Digital Design - Module 02 Semester 1, 2018 Georgina Barnes (914642) Samuel Lalo + Studio 12
Reading: Kolerevic B. 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age
Kolerevic described three fundamental type of fabrication techniques in the reading. Outline the three techniques and discuss the potential of Computer Numeric Controlled fabrication with parametric modelling. (150 words max)
In the reading, Kolervic describes the primary computer numerical control fabrication methods to be additive, subtractive and formative. When used alongside Computer Numeric Controlled fabrication, parametric modelling expands the possibilities for architecture and design in general. These new technologies â€œimply that the constructability in building design becomes a direct function of computabilityâ€?. Subtractive fabrication employs a multi-axis milling process to subtract material. This milling can be axially, surface or volume constrained. Three, four or five axis machines can be utilised depending on the complexity of the object to be fabricated. Laser cutting is a commonly used form of subtractive fabrication. As the name suggests, additive fabrication is the converse of subtractive. This process involves the solid being broken down into two-dimensional layers and fabricated through the adding of material in an incremental layered manner. A common example of this technique is 3D printing. Formative fabrication is the process of the manipualation of an objectâ€™s form through reshaping or deformation through employing mechanical forces, restricting forms, heat or steam.
Utilising the parametric software of grasshopper to generate multiple surface iterations was highly effective as once the script had been completed, adjustments could be made with ease through altering the values on the number sliders. The major concern I encountered was remembering to consider that whilst a complex surface is easy to generate with this parametric software, such a surface would be difficult to construct physically with panels later on in the design process. Therefore, many of the surface iterations I disregarded were ones I deemed undevelopable.
This iteration consisted of two mirrored quadrilateral surfaces. The resulting form is interesting and appears somewhat architectural in design due to the forming of a roof-like structure. However, it would have been difficult to panel two complex, curved surfaces such as these. Creating a waffle structure would also have been difficult.
I was interested in creating a leaning structure as I felt this would create a dynamic feel. However, this combination of surfaces is again too complex to be translated into physical modeling.
This iteration closely resembles the first one I created. However, as the surfaces are placed directly on the ground, the form would be more developable whilst still achieving the same roof-like structure and sense of internal intimacy that would go alongside it.
This is the combination of surface iterations that I chose to use in my final design. It captures the same dynamism I wanted to explore in my second iteration through the leaning form. However, it does so in a more stable and developable way, as the surfaces are less extreme in their curvature. It also manages to evoke a sense of intimacy and an architectural nature through the large sloping panel that creates an enclosure. The surfaces are also further apart from one another to allow for a simplified waffle structure.
Week Four Panels & Waffle
The base hexagonal shape present in both my panels was originally inspired by Ernst Haeckelâ€™s drawings of nature. When paneling the surface in the third dimension, I considered the spatial qualities the model would create. The large overarching panel creates a sense of intimacy, however this is made less extreme through the opening in the panels which allow for light and air circulation. The extrusion of these panels channels light much like the interior roof of the Melbourne School of Design. The smaller panel is solid and enhances the sense of enclosure. As the two panels are placed adjacent rather than parallel to one another, varying degrees of intimacy are created.
The waffle structure compliments the panels as, where possible, the vertical pieces were arranged to avoid the voids within the pattern of the large panel so as to not disrupt light flow.
The laser cutting aspect of this design task proved to be the most challenging for me. Unrolling the paneled pieces into 2D forms was simple, however due to the complex panel design I selected for my larger surface, all of the pieces had to be unrolled into single pieces which made constructing the physical model difficult. Selecting a more developable surface or a less complex pattern would have fixed this issue. The main issue I encountered arose when I received my cut file from the fab lab, and discovered that many of the pieces had been cut instead of rastered as per the file I submitted. I hypothesise that this could have been caused by the small scale of my pieces. Therefore, I had to tape my pieces together which resulted in a model that was not as refined as I would have liked, but nevertheless still conveys the basic aspects of my design.
Week Five Boolean Script
In creating iterations of my design, I altered the shape of the Boolean object, and its scale. I decided to use the form of a cone as it created interesting intersects and greatly varied volume in the voids. I believe that through this, interesting contrasts in spatial qualities of light and dark and solids and voids would be present in my final model.
When considering how I wanted to Boolean my cube, I was interested in the notion of utilising an organic shape to contrast vastly with the original cube. An organic shape would also help to create a sense of unity within the design by linking to the curves of the cones within my design. I decided to use a hollow cylinder form as this would link with the idea of solids and voids that was already present in the cube due to the Boolean command. I chose to include a solid area in the model to also reflect this and to create a sense of enclosure. I trimmed the cylinder shape in a diagonal manner so as to keep the overall form light inside and not arouse feelings of confinement. This also allows for light to potentially project onto the solid surface in an interesting manner. The diagonal cut also references the angle of the cone booleans and results in a unified feeling. Cutting the cylinder in such a manner also creates a transition in intimacy from the enclosed space of the base to the exposed top.
Week Five Isometric
My final design explores the spatial qualities of solids and voids, light and dark and the levels of intimacy and privacy these result in. The cylindrical form enhances the idea of solids and voids created through the cone Booleans. The solidity of the front of the structure enhances this. The cylinder form also helps to create an intimate space lower down in the form, with the intimacy fading as the structure becomes more permeable higher up. The diagonal cut of the structure allows for light to penetrate into the center of the form to prevent a confined feeling. I can picture the form of my model translating to a high rise structure where the intersecting cones allow for access, and the central void creates a communal, unifying space.
Week Six Task 01
(0,150,150 (50,0,150) (70,-10,150)
(0,0,150) (0,0,0) (0,0,0)
Grid divisions increased
Reduced Waffle Segments
Task 01 Matrix When selecting design iterations for my final model, I considered the constructability and spatial qualities the design would evoke. I selected developable surfaces that would create a sense of intimacy, pattern pieces to allow for light penetration and a waffle structure that would not compromise light flow.
Week Six Task 02
Sphere with small radius
(68, 157, 189)
(68, 157, 189)
(80, -48, 26)
(106, 54, 83)
Attractor point with doubled magnitude
Sphere with large radius
Task 02 Matrix My main reasoning behind design iterations I perused were based upon enhancing the idea of the solid and the void, contrasting an overall organic form to the original cube, and creating links between the cone shapes and the overall form.
Final Isometric Views
Appendix Process Task 01 Design inspiration / Precedents I was inspired by the images of Ernst Haeckelâ€™s Radiolaria drawings shown in a lecture.
The roof of the MSD insired the enolgated extruded form of the panels on my largest surface. The roof channels the light down into the building and helps to regulate sunlight
His drawings feature hexagonal shapes and this inspired by use of the same shape to pattern my surfaces.
during different seasons.
Ernst Haeckel, Legion Phaeodoria
John Wardle Architects, Melbourne School
of Design, 2009-2014.
Modelling process 1. Grasshopper surface generation
2. Panel and pattern development
3. Panelled surfaces
4. Waffle structure
5. Unrolled surface pieces
6. Flattened waffle structure
Appendix Process Task 02 Design inspiration / Precedents
The cylindrical form of this internal area of the Glasgow School of Art building inspired the cylindrcal form of my model. The way in which this organic form is used in combination with angular voids (windows in this case) also relates to the cone Booleans in my design.
Stephen Holl, Glasgow School of Art Reid Building, 2014 http://www.constructionmanagermagazine.com/onsite/touching-void-glasgow-school-art/ 242256/
Modelling process 1. Baked cones in cube
2. Cube after boolean
3. Boolean using cylinder
4. Boolean using cube