t o f this i c e - s h e e t in T r z e b n i c a Hills.

b i r g e ) a n d from its s o u t h e r n foreland. SCHWARZBACH (1942)

stage

in

Middle

Silesia.

definitevely e s t a b l i s h e d that

His

major

the

data

maximum

e x t e n t o f the W a r t a n i a n stage in Middle Silesia is o n [Der warthezeitliche Zedlitzer S a n d e r südlich d e s

t h e t o p o f the T r z e b n i c a Rampart. T h e main

T r e b n i t z e r K a t z e n g e b i r g e s , Schlesisches Tiefland,

m e n t s w e r e the till o f this age w h i c h w a s found in

südwestliches Polen: eine Neuüberprüfung n a c h fünfzig J a h r e n ]

several

sections n e a r

Trzebnica and

argu­

because

the

W a r t a n i a n o u t w a s h plain w a s found (Zedlitzer San­

K u r z f a s s u n g : D e r Z e d l i t z e r S a n d e r ( S i e d l e c S a n d u r ) in S c h l e s i e n , im s ü d w e s t l i c h e n P o l e n g e l e g e n , w u r d e zuerst

d e r , S i e d l e c S a n d u r ) in t h e southern foreland o f the r a m p a r t . Now, after fifty years, the d i s c u s s i o n o n sta­

v o n M. SCHWARZBACH i m J a h r 1 9 4 2 b e s c h r i e b e n . Er w u r d e

tus o f t h e Wartanian s t a g e in Silesia is c o m i n g b a c k .

als e i n w a r t h e z e i t l i c h e r S a n d e r g e d e u t e t , d e r a m S ü d r a n d

A s e r i e s o f p a p e r s h a s p r e s e n t e d data w h i c h suggest

der Stauchmoräne (Trzebnica Hügel, Trzebnica Katzen­

that t h e r e ist n o W a r t a n i a n deposits in Middle Silesia

gebirge) entstanden war. Einige n e u e r e

(WINNICKI

Untersuchungen

1 9 9 0 , 1 9 9 1 , WINNICKI & SKOMPSKI

1991).

w i d e r s p r e c h e n d i e s e r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n u n d n e g i e r e n das Auf­

Fortunately, s o m e o f t h e "classical" s e c t i o n s , w h i c h

treten w a r t h e z e i t l i c h e n E i s e s in S ü d w e s t - P o l e n . D e r v o r ­

w e r e e x a m i n a t e d b y SCHWARZBACH ( 1 9 4 2 ) , h a v e b e e n

l i e g e n d e Beitrag präsentiert n e u e s e d i m e n t o l o g i s c h e U n ­ tersuchungen aus d e n Ablageningen d e s Siedlec Sanders. D a s w i c h t i g s t e E r g e b n i s d i e s e r Studien ist e i n e detaillierte Beschreibung

einiger

klassischer,

schon

v o n SCHWARZ­

BACH b e s c h r i e b e n e r u n d e i n i g e r n e u e r Aufschlüsse. Aus

diesen

Aufschlüssen

wurde

geschlossen,

daß der

S i e d l e c S a n d e r e i n e n e i s z e i t l i c h e n S c h w e m m f ä c h e r mit S e d i m e n t s t r u k t u r e n r e p r ä s e n t i e r e , w i e s i e a u c h in S c h w e m m -

lately

again

exposed.

This make

p o s s i b l e to

e x a m i n e SCHWARZBACH'S interpretation m o r e critically t h e

and

"Wartanian p r o b l e m "

in

south­

w e s t e r n Poland. T h e p a p e r p r e s e n t s d e t a i l e d from

Pierwoszow (Pürbischau) outcrop

re­

discuss

data

(SCHWARZ­

BACH 1 9 4 2 , p a g e 2 1 2 - 2 1 8 , figures 6 - 1 0 ) a n d from t w o new

outcrops

which

are

located southwards

the

T r z e b n i c a Hills, o n t h e plain w h i c h h a s b e e n sup­ *) Address o f the outhor: D r . D . KRZYSZKOWSKI, G e o g r a p h i c a l Institute, University o f W r o c l a w pi. U n i w e r s y t e c k i 1, 5 0 - 1 3 7 Wroclaw, Poland

p o s e d to r e p r e s e n t t h e Wartanian p r o g l a c i a l sandur (Fig. 1 ) .


54

D A R I I ' S Z KRZYSZKOWSKI

ioo-

coutour lines m a s I

distinct scarps

I sites with the Wirtanian till

Fig. 1: L o c a t i o n o f t h e S i e d l e c S a n d u r

forested areas on the sandur

WartQnion sandurs lolluvial fans)

s o u t h w a r d s t h e T r z e b n i c a Hills.

2 G e o l o g y o f t h e T r z e b n i c a Hills a n d i t s southern foreland 2.1 H i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d

At t h e s a m e time, there w a s discussion o n g e n e s i s o f the N e o g e n e / Q t i a t e r n a r y sediment deformation found in Trzebnica Hills. Older authors prefered t e c t o n i c ( e n d o g e n i c ) g e n e s i s (FRECH 1 9 0 1 , 1 9 1 3 , OLBRICHT

The T r z e b n i c a Hills w e r e for many years t h e strato­ type r e g i o n for the Silesian Pleistocene stratigraphy. FRECH ( 1 9 0 1 , 1904) d e s c r i b e d two tills in superpositi­ o n in T r z e b n i c a outcrops: t h e Elsterian a n d t h e Saalian o n e ; b o t h were d e f o r m e d together with Neog e n e clay in substratum. Later, TIETZE ( 1 9 1 0 , 1 9 1 5 ) and FRECH ( 1 9 1 3 ) found that t w o Pleistocene tills o c c u r also s o u t h w a r d s the T r z e b n i c a Hills, n e a r W r o c l a w . DNTRICIT ( 1 9 1 4 ) a n d t h e n MEISTER ( 1 9 3 5 ) a n d SCHWARZBACH ( 1 9 4 2 ) d e s c r i b e d t h e next till near T r z e b n i c a , which overlay discordantly d e f o r m e d , older tills a n d N e o g e n e clay. This till, w h i c h w a s s u p p o s e d t o represent t h e Wartanian (SCHWARZBACH 1 9 4 2 ) , w a s found only in few sections: G l u c h o w C o r n y , T a c z o w Wielki, Radlow, Raszyn, T r z e b n i c k i Las

geological cross-sections see Fq 3

m sires investigated in detail

B u k o w y a n d D r o s z o w (DITTRICH 1 9 1 4 , M E I S T E R

1935, SCHWARZBACH 1 9 4 2 ) . In all cases, it w a s only 2-4 m thick, usually c o v e r e d b y loess a n d its lateral extent w a s unknown, p r e s u m a b l y small.

1 9 2 4 , CZAJKA 1 9 3 1 , MEISTER

1935).

How­

ever, s i n c e the work o f B E R G E R ( 1 9 3 7 ) , t h e g l a c i o t e c tonic g e n e s i s (push m o r a i n e ) have b e e n usually pre­ fered a n d the age o f deformation was related t o t h e Wartanian 1954,

stage

1955,

(SCHWARZBACH

KRYGOWSKI

PACIIUCKI 1 9 5 2 , ROZYCKI

1950,

1942,

WOLDSTEDT

WALCZAK

1951,

1 9 5 7 , 1 9 6 8 , ROTNICKI I 9 6 0 ,

1 9 6 7 ) , although G O L A B ( 1 9 5 1 ) and LYCZEWSKI ( 1 9 6 4 ) still a d v o c a t e d a r g u e m e n t s o n their t e c t o n i c g e n e s i s .

2.2 R e s u l t s o f r e c e n t g e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s R e c e n t geological investigations indicate that t h e Silesian Lowland ( W r o c l a w region) can b e subdivid­ ed into t w o regions: the Wroclaw Basin with 4 0 - 8 0 m thick P l e i s t o c e n e s e q u e n c e , which is s u r r o u n d e d by a r e a s with thin ( b e l o w 2 0 m ) or n o P l e i s t o c e n e deposits and with N e o g e n e clays at t h e g r o u n d sur­ face (CZERWONKA & KRZYSZKOWSKI 1 9 9 2 ) . T h r e e Pleis-


The Wartanian Siedlec S a n d u r (Zedlitzer S a n d e r ) t o c e n e glacial units, including three tills h a v e b e e n found in the Wroclaw B a s i n (CZKRWONKA & KRZYSZ­ KOWSKI 1 9 9 2 ) . T h e l o w e r m o s t till, the P i e t r z y k o w i c e

Till, is characterized b y large p r e d o m i n a n c e o f Scan­ dinavian, crystalline r o c k s ; the middle till, the W i e r z b n o Till, is characterized by a p r e d o m i n a n c e o f Baltic limestones; a n d the uppermost, t h e Smolna Till, is again characterized b y p r e d o m i n a n c e o f Scan­ dinavian crystalline r o c k s . O n the o t h e r hand, the locally-derived rocks s h o w palaeotransport from NW to SE for both Pietrzykowice and W i e r z b n o Tills and from NE to SW for t h e Smolna Till. T h e s e tills w e r e interpreted to represent t w o stadials o f the Elsterian (Pietrzykowice a n d W i e r z b n o Tills) and the o l d e r Saalian (Drenthe, Odranian) stage (Smolna Till)

(CZERWONKA &

KRZYSZKOWSKI

1992).

In

the

northern part o f the W r o c l a w Basin, at t h e southern margin o f the Trzebnica Hills, this s e q u e n c e is c o v e r e d additionally b y 1 0 - 3 0 m thick series o f sands a n d gravels - t h e Siedlec Formation, and by 0 , 5 - 1 , 5 m thick loess (Figs 2 and 3 ) .

55

northern part o f T r z e b n i c a Hills, from b o t h outcrops a n d borings, a s e t o f synclines and anticlines w h i c h c o m p r i s e at least t w o tills. T h e l o w e r till may corre­ s p o n d with the W i e r z b n o Till and the u p p e r o n e with the Smolna till o f t h e Wroclaw Basin. O t h e r parts o f T r z e b n i c a Hills h a s e v e n less valuable data. Most o f b o r i n g s have only s i m p l e lithological description o f deposits with n o petrological data. H e n c e , lithostratigraphic correlation o f deposits is very difficult, although it s e e m s that at least t w o tills o c c u r here, similarly to the n o r t h e r n part o f T r z e b n i c a Hills (Fig. 2 ) . S o m e o f b o r i n g s comprise several alternating s e q u e n c e s o f tills, sands, glaciolacustrine silts a n d N e o g e n e clays. O t h e r borings, in turn, comprise o n l y Neogene d e p o s i t s with 5 - 1 0 m thick till o r loess at t h e top. Such s e q u e n c e s can b e easily interpreted as representing thrust structures (Fig. 3 a ) . T h e age o f sediment deformation in Trzebnica Hills, a s in w h o l e Silesian Rampart, is recently related rather to t h e Odranian ( D r e n t h e ) stage than to t h e Wartanian ( W a r t h e ) (SZCZEEANKIEWICZ 1 9 6 9 , B R O D Z I K O W S K I 1 9 8 2 ,

1 9 8 7 ) . T h e rampart is interpreted a s p u s h moraine overrided by a n i c e - s h e e t during a continuous a d ­ v a n c e . T h e margin o f the Odranian ice-sheet is l o ­ c a t e d about 7 0 - 8 0 k m sosuthwards from the Trzeb­ n i c a Hills.

T h e Pleistocene g e o l o g y o f ..the T r z e b n i c a Hills is m o r e c o m p l e x . Most o f outcrops have o n l y o n e till, w h i c h most problably represent an equivalent of the S m o l n a Till (the Odranian-Drenthe s t a g e ) (WINNICKI & SKOMESKI 1 9 9 1 ) . T h i s till is usually deformed t o g e t h e r with glaciofluvial a n d glaciolacustrine de­ posits a n d / o r with N e o g e n e clay forming fold or

T h e occurrence o f t h e Wartanian till in Trzebnica Hills cannot b e c o n f i r m e d or rejected b y recent in­

thrust z o n e s . KRZYSZKOWSKI ( 1 9 9 2 ) d e s c r i b e d in the

vestigation. T h e c o n c l u s i o n by W I N N I C K I (WINNICKI

northern

port of the

Trzebnica

Hills

Trzebnica

GENERAL CHRONOSTRATCRAPHY

southern part of the

northernmost p a r t of

Trzebnica

the Wroclaw

Hills

GTUCHDW

LIIHOSTRATGRAPHY

Basin

Siedlec Sandur

TaczOW

till

GENERAL LITHOSTRATKjRAPHY alluvium

CHRCN3STRATIGRAPHY

(informal)

Siedlec

Formation \

Smolna HU

\

general angular

PILICA INTERSTADIAL

\unconfornity

ODRANIAN (DRENTHEI ELSTERIAN Wierzbno

till

(YOUNGER STADIAL I

Pietrzykowice

ELSTERIAN

till

(OLDER STADIAL) r^—;—I fluvial deposits (mainly re - deposited loess]

I . »I

t r a v e l lag

I1

1 1

1

I

IIIiII O

''"

loess

Poznan

EOS

glaciolacustrine deposits

glaciafluvia' deposits

r L

Formation

]" preglacia!" fluvial J deposits

clay

Fig. 2: Stratigraphy o f P l e i s t o c e n e d e p o s i t s o f t h e n o r t h e r n part o f Silesian L o w l a n d ( W r o c l a w B a s i n ) a n d T r z e b n i c a

Hills.


Fig. 3: G e o l o g i c a l cross sections t h r o u g h o u t the S i e d l e c Sandur a n d s o u t h e r n m o s t part o f T r z e b n i c a Hills. Location ol s e c t i o n s is in Fig. 1.


Fig. 3 : G e o l o g i c a l c r o s s s e c t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e S i e d l e c S a n d u r a n d s o u t h e r n m o s t part o f T r z e b n i c a Hills. Location o f s e c t i o n s is in Fig. 1.


58

DARIUSZ KRZYSZKOWSKI

1990,

1 9 9 1 , WINNICKI & SKOMPSKI 1 9 9 1 ) , that h e did

not find t h e Wartanian tili in T r z e b n i c a Hills during his g e o l o g i c a l mapping is rather wrong. N o n e o f the o u t c r o p d e s c r i b e d b y MEISTER ( 1 9 3 5 ) a n d SCHWARZ­

BACH ( 1 9 4 2 ) have b e e n r e - e x a m i n e d , simply b e c a u s e these o u t c r o p s are c o m p l e t e l y destroyed a n d v e g e ­ tated. H e n c e , it s e e m s that t h e older descriptions a r e still c o r r e c t a n d c a n b e a d o p t e d to recent strati­ graphy. I f so, the possible Wartanian till is a till lying discordantly o n older glacial a n d N e o g e n e deposits. I p r o p o s e a lithostratigraphic n a m e for this till - the T a c z ö w Till, from T a c z o w outcrop, d e s c r i b e d in detail b y MEISTER ( 1 9 3 5 , p. 8 ) ( F i g 2 ) . T h e similar s e q u e n c e w a s then d e s c r i b e d in t h e next village B r o c h o c i n ( B r o c k o t s c h i n e = Moltketal) b y SCHWARZ­ BACH ( 1 9 4 2 ) . All sites with the T a c z o w Till m e n t i o n e d by

MEISTER

(1935)

and

SCHWARZBACH

(1942)

are

s h o w n approximately in Fig. 1 a n d they mark possible southernmost extent o f t h e Wartanian i c e sheet in T r z e b n i c a Hills.

3 The Siedlec Sandur 3.1 G e n e r a l m o r p h o l o g y a n d g e o l o g y The S i e d l e c Sandur ( S i e d l e c F o r m a t i o n ) is a sandygravelly, c o n e - s h a p e d deposit lying o n the S m o l n a till in t h e southern foreland o f t h e T r z e b n i c a Hills (Fig. 3 a & b ) . T h e plan v i e w o f these deposits is fans h a p e d a n d the contours b o w d o w n l o p e from t w o a p e x e s , o n e near P i e r w o s z ö w a n d other near Skarszyn, w h i c h lie at the b o r d e r o f i c e - p u s h e d ridge (Fig. 1). T h e c r o s s fan profile is c o n v e x a n d radial profiles

are usually flat o r c o n c a v e in t h e uppermost part b u t they are c o n v e x in the lowermost part o f the fan. T h e s l o p e inclination varies from 0 , 5 0 % t o 1,67 %. G e n ­ erally, three s e g m e n t s o f the fan c a n b e r e c o g n i z e d from its morphology: the upper part o f the fan w i t h s l o p e inclination ranging from 1,0 % t o 1,33 %, t h e middle part o f t h e fan with s l o p e inclination b e ­ t w e e n 0,5 % t o 0 , 6 7 % and the l o w e r part o f the fan, n e a r its s o u t h e r n m o s t margin, with s l o p e inclination up t o 1,67 % . T h e thickness o f deposits d e c r e a s e s systematically from a p e x zones ( c a . 3 0 m ) to its south­ ern margin, w h e r e is only thin ( b e l o w 10 m ) s a n d y c o v e r o n the hill. T h e southern margin o f the S i e d l e c Sandur is marked b y scarp, w h i c h represent also a sharp lithological boundary, b e t w e e n a sand a n d a till (Fig. 1). T h e last o n e forms a w i d e s p r e a d till plain around the Siedlec Sandur. T h e b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n the sandur a n d till plain s o m e t i m e s visible a s b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n a forest and fields (Fig. 1). T h e r e are n o g o o d traces o f outflow from t h e sandur t o t h e Odra river valley, b e i n g south, from t h e time o f its formation. T h e Siedlec Sandur is p r o b a b l y d i s s e c t e d only b y y o u n g e r valleys, infilled with W e i c h s e l i a n and H o l o c e n e fluvial deposits (Fig. 1 ) . In the north­ ern part o f the sandur, sandy-gravelly deposits a r e c o v e r e d by 0,5 - 1,5 m thick loess cover, which c o n ­ tinues northwards, into a thick l o e s s c o v e r in T r z e b ­ nica Hills ( 6 - 2 0 m ) (Fig. 2 ) .

3.2 T h e s a n d u r d e p o s i t s T h e principal deposit o f the S i e d l e c Sandur is a c o a r s e sand with a varying a m o u n t o f gravel, l o w -

Fig. 4: G e n e r a l stratigraphy a n d s e d i m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c in P i e r w o s z ö w o u t c r o p .


59

T h e Wartanian S i e d l e c Sandur (Zedlitzer S a n d e r )

1 i

i

2

3

I*

5

6

7

8

9m

i

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

m

Pig. 5: D e t a i l e d section o f the P i e r w o s z รถ w o u t c r o p ( l o c a t i o n is in Fig. 5 ) with levels o f s h a l l o w troughs a n d g r a v e l s a n d clay balls, s e p a r a t e d by horizontally b e d d e d s a n d s a n d p e b b l e sands. 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12 m

Fig. 6: T h e stratigraphy and s e d i m e n t a r y structures o f d e p o s i t s in B i e d r z y c e o u t c r o p . T w o l e v e l s o f s h a l l o w t r o u g h s a n d o n e level o f c l a y balls are visible in l o w e r part o f t h e s e c t i o n .


60

DARIUSZ KRZYSZKOWSKI

angle o r horizontally bedded. T h e latter s e d i m e n t (Sh f a d e s ) d o m i n a t e in t h e general picture o f sandur s e ­ q u e n c e ( T a b u l a 1, A). Gravels a n d / o r clay balls m a y be c o n c e n t r a t e d in levels o r b e present in a n isolated position. T h e lateral e x t e n s i o n o f horizontal strata is general in the order o f s o m e tens o f metres. T h e t h i c k n e s s o f these strata varies from several d e c i m e ­ tres t o several metres. T h e low-angle units h a v e average lenght from s o m e decimetres t o s o m e m e ­ tres a n d smaller thickness, reaching u p to 0 , 5 m. T h e s e sediments are thought to represent sheetflood d e p o s i t (BULL 1 9 7 2 ) , deposited o v e r large area by a shallow, supercritical flow during short periods with c o n s i d e r a b l e discharge ( M C K E E , C R O S B Y &

trough (Tabula 1 B , C ) . T h e s h a l l o w troughs are of­ ten concentrated in levels, occurring in horizontally b e d d e d deposits (Fig. 4 , 5 & 6 ) . T h e shallow t r o L i g h s formed most p r o b a b l y during t h e vanning stages o f floods, w h e n l o w discharge o c c u r r e d . Channel-fills formed during t h e n e x t sheet-flood. T h e levels o f shallow channels a r e believed to represent a former fan surface. In turn, t h e thick trough cross-bedded sets, which are usually interbedded with thin b e d s with horizontal b e d d i n g a n d s o m e planar cross b e d ­ ding ( S p f a d e s ) Fig. 7 ) , represent most probably large c h a n n e l

fills

( B U L L 1 9 7 2 , CHURCH & G I L B E R T

1975,

B O O T H R O Y D & ASHLEY 1 9 7 5 , MIALL 1 9 7 7 , 1 9 7 8 ,

1985,

ALLEN 1 9 8 3 ) .

BERRYHILL 1 9 6 7 , WILLIAMS 1 9 7 1 , MIALL 1 9 7 7 , FROSTICK & R E I D 1 9 7 7 , TUNBRIDGE 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e e r o s i o n a l surfa­

ces b e t w e e n deposits from different sheet-floods are often m a r k e d b y small scour-and-fill structures ( S c f a d e s ) ( T a b u l a 1 D ) . T h e y are usually 2 - 6 c e n t i m e ­ tres d e e p a n d 1 0 - 2 0 centimetres long, infilled b y c o ­ arser material than in horizontal laminae. Small scours w e r e formed locally during t h e sheet-floods. In t h e s a n d u r deposits described, the c h a n n e l d e p o ­ sits a r e less frequent a n d represent t w o types o f channel-fills: shallow, single d e p r e s s i o n s ( t r o u g h s ) and t r o u g h cross-bedded sets with thickness up to 2 m (st f a d e s ) . T h e shallow troughs are u p to 0 , 5 m d e e p a n d about 1 - 2 m wide and they usually have "festoon" lamination, parallel to the l o w e r profile o f

Very rare deposit, found in t w o sections, is a m a s ­ sive, fine sand t o sandy silt. It is usually poorly sort­ e d deposit (diamicton, D m f a d e s ) . This fades forms 1 0 - 1 5 c m thick, laterally extensive layers. Most prob­ ably, this f a d e s represent an o v e r b a n k deposit, form­ e d after main floods. Additional feattire o f the sandur deposits are normal faults (Tabula 1 E a n d Fig. 6 ) . T h e y were found in o n e outcrop ( B i e d r z y c e ) , w h i c h is located o n t h e valley bank. T h e faults cross all deposits, from t h e t o p to the bottom o f outcrop. It s e e m s , that they re­ present c o m p l e t e l y post-depositional feature, for­ m e d during the s e d i m e n t gravity relacation on t h e slope.

tig. 7: T h e stratigraphy a n d s e d i m e n t a r y s t m c a i r e s o f d e p o s i t s in Wisznia Mala o u t c r o p .


The

Wartanian Siedlec Sandur (Zedlitzer S a n d e r )

3-3 T h e P i e r w o s z ö w o u t c r o p T h i s outcrop is l o c a t e d in the main a p e x zone o f t h e Siedlec Sandur, n e a r village P i e r w o s z ö w (Fig. 1). It w a s described at first by SCHWARZBACH ( 1 9 4 2 ) . R e c e n t o u t c r o p is 7 - 8 m deeper than t h e SCHWARZBACH'S outcrop, with a section up to 17 m high (Tabula 1 ) . T h e section c o m p r i s e s almost o n l y horizontally b e d ­ d e d p e b b l e sand a n d shallow c h a n n e l s , and a thin l o e s s c o v e r at t h e t o p (Fig. 4 ) . T h e shallow c h a n n e l s are concentrated in two levels, o n e n e a r bottom o f t h e outcrop and o t h e r o n e about 5 - 6 m from its b o t ­ tom. T h e u p p e r m o s t part o f t h e section (the o l d o u t c r o p ) has n o shallow c h a n n e l s , containing o n l y 8 - 10 m thick, horizontally b e d d e d strata (Fig. 4 ) . Moreover, there are observed s e v e r a l , up to 0,5 m thick, horizontally b e d d e d levels w i t h gravels a n d clay balls (Fig. 4 ) . In place, large c l a y balls are v e r y concentrated, forming the "clay ball lags" (Fig. 5 ) . T h e clay balls are formed o f Tertiary green clay a n d they have varying size, from a f e w millimetres up t o 0,3 m, occasionally single clay balls m a y reach up t o 0,5 m. T h e size o f gravels is less c h a n g e a b l e , from 1 to 10 centimetres. T h e lower level o f shallow c h a n n e l s have, in fact, at least three sub-levels o f channels, w h i c h are s e p a ­ rated by horizontally bedded sands (Fig. 5). Neverthe­ less, all these c h a n n e l s occur within the b e d with thickness o f 1 m. T h e channels are formed practical­ ly o f coarse sand, e x c e p t two small troughs with gra­ vels. In turn, the u p p e r level o f shallow channels is m o r e concentrated, contains larger troughs and it is formed in majority o f gravels, a l t h o u g h no clay b a l l s h a v e b e e n o b s e r v e d (Fig. 5). P a l a e o c u r r e n t m e a s u ­ rements from troughs s h o w that t h e r e is no diffe­ r e n c e b e t w e e n t w o levels m e n t i o n e d , and that t h e transport o f material was from n o r t h (Fig. 4 ) .

3.4 T h e B i e d r z y c e o u t c r o p This outcrop is l o c a t e d in the a p e x z o n e o f the small fan, tributary to t h e main alluvial fan, which is l o ­ c a t e d b e t w e e n villages Skarszyn a n d B i e d r z y c e (Figs. 1 and 6 ) . R e c e n t outcrop is 1 1 - 12 metres high. T h e Biedrzyce section, like in Pierwoszöw, c o m ­ prises almost o n l y horizontally b e d d e d pebble s a n d s and shallow c h a n n e l s and additionally a 10 - 15 c m thick layer o f massive, sandy d i a m i c t o n . T h e shallow c h a n n e l s form t w o levels. T h e l o w e r o n e is a b o u t 1 m thick and contains three sub-levels o f troughs, s e ­ parated by horizontally bedded s a n d s . T h e c h a n n e l s are formed b o t h o f coarse sands a n d pebble s a n d s , although the latter are less c o m m o n (Fig. 6 ) . T h e l o w e r level o f s h a l l o w channels is followed by thin layer o f massive, fine sand to s a n d y silt (sandy dia­

61

m i c t o n ) (Fig. 6 ) . This b e d is laterally continuous, at least 4-5 metres. T h e upper level o f shallow c h a n ­ nels lies about 1,5 m a b o v e the l o w e r o n e and it is formed o f o n l y o n e , 0,2-0,5 m thick b e d with troughs. S o m e troughs o f this level are, however, m u c h larger t h a n troughs o f the l o w e r level (Fig. 6 ) . Moreover, t h e s e troughs c o n t a i n s usually p e b b l e sands and gravels (with diameter u p to 2 0 c m ) . Within the horizontally b e d d e d sand, o n l y o n e level with clay balls a n d several levels o f gravels can b e observed (Fig. 6 ) . Single clay balls are also observed in other horizontal b e d s and troughs. Palaeocurrent measurements from troughs indicate transport directly from north (Fig. 6 ) .

3.5 T h e w i s z n i a M a l a o u t c r o p This outcrop is located near the w e s t e r n margin o f the Siedlec Sandur, near village Wisznia Mala (Figs. 1 and 7 ) . T h e s e c t i o n investigated is o n l y 4 m high. The Wisznia Mala section is threefold. T h e l o w e r part o f the s e c t i o n comprises a n alternating cross b e d d e d and horizontally b e d d e s sands or p e b b l e sands. The cross b e d d e d sets are represented by large troughs, small troughs and planar sets. T h e s e d e ­ posits are f o l l o w e d by thin, but laterally continuous, massive, sandy silt with single, floating gravels (san­ dy diamicton). T h e middle part o f t h e section, about 1 m thick, is represented by horizontally b e d d e d sand with o n e shallow channel (Fig. 7 ) . This sedi­ ment, although thin, is veiy similar to sediments from P i e r w o s z ö w and Biedrzyce outcrops. T h e up­ per part o f the section is o c c u p i e d b y planar cross b e d d e d sand, representing, most p r o b a b l y , a part o f similar s e q u e n c e as in its lower part. T h e important fact is that n o clay balls have b e e n found in Wisznia Mala outcrop. T h e palaeocurrent measurements from trough a n d planar corss-bedding indicate trans­ port from north-east (Fig. 7 ) .

3-6 G r a i n s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n Most o f sandur deposits are m e d i u m sands to p e b b l e sands. Mean size varies from 1.84 0 to -1.22 0 sort­ ing varies from 0 , 5 7 0 to 2 . 2 5 0. Sporadically o c c u r fine sands ( M 2.91 0, o 0 . 6 8 0) o r sandsy diamiclons ( M 1.87-2.17 0, o 0.90-1.73 0) (Fig. 8 ) . z

z

Very interesting is the vertical s u c c e s s i o n o f sedi­ ments (Fig. 8 ) . In P i e r w o s z ö w o u t c r o p , there are three distinct layers which differ in grain size. T h e lower and u p p e r o n e are represented mostly by m e ­ dium to c o a r s e sands with o n l y rare gravel b e d s , whereas the m i d d l e o n e is r e p r e s e n t e d by p e b b l e sands with c o m m o n gravel b e d s . T h e coarser layer


62

D A R U J S Z KRZYSZKOWSKI

PIERWOSZÖW 180,0 m Q.s.1. STRATIGRAPHY 4,69

2,50

1,29

0M

-,.

Sh

WISZNIA 158,5

-1,13

1,97

-0.11

1,64

0,85

1,45

-122 1.04 1.47 0,88 2,91

203 1,17 1,01 0.77 0,68

1,76

1,62

1.87

1,73

Formation

1,8 t -1,15

0.57 2,19

(Sandur)

Siedlec

Sh

frequent

(Sandur)

3.7 Gravel p e t r o g r a p h y

fret^ent clay balls

i „;

MALA

m Q.S.1. rn

Siedlec

BIEDRZYCE 165,0

m Q.S.1. gravity fajlts throughout the section

Siedlec

g | | S g

126

Formation 2.25

Sh

2,62 1,56 0,90 0,57 1,26

Sh Dm Sh/St Sh

1

• . sandy silt I " I (diamicton) |y v :| sand 0

(Sandur)

st

rrrrn loess 1°

s e d i m e n t s in the W i s z n i a Mala outcrop is small, p r o b ­ a b l y not e n o u g h for inter­ pretation o f vertical s u c c e s ­ sion o f grain size. Neverth­ e l e s s , coarser d e p o s i t s are m o r e c o m m o n in l o w e r part o f the o u t c r o p , and p r o b a b l y they r e p r e s e n t an equivalent o f c o a r s e , mid­ dle layer in P i e r w o s z ö w .

I sand & gravel

1

Dm Fm Sh Sp St Sc

— — — —

massive, sandy diamicton massive silt (loess) horizontally bedded sand gravel planar cross-badded sand/gravel trough cross-bedded sand/gravel scour & fill structures

The gravel petrography h a v e b e e n e x a m i n e d in t w o outcrops: P i e r w o s z ö w a n d Biedrzyce. In t h e first o n e , samples have b e e n ta­ k e n from lower and u p p e r part o f the s e q u e n c e . T h e size o f e x a m i n e d g r a v e l s w a s 1 - 1 0 cm; the n u m b e r o f gravels in single s a m p l e varied from 128 ( P i e r w o s ­ z ö w ) to 192 ( B i e d r z y c e ) . T h e results are p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 1. Generally, g r a v e l petrography s h o w s for gla­ cial origin o f deposits, m o s t p r o b a b l y derived f r o m a till. T h e time o f d e p o s i t i o n is rather young, b e c a u s e o f large content o f Baltic l i m e ­ stones, comparable with the limestone c o n t e n t in tills. Lacking o f large n u m ­ b e r o f flint suggests, in turn, that the source material (till) was also not r i c h in flint. The Smolna Till ( O d r a n i a n , D r e n t h e ) , lying o n the top o f T r z e b n i c a Hills is a flint-poor till (KRZYSZKOWSKI 1 9 9 2 ) , a n d

it

Fig. 8: T h e grain size distribution a n d vertical s u c c e s s i o n o f features o f d e p o s i t s o f the S i e d l e c Sandur.

c o m p r i s e s deposits from a b o t t o m o f upper level o f s h a l l o w c h a n n e l s up to t h e uppermost gravel level, 3 - 4 m b e l o w the loess (Figs. 4 & 8 ) . T h e B i e d r z y c e section h a v e almost the s a m e stratigraphy: the l o w e r layer with medium to c o a r s e sands and c o a r s e r layer lying a b o v e . T h e latter starts from the b o t t o m o f up­ per level o f shallow c h a n n e l s and continues u p to the t o p o f the section (Figs. 6 & 8 ) . T h e t h i c k n e s s o f

is o n e possible s o u r c e o f gravels. O n the o t h e r h a n d , it s e e m s that the s o u r c e gla­ cial d e p o s i t s m a y b e also t h e T a c z o w Till ( W a r t a n i ­ an, W a r t h e ) o r directly glacial material ( m o r a i n e ) d e ­ rived from t h e Wartanian i c e sheet and transported by subglacial and proglacial streams.

T h e o c c u r r e n c e o f non-resistant M e s o z o i c l i m e ­ stones a n d Tertiary mudstones as well as large n u m b e r of clay balls in deposits o f u p p e r m o s t part o f t h e san-


63

T h e Wartanian S i e d l e c Sandur (Zedlitzer S a n d e r )

Tab. 1: Gravel petrography of deposits of the Siedlec Sandur near Trzebnica (%) Scandinavian crystalline rocks

Baltic limestones

Scandinavian quartzites & sandstones

flint

Pierwoszöw sample no 108

32

40

6

Pierwoszöw s a m p l e n o 105

39

34

7

Biedrzyce sample n o 119

44

25

7

dur suggest that transport o f material w a s not long. T h e distance from outcrops investigated to the first o u t c r o p s o f the T a c z o w or S m o l n a Tills and Tertiary clays b e e i n g northwards is a b o u t 2 km (MEISTER 1932, WINNICKI 1 9 8 8 ) .

3.8 Palaeoenvironmental interpretation T h e Siedlec Sandur is a typical alluvial fan. This is c o n s i d e r e d from its fan-shaped g e o m e t r y , texture o f deposits a n d sedimentary structures (BULL 1 9 7 2 , HEWARD 1 9 7 8 ) . T h e specific feature is that the s a n d u r plan is formed o f t w o fans with a p e x e s about 6 k m

quartz

Mesozoic limestones

11

6

1

7

12

1

11

11

Tertiary mudstones

syderite concretions

other rocks

e a c h from the other. T h e a p e x e s o c c u r at the mouths o f d e e p valleys cutting the margin o f the ice-pushed ridge (Fig. 9 ) . T h e sandur w a s formed b y proglacial meltwater flowing from north, from the stagnating ice-sheet. T h e proglacial streams e r o d e d both older glacial deposits a n d Tertiary clays at the b a s e m e n t , forming 2 k m long, narrow a n d d e e p valleys before they have r e a c h e d the margin o f the ridge. T h e pre­ domination o f horizontal or l o w angle bedding in the sandur deposits with only m i n o r channel sedi­ mentation s u g g e s t sedimentary conditions typical for alluvial fans in arid climates (BULL 1 9 7 2 ) . Glacial origin o f the fan material suggest, in turn, the c o l d (periglacial) conditions, most p r o b a b l y a polar desert.

Fig. 9: G e n e r a l p a l a e o g e o g r a p h i c interpretation o f the S i e d l e c Sandur in relation to position o f t h e Wartanian ice-sheet at t h e T r z e b n i c a Hills.


64

DARIUSZ KRZYSZKOWSKI

G e n e r a l l y , the sandur h a s t w o sedimentary z o n e s : t h e fanheads with practically o n l y sheet flood d e p o ­ sition intermpted locally b y m i n o r scouring a n d fur­ ther towards the bordering i c e p u s h e d ridge a l o w e r fan with braided c h a n n e l s a n d limited n u m b e r o f s h e e t floods (Fig. 9 ) . B o t h fans, forming t h e s a n d u r plain, h a v e similar stratigraphic a n d sedimentary s e ­ q u e n c e s suggesting that they w e r e formed simulta­ n e o u s l y and d u e to the s a m e p r o c e s s e s , in spite o f different source area. This well c o r r e s p o n d with pro­ glacial origin o f the fan. T h e e p i s o d i c floods o c c u r ­ red o n l y during the melting o f an ice-sheet, w h i c h is c o n t r o l l e d regionally b y c h a n g i n g year s e a s o n s . At first, t h e fanheads w e r e characterized b y frequent s h e e t floods intermpted b y dry fan conditions with formation o f only small c h a n n e l s . In turn, t h e n e x t p h a s e o f fan d e v e l o p m e n t w a s characterized b y ra­ pid b u t m o r e episodic floods. T h e a c c u m u l a t e d m a ­ terial w a s usually coarser a n d n o m i n o r c h a n n e l s w e r e formed, suggesting larger water d i s c h a r g e at this time. Probably, this c h a n g e o f sedimentary envi­ r o n m e n t is a result o f increasing aridity. T h e flood w a t e r w a s channelized into braided c h a n n e l s at t h e l o w e r fan during both p h a s e s described. T h e s e c h a n n e l s were, most probably, also e p h e m e r a l . Lacking o f outflow from t h e fan suggests that w a t e r might have evaporated o r infiltrated almost at t h e fan. This probably agrees with t h e fan m o r p h o l o g y . T h e middle segment o f the fan is very flat, sug­ gesting high aggradadion rates. T h e s a m e p r o c e s s e s might also have created the s t e e p s l o p e o f t h e l o w e r m o s t segment o f the fan.

WINNICKI ( 1 9 9 0 , 1 9 9 1 ) . T h e last author is interpreting the sand b o d y o f the Siedlec Formation as k ä m e p l a ­ teau d e p o s i t e d during the d e c a y o f the O d r a n i a n (Drenthe) ice-sheet. Although t h e alluvial fan g e n e s i s for the Siedlec F o r ­ mation d e p o s i t s s e e m s to b e unquestionable, t h e r e are s o m e p r o b l e m s which a r e still unclear. First o f all, there is small e v i d e n c e for braided c h a n n e l s e d i ­ mentation at t h e lower fan ( o n e outcrop with s e c t i o n only 4 m h i g h ) . Also, there is n o outcrops at the s t e e p slope o f t h e lowermost s e g m e n t o f the sandurhence, t h e g e n e s i s o f this s l o p e is not solved satis­ factorily, yet. Periglacial c o n d i t i o n s (polar d e s e r t ) should b e c o n f i r m e d b y a n o c c u r r e n c e o f frost fissu­ res o r ice w e d g e casts o r o t h e r permafrost indicators, but deposits investigated h a v e n o such periglacial stmctures. T h i s is u n e x p e c t e d characteristic o f t h e Siedlec Sandur, b e c a u s e for e x a m p l e the W e i c h s e ­ lian proglacial sandurs in P o l a n d have large n u m b e r of permafrost indicators (KOZARSKI 1974, 1 9 9 2 ) . Fur­ ther s e d i m e n t o l o g i c a l investigations o f other W a r t a ­ nian proglacial sandurs lying southwards the T r z e b ­ nica Hills ( F i g . 1 0 ) should e x a m i n e w h e t h e r t h e sheet flood deposition is o n l y local feature o f t h e Siedlec Sandur o r is climatically controlled o c c u r r i n g in w h o l e region. T h e s e investigations should s o l v e definitevely t h e p r o b l e m o f outflow from sandurs t o the river O d r a valley a n d s o l v e the stratigraphic rela­ tion b e t w e e n t h e sandurs a n d s o k n o w n "upper" ter­ race o f t h e river Odra valley, s u p p o s e d to r e p r e s e n t the W a r t a n i a n (SZCZEPANKIEWICZ 1 9 5 9 , ROZYCKI 1 9 6 9 ) .

Both p r o b l e m s have not b e e n solved satisfactorily for the S i e d l e c Sandur.

4 Conclusions F r o m description and interpretation a b o v e it is c l e a r that t h e Siedlec Sandur m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d a s p r o ­ glacial alluvial fan d e p o s i t e d in periglacial, arid climate a n d formed at the margin o f the i c e - p u s h e d ridge. T h e proglacial sandurs a r e rather c o m m o n southwards the Trzebnica Hills (Fig. 9 ) and they prob­ ably h a v e the s a m e features a s sandur d e s c r i b e d . T h e similar sand bodies, with t h e s a m e sedimentary structures, fan m o r p h o l o g y a n d similar g e o g r a p h i c position at the margins o f Saalian i c e - p u s h e d ridges h a v e b e e n also described a s alluvial fans ( s a n d u r s ) in

the

Netherlands

(AUGUSTINUS & RIEZEBOS 1 9 7 1 ,

RUEGG 1977, 1981).

T h e a g e o f Siedlec Formation (sandur) c a n b e c o n s i ­ d e r e d from its relation to S m o l n a Till - t h e till d e p o ­ sited b y the Odranian ( D r e n t h e ) ice-sheet, t h e san­ dur is undoubtedly younger, lying o n t h e S m o l n a till (Fig. 2 & 3 ) . Hence, it s e e m s that it is a proglacial equivalent o f the T a c z o w Till, d e p o s i t e d b y t h e W a r ­ tanian ice-sheet stagnating o n t h e t o p o f T r z e b n i c a Hills. T h i s interpretation a g r e e s with the former v i e w by SCHWARZBACH ( 1 9 4 2 ) but contradicts t h e v i e w o f

5 References ALLEN, J . R. L. ( 1 9 7 3 ) : Studies in fluviatile s e d i m e n t a t i o n : bars, b a r c o m p l e x e s a n d s a n d s t o n e s h e e t s ( l o w - s i n u o ­ sity b r a i d e d s t r e a m ) in t h e B r o w n s t o n e s (L. D e v o n i a n ) , W e l s h B o r d e r s - S e d i m e n t a r y G e o l o g y 33: 2 3 7 - 2 9 3 . AUGUSTINUS, P . G . E. F. & RIEZEBOS, H . T H . ( 1 9 7 1 ) : S o m e s e ­ d i m e n t o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e fluvioglacial o u t w a s h plain n e a r S o e s t e r b e r g ( T h e N e t h e r l a n s ) - G e o l o g i e e n Mijnbouw 5 0 : 3 4 1 - 3 4 8 . BERGER, F. ( 1 9 3 7 ) : Die Anlagen der schlesischen S t a u c h m o r ä n e n - Zentralblatt f. M i n e r a l o g i e , G e o l o g i e u. P a l ä o n t o l o g i e , J a h r g a n g 1 9 3 7 , Abt. B : 4 1 7 - 4 3 4 . BOOTHROYD, J . C. & ASHLEY, G . M . ( 1 9 7 5 ) : P r o c e s s e s , b a r m o r p h o l o g y a n d s e d i m e n t a r y structures o n b r a i d e d o u t w a s h fans, n o r t h e a s t e r n G u l f o f Alaska - In: JOFLING, A. V. & MCDONALD; B . C. ( e d s . ) : Glaciofluvial a n d G l a ­ ciolacustrine Sedimentation, S o c . Econ. Paleont. M i n e ­ ral. S p e c . Puhl. 2 3 : 1 9 3 - 2 2 2 . BRODZIKOWSKI, K . ( 1 9 8 2 ) : D e f o r m a c j e o s a d o w n i e s d o n s o l i d o w a n y c h w obszarach nizowych zlodowaceri plejstoc e h s k i c h n a przykladzie P o l s k i p o l u d n i o w o - z a c h o d niej - A c t a Universitatis Wratislaviensis 5 7 4 . S t u d i a G e o g r a f i c z n e 34: 1 - 8 7 .


65

T h e Wartanian Siedlec S a n d u r fZedlitzer S a n d e r ) -

( 1 9 8 7 ) : S r o d o w i s k o w e podstawy a n a l i z y i interpretacji g l a c i t e k t o n i z m u E u r o p y S r o d k o w e j - A c t a Universitatis Wratislaviensis 9 3 4 , Studia G e o g r a f i c z n e 4 3 : 1 - 3 3 1 .

BULL, W . B . ( 1 9 7 2 ) : R e c o g n i t i o n o f alluvial-fan deposits i n

( 1 9 3 5 ) : E r l ä u t e r u n g e n zu Blatt W i e s e (Nr. 2 7 6 7 ) , G e o ­ l o g i s c h e K a r t e v o n P r e u s s e n u n d b e n a c h b a r t e n deut­ s c h e n Ländern - P r e u s s i s c h e G e o l o g i s c h e L a n d e s a n ­ stalt, Berlin: 1 - 5 1 .

t h e stratigraphic r e c o r d - S o c . E c o n . Paleont. Mineral.

MIALL, A. D. ( 1 9 7 7 ) : A R e v i e w o f t h e B r a i d e d - R i v e r D e p o -

S p e c . Publ. 1 6 : 6 3 - 8 3 .

sitional E n v i r o n m e n t - Earth S c i e n c e R e v i e w s 1 3 : 1- 6 2 .

CHURCH, M. & GILBERT, R. ( 1 9 7 5 ) : P r o g l a c i a l fluvial and l a ­ custrine e n v i r o n m e n t s - In: JOPLING, A. V. & MCDONALD, B . C. ( e d s . ) : Glaciofluvial and G l a c i o l a c u s t r i n e S e d i ­ mentation, S o c . E c o n . Paleont. M i n e r a l . S p e c . Publ. 2 3 : 2 2 - 100.

-

( 1 9 7 8 ) : Lithofacies types a n d vertical profile m o d e l s in braided river deposits: a s u m m a r y - In: MlALL, A. 1). ( E d . ) : Fluvial S e d i m e n t o l o g y , C a n . S o c . petrol. G e o l . , M e m . 5 : 5 9 7 - 6 0 4 , Calgary.

CZAJKA, W. ( 1 9 3 1 ) : D e r S c h l e s i s c h e L a n d r ü c k e n - Veröff. s c h l e s . G e s . E r d k . 1 1 : 26 - 57.

(1985): Architectural-element analysis: a n e w method o f facies a n a l y s i s a p p l i e d to fluvial d e p o s i t s - Earth Science Reviews 2 2 : 2 6 l - 308.

CZERWONKA, J . A. & KRZYSZKOWSKI, D . ( 1 9 9 2 ) : P l e i s t o c e n e stratigraphy o f t h e central part o f Silesian L o w l a n d , S o u t h w e s t e r n P o l a n d - Bull. Pol. A c a d . Sei. Earth S c i e n ­ ces 5 0 : 203 - 2 3 3 .

ULBRICHT, K . ( 1 9 2 4 ) : D i e Eiszeit u n d d i e L a n d s c h a f t s f o r m e n des Schlesischen Flachlandes - Schlesisches Monats­ hefte, J a h r g . 1 9 2 4 , Heft 3 : 1 - 8.

DITTRICH, G . ( 1 9 1 4 ) : B o d e n b e s c h a f f e n h e i t u n d Aufschlüsse in d e r U m g e b u n g v o n Breslau - J a h r e s b e r . Schles. G e s . 92 (II): 1 - 19. FRECH, F. ( 1 9 0 1 ) : Ü b e r glaziale D u c k - u n d

Faltungserschei­

n u n g e n im O d e r g e b i e t - Zeitschr. G e s . Erdk. Berlin 3 6 : 219 - 229. -

PACHUCKI, C. ( 1 9 5 2 ) : B a d a n i a g e o l o g i c z n e n a a r k u s z a c h 1:100 0 0 0 T r z e b n i c a i S y c ö w - B i u l e t y n Instytutu G e o ­ logicznego 6 6 : 355 - 394. ROTNICKI, K. ( I 9 6 0 ) : U w a g i o g e n e z i e W z g o r z O s t r z e s z o w s ­ kich w s w i e t l e n o w y c h d a n y c h g e o l o g i c z n y c h i g e o f i z y c z n y c h - Z e s z y t y N a u k o w e U n i w e r s y t e t u A. M i c k i e wieza, G e o g r a f i a 3 : 105 - 1 2 4 .

( 1 9 0 4 ) : E x k u r s i o n n a c h Trebnitz - In: FRECH, F. & W Y SOGÖRSKI, J . ( H r s g . ) : Führer für d i e G e o l o g i s c h e E x k u r ­

-

D e u t s c h , g e o l . G e s . , J a h r g . 1 9 0 4 , Heft 4 : 241 - 2 4 8 . -

( 1 9 1 3 ) : S c h l e s i s c h e Landeskunde, III. Erdgeschichte Verlag v. D e i t & C o m p . , Leipzig: 4 0 - 1 0 8 .

FROSTICK, L. E. & REID, I. ( 1 9 7 7 ) : T h e o r i g i n o f horizontal l a ­

RÖZYCKI, M. ( 1 9 5 7 ) : P r z e k r ö j g e o l o g i c z n y z p o l u d n i o w o - z a c h o d n i e j c z e s c i W z g o r z T r z e b n i c k i c h - Przeglad g e o l o ­ giczny 1 8 : 4 7 7 - 4 7 8 . -

m i n a e in e p h e m e r a l stream channel-fill - S e d i m e n t o l o ­ g y 2 4 : 1 - 9.

HEWARD, A. P. ( 1 9 7 8 ) : Alluvial fan s e q u e n c e and m e g a s e ­ q u e n c e m o d e l s : w i t h e x a m p l e s f r o m Westphalian D S t e p h a n i a n B c o a l f i e l d s . Northern S p a i n - In: MIALL, A. D . ( e d . ) : Fluvial S e d i m e n t o l o g y , M e m . Can. S o c . p e t r o l . G e o l . 5 : 6 6 9 - 7 0 2 , Calgary.

-

KRYGOWSKI, B . ( 1 9 5 0 ) : Materialy d o c h r o n o l o g i i dyluwium B a d a n i a F i z j o g r a f i c z n e nad P o l s k a Z a c h o d n i a 2 : 9 - 2 4 . KRZYSZKOWSKI, D . ( 1 9 9 2 ) : P l e i s t o c e n e stratigraphy near Trzebnica, S i l e s i a n Rampart, S o u t h w e s t e r n P o l a n d Bull. Pol. A c a d . S e i . Earth S c i e n c e s 5 8 : 235 - 249. LYCZEWSKA, J . ( 1 9 6 4 ) : D e f o r m a c j e u t w o r ö w N e o g e n u i P l e j s t o c e n u P o l s k i S r o d k o w e j i Z a c h o d n i e j - Rocznik P o l s k i e g o T o w a r z y s t w a G e o l o g i c z n e g o 3 4 : 115 - 149.

( 1 9 8 1 ) : S e d i m e n t a r y features a n d G r a i n Size o f G l a c i o ­ fluvial a n d Periglacial P l e i s t o c e n e D e p o s i t s in t h e Netherlands a n d adjacent parts o f W e s t e r n G e r m a n y Verh. naturwiss. Ver. H a m b u r g ( N F ) 2 4 : 1 3 3 - 154.

SCHWARZBACH, M. ( 1 9 4 2 ) : D a s Diluvium S c h l e s i e n s - N e u e n J a h r b . Miner. G e o l . Paäont. Abt. B , 8 6 : 1 8 9 - 2 1 5 . SZCZEPANKIEWICZ; S. ( 1 9 5 9 ) : D o l i n a O d r y

g r a p h i c a e 1: 6 5 - 8 6 . ( 1 9 9 2 ) : U p p e r Plenivistulian d e g l a c i a t i o n and the p e ­ riglacial z o n e e x p a n s i o n in N o r t h - W e s t Poland - G e o ­ logic* en M i j n b o u w 7 1 : in press.

- G e o l o g i e e n Mijn­

bouw 56: 5 - 24.

permafrost

o c c u r r e n c e in N o r t h - W e s t P o l a n d - Q u a e s t i o n e s G e o -

G. H. J : ( 1 9 7 7 ) : Features o f M i d d l e P l e i s t o c e n e s a n ­

dur d e p o s i t s in t h e Netherlands

c e P a r i s r w o w e g o Instytutu G e o l o g i c z n e g o 7 : 115 - 1 4 4 .

-

(1969): B u d o w a geologiczna okolic Wroclawia - Biu­ letyn Instytutu G e o l o g i c z n e g o 2 1 4 : 1 8 1 - 2 1 8 .

RUEGG,

GOLAB, J . ( 1 9 5 1 ) : G e o l o g i a Wzgorz O s t r z e s z o w s k i c h - P r a -

KOZARSKI, S. ( 1 9 7 4 ) : E v i d e n c e s o f L a t e - W ü r m

( 1 9 6 7 ) : G e n e z a W z g o r z O s t r z e s z o w s k i c h - B a d a n i a Fi­ zjograficzne n a d P o l s k a Z a c h o d n i a 1 9 : 9 3 - 1 5 3 .

s i o n n a c h O b e r s c h l e s i e n und d i e B r e s l a u e r G e g e n d ,

miedzy Wrocla-

wiem a Brzegiem Dolnym - Czasopismo Geograficzne 3 0 : 263 - 286. -

( 1 9 6 9 ) . S e d i m e n t s and forms o f t h e far e x t e n t s o f S c a n ­ dinavian G l a c i a t i o n in S o u t h w e s t e r n P o l a n d - G e o g r a phia P o l o n i c a 17: 1 4 9 - 160.

TIETZE, O. ( 1 9 1 0 ) : D i e g e o l o g i s c h e n V e r h ä l t n i s s e der U m ­ g e g e n d v o n B r e s l a u - J a h r b . P r e u s s . G e o l . Landesanst. 31: 258 - 298. -

( 1 9 1 5 ) ; N e u e g e o l o g i s c h e B e o b a c h t u n g e n aus d e r B r e s l a u e r G e g e n d - J a h r b . P r e u s s . G e o l . Landesanst. 3 6 : 498 - 507.

MCKEE, E. D., CROSBY, E. J . & BERRYHILL, J R . , H. L. ( 1 9 6 7 ) : F l o o d d e p o s i t s , B i j o u Creek, C o l o r a d o , J u n e 1 9 6 5 J o u r n a l o f S e d i m e n t a r y Petrology 3 7 : 8 2 9 - 8 5 1 .

TUNBRIDGE, I. P. ( 1 9 8 1 ) : Sandy h i g h - e n e r g y f l o o d s e d i m e n ­ tation - s o m e criteria for r e c o g n i t i o n , with an e x a m p l e from the D e v o n i a n o f S. W . E n g l a n d - S e d i m e n t a r y Geology 2 8 : 7 9 - 95.

MEISTER, E. ( 1 9 3 2 ) : G e o l o g i s c h e Karte v o n Preussen und b e ­ n a c h b a r t e n d e u t s c h e n Ländern, B l a t t W i e s e ( 2 8 1 ) P r e u s s i s c h e G e o l o g i s c h e Landesanstalt, Berlin.

WALCZAK, W . ( 1 9 5 1 ) : S p r a w o z d a n i e z b a d a r i n a d stratygrafia i m o r f o l o g i a u t w o r ö w p l e j s t o c e r i s k i c h w o k o l i c y Trzebnicy - Czasopismo Geograficzne 2 1 / 2 2 : 434-438.


66

DARIUSZ KRZYSZKOWSKI

WILLIAMS, G .

E. ( 1 9 7 1 ) : F l o o d deposits o f t h e

sand-bed

-

e p h e m e r a l streams o f c e n t r a l Australia - S e d i m e n t o l o ­

& SKOMPSKI, S. ( 1 9 9 1 ) : S y t u a c j a g e o l o g i c z n a s t a n o w i s k fauny czwartorzedowej z o k o l i c Trzebnicy - Biuletyn

gy 1 7 : 1 - 4 0 .

Instytutu G e o l o g i c z n e g o 3 6 5 : 7 3 - 9 4 .

WINNICKI, J . ( 1 9 8 8 ) : S z c z e g Ăś l o w a m a p a g e o l o g i c z n a P o l s k i 1 : 5 0 0 0 0 , arkusz T r z e b n i c a - P a r i s t w o w y Instytut G e o logiczny, Warszawa.

WOLDSTEDT,

-

-

( 1 9 9 0 ) : Budowa geologiczna polnocnej sciany cegielni w T r z e b n i c y - s t a n o w i s k o T r z e b n i c a 2 - S l a s k i e Spra-

P. ( 1 9 5 4 ) :

Saaleeiszeit, Warthestadium

W e i c h s e l e i s z e i t in N o r d d e u t s c h l a n d

und

- E i s z e i t a l t e r u.

G e g e n w a r t 4/5: 3 4 - 4 8 . ( 1 9 5 5 ) : N o r d d e u t s c h l a n d u n d a n g r e n z e n d e G e b i e t e im Eiszeitalter - E n k e Verlag, Stuttgart, 4 6 4 pp.

wozdania Archeologiczne 31: 2 5 - 30. -

( 1 9 9 1 ) : Wstepne wyniki badari geologicznych o s a d o w czwartorzedowych w rejonie Trzebnicy - Slaskie Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 32 : 2 1 - 28.

Manuscript accepted 3 0 . 1 1 . 1 9 9 2

Plate 1. T h e deposits o f S i e d l e c S a n d u r : A - t h e 7 - 8 m thick, m o n o t o n o u s s e q u e n c e o f h o r i z o n t a l l y b e d d e d s a n d s . B & C - e x a m p l e s o f s h a l l o w d e p r e s s i o n s (trougs m a r k e d b y a r r o w s ) lying w i t h i n t h e horizontally b e d d e d sands, D - s m a l l scour-and-fill structure, E - h o r i z o n t a l l y b e d d e d s a n d s with a level o f l a r g e c l a y balls ( a r r o w s ) , t h e n o r m a l fault is v i s b l e o n t h e left s i d e o f picture.

Quaternary Science Journal - The Wartanian Siedlec Sandur (Zedlitzer Sandur) southwards the Trz...  

Der Zedlitzer Sander (Siedlec Sandur) in Schlesien, im südwestlichen Polen gelegen, wurde zuerst von M. Schwarzbach im Jahr 1942 beschrieben...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you