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Arts & Crafts

Sketchbook Georgia Shorey

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CONTENTS

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3 4 5

Research Group Research Arts & Crafts

6 7 9

My Essay Influnces Textiles

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Book Design

16 17 18 19 22 24

Clock Research Material research Designs Making of the clock Final clock

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RESEARCH

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As soon as we

got our Art movement as a group, we decided to note down questions that we would need to answer for our research. We picked out a few possible topics which included Key characters, Visual language, Who, Why, When and Where the movement started, Influences, Economics, and the Comparison between human labour and machinery.

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The Arts and Crafts Movement was one of the most influential, pro-

found and far-reaching design movements of modern times. It began in Britain around 1880 and quickly spread across America and Europe before emerging finally as the Mingei (Folk Crafts) movement in Japan. It was a movement born of ideals. It grew out of a concern for the effects of industrialisation: on design, on traditional skills and on the lives of ordinary people. In response, it established a new set of principles for living and working. It advocated the reform of art at every level and across a broad social spectrum, and it turned the home into a work of art. The Movement took its name from the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, founded in 1887, but it encompassed a very wide range of like-minded societies, workshops and manufacturers. Other countries adapted Arts and Crafts philosophies according to their own needs. While the work may be visually very different, it is united by the ideals that lie behind it.

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ESSAY

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INFLUENCES The arts and crafts movement was mainly influenced by rebellion and

the hatred of modern civilization. John Ruskin and William Morris being the main influential figures were determined to activate industrial design. Inspired by socialist principles and philosophies from two important sources: first, the designer A. W. N. Pugin and John Ruskin. Ruskin’s credible writing and speeches influenced the movement’s figurehead. The American Arts and Crafts movement was influenced by the British. They displayed a patrician contempt for the system of mass production, which was keyed to lower class tastes. Unlike in England, the undercurrent of socialism in the Arts and Crafts movement did not spread far. It is believed that the Arts and Crafts style was simply inspired by designers like Henry van de Velde and styles including Art Nouveau, the Dutch De Stijl group, Vienna Secession, and finally, the Bauhaus style. Nikolaus Pevsner noticed that the style could have been an introduction to Modernism, which used simple forms without ornamentation. Movements that believed in simplicity of design were inspired by the Arts and Crafts movement, for example, the Bauhaus and Modernism. These two movements also believed in design and manufacture that the general public could afford, and that simple, functional designs should look good and be aesthetically pleasing.

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A.W. N Pugin found in the asymmetry of

Gothic architecture a response to need and condition lacking in the current Neo-classical revival. The critic John Ruskin was to echo Pugin’s belief in the utility of Gothic design in his essay on ‘The, Nature of Gothic’ in The Stones of Venice (1853). The Arts and Crafts movement has its roots in the Gothic revival. In the first half of the 19th century, the Gothic Revival was seen as a reaction against everything that the Industrial Revolution stood for. In the second half of the 19th century, the Arts and Crafts reaction against commercialism and industrial design was more fierce and widespread. Master of Gothic Revival by A.W.N Pugin, Published by Yale University in 1996

A short book entitled Architecture, Mysticism and Myth, published in London in 1891, summarized the idealistic nature of the movement when it had become a professional design force in Britain.

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TEXTILES Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution in Britain was,

centered in Lancashire and towns on both sides of the Pennines. Before the 18th century, the assemble of cloth was performed by individual workers and were transported around the country by horse or river canals. The mid 18th century, craftsmen were inventing ways to become more productive. Silk, wool, and fustian fabrics were being overshadowed by cotton which became the most important textile. The textile industry grew extremely, and the demand for cloth grew, so merchants had to compete with others for the supplies to make it. This raised a problem for the consumers because the products were at higher costs. The solution was to use machinery allowing cloth to be cheaper. From an early age, designers were not encouraged or inspired to experiment with pattern and technique. This was shown in various national Schools of Design in which Henry Cole had a predominant interest in for several years. The schools taught students the processes of transforming their designs into finished goods. However, the schools did not encourage originality or individuality in design or the use of new techniques that textiles varied in. Modest improvements in textile design had been seen from the middle of the century with the introduction of geometric patterns inspired by the work of the architects A.W.N Pugin and Owen Jones. For a time the two popular elements of floral and geometric ornament were produced sideby-side. Pugin’s spiritual designs were of outstanding importance in the revival of church ornament, as an architect his interest in textiles never extended beyond their use as one element in his decorative schemes.

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Modest improvements in textile design had been seen from the middle

of the century with the introduction of geometric patterns inspired by the work of the architects A.W.N Pugin and Owen Jones. For a time the two popular elements of floral and geometric ornament were produced sideby-side. Pugin’s spiritual designs were of outstanding importance in the revival of church ornament, as an architect his interest in textiles never extended beyond their use as one element in his decorative schemes. At the time, Silk was very a fashionable material for furnishings and costume designs, and its use by designers such as Pugin to decorate artistic homes only added to its popularity. British manufacturers badly needed protection from their French competitors in the silk industry, as manufacturers in Lyons could produce hand woven silks more cheaply than in Britain. The industries of Spitalfields, Coventry, Dublin, Derby and Macclesfield all suffered greatly, some irretrievably. The popularity of Japanese inspired patterns from the late 1860s provided a means of limited recovery for sections of the printing and weaving industries. The earliest and best designs in this style were British, by the architects E.W. Godwin and B.J. Talbert and the botanist Christopher Dresser. All three worked for both woven and printed textile manufacturers. Patterns influenced by British flora and fauna were a defining feature of Arts and Crafts designs.

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Arts and Crafts design became associat-

ed with the Aesthetic Dress movement of the 1880s and 90s. Gilbert and Sullivan’s comic opera ‘Patience’ premiered in 1881 which encouraged the Aesthetic movement. The costumes for the opera were made from fabrics from the Liberty store. Aesthetic Dress was an evolution of the Artistic Dress of the Pre-Raphaelites earlier in the century and was characterised by an elimnation of the corset in favour of unstructured lines, and the use of natural colours rather than the garish aniline dyes that were in vogue at the time.

Tulip & Rose Curtains 1876, William Morris

Tulip and Rose curtains were one of William Morris’s first designs. Woven in three ply or triple cloth and used for upholstery and carpeting. It was registered as a fabric on the 20th January 1876. The Cray design was William Morris’s most complex and expensive design. Designed in 1884, the selvedge printed in three places with Morris & Company, 449 Oxford Street, London W, and hand block printed at Merton Abbey.

Cray 1884, William Morris

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Strawberry Thief was one of William Mor-

Strawberry Thief 1883, William Morris

Brocade 1910, Theo Niwuwenhuis

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ris’ most popular designs. To print the pattern, Morris used an ancient indigo-discharge method which is the method of applying colour to fabrics in a definite pattern. In properly printed designs, colour is bonded with fibers. The Strawberry Thief design was the first in which a technique allowed red and yellow to be added to the distinct blue and white grounds. This was one of Morris & Co’s most expensive cottons and Strawberry Thief proved to be one of the most commercially successful patterns.[3] Theo Nieuwenhuis Brocade designed in 1910 is a rare surviving long length of fabric from the Netherlands Nieuwe Kunst art movement. Theodoor Willem Nieuwenhuis was one of the three founders of the Nieuwe Kunst, influenced by the Arts and Crafts Movement in England. Nieuwenhuis was a follower of William Morris and William Crane [4]. The nineteenth century is always looked upon as a period of intense eclecticism, and it is true that the majority of textiles of the first eighty years show designs based on historical styles or foreign patterns or a mixture of these.

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BOOK DESIGN

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For my layout, I wanted to go for a simple minimalistic approach. This was to bring out the images and patterns creates by William Morris and other artists of the movement. I set the margins into four columns to give me a brief idea of how the book should look and help place text and images.

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Under each image I added into the book, I made a little caption underneath. I decided to use the Chaucer font as this was an influential font in the Arts & Crafts movement, however i do feel that it may be quite hard to read. After having tutorials comparing our designs and getting critical feedback from another group, we decided as a group that Kaya’s book design was the best one and that we would use this to lay out our book.

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CLOCK Arts & Crafts sketchbook.indd 16

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I

wanted to look at all the different kind of Arts & Crafts style clocks to get an idea of the width, design, what kind of clock faces they use and the hands. This also helped me understand what kind of colour and materials they used to make the clocks.

I

decided it would also be a good idea to look into the kind of furniture they made to see if it was similar to the clock style. This helped to confirm the colour, design and material we would use to create our clock. 17

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MATERIAL RESEARCH B&Q MDF Board (L)1819 x (W)607 x (T)6mm £9

(1)

(1)

B&Q WPB Exterior Plywood 1829x607x12mm £22

(2)

(2)

B&Q Colron Wood Dye 500ml £6

(3)

(3)

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DESIGNS

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1 0

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0

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3 5 6

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4

111

3

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111

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111

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1

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Metal stand that the clock can sit in. May be too hard to make

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1.1 Stroke line Engraved pattern fill black RGB Colour

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MAKING OF THE CLOCK

After laying out our clock in seperate pieces onto Illustrator to the correct setting

needed to laser cut, we added an engraved pattern that I originally designed from the Artichoke wallpaper by John Henry Dearle for William Morris & Co. Once this was complete, we took the design to a company called Hey Create to get it laser cut. After the pieces were cut, we used Mitre wood glue to stick them together and sanded the pieces that needed to be.

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Once the glue dried and the clock was completely stuck together, I took it hope to paint it with the Teak wood stain. It needed 2 hours to dry before applying another coat so I applied 3. This gave it a dark coat with a wood grain effect. We decided to avoid painting the engraved pattern and painted around it instead so it kept that raw wood effect to keep it looking handmade. Once the painting was finished, we fixed the back door onto the clock using gold hindges in the style of the Arts & Crafts movement. We had trouble cutting out a stencil for the clock face as the Roman Numerals were so intricate so we printed the clock face off with a wood grain effect and stuck it onto the round wood part. 23

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FINAL CLOCK

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Arts & Crafts Movement Sketchbook